Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31100
Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Chi Man Luk, Ming Kiu Tsang, Chi Fan Chan, Shu Ping Lau


Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, graphene quantum dots, nitrogen doping, two-photon fluorescence

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3461


[1] X. Yan, X. Cui, B. S. Li, L. S. Li, “Large, Solution-Processable Graphene Quantum Dots as Light Absorbers for Photovoltaics”, Nano. Letter, 2010, 10, 1869-1873.
[2] L. A. Ponomarenko, F.Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R.Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, “Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots. Science 2008, 320, 356–358.
[3] C. O. Girit, J. C. Meyer, R. Erni, M. D. Rossell, C. Kisielowski, L.Yang, C. H. Park,; M. F. Crommie,; M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie,et al. “Graphene at the Edge: Stability and Dynamics”, Science 2009, 323, 1705–1708.
[4] X. Yan, X. Cui, L. S. Li, “Stable Colloidal Graphene Quantum Dots with Tunable Size” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 5944–5945.
[5] C. X. Guo, H. B. Yang, Z. M. Sheng, Z. S. Lu, Q. L. Song, C. M. Li, “Layered Graphene/Quantum Dots for Photovoltaic Devices”, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 3014–3017.
[6] C. M. Luk, L. B. Tang, W. F. Zhang, S. F. Yu, K. S. Teng and S. P. Lau, “An Efficient and Stable Fluorescent Graphene Quantum Dot–Agar Composite as a Converting Material in White Light Emitting Diodes”, J. Mater. Chem., 2012, 22, 22378.
[7] V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. Datt Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, S. Chand, “Luminscent Graphene Quantum Dots for Organic Photovoltaic Devices”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 9960–9963.
[8] X. M. Geng, L. Niu, Z. Y. Xing, R. S. Song, G. T. Liu, M. T. Sun, G. S. Cheng, H. J. Zhong, Z. H. Liu, Z. J. Zhang, et al. “Aqueous-Processable Noncovalent Chemically Converted GrapheneQuantum Dot Composites for Flexible and Transparent Optoelectronic Films”, Adv. Mater. 2010, 22,638–642.
[9] S. J. Zhu, J. H. Zhang, C. Y. Qiao, S. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, W. J. Yuan, B. Li, L. Tian, F. Liu, R. Hu, et al. “Strongly Green-Photoluminescent Graphene Quantum Dots for Bioimaging Applications”, Chem. Commun. 2011, 47, 6858– 6860.
[10] L. Ma, H. Hu, L. Y. Zhu, J. H. Wang, “Boron and Nitrogen Doping Induced Half-Metallicity in Zigzag Triwing Graphene Nanoribbons”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2011, 115, 6195.
[11] K. P. Gong, F. Du, Z. H. Xia, M. Durstock, L. M. Dai, “Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Arrays with High Electrocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Reduction”, Science 2009, 323, 760.
[12] D. S. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. M. Dai, “Highly Efficient Metal-Free Growth of Nitrogen-Doped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Plasma-Etched Substrates for Oxygen Reduction”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 15127.
[13] M. Deifallah, P. F. McMillan, F. J. Cora, “Electronic and Structural Properties of Two-Dimensional Carbon Nitride Graphenes”, Phys. Chem. C 2008, 112, 5447.
[14] Y. Li, Y. Zhao, H. Cheng, Y. Hu, G. Shi,; L. Dai, L. Qu, “Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots with Oxygen-Rich Functional Groups”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 15–18.
[15] Q. Li, S. Zhang, L. Dai, L.-S. Li, “Nitrogen-Doped Colloidal Graphene Quantum Dots and Their Size-Dependent Electrocatalytic Activity for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 18932–18935.
[16] C. Hu, Y. Liu, Y. Yang, J. Cui, Z. Huang, Y. Wang, L. Yang, H. Wang, Y. Xiao, J. Rong, “One-Step Preparation of Nitrogen- Doped Graphene Quantum Dots from Oxidized Debris of Graphene Oxide”, J. Mater. Chem. B 2013, 1, 39–42.
[17] M. Li, W. Wu, W. Ren, H.-M. Cheng, N.Tang, W. Zhong, Y. Du, “Synthesis and Upconversion Luminescence of N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 101, 103107.
[18] L. B. Tang, R. B. Ji, X. M. Li, K. S. Teng, S. P. Lau, “ Energy-level Structure of Nitrogen-doped Graphene Quantum Dots”, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2013, 1, 4908.
[19] L. B. Tang, R. B. Ji, X. M. Li, G. X. Bai, C. P. Liu, J. H. Hao, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, K. S. Teng, Z. B. Yang, S. P. Lau, “Deep Ultraviolet to Near-infrared Emission and Photoresponse in Layered N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots” ACS Nano, 2014, 8(6), 6312-6320.
[20] L. B. Tang, R. B. Ji, X. K. Cao, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, K. S. Teng, C. M. Luk, S. Zeng, J. H. Hao, S. P. Lau, Deep Ultraviolet Photoluminescence of Water-Soluble Self-Passivated Graphene Quantum Dots”, ACS Nano, 2012, 6, 5102-5110.
[21] L. B. Tang, R. B. Ji, X. M. Li, K. S. Teng, S. P. Lau, “Size-dependent Structural and Optical Characteristics of Glucose-Derived Graphene Quantum Dots”, Part. Part. Syst. Charact., 2013, 30, 523-531.
[22] C. M. Luk, B. L. Chen, K. S. Teng, L. B. Tang, S. P. Lau, “Optically and Electrically tunable Graphene Quantum Dots-Polyaniline Composite Films”, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2014, 2, 4526.
[23] D. Pan, J. Zhang, Z. Li, M. Wu, “Hydrothermal Route for Cutting Graphene Sheets into Blue-Luminescent Graphene Quantum Dots”, Adv. Mater., 2010, 22, 734-738.
[24] S. Zhuo, M. Shao, S. T. Lee, “Upconversion and Downconversion Fluorescent Graphene Quantum Dots: Ultrasonic Preparation and Photocatalysis”, ACS Nano, 2012, 6 (2), 1059-1064
[25] S. Zhu, J. Zhang, S. Tang, C. Qiao, L. Wang, H. Wang, X. Liu, B. Li, Y. Li, W. Yu, X. Wang, H. Sun, B. Yang, “Surface Chemistry Routes to Modulate the Photoluminescence of Graphene Quantum Dots: From Fluorescence Mechanism to Up-Conversion Bioimaging Applications”, Adv. Funt. Mater. 2012, 22, 4732-4740.
[26] R. Hoffmann, “Trimethylene and the Addition of Methylene to Ethylene”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 90, 1968, 1475.
[27] L. Cao, X. Wang, M. J. Meziani, F. Lu, H. F. Wang, P. G. Luo, Y. Lin, B. A. Harruff, L. M. Veca, D. Murray, S. Y. Xie, Y. P. Sun, “Carbon Dots for Multiphoton Bioimaging”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 11318-11319.
[28] C. Xu, W. W. Webb, “Measurement of Two-Photon Excitation Cross Sections of Molecular Fluorophores with Data from 690 to 1050 nm”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1996, 13, 481−491.
[29] S. H. Jin, D. H. Kim, G. H. Jun, S. H. Hong, S. K. Jeon, “Tuning the Photoluminescence of Graphene Quantum Dots Through the Charge Transfer Effect of Functional Groups”, ACS Nano, 2013, 7(2), 1239.