Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: photon tunneling

34 Photon Localization inside a Waveguide Modeled by Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Shilpa N. Kulkarni, Sujata R. Patrikar

Abstract:

In the present work, an attempt is made to understand electromagnetic field confinement in a subwavelength waveguide structure using concepts of quantum mechanics. Evanescent field in the waveguide is looked as inability of the photon to get confined in the waveguide core and uncertainty of position is assigned to it. The momentum uncertainty is calculated from position uncertainty. Schrödinger wave equation for the photon is written by incorporating position-momentum uncertainty. The equation is solved and field distribution in the waveguide is obtained. The field distribution and power confinement is compared with conventional waveguide theory. They were found in good agreement with each other.

Keywords: photon localization in waveguide, photon tunneling, quantum confinement of light, Schrödinger wave equation, uncertainty principle.

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33 Two-Photon Ionization of Silver Clusters

Authors: V. Paployan, K. Madoyan, A. Melikyan, H. Minassian

Abstract:

In this paper, we calculate the two-photon ionization (TPI) cross-section for pump-probe scheme in Ag neutral cluster. The pump photon energy is assumed to be close to the surface plasmon (SP) energy of cluster in dielectric media. Due to this choice, the pump wave excites collective oscillations of electrons-SP and the probe wave causes ionization of the cluster. Since the interband transition energy in Ag exceeds the SP resonance energy, the main contribution into the TPI comes from the latter. The advantage of Ag clusters as compared to the other noble metals is that the SP resonance in silver cluster is much sharper because of peculiarities of its dielectric function. The calculations are performed by separating the coordinates of electrons corresponding to the collective oscillations and the individual motion that allows taking into account the resonance contribution of excited SP oscillations. It is shown that the ionization cross section increases by two orders of magnitude if the energy of the pump photon matches the surface plasmon energy in the cluster.

Keywords: Resonance enhancement, silver clusters, surface plasmon, two-photon ionization.

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32 Simulation of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector with Circuit Modeling

Authors: Seyed Ali Sedigh Zyabari, A. Zarifkar

Abstract:

Single photon detectors have been fabricated NbN nano wire. These detectors are fabricated from high quality, ultra high vacuum sputtered NbN thin films on a sapphire substrate. In this work a typical schematic of the nanowire Single Photon Detector structure and then driving and measurement electronic circuit are shown. The response of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors during a photo detection event, is modeled by a special electrical circuits (two circuit). Finally, current through the wire is calculated by solving equations of models.

Keywords: NbN, nanowire meander, superconducting single photon detector, kinetic inductance.

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31 Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Chi Man Luk, Ming Kiu Tsang, Chi Fan Chan, Shu Ping Lau

Abstract:

Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

Keywords: Graphene quantum dots, nitrogen doping, photoluminescence, two-photon fluorescence.

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30 Impact of Process Variations on the Vertical Silicon Nanowire Tunneling FET (TFET)

Authors: Z. X. Chen, T. S. Phua, X. P. Wang, G. -Q. Lo, D. -L. Kwong

Abstract:

This paper presents device simulations on the vertical silicon nanowire tunneling FET (VSiNW TFET). Simulations show that a narrow nanowire and thin gate oxide is required for good performance, which is expected even for conventional MOSFETs. The gate length also needs to be more than the nanowire diameter to prevent short channel effects. An effect more unique to TFET is the need for abrupt source to channel junction, which is shown to improve the performance. The ambipolar effect suppression by reducing drain doping concentration is also explored and shown to have little or no effect on performance.

Keywords: Device simulation, MEDICI, tunneling FET (TFET), vertical silicon nanowire.

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29 Absolute Cross Sections of Multi-Photon Ionization of Xenon by the Comparison with Process of its Electron-Impact Ionization

Authors: A. A. Mityureva, A. A. Pastor, P. Yu. Serdobintsev, N. A. Timofeev

Abstract:

Comparison of electron- and photon-impact processes as a method for determination of photo-ionization cross sections is described, discussed and shown to have many attractive features.

Keywords: Transition probability, cross section, photo-ionization, electron-ionization, multi-photon process.

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28 Trap Assisted Tunneling Model for Gate Current in Nano Scale MOSFET with High-K Gate Dielectrics

Authors: Ashwani K. Rana, Narottam Chand, Vinod Kapoor

Abstract:

This paper presents a new compact analytical model of the gate leakage current in high-k based nano scale MOSFET by assuming a two-step inelastic trap-assisted tunneling (ITAT) process as the conduction mechanism. This model is based on an inelastic trap-assisted tunneling (ITAT) mechanism combined with a semiempirical gate leakage current formulation in the BSIM 4 model. The gate tunneling currents have been calculated as a function of gate voltage for different gate dielectrics structures such as HfO2, Al2O3 and Si3N4 with EOT (equivalent oxide thickness) of 1.0 nm. The proposed model is compared and contrasted with santaurus simulation results to verify the accuracy of the model and excellent agreement is found between the analytical and simulated data. It is observed that proposed analytical model is suitable for different highk gate dielectrics simply by adjusting two fitting parameters. It was also shown that gate leakages reduced with the introduction of high-k gate dielectric in place of SiO2.

Keywords: Analytical model, High-k gate dielectrics, inelastic trap assisted tunneling, metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) devices.

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27 Efficiency of Robust Heuristic Gradient Based Enumerative and Tunneling Algorithms for Constrained Integer Programming Problems

Authors: Vijaya K. Srivastava, Davide Spinello

Abstract:

This paper presents performance of two robust gradient-based heuristic optimization procedures based on 3n enumeration and tunneling approach to seek global optimum of constrained integer problems. Both these procedures consist of two distinct phases for locating the global optimum of integer problems with a linear or non-linear objective function subject to linear or non-linear constraints. In both procedures, in the first phase, a local minimum of the function is found using the gradient approach coupled with hemstitching moves when a constraint is violated in order to return the search to the feasible region. In the second phase, in one optimization procedure, the second sub-procedure examines 3n integer combinations on the boundary and within hypercube volume encompassing the result neighboring the result from the first phase and in the second optimization procedure a tunneling function is constructed at the local minimum of the first phase so as to find another point on the other side of the barrier where the function value is approximately the same. In the next cycle, the search for the global optimum commences in both optimization procedures again using this new-found point as the starting vector. The search continues and repeated for various step sizes along the function gradient as well as that along the vector normal to the violated constraints until no improvement in optimum value is found. The results from both these proposed optimization methods are presented and compared with one provided by popular MS Excel solver that is provided within MS Office suite and other published results.

Keywords: Constrained integer problems, enumerative search algorithm, Heuristic algorithm, tunneling algorithm.

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26 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

Keywords: Photon-drag effect, constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential.

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25 Sewer Culvert Installation Method to Accommodate Underground Construction in an Urban Area with Narrow Streets (The Development of Shield Switching Type Micro-Tunneling Method and the Introduction of Construction Examples)

Authors: Osamu Igawa, Hiroshi Kouchiwa, Yuji Ito

Abstract:

In recent years, a reconstruction project for sewer  pipelines has been progressing in Japan with the aim of renewing old  sewer culverts. However, it is difficult to secure a sufficient base area  for shafts in an urban area because many streets are narrow with a  complex layout. As a result, construction in such urban areas is  generally very demanding.  In urban areas, there is a strong requirement for a safe, reliable and  economical construction method that does not disturb the public’s  daily life and urban activities. With this in mind, we developed a new  construction method called the “shield switching type micro-tunneling  method,” which integrates the micro-tunneling method and shield  method.  In this method, pipeline is constructed first for sections that are  gently curved or straight using the economical micro-tunneling  method, and then the method is switched to the shield method for  sections with a sharp curve or a series of curves without establishing  an intermediate shaft.  This paper provides the information, features and construction  examples of this newly developed method.

 

Keywords: Micro-tunneling method, Secondary lining applied RC segment, Sharp curve, Shield method, Switching type.

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24 Some Issues with Extension of an HPC Cluster

Authors: Pil Seong Park

Abstract:

Homemade HPC clusters are widely used in many small labs, because they are easy to build and cost-effective. Even though incremental growth is an advantage of clusters, it results in heterogeneous systems anyhow. Instead of adding new nodes to the cluster, we can extend clusters to include some other Internet servers working independently on the same LAN, so that we can make use of their idle times, especially during the night. However extension across a firewall raises some security problems with NFS. In this paper, we propose a method to solve such a problem using SSH tunneling, and suggest a modified structure of the cluster that implements it.

Keywords: Extension of HPC clusters, Security, NFS, SSH tunneling.

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23 Researches Concerning Photons as Corpuscles with Mass and Negative Electrostatic Charge

Authors: Ioan Rusu

Abstract:

Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics, radiation, photons respectively, should be absorbed by the electron. Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of photons absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton, is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that radiation, photons respectively, have mass and negative electrostatic charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion, photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.

Keywords: Electrostatic, electron, proton, photon, radiation.

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22 Intrinsic Electromagnetic Fields and Atom-Field Coupling in Living Cells

Authors: Masroor H. S. Bukhari, Z. H. Shah

Abstract:

The possibility of intrinsic electromagnetic fields within living cells and their resonant self-interaction and interaction with ambient electromagnetic fields is suggested on the basis of a theoretical and experimental study. It is reported that intrinsic electromagnetic fields are produced in the form of radio-frequency and infra-red photons within atoms (which may be coupled or uncoupled) in cellular structures, such as the cell cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. A model is presented for the interaction of these photons among themselves or with atoms under a dipole-dipole coupling, induced by single-photon or two-photon processes. This resonance is manifested by conspicuous field amplification and it is argued that it is possible for these resonant photons to undergo tunnelling in the form of evanescent waves to a short range (of a few nanometers to micrometres). This effect, suggested as a resonant photon tunnelling mechanism in this report, may enable these fields to act as intracellular signal communication devices and as bridges between macromolecules or cellular structures in the cell cytoskeleton, organelles or membrane. A brief overview of an experimental technique and a review of some preliminary results are presented, in the detection of these fields produced in living cell membranes under physiological conditions.

Keywords: bioelectromagnetism, cell membrane, evanescentwaves, photon tunnelling, resonance

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21 Comparative Analysis of Mobility Support in Mobile IP and SIP

Authors: Hasanul Ferdaus, Sazzadur Rahman, Kamrul Islam

Abstract:

With the rapid usage of portable devices mobility in IP networks becomes more important issue in the recent years. IETF standardized Mobile IP that works in Network Layer, which involves tunneling of IP packets from HA to Foreign Agent. Mobile IP suffers many problems of Triangular Routing, conflict with private addressing scheme, increase in load in HA, need of permanent home IP address, tunneling itself, and so on. In this paper, we proposed mobility management in Application Layer protocol SIP and show some comparative analysis between Mobile IP and SIP in context of mobility.

Keywords: Mobility, mobile IP, SIP, tunneling.

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20 Optical Limiting Characteristics of Core-Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: G.Vinitha, A.Ramalingam

Abstract:

TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method at 180°C from TiOSO4 aqueous solution with1m/l concentration. The obtained products were coated with silica by means of a seeded polymerization technique for a coating time of 1440 minutes to obtain well defined [email protected] core-shell structure. The uncoated and coated nanoparticles were characterized by using X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to study their physico-chemical properties. Evidence from XRD and FTIR results show that SiO2 is homogenously coated on the surface of titania particles. FTIR spectra show that there exists an interaction between TiO2 and SiO2 and results in the formation of Ti-O-Si chemical bonds at the interface of TiO2 particles and SiO2 coating layer. The non linear optical limiting properties of TiO2 and [email protected] nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol were studied at 532nm using 5ns Nd:YAG laser pulses. Three-photon absorption is responsible for optical limiting characteristics in these nanoparticles and it is seen that the optical nonlinearity is enhanced in core-shell structures when compared with single counterparts. This effective three-photon type absorption at this wavelength, is of potential application in fabricating optical limiting devices.

Keywords: hydrothermal method, optical limiting devicesseeded polymerization technique, three-photon type absorption

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19 Analysis of a TBM Tunneling Effect on Surface Subsidence: A Case Study from Tehran, Iran

Authors: A. R. Salimi, M. Esmaeili, B. Salehi

Abstract:

The development and extension of large cities induced a need for shallow tunnel in soft ground of building areas. Estimation of ground settlement caused by the tunnel excavation is important engineering point. In this paper, prediction of surface subsidence caused by tunneling in one section of seventh line of Tehran subway is considered. On the basis of studied geotechnical conditions of the region, tunnel with the length of 26.9km has been excavated applying a mechanized method using an EPB-TBM with a diameter of 9.14m. In this regard, settlement is estimated utilizing both analytical and numerical finite element method. The numerical method shows that the value of settlement in this section is 5cm. Besides, the analytical consequences (Bobet and Loganathan-Polous) are 5.29 and 12.36cm, respectively. According to results of this study, due tosaturation of this section, there are good agreement between Bobet and numerical methods. Therefore, tunneling processes in this section needs a special consolidation measurement and support system before the passage of tunnel boring machine.

Keywords: TBM, Subsidence, Numerical Method, Analytical Method.

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18 Experimental Validation of Treatment Planning for Multiple Radiotherapy Fields by EDR2 Film Dosimeter

Authors: Vahid Fayaz , Asieh Tavakol

Abstract:

To investigate the applicability of the EDR-2 film for clinical radiation dosimetry, percentage depth-doses, profiles and distributions in open and dynamically wedged fields were measured using film and compared with data from a Treatment Planning system.The validity of the EDR2 film to measure dose in a plane parallel to the beam was tested by irradiating 10 cm×10 cm and 4 cm×4 cm fields from a Siemens, primus linac with a 6MV beam and a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. The film was placed Horizontally between solid water phantom blocks and marked with pin holes at a depth of 10 cm from the incident beam surface. The film measurement results, in absolute dose, were compared with ion chamber measurements using a Welhoffer scanning water tank system and Treatment Planning system. Our results indicate a maximum underestimate of calculated dose of 8 % with Treatment Planning system.

Keywords: 6MV Photon , EDR-2 film, Radiotherapy, TreatmentPlanning system

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17 Hydrogeological Risk and Mining Tunnels: the Fontane-Rodoretto Mine Turin (Italy)

Authors: Paola Gattinoni, Laura Scesi, Elena Cerino Adbin, Daniele Cremonesi

Abstract:

The interaction of tunneling or mining with groundwater has become a very relevant problem not only due to the need to guarantee the safety of workers and to assure the efficiency of the tunnel drainage systems, but also to safeguard water resources from impoverishment and pollution risk. Therefore it is very important to forecast the drainage processes (i.e., the evaluation of drained discharge and drawdown caused by the excavation). The aim of this study was to know better the system and to quantify the flow drained from the Fontane mines, located in Val Germanasca (Turin, Italy). This allowed to understand the hydrogeological local changes in time. The work has therefore been structured as follows: the reconstruction of the conceptual model with the geological, hydrogeological and geological-structural study; the calculation of the tunnel inflows (through the use of structural methods) and the comparison with the measured flow rates; the water balance at the basin scale. In this way it was possible to understand what are the relationships between rainfall, groundwater level variations and the effect of the presence of tunnels as a means of draining water. Subsequently, it the effects produced by the excavation of the mining tunnels was quantified, through numerical modeling. In particular, the modeling made it possible to observe the drawdown variation as a function of number, excavation depth and different mines linings.

Keywords: Groundwater, Italy, numerical model, tunneling.

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16 Profile Calculation in Water Phantom of Symmetric and Asymmetric Photon Beam

Authors: N. Chegeni, M. J. Tahmasebi Birgani

Abstract:

Nowadays, in most radiotherapy departments, the commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) used to calculate dose distributions needs to be verified; therefore, quick, easy-to-use and low cost dose distribution algorithms are desirable to test and verify the performance of the TPS. In this paper, we put forth an analytical method to calculate the phantom scatter contribution and depth dose on the central axis based on the equivalent square concept. Then, this method was generalized to calculate the profiles at any depth and for several field shapes regular or irregular fields under symmetry and asymmetry photon beam conditions. Varian 2100 C/D and Siemens Primus Plus Linacs with 6 and 18 MV photon beam were used for irradiations. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured for a large number of square fields for both energies, and for 45º wedges which were employed to obtain the profiles in any depth. To assess the accuracy of the calculated profiles, several profile measurements were carried out for some treatment fields. The calculated and measured profiles were compared by gamma-index calculation. All γ–index calculations were based on a 3% dose criterion and a 3 mm dose-to-agreement (DTA) acceptance criterion. The γ values were less than 1 at most points. However, the maximum γ observed was about 1.10 in the penumbra region in most fields and in the central area for the asymmetric fields. This analytical approach provides a generally quick and fairly accurate algorithm to calculate dose distribution for some treatment fields in conventional radiotherapy.

Keywords: Dose distribution, equivalent field, asymmetric field, irregular field.

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15 Engineered Cement Composite Materials Characterization for Tunneling Applications

Authors: S. Boughanem, D. A. Jesson, M. J. Mulheron, P.A. Smith C. Eddie, S. Psomas, M. Rimes

Abstract:

Cements, which are intrinsically brittle materials, can exhibit a degree of pseudo-ductility when reinforced with a sufficient volume fraction of a fibrous phase. This class of materials, called Engineered Cement Composites (ECC) has the potential to be used in future tunneling applications where a level of pseudo-ductility is required to avoid brittle failures. However uncertainties remain regarding mechanical performance. Previous work has focused on comparatively thin specimens; however for future civil engineering applications, it is imperative that the behavior in tension of thicker specimens is understood. In the present work, specimens containing cement powder and admixtures have been manufactured following two different processes and tested in tension. Multiple matrix cracking has been observed during tensile testing, leading to a “strain-hardening" behavior, confirming the possible suitability of ECC material when used as thick sections (greater than 50mm) in tunneling applications.

Keywords: Cement composite, polymeric fibers, pseudoductility, test-geometry.

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14 Plug and Play Interferometer Configuration using Single Modulator Technique

Authors: Norshamsuri Ali, Hafizulfika, Salim Ali Al-Kathiri, Abdulla Al-Attas, Suhairi Saharudin, Mohamed Ridza Wahiddin

Abstract:

We demonstrate single-photon interference over 10 km using a plug and play system for quantum key distribution. The quality of the interferometer is measured by using the interferometer visibility. The coding of the signal is based on the phase coding and the value of visibility is based on the interference effect, which result a number of count. The setup gives full control of polarization inside the interferometer. The quality measurement of the interferometer is based on number of count per second and the system produces 94 % visibility in one of the detectors.

Keywords: single photon, interferometer, quantum key distribution.

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13 A Model for the Characterization and Selection of Beeswaxes for use as base Substitute Tissue in Photon Teletherapy

Authors: R.M.V. Silva, D.N. Souza

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for the characterization and selection of beeswaxes for use as base substitute tissue for the manufacture of objects suitable for external radiotherapy using megavoltage photon beams. The model of characterization was divided into three distinct stages: 1) verification of aspects related to the origin of the beeswax, the bee species, the flora in the vicinity of the beehives and procedures to detect adulterations; 2) evaluation of physical and chemical properties; and 3) evaluation of beam attenuation capacity. The chemical composition of the beeswax evaluated in this study was similar to other simulators commonly used in radiotherapy. The behavior of the mass attenuation coefficient in the radiotherapy energy range was comparable to other simulators. The proposed model is efficient and enables convenient assessment of the use of any particular beeswax as a base substitute tissue for radiotherapy.

Keywords: Beeswaxes, characterization, model, radiotherapy

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12 Solitons in Nonlinear Optical Lattices

Authors: Tapas Kumar Sinha, Joseph Mathew

Abstract:

Based on the Lagrangian for the Gross –Pitaevskii equation as derived by H. Sakaguchi and B.A Malomed [5] we have derived a double well model for the nonlinear optical lattice. This model explains the various features of nonlinear optical lattices. Further, from this model we obtain and simulate the probability for tunneling from one well to another which agrees with experimental results [4].

Keywords: Double well model, nonlinear optical lattice, Solitons, tunneling.

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11 Identification of States and Events for the Static and Dynamic Simulation of Single Electron Tunneling Circuits

Authors: Sharief F. Babiker, Abdelkareem Bedri, Rania Naeem

Abstract:

The implementation of single-electron tunneling (SET) simulators based on the master-equation (ME) formalism requires the efficient and accurate identification of an exhaustive list of active states and related tunnel events. Dynamic simulations also require the control of the emerging states and guarantee the safe elimination of decaying states. This paper describes algorithms for use in the stationary and dynamic control of the lists of active states and events. The paper presents results obtained using these algorithms with different SET structures.

Keywords: Active state, Coulomb blockade, Master Equation, Single electron devices

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10 A Novel Source/Drain-to-Gate Non-overlap MOSFET to Reduce Gate Leakage Current in Nano Regime

Authors: Ashwani K. Rana, Narottam Chand, Vinod Kapoor

Abstract:

In this paper, gate leakage current has been mitigated by the use of novel nanoscale MOSFET with Source/Drain-to-Gate Non-overlapped and high-k spacer structure for the first time. A compact analytical model has been developed to study the gate leakage behaviour of proposed MOSFET structure. The result obtained has found good agreement with the Sentaurus Simulation. Fringing gate electric field through the dielectric spacer induces inversion layer in the non-overlap region to act as extended S/D region. It is found that optimal Source/Drain-to-Gate Non-overlapped and high-k spacer structure has reduced the gate leakage current to great extent as compared to those of an overlapped structure. Further, the proposed structure had improved off current, subthreshold slope and DIBL characteristic. It is concluded that this structure solves the problem of high leakage current without introducing the extra series resistance.

Keywords: Gate tunneling current, analytical model, spacer dielectrics, DIBL, subthreshold slope.

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9 Application of Micro-Tunneling Technique to Rectify Tilted Structures Constructed on Cohesive Soil

Authors: Yasser R. Tawfic, Mohamed A. Eid

Abstract:

Foundation differential settlement and supported structure tilting are an occasionally occurred engineering problem. This may be caused by overloading, changes in ground soil properties or unsupported nearby excavations. Engineering thinking points directly toward the logic solution for such problem by uplifting the settled side. This can be achieved with deep foundation elements such as micro-piles and macro-piles™, jacked piers, and helical piers, jet grouted mortar columns, compaction grout columns, cement grouting or with chemical grouting, or traditional pit underpinning with concrete and mortar. Although, some of these techniques offer economic, fast and low noise solutions, many of them are quite the contrary. For tilted structures, with the limited inclination, it may be much easier to cause a balancing settlement on the less-settlement side which shall be done carefully in a proper rate. This principal has been applied in Leaning Tower of Pisa stabilization with soil extraction from the ground surface. In this research, the authors attempt to introduce a new solution with a different point of view. So, the micro-tunneling technique is presented in here as an intended ground deformation cause. In general, micro-tunneling is expected to induce limited ground deformations. Thus, the researchers propose to apply the technique to form small size ground unsupported holes to produce the target deformations. This shall be done in four phases: 1. Application of one or more micro-tunnels, regarding the existing differential settlement value, under the raised side of the tilted structure. 2. For each individual tunnel, the lining shall be pulled out from both sides (from jacking and receiving shafts) in the slow rate. 3. If required, according to calculations and site records, an additional surface load can be applied on the raised foundation side. 4. Finally, a strengthening soil grouting shall be applied for stabilization after adjustment. A finite element based numerical model is presented to simulate the proposed construction phases for different tunneling positions and tunnels group. For each case, the surface settlements are calculated and induced plasticity points are checked. These results show the impact of the suggested procedure on the tilted structure and its feasibility. Comparing results also show the importance of the position selection and tunnels group gradual effect. Thus, a new engineering solution is presented to one of the structural and geotechnical engineering challenges.

Keywords: Differential settlement, micro-tunnel, soil-structure interaction, tilted structures.

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8 Noise Performance of Millimeter-wave Silicon Based Mixed Tunneling Avalanche Transit Time(MITATT) Diode

Authors: Aritra Acharyya, Moumita Mukherjee, J. P. Banerjee

Abstract:

A generalized method for small-signal simulation of avalanche noise in Mixed Tunneling Avalanche Transit Time (MITATT) device is presented in this paper where the effect of series resistance is taken into account. The method is applied to a millimeter-wave Double Drift Region (DDR) MITATT device based on Silicon to obtain noise spectral density and noise measure as a function of frequency for different values of series resistance. It is found that noise measure of the device at the operating frequency (122 GHz) with input power density of 1010 Watt/m2 is about 35 dB for hypothetical parasitic series resistance of zero ohm (estimated junction temperature = 500 K). Results show that the noise measure increases as the value of parasitic resistance increases.

Keywords: Noise Analysis, Silicon MITATT, Admittancecharacteristics, Noise spectral density.

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7 Gate Tunnel Current Calculation for NMOSFET Based on Deep Sub-Micron Effects

Authors: Ashwani K. Rana, Narottam Chand, Vinod Kapoor

Abstract:

Aggressive scaling of MOS devices requires use of ultra-thin gate oxides to maintain a reasonable short channel effect and to take the advantage of higher density, high speed, lower cost etc. Such thin oxides give rise to high electric fields, resulting in considerable gate tunneling current through gate oxide in nano regime. Consequently, accurate analysis of gate tunneling current is very important especially in context of low power application. In this paper, a simple and efficient analytical model has been developed for channel and source/drain overlap region gate tunneling current through ultra thin gate oxide n-channel MOSFET with inevitable deep submicron effect (DSME).The results obtained have been verified with simulated and reported experimental results for the purpose of validation. It is shown that the calculated tunnel current is well fitted to the measured one over the entire oxide thickness range. The proposed model is suitable enough to be used in circuit simulator due to its simplicity. It is observed that neglecting deep sub-micron effect may lead to large error in the calculated gate tunneling current. It is found that temperature has almost negligible effect on gate tunneling current. It is also reported that gate tunneling current reduces with the increase of gate oxide thickness. The impact of source/drain overlap length is also assessed on gate tunneling current.

Keywords: Gate tunneling current, analytical model, gate dielectrics, non uniform poly gate doping, MOSFET, fringing field effect and image charges.

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6 Highly Efficient Silicon Photomultiplier for Positron Emission Tomography Application

Authors: Fei Sun, Ning Duan, Guo-Qiang Lo

Abstract:

A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) was designed, fabricated and characterized. The SiPM was based on SACM (Separation of Absorption, Charge and Multiplication) structure, which was optimized for blue light detection in application of positron emission tomography (PET). The achieved SiPM array has a high geometric fill factor of 64% and a low breakdown voltage of about 22V, while the temperature dependence of breakdown voltage is only 17mV/°C. The gain and photon detection efficiency of the device achieved were also measured under illumination of light at 405nm and 460nm wavelengths. The gain of the device is in the order of 106. The photon detection efficiency up to 60% has been observed under 1.8V overvoltage.

Keywords: Photon Detection Efficiency, Positron Emission Tomography, Silicon Photomultiplier.

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5 Equivalent Field Calculation to Irregular Symmetric and Asymmetric Photon Fields

Authors: N. Chegeni, M. J. Tahmasebi Birgani

Abstract:

Equivalent fields are frequently used for central axis depth-dose calculations of rectangular and irregular shaped photon beam. Since most of the proposed models to calculate the equivalent square field, are dosimetry-based, a simple physical-based method to calculate the equivalent square field size was used as the basis of this study. The table of the sides of the equivalent square for rectangular fields was constructed and then compared with the well-known tables of BJR and Venselaar with the average relative error percentage of 2.5±2.5 % and 1.5±1.5 % respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, the PDDs were measured for some special irregular symmetric and asymmetric treatment fields and their equivalent squares for Siemens Primus Plus linear accelerator for both energies 6 and 18MV. The mean relative differences of PDDs measurement for these fields and their equivalent square was approximately 1% or less. As a result, this method can be employed to calculate equivalent field not only for rectangular fields but also for any irregular symmetric or asymmetric field.

Keywords: Equivalent field, asymmetric field, irregular field, multi leaf collimators.

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