Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for:  Butanol

16 Production of 3-Methyl-1-Butanol by Yeast Wild Strain

Authors: R. Nor Azah, A. R. Roshanida, N. Norzita

Abstract:

The biomass-based fuels have become great concern in order to replace the petroleum-based fuels. Biofuels are a wide range of fuels referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels produced from biomass. Recently, higher chain alcohols such as 3-methyl-1-butanol and isobutanol have become a better candidate compared to bioethanol in order to replace gasoline as transportation fuel. Therefore, in this study, 3-methyl-1-butanol was produced through a fermentation process by yeast. Several types of yeast involved in this research including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis GG799 and Pichia pastoris (KM71H, GS115 and X33). The result obtained showed that K. lactis GG799 gave the highest concentration of 3-methyl-1-butanol at 274 mg/l followed by S. cerevisiae, P. pastoris GS115, P. pastoris KM71H and P. pastoris X33 at 265 mg/l, 190 mg/l, 182 mg/l and 174 mg/l respectively. Based on the result, it proved that yeast have a potential in producing 3-methyl-1-butanol naturally.

Keywords: Biofuel, fermentation, 3-methyl-1-butanol, yeast.

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15 Performance Analysis of Heat Pipe Using Copper Nanofluid with Aqueous Solution of n-Butanol

Authors: Senthilkumar R, Vaidyanathan S, Sivaraman B

Abstract:

This study presents the improvement of thermal performance of heat pipe using copper nanofluid with aqueous solution of n-Butanol. The nanofluids kept in the suspension of conventional fluids have the potential of superior heat transfer capability than the conventional fluids due to their improved thermal conductivity. In this work, the copper nanofluid which has a 40 nm size with a concentration of 100 mg/lit is kept in the suspension of the de-ionized (DI) water and an aqueous solution of n-Butanol and these fluids are used as a working medium in the heat pipe. The study discusses about the effect of heat pipe inclination, type of working fluid and heat input on the thermal efficiency and thermal resistance. The experimental results are evaluated in terms of its performance metrics and are compared with that of DI water.

Keywords: copper nanofluid with aqueous solution of n-Butanol, heat pipe, thermal efficiency, thermal resistance

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14 n-Butanol as an Extractant for Lactic Acid Recovery

Authors: Kanungnit Chawong, Panarat Rattanaphanee

Abstract:

Extraction of lactic acid from aqueous solution using n-butanol as an extractant was studied. Effect of mixing time, pH of the aqueous solution, initial lactic acid concentration, and volume ratio between the organic and the aqueous phase were investigated. Distribution coefficient and degree of lactic acid extraction was found to increase when the pH of aqueous solution was decreased. The pH Effect was substantially pronounced at pH of the aqueous solution less than 1. Initial lactic acid concentration and organic-toaqueous volume ratio appeared to have positive effect on the distribution coefficient and the degree of extraction. Due to the nature of n-butanol that is partially miscible in water, incorporation of aqueous solution into organic phase was observed in the extraction with large organic-to-aqueous volume ratio.

Keywords: Lactic acid, liquid-liquid extraction, n-Butanol, Solvating extractant.

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13 An Experimental Comparative Study of SI Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Fuelled with Various Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Abdelgawwad

Abstract:

This experimental investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different types of alcohol and gasoline blends such as ethanol - butanol - propanol on the performance of spark ignition engine. The experimental work studied the effect of various fuel blends such as ethanol – butanol/gasoline and propanol/gasoline with two rates of 15% and 20%, at different operating conditions (engine speed and loads), on engine performance emission characteristics. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine. In this practical study, all considerations and precautions are taken into account to ensure the quality and accuracy of practical experiments and different measurements. The results show that the performance of the engine improved significantly in the case of ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends. The results also indicated that the engine emitted pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbon (HC) for alcohol fuel blends compared to base gasoline NOx emission increased for different fuel blends either ethanol/butanol-gasoline or propanol-gasoline fuel blend.

Keywords: Gasoline engine performance, emissions, alcohol blends.

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12 Combustion Improvements by C4/C5 Bio-Alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine

Authors: Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Enkhjargal Tserenochir, Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka

Abstract:

Next generation bio-alcohols produced from non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass are promising renewable energy sources. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of next generation bio-alcohol isomer and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C4 alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C5 alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOx and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a roots blower type supercharger. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended diesel fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOx and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance, when compared with diesel fuel operation. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that, except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small.

Keywords: Alternative fuel,  Butanol, Diesel engine, EGR, Next generation bio-alcohol isomer blended fuel, Pentanol, Supercharging.

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11 Multiphase Coexistence for Aqueous System with Hydrophilic Agent

Authors: G. B. Hong, H. W. Chen

Abstract:

Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) data are measured for the ternary mixtures of water + 1-butanol + butyl acetate and quaternary mixtures of water + 1-butanol + butyl acetate + glycerol at atmospheric pressure at 313.15 K. In addition, isothermal vapor–liquid–liquid equilibrium (VLLE) data are determined experimentally at 333.15 K. The region of heterogeneity is found to increase as the hydrophilic agent (glycerol) is introduced into the aqueous mixtures. The experimental data are correlated with the NRTL model. The predicted results from the solution model with the model parameters determined from the constituent binaries are also compared with the experimental values.

Keywords: LLE, VLLE, hydrophilic agent, NRTL.

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10 Phase Behaviors and Fuel Properties of Bio-Oil-Diesel-Alcohol Blends

Authors: P. Weerachanchai, C. Tangsathitkulchai, M. Tangsathitkulchai

Abstract:

Attempt was made to improve certain characteristics of bio-oil derived from palm kernel pyrolysis by blending it with diesel fuel and alcohols. Two types of alcohol, ethanol or butanol, was used as cosolvent to stabilize the phase of ternary systems. Phase behaviors and basic fuel properties of palm kernel bio-oildiesel- alcohol systems were investigated in this study. Alcohol types showed a significant influence on the phase characteristics with palm kernel bio-oil-diesel-butanol system giving larger soluble area than that of palm kernel bio-oil-diesel-ethanol system. For fuel properties, blended fuels showed superior properties including lower values of density (~860 kg/m3 at 25°C), viscosity (~4.12 mm2/s at 40°C), carbon residue (1.02-2.53 wt%), ash (0.018-0.034 wt%) and pour point (<-25 to -7 °C), increased pH (~ 6.4) and giving reasonable heating values of 32.5-41.2 MJ/kg. To enable the prediction of some properties of fuel mixtures, the measured fuel properties including heating value, density, ash content and pH were fitted by Kay-s mixing rule, whereas the viscosities of blended fuels at different temperatures were correlated by the modified Grunberg-Nissan equation and Andrade equation.

Keywords: Bio-oil, fuel blend, fuel properties, phase behaviour.

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9 Evaluation of Antifungal Potential of Cenchrus pennisetiformis for the Management of Macrophomina phaseolina

Authors: Arshad Javaid, Syeda F. Naqvi

Abstract:

Macrophomina phaseolina is a devastating soil-borne fungal plant pathogen that causes charcoal rot disease in many economically important crops worldwide. So far, no registered fungicide is available against this plant pathogen. This study was planned to examine the antifungal activity of an allelopathic grass Cenchrus pennisetiformis (Hochst. & Steud.) Wipff. for the management of M. phaseolina isolated from cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] plants suffering from charcoal rot disease. Different parts of the plants viz. inflorescence, shoot and root were extracted in methanol. Laboratory bioassays were carried out using different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, …, 3.0 g mL-1) of methanolic extracts of the test allelopathic grass species to assess the antifungal activity against the pathogen. In general, extracts of all parts of the grass exhibited antifungal activity. All the concentrations of methanolic extracts of shoot and root significantly reduced fungal biomass by 20–73% and 40–80%, respectively. Methanolic shoot extract was fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Different concentrations of these fractions (3.125, 6.25, …, 200 mg mL-1) were analyzed for their antifungal activity. All the concentrations of n-hexane fraction significantly reduced fungal biomass by 15–96% over corresponding control treatments. Higher concentrations (12.5–200 mg mL-1) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol also reduced the fungal biomass significantly by 29–100%, 46–100% and 24–100%, respectively.

Keywords: Antifungal activity, Cenchrus pennisetiformis, Macrophomina phaseolina, natural fungicides

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8 Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Aromatic Esters of Sugar Alcohols

Authors: R. Croitoru, L. A. M. van den Broek, A. E. Frissen, C. M. Davidescu, F. Peter, C. G. Boeriu

Abstract:

Commercially available lipases (Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozyme 435, Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase, and Lipozyme TL IM), as well as sol-gel immobilized lipases, have been screened for their ability to acylate regioselectively xylitol, sorbitol, and mannitol with a phenolic ester in a binary mixture of t-butanol and dimethylsulfoxide. HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed the exclusive formation of monoesters for all studied sugar alcohols. The lipases immobilized by the sol-gel entrapment method proved to be efficient catalysts, leading to high conversions (up to 60%) in the investigated acylation reactions. From a sequence of silane precursors with different nonhydrolyzable groups in their structure, the presence of octyl and i-butyl group was most beneficial for the catalytic activity of sol-gel entrapped lipases in the studied process.

Keywords: Lipase, phenolic ester, specificity, sugar alcohol, transesterification.

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7 Effect of Crude Extract from Bacillus Subtilis LB5 Cultivated Broth on Conidial Germination of Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides

Authors: Onuma Ruangwong, Wen-Jinn Liang

Abstract:

Bacillus subtilis strain LB5 produced lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A-2 in liquid medium. Crude extract from cell-free supernatant of B. subtilis cultivated broth extracted with n-butanol showed antifungal activity to conidial germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The germination of conidia was completely inhibited by crude extract. The ultrastructure of conidia after treated with crude extract was found an accumulation of vesiclelike material between cell wall and plasma membrane while this accumulation was not observed in untreated and germinated conidia. Besides, the cell wall was not affected by crude extract.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis strain LB5, iturin A-2, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, TEM, vesicle-like material.

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6 Effect of Temperature and Time on Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Corn Cobs

Authors: Sirikarn Satimanont, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit

Abstract:

Lignocellulosic materials are new targeted source to produce second generation biofuels like biobutanol. However, this process is significantly resisted by the native structure of biomass. Therefore, pretreatment process is always essential to remove hemicelluloses and lignin prior to the enzymatic hydrolysis. The goals of pretreatment are removing hemicelluloses and lignin, increasing biomass porosity, and increasing the enzyme accessibility. The main goal of this research is to study the important variables such as pretreatment temperature and time, which can give the highest total sugar yield in pretreatment step by using dilute phosphoric acid. After pretreatment, the highest total sugar yield of 13.61 g/L was obtained under an optimal condition at 140°C for 10 min of pretreatment time by using 1.75% (w/w) H3PO4 and at 15:1 liquid to solid ratio. The total sugar yield of two-stage process (pretreatment+enzymatic hydrolysis) of 27.38 g/L was obtained.

Keywords: Butanol production, Corn cobs, Phosphoric acid, Pretreatment

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5 Bioconversion of Biodiesel Derived Crude Glycerol by Immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum: Effect of Temperature

Authors: Swati Khanna, Arun Goyal, Vijayanand S. Moholkar

Abstract:

Batch fermentation of 5, 10 and 25 g/L biodiesel derived crude glycerol was carried out at 30, 37 and 450C by Clostridium pasteurianum cells immobilized on silica. Maximum yield of 1,3-propanediol (PDO) (0.60 mol/mol), and ethanol (0.26 mol/mol) were obtained from 10 g/L crude glycerol at 30 and 370C respectively. Maximum yield of butanol (0.28 mol/mol substrate added) was obtained at 370C with 25 g/L substrate. None of the three products were detected at 45oC even after 10 days of fermentation. Only traces of ethanol (0.01 mol/mol) were detected at 450C with 5 g/L substrate. The results obtained for 25 g/L substrate utilization were fitted in first order rate equation to obtain the values of rate constant at three different temperatures for bioconversion of glycerol. First order rate constants for bioconversion of glycerol at 30, 37 and 45oC were found to be 0.198, 0.294 and 0.029/day respectively. Activation energy (Ea) for crude glycerol bioconversion was calculated to be 57.62 kcal/mol.

Keywords: activation energy, Clostridium pasteurianum, crude glycerol, immobilization

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4 Enzymatic Esterification of Carboxylic Acids and Higher Alcohols in Organic Medium

Authors: D.T. Mirzarakhmetova

Abstract:

The studying of enzymatic esterification of carboxylic acids and higher alcohols was performed by esterase Saccharomyces cerevisiae in water-organic medium. Investigation of the enzyme specificity to acetic substrates showed the best result with acetic acid in esterification reactions with ethanol whereas within other carboxylic acids the esterification decreased with acids: hexanoic > pentanoic > butyric > decanoic. In relation to higher alcohols C3-C5, esterification increased with alcohols propanol < butanol < amylol. Also it was determined that esterase was more specific to alcohols with branched chain such as isobutyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol. Data obtained may have important practical implications, for example, for application of yeast esterase in producing various volatile esters as well as in enzymatic transformation of volatile acids and toxic fusel alcohols into volatile esters by providing the production of the high quality alcoholic beverages with redused content of higher alcohols as well as with improved degustational and hygienic properties.

Keywords: enzymes in non-conventional media, esterification, higher alcohols, volatile esters, yeast esterase

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3 Biodiesel Fuel Production by Methanolysis of Fish Oil Derived from the Discarded Parts of Fish Catalyzed by Carica papaya Lipase

Authors: P. Pinyaphong, P. Sriburi, S. Phutrakul

Abstract:

In this paper, naturally immobilized lipase, Carica papaya lipase, catalyzed biodiesel production from fish oil was studied. The refined fish oil, extracted from the discarded parts of fish, was used as a starting material for biodiesel production. The effects of molar ratio of oil: methanol, lipase dosage, initial water activity of lipase, temperature and solvent were investigated. It was found that Carica papaya lipase was suitable for methanolysis of fish oil to produce methyl ester. The maximum yield of methyl ester could reach up to 83% with the optimal reaction conditions: oil: methanol molar ratio of 1: 4, 20% (based on oil) of lipase, initial water activity of lipase at 0.23 and 20% (based on oil) of tert-butanol at 40oC after 18 h of reaction time. There was negligible loss in lipase activity even after repeated use for 30 cycles.

Keywords: biodiesel fuel production, methanolysis, fish oil, Carica papaya lipase.

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2 Green Synthesis of Butyl Acetate, A Pineapple Flavour via Lipase-Catalyzed Reaction

Authors: S. Mat Radzi, W.A.F. Mustafa, S.S Othman, H.M. Noor

Abstract:

Nowadays, butyl acetate, a pineapple flavor has been applied widely in food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, Butyl acetate, a flavor ester was successfully synthesized via green synthesis of enzymatic reaction route. Commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RMIM) was used as biocatalyst in the esterification reaction between acetic acid and butanol. Various reaction parameters such as reaction time (RT), temperature (T) and amount of enzyme (E) were chosen to optimize the reaction synthesis in solvent-free system. The optimum condition to produce butyl acetate was at reaction time (RT), 18 hours; temperature (T), 37°C and amount of enzyme, 25 % (w/w of total substrate). Analysis of yield showed that at optimum condition, >78 % of butyl acetate was produced. The product was confirmed as butyl acetate from FTIR analysis whereby the presence of an ester group was observed at wavenumber of 1742 cm-1.

Keywords: Butyl acetate, immobilized enyzme, esterification, flavor ester, green synthesis

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1 Effectiveness of the Flavonoids Isolated from Thymus inodorus by Different Solvents against Some Pathogenis Microorganisms

Authors: N. Behidj, K. Benyounes, T. Dahmane, A. Allem

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of flavonoids isolated from the aerial part of a medicinal plant which is Thymus inodorusby the middle agar diffusion method on following microorganisms. We have Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, AspergillusNiger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. During this study, flavonoids extracted by stripping with steam are performed. The yields of flavonoids is 7.242% for the aqueous extract and 28.86% for butanol extract, 29.875% for the extract of ethyl acetate and 22.9% for the extract of di - ethyl. The evaluation of the antibacterial effect shows that the diameter of the zone of inhibition varies from one microorganism to another. The operation values obtained show that the bacterial strain P fluoresces, and 3 yeasts and molds; A. Niger, A. fumigatus and C. albicansare the most resistant. But it is noted that, S. aureus is shown more sensitive to crude extracts, the stock solution and the various dilutions. Finally for the minimum inhibitory concentration is estimated only with the crude extract of Thymus inodorus flavonoid.Indeed, these extracts inhibit the growth of Gram + bacteria at a concentration varying between 0.5% and 1%. While for bacteria to Gram -, it is limited to a concentration of 0.5%.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, flavonoids, strains, Thymus inodorus.

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