Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Gasoline

40 An Experimental Comparative Study of SI Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Fuelled with Various Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Abdelgawwad

Abstract:

This experimental investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different types of alcohol and gasoline blends such as ethanol - butanol - propanol on the performance of spark ignition engine. The experimental work studied the effect of various fuel blends such as ethanol – butanol/gasoline and propanol/gasoline with two rates of 15% and 20%, at different operating conditions (engine speed and loads), on engine performance emission characteristics. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine. In this practical study, all considerations and precautions are taken into account to ensure the quality and accuracy of practical experiments and different measurements. The results show that the performance of the engine improved significantly in the case of ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends. The results also indicated that the engine emitted pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbon (HC) for alcohol fuel blends compared to base gasoline NOx emission increased for different fuel blends either ethanol/butanol-gasoline or propanol-gasoline fuel blend.

Keywords: Gasoline engine performance, emissions, alcohol blends.

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39 An Experimental Study on the Effects of Bioethanol-Unleaded Gasoline Blends on Engine Performance in a Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: A. Engin Özçelik, Hasan Aydoğan, Mustafa Acaroğlu

Abstract:

In the present study, the effects of bioethanol-unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance were investigated in a spark ignition engine. Fuel containing 100% ethanol (E100), fuel blend containing 40% bioethanol by volume (E40) and 100% unleaded gasoline (E0) were tested and the test results were compared. As the result of the study, it was found that the use of unleaded gasoline and bioethanol-unleaded gasoline blends as fuel did not cause a significant change in engine performance. The results of the engine tests showed that the use of unleaded gasoline-bioethanol blends as fuel caused a decrease in engine torque and engine power depending on the increase in the ratio of bioethanol in the fuel blend. As the result of these decreases, increases of up to 30% were observed in the specific fuel consumption of the engine.

Keywords: Bioetanol, engine performance, unleaded gasoline.

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38 Optimal Prices under Revenue Sharing Contract in a Supply Chain with Direct Channel

Authors: Aussadavut Dumrongsiri

Abstract:

Westudy a dual-channel supply chain under decentralized setting in which manufacturer sells to retailer and to customers directly usingan online channel. A customer chooses the purchase-channel based on price and service quality. Also, to buy product from the retail store, the customer incurs a transportation cost influenced by the fluctuating gasoline cost. Both companies are under the revenue sharing contract. In this contract the retailer share a portion of the revenue to the manufacturer while the manufacturer will charge the lower wholesales price. The numerical result shows that the effects of gasoline costs, the revenue sharing ratio and the wholesale price play an important role in determining optimal prices. The result shows that when the gasoline price fluctuatesthe optimal on-line priceis relatively stable while the optimal retail price moves in the opposite direction of the gasoline prices.

Keywords: direct-channel, e-business, pricing model, dualchannel supply chain, gasoline cost, revenue sharing

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37 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin

Abstract:

A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: Multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion.

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36 Comparative Emission Analysis of Gasoline/LPG Automotive Bifuel Engine

Authors: R.R. Saraf, S.S.Thipse, P.K.Saxena

Abstract:

This paper presents comparative emission study of newly introduced gasoline/LPG bifuel automotive engine in Indian market. Emissions were tested as per LPG-Bharat stage III driving cycle. Emission tests were carried out for urban cycle and extra urban cycle. Total time for urban and extra urban cycle was 1180 sec. Engine was run in LPG mode by using conversion system. Emissions were tested as per standard procedure and were compared. Corrected emissions were computed by deducting ambient reading from sample reading. Paper describes detail emission test procedure and results obtained. CO emissions were in the range of38.9 to 111.3 ppm. HC emissions were in the range of 18.2 to 62.6 ppm. Nox emissions were 08 to 3.9 ppm and CO2 emissions were from 6719.2 to 8051 ppm. Paper throws light on emission results of LPG vehicles recently introduced in Indian automobile market. Objectives of this experimental study were to measure emissions of engines in gasoline & LPG mode and compare them.

Keywords: Gasoline, LPG, Emission, Bifuel, Engine.

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35 Studying Effects of Alternative Biodiesel Fuel in Performance and Pollutants of Diesel Engines

Authors: Shakila Motamedi, Seyed Azizollah Ghotb, Fatemeh Torfi, Najaf Hedayat

Abstract:

Since injection engines have a considerable portion, in consumption of energy and environmental pollution, using an alternative source of energy with lower pollutant effects in this regard is necessary. Biodiesel fuel is a suitable alternative for gasoline in diesel engines. In this research the property of biodiesel, the function and the pollution effects of diesel engine, when using 100% biodiesel, using 100% gasoline and mixing ratio of both fuels for comparing them, have been investigated. The researches have shown, using biodiesel fuel in prevalent diesel engine, will reduce the pollutants such as Co, half burned carbohydrate and suspended particles and a little increase in oxidation will achieve while power consumption, particularly fuel and thermal efficiency of diesel fuel has the same.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Diesel Engine, Environment, Gasoline

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34 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, micro emulsion, performance, SI engine.

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33 Evaluating Alternative Fuel Vehicles from Technical, Environmental and Economic Perspectives: Case of Light-Duty Vehicles in Iran

Authors: Vahid Aryanpur , Ehsan Shafiei

Abstract:

This paper presents an environmental and technoeconomic evaluation of light duty vehicles in Iran. A comprehensive well-to-wheel (WTW) analysis is applied to compare different automotive fuel chains, conventional internal combustion engines and innovative vehicle powertrains. The study examines the competitiveness of 15 various pathways in terms of energy efficiencies, GHG emissions, and levelized cost of different energy carriers. The results indicate that electric vehicles including battery electric vehicles (BEV), fuel cell vehicles (FCV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) increase the WTW energy efficiency by 54%, 51% and 46%, respectively, compared to common internal combustion engines powered by gasoline. On the other hand, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kilometer of FCV and BEV would be 48% lower than that of gasoline engines. It is concluded that BEV has the lowest total cost of energy consumption and external cost of emission, followed by internal combustion engines (ICE) fueled by CNG. Conventional internal combustion engines fueled by gasoline, on the other hand, would have the highest costs.

Keywords: Well-to-Wheel analysis, Energy Efficiency, GHG emissions, Levelized cost of energy, Alternative fuel vehicles.

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32 Use of Hair as an Indicator of Environmental Lead Pollution: Changes after Twenty Years of Phasing Out Leaded Gasoline

Authors: M. A. Abou Donia, A. A. K. Abou-Arab, Nevin E. Sharaf, A. K. Enab, Sherif R. Mohamed

Abstract:

Lead (Pb) poisoning is one of the most common and preventable environmental health problems. There are different sources of environmental pollution with lead as lead alkyl additives in petrol and manufacturing processes. Pb in the atmosphere can be deposited in urban soils, and may then be re-suspended to re-enter the atmosphere. This could increase human exposure to Pb and cause long-term health effects. Thus, monitoring Pb pollution is considered one of the major tasks in controlling pollution. Scalp hair can be utilized for the determination of lead (Pb) concentration. It provides a lasting record of metal intakes of weeks or even months, and for most metals, their accumulation in hair reflects their accumulation in the whole body. This work was conducted to investigate the concentration of lead in male scalp hair of Cairo (residential-traffic and residential-industrial) and rural residents after twenty years of phasing out of leaded gasoline. Results indicated that the mean concentration of lead in hair of residential-traffic (9.7552 μg/g ±0.71) and residential-industrial (12.3288 μg/g ±1.13) was significantly higher than that in rural residents (4.7327 μg/g ±0.67). The mean concentration of lead in hair of resident’s industrial areas was the highest among Cairo residents and not the traffic areas as it was before phasing out of leaded gasoline. Twenty years of phasing out of leaded gasoline in Cairo has greatly improved the lead pollution among residents of traffic areas, but industrial areas residents were still suffering from lead pollution, which needs more efforts to control the sources of lead pollution.

Keywords: Heavy metals, lead, hair, biological sample, urban pollution, rural pollution.

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31 Gasoline and Diesel Production via Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt Based Catalyst

Authors: N. Choosri, N. Swadchaipong, T. Utistham, U. W. Hartley

Abstract:

Performance of a cobalt doped sol-gel derived silica (Co/SiO2) catalyst for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) in slurryphase reactor was studied using paraffin wax as initial liquid media. The reactive mixed gas, hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) in a molar ratio of 2:1, was flowed at 50 ml/min. Braunauer-Emmett- Teller (BET) surface area and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to characterize both the specific surface area and crystallinity of the catalyst, respectively. The reduction behavior of Co/SiO2 catalyst was investigated using the Temperature Programmmed Reduction (TPR) method. Operating temperatures were varied from 493 to 533K to find the optimum conditions to maximize liquid fuels production, gasoline and diesel.

Keywords: Fischer Tropsch synthesis, slurry phase, Co/SiO2, operating temperature.

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30 Liquid Fuel Production via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Oil

Authors: Malee Santikunaporn, Neera Wongtyanuwat, Channarong Asavatesanupap

Abstract:

Pyrolysis of waste oil is an effective process to produce high quality liquid fuels. In this work, pyrolysis experiments of waste oil over Y zeolite were carried out in a semi-batch reactor under a flow of nitrogen at atmospheric pressure and at different reaction temperatures (350-450 oC). The products were gas, liquid fuel, and residue. Only liquid fuel was further characterized for its composition and properties by using gas chromatography, thermogravimetric analyzer, and bomb calorimeter. Experimental results indicated that the pyrolysis reaction temperature significantly affected both yield and composition distribution of pyrolysis oil. An increase in reaction temperature resulted in increased fuel yield, especially gasoline fraction. To obtain high amount of fuel, the optimal reaction temperature should be higher than 350 oC. A presence of Y zeolite in the system enhanced the cracking activity. In addition, the pyrolysis oil yield is proportional to the catalyst quantity.

Keywords: Waste oil, pyrolysis oil, Y zeolite, gasoline, diesel.

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29 Studying the Effect of Hydrocarbon Solutions on the Properties of Epoxy Polymer Concrete

Authors: Mustafa Hasan Omar

Abstract:

The destruction effect of hydrocarbon solutions on concrete besides its high permeability have led researchers to try to improve the performance of concrete exposed to these solutions, hence improving the durability and usability of oil concrete structures. Recently, polymer concrete is considered one of the most important types of concrete, and its behavior after exposure to oil products is still unknown. In the present work, an experimental study has been carried out, in which the prepared epoxy polymer concrete immersed in different types of hydrocarbon exposure solutions (gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil) for 120 days and compared with the reference concrete left in the air. The results for outdoor specimens indicate that the mechanical properties are increased after 120 days, but the specimens that were immersed in gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil for the same period show a reduction in compressive strength by -21%, -27% and -23%, whereas in splitting tensile strength by -19%, -24% and -20%, respectively. The reductions in ultrasonic pulse velocity for cubic specimens are -17%, -22% and -19% and in cylindrical specimens are -20%, -25% and -22%, respectively.

Keywords: Epoxy resin, hydrocarbon solutions, mechanical properties, polymer concrete, ultrasonic pulse velocity.

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28 Soft-Sensor for Estimation of Gasoline Octane Number in Platforming Processes with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS)

Authors: Hamed.Vezvaei, Sepideh.Ordibeheshti, Mehdi.Ardjmand

Abstract:

Gasoline Octane Number is the standard measure of the anti-knock properties of a motor in platforming processes, that is one of the important unit operations for oil refineries and can be determined with online measurement or use CFR (Cooperative Fuel Research) engines. Online measurements of the Octane number can be done using direct octane number analyzers, that it is too expensive, so we have to find feasible analyzer, like ANFIS estimators. ANFIS is the systems that neural network incorporated in fuzzy systems, using data automatically by learning algorithms of NNs. ANFIS constructs an input-output mapping based both on human knowledge and on generated input-output data pairs. In this research, 31 industrial data sets are used (21 data for training and the rest of the data used for generalization). Results show that, according to this simulation, hybrid method training algorithm in ANFIS has good agreements between industrial data and simulated results.

Keywords: Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems, GasolineOctane Number, Soft-sensor, Catalytic Naphtha Reforming

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27 Evaluation of Gasoline Engine Piston with Various Coating Materials Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly, Gamal Fouad, Ali Abd-El-Tawwab, K. A. Abd El-Gwwad

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the piston stress distribution using several thicknesses of the coating materials to achieve higher gasoline engine performance. First of all, finite element structure analysis is used to uncoated petrol piston made of aluminum alloy. Then, steel and cast-iron piston materials are conducted and compared with the aluminum piston. After that, investigation of four coating materials namely, yttria-stabilized zirconia, magnesia-stabilized zirconia, alumina, and mullite are studied for each piston materials. Next, influence of various thickness coating layers on the structure stresses of the top surfaces is examined. Comparison between simulated results for aluminum, steel, and cast-iron materials is reported. Moreover, the influences of different coating thickness on the Von Mises stresses of four coating materials are investigated. From the simulation results, it can report that the maximum Von Mises stresses and deformations for the piston materials are decreasing with increasing the coating thickness for magnesia-stabilized zirconia, yttria-stabilized zirconia, mullite and alumina coated materials.

Keywords: Structure analysis, aluminum piston, MgZrO3, YTZ, mullite and alumina.

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26 Replacement of Commercial Anti-Corrosion Material with a More Effective and Cost Efficient Compound Based on Electrolytic System Simulation

Authors: Saeid Khajehmandali, Fattah Mollakarimi, Zohreh Seyf

Abstract:

There was a high rate of corrosion in Pyrolysis Gasoline Hydrogenation (PGH) unit of Arak Petrochemical Company (ARPC), and it caused some operational problem in this plant. A commercial chemical had been used as anti-corrosion in the depentanizer column overhead in order to control the corrosion rate. Injection of commercial corrosion inhibitor caused some operational problems such as fouling in some heat exchangers. It was proposed to replace this commercial material with another more effective trouble free, and well-known additive by R&D and operation specialists. At first, the system was simulated by commercial simulation software in electrolytic system to specify low pH points inside the plant. After a very comprehensive study of the situation and technical investigations ,ammonia / monoethanol amine solution was proposed as neutralizer or corrosion inhibitor to be injected in a suitable point of the plant. For this purpose, the depentanizer column and its accessories system was simulated again in case of this solution injection. According to the simulation results, injection of new anticorrosion substance has no any side effect on C5 cut product and operating conditions of the column. The corrosion rate will be cotrolled, if the pH remains at the range of 6.5 to 8 . Aactual plant test run was also carried out by injection of ammonia / monoethanol amine solution at the rate of 0.6 Kg/hr and the results of iron content of water samples and corrosion test coupons confirmed the simulation results. Now, ammonia / monoethanol amine solution is injected to a suitable pint inside the plant and corrosion rate has decreased significantly.

Keywords: Corrosion, Pyrolysis Gasoline, Simulation, Corrosion test copoun.

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25 The Role of Fluid Catalytic Cracking in Process Optimisation for Petroleum Refineries

Authors: Chinwendu R. Nnabalu, Gioia Falcone, Imma Bortone

Abstract:

Petroleum refining is a chemical process in which the raw material (crude oil) is converted to finished commercial products for end users. The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is a key asset in refineries, requiring optimised processes in the context of engineering design. Following the first stage of separation of crude oil in a distillation tower, an additional 40 per cent quantity is attainable in the gasoline pool with further conversion of the downgraded product of crude oil (residue from the distillation tower) using a catalyst in the FCC process. Effective removal of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon and heavy metals from FCC gasoline requires greater separation efficiency and involves an enormous environmental significance. The FCC unit is primarily a reactor and regeneration system which employs cyclone systems for separation.  Catalyst losses in FCC cyclones lead to high particulate matter emission on the regenerator side and fines carryover into the product on the reactor side. This paper aims at demonstrating the importance of FCC unit design criteria in terms of technical performance and compliance with environmental legislation. A systematic review of state-of-the-art FCC technology was carried out, identifying its key technical challenges and sources of emissions.  Case studies of petroleum refineries in Nigeria were assessed against selected global case studies. The review highlights the need for further modelling investigations to help improve FCC design to more effectively meet product specification requirements while complying with stricter environmental legislation.

Keywords: Design, emissions, fluid catalytic cracking, petroleum refineries.

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24 Bio Fuel Production from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Ahmed Boulal, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

Renewable energy, including bio energy are an alternative to fossil fuel depletion and a way to fight against the harmful effects of climate change. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values ​​such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: Bio energy, dates, bio ethanol.

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23 Physicochemical Parameters and Economic Evaluation of Bio Ethanol Produced from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

The fight against climate change and the replacement of fossil energies nearing exhaustion gradually emerge as major societal and economic challenges. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: Bio energy, waste dates, bio ethanol.

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22 Valorization of Waste Dates in South Algeria: Biofuel Production

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

In Algeria, the conditioning units of dates, generate significant quantities of waste arising from sorting deviations. This biomass, until then considered as a waste with high impact on the environment can be transformed into high value added product. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: Bioenergy, dates, bioethanol, valorisation.

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21 Use of Magnesium as a Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Rafayel K. Kostanyan

Abstract:

The opportunities of use of metallic magnesium as a generator of hydrogen gas, as well as thermal and electric energy is presented in the paper. Various schemes of magnesium application are discussed and power characteristics of corresponding devices are presented. Economic estimation of hydrogen price obtained by different methods is made, including the use of magnesium as a source of hydrogen for transportation in comparison with gasoline. Details and prospects of our new inexpensive technology of magnesium production from magnesium hydroxide and magnesium bearing rocks (which are available worldwide and in Armenia) are analyzed. It is estimated the threshold cost of Mg production at which application of this metal in power engineering is economically justified.

Keywords: Magnesium, power generation, production, renewable energy.

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20 Emissions of Euro 3-5 Passenger Cars Measured Over Different Driving Cycles

Authors: C. A. Alves, A. I. Calvo, D. J. Lopes, T. Nunes, A. Charron, M. Goriaux, P. Tassel, P. Perret

Abstract:

The reduction in vehicle exhaust emissions achieved in the last two decades is offset by the growth in traffic, as well as by changes in the composition of emitted pollutants. The present investigation illustrates the emissions of in-use gasoline and diesel passenger cars using the official European driving cycle and the ARTEMIS real-world driving cycle. It was observed that some of the vehicles do not comply with the corresponding regulations. Significant differences in emissions were observed between driving cycles. Not all pollutants showed a tendency to decrease from Euro 3 to Euro 5.

Keywords: Chassis dynamometer, driving cycles, emission factors, exhaust emissions, light-duty vehicles.

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19 Development of Motor and Controller for VVA Module of Gasoline Vehicle

Authors: Joon Sung Park, Jun-Hyuk Choi, Jin-Hong Kim, In-Soung Jung

Abstract:

Due to environmental concerns, the recent regulation on automobile fuel economy has been strengthened. The market demand for efficient vehicles is growing and automakers to improve engine fuel efficiency in the industry have been paying a lot of effort. To improve the fuel efficiency, it is necessary to reduce losses or to improve combustion efficiency of the engine. VVA (Variable Valve Actuation) technology enhances the engine's intake air flow, reduce pumping losses and mechanical friction losses. And also, VVA technology is the engine's low speed and high speed operation to implement each of appropriate valve lift. It improves the performance of engine in the entire operating range. This paper presents a design procedure of DC motor and drive for VVA system and shows the validity of the design result by experimental result with prototype.

Keywords: DC motor, Inverter, VVA, Electric Drive.

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18 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.

Keywords: Exhaust system, engine speed, expansion chamber.

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17 A Theoretical Study of the SI Engine Performance Operating with Different Fuels

Authors: Osama H. Ghazal

Abstract:

The intension in this work is to investigate the effect of different fuels type on engine performance for different engine speed. Brake Power, Brake Torque, and specific fuel consumption were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying fuel type on them for all cases considered. A special program used to carry out the calculations. A simulation model for one-cylinder spark ignition engine has been built and calculated.

The analysis of the results shows that for methanol the power increases about 30% at 1000 rpm and 16% at 6000 rpm comparing with methane. For the same compared fuels the increment in fuel consumption is about 100% at 1000 rpm and 115% at 6000 rpm. The increment in brake thermal efficiency for gasoline is around 11% comparing with methane at 1000 rpm and 7% for methanol comparing with methane at 4000 rpm.

Keywords: Natural gas fuel, spark ignition engines, performance, engine simulation.

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16 Production of 3-Methyl-1-Butanol by Yeast Wild Strain

Authors: R. Nor Azah, A. R. Roshanida, N. Norzita

Abstract:

The biomass-based fuels have become great concern in order to replace the petroleum-based fuels. Biofuels are a wide range of fuels referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels produced from biomass. Recently, higher chain alcohols such as 3-methyl-1-butanol and isobutanol have become a better candidate compared to bioethanol in order to replace gasoline as transportation fuel. Therefore, in this study, 3-methyl-1-butanol was produced through a fermentation process by yeast. Several types of yeast involved in this research including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis GG799 and Pichia pastoris (KM71H, GS115 and X33). The result obtained showed that K. lactis GG799 gave the highest concentration of 3-methyl-1-butanol at 274 mg/l followed by S. cerevisiae, P. pastoris GS115, P. pastoris KM71H and P. pastoris X33 at 265 mg/l, 190 mg/l, 182 mg/l and 174 mg/l respectively. Based on the result, it proved that yeast have a potential in producing 3-methyl-1-butanol naturally.

Keywords: Biofuel, fermentation, 3-methyl-1-butanol, yeast.

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15 Mechanical Design and Theoretical Analysis of a Skip-Cycle Mechanism for an Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Ismail Gerzeli, Cemal Baykara, Osman Akin Kutlar

Abstract:

Skip cycle is a working strategy for spark ignition engines, which allows changing the effective stroke of an engine through skipping some of the four stroke cycles. This study proposes a new mechanism to achieve the desired skip-cycle strategy for internal combustion engines. The air and fuel leakage, which occurs through the gas exchange, negatively affects the efficiency of the engine at high speeds and loads. An absolute sealing is assured by direct use of poppet valves, which are kept in fully closed position during the skipped mode. All the components of the mechanism were designed according to the real dimensions of the Anadolu Motor's gasoline engine and modeled in 3D by means of CAD software. As the mechanism operates in two modes, two dynamically equivalent models are established to obtain the force and strength analysis for critical components.

Keywords: Dynamic Model, Mechanical Design, Skip Cycle System (SCS), Valve Disabling Mechanism

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14 Impact Analysis of Transportation Modal Shift on Regional Energy Consumption and Environmental Level: Focused on Electric Automobiles

Authors: Hong Bae Kim, Chang Ho Hur

Abstract:

Many governments have tried to reduce CO2 emissions which are believed to be the main cause for global warming. The deployment of electric automobiles is regarded as an effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. The Korean government has planned to deploy about 200,000 electric automobiles. The policy for the deployment of electric automobiles aims at not only decreasing gasoline consumption but also increasing electricity production. However, if an electricity consuming regions is not consistent with an electricity producing region, the policy generates environmental problems between regions. Hence, this paper has established the energy multi-region input-output model to specifically analyze the impacts of the deployment of electric automobiles on regional energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Finally, the paper suggests policy directions regarding the deployment of electric automobiles.

Keywords: Electric automobiles, CO2 emissions, regional imbalances in electricity production and consumption, energy multi-region input-output model.

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13 Pressure Swing Adsorption with Cassava Adsorbent for Dehydration of Ethanol Vapor

Authors: Chontira Boonfung, Panarat Rattanaphanee

Abstract:

Ethanol has become more attractive in fuel industry either as fuel itself or an additive that helps enhancing the octane number and combustibility of gasoline. This research studied a pressure swing adsorption using cassava-based adsorbent prepared from mixture of cassava starch and cassava pulp for dehydration of ethanol vapor. The apparatus used in the experiments consisted of double adsorption columns, an evaporator, and a vacuum pump. The feed solution contained 90-92 %wt of ethanol. Three process variables: adsorption temperatures (110, 120 and 130°C), adsorption pressures (1 and 2 bar gauge) and feed vapor flow rate (25, 50 and 75 % valve opening of the evaporator) were investigated. According to the experimental results, the optimal operating condition for this system was found to be at 2 bar gauge for adsorption pressure, 120°C for adsorption temperature and 25% valve opening of the evaporator. Production of 1.48 grams of ethanol with concentration higher than 99.5 wt% per gram of adsorbent was obtained. PSA with cassavabased adsorbent reported in this study could be an alternative method for production of nearly anhydrous ethanol. Dehydration of ethanol vapor achieved in this study is due to an interaction between free hydroxyl group on the glucose units of the starch and the water molecules.

Keywords: Adsorption, PSA, Ethanol, Dehydration, Cassava.

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12 Examination of the Reasons for the Formation of Red Oil in Spent Caustic from Olefin Plant

Authors: Mehdi Seifollahi, Ashkan Forootan, Sajjad Bahrami Reyhan

Abstract:

Due to the complexity of olefinic plants, various environmental pollutants exist such as NOx, CO2, Tar Water, and most importantly Spent Caustic. In this paper, instead of investigating ways of treating this pollutant, we evaluated the production in relation to plant’s variable items. We primarily discussed the factors affecting the quality of the output spent caustic such as impurities in the feed of olefin plant, the amount of injected dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) in furnaces, variation in feed composition, differences among gas temperatures and the concentration of caustic solution at the bottom of the tower. The results of the laboratory proved that in the formation of Red Oil, 1,3butadiene and acetaldehyde followed free radical and aldol condensation mechanism respectively. By increasing the injection rate of DMDS, Mercaptide amount increases in the effluent. In addition, pyrolysis gasoline accumulation is directly related to caustic concentration in the tower. Increasing naphtenes in the liquid feed augments the amount of 1,3butadiene, as one of the sources of Red Oil formation. By increasing the oxygenated compound in the feed, the rate of acetaldehyde formation, as the main source of Red Oil formation, increases.

Keywords: Olefin, spent caustic, red oil, caustic wash tower.

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11 Intelligent System and Renewable Energy: A Farming Platform in Precision Agriculture

Authors: Ryan B. Escorial, Elmer A. Maravillas, Chris Jordan G. Aliac

Abstract:

This study presents a small-scale water pumping system utilizing a fuzzy logic inference system attached to a renewable energy source. The fuzzy logic controller was designed and simulated in MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox to examine the properties and characteristics of the input and output variables. The result of the simulation was implemented in a microcontroller, together with sensors, modules, and photovoltaic cells. The study used a grand rapid variety of lettuce, organic substrates, and foliar for observation of the capability of the device to irrigate crops. Two plant boxes intended for manual and automated irrigation were prepared with each box having 48 heads of lettuce. The observation of the system took 22-31 days, which is one harvest period of the crop. Results showed a 22.55% increase in agricultural productivity compared to manual irrigation. Aside from reducing human effort, and time, the smart irrigation system could help lessen some of the shortcomings of manual irrigations. It could facilitate the economical utilization of water, reducing consumption by 25%. The use of renewable energy could also help farmers reduce the cost of production by minimizing the use of diesel and gasoline.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, intelligent system, precision agriculture, renewable energy.

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