Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1052

Search results for: symptoms

1052 Prevalence of Menopausal Women with Clinical Symptoms of Allergy and Evaluation the Effect of Sex Hormone Combined with Anti-Allergy Treatment

Authors: Yang Wei, Xueyan Wang, Hui Zou


Objective: Investigation the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in patients with allergic symptoms, evaluation of the effect of sex hormones combined with anti-allergic therapy in these patients. Method: Age of 45-65 years old women with allergic symptoms at the same time in gynecological-endocrinology clinic in our hospital were selected from Feb 1 to May 31, 2010, randomly. The patients were given oral estradiol valerate plus progestin pills combined with anti-allergy treatment and then evaluated twice a week and one month later. Evaluation criterion: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the degree of clinical symptoms were used to evaluate menopause and allergy separately. Results: 1) There were 195 cases of patients with menopausal symptoms at the age. Their MRS were all over 15. 2) Among them 45 patients were with allergic symptom accounted for 23% which were diagnosed by allergic department. 3) Evaluated after one week: the menopausal symptoms were improved and MRS were less than or equal to 5 in all these patients; the skin symptom of allergic symptoms vanished completely. 4) Evaluated after one month: Menopause symptoms were improved steadily; other clinical symptoms of allergy were also improved or without recurrence. Conclusion: The incidence rate of menopausal women with clinical symptoms of allergic diseases is high and it needs attention. The effect of sex hormones combined with anti-allergic therapy is obvious.

Keywords: menopausal, allergy, sex hormone, anti-allergy treatment

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1051 Ergonomics Aspects of Work with Computers

Authors: Leena Korpinen, Rauno Pääkkönen, Fabriziomaria Gobba


This paper is based on a large questionnaire study. The paper presents how all participants and subgroups (upper- and lower-level white-collar workers) answered the question, “Have you had an ache, pain, or numbness, which you associate with desktop computer use, in the different body parts during the last 12 months?’ 14.6% of participants (19.4% of women and 8.2% of men) reported that they had often or very often physical symptoms in the neck. Even if our results cannot prove a causal relation of symptoms with computer use, show that workers believe that computer use can influence their wellbeing: This is important when devising treatment modalities to decrease these physical symptoms.

Keywords: ergonomics, work, computer, symptoms

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1050 Acute Asthma in Emergency Department, Prevalence of Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Symptoms

Authors: Sherif Refaat, Hassan Aref


Background: Although asthma is a well-identified presentation to the emergency department, little is known about the frequency and percentage of respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in patients with acute asthma in the emergency department (ED). Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between acute asthma exacerbation and different respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms including chest pain encountered by patients visiting the emergency department. Subjects and methods: Prospective study included 169 (97 females and 72 males) asthmatic patients who were admitted to emergency department of two tertiary care facility hospitals for asthma exacerbation from the period of September 2010 to August 2013, an anonyms questionnaire was used to collect symptoms and analysis of symptoms. Results: Females were 97 (57%) of the patients, mean age was 35.6 years; dyspnea on exertion was the commonest symptom accounting for 161 (95.2%) of patients, followed by dyspnea at rest 155 (91.7%), wheezing in 152 (89.9%), chest pain was present in 82 patients (48.5%), the pain was burning in 36 (43.9%) of the total patients with chest pain. Non-respiratory symptoms were seen frequently in acute asthma in ED. Conclusions: Dyspnea was the commonest chest symptoms encountered in patients with acute asthma followed by wheezing. Chest pain in acute asthma is a common symptom and should be fully studied to exclude misdiagnosis as of cardiac origin; there is a need for a better dissemination of knowledge about this disease association with chest pain. It was also noted that other non-respiratory symptoms are frequently encountered with acute asthma in emergency department.

Keywords: asthma, emergency department, respiratory symptoms, non respiratory system

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1049 An Analysis of the Relation between Need for Psychological Help and Psychological Symptoms

Authors: İsmail Ay


In this study, it was aimed to determine the relations between need for psychological help and psychological symptoms. The sample of the study consists of 530 university students getting educated in University of Atatürk in 2015-2016 academic years. Need for Psychological Help Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory were used to collect data in the study. In data analysis, correlation analysis and structural equation model with latent variables were used. Normality and homogeneity analyses were used to analyze the basic conditions of parametric tests. The findings obtained from the study show that as the psychological symptoms increase, need for psychological help also increases. The findings obtained through the study were approached according to the literature.

Keywords: psychological symptoms, need for psychological help, structural equation model, correlation

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1048 The Moderating Effects of Attachment Style on the Relationship between the Psychological Symptoms and Well-Being of Mental Health Practitioners in Rehabilitation Centers: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Amaba, Marinela C., Espino, Gianne Ericka S. J. Valencia, Zeia Beatriz C.


This study aims to determine the moderating role of attachment style on the relationship between psychological symptoms and well-being of mental health practitioners in rehabilitation centers that are accredited of the Department of Health in Pampanga. Using the data gathered from 46 mental health practitioners, multiple regression models were conducted to test the main and moderating effects of attachment styles. The findings show that all three psychological symptoms namely depression, anxiety, and stress have main effects on their general well-being on a negative direction. However, attachment style did not moderate the relationship between the psychological symptoms and general well-being. On one hand, results about the relationship of psychological symptoms and well-being are consistent to previous findings of other studies while on the other hand, results in moderation were contradicting.

Keywords: attachment style, psychological symptoms, well-being, mental health practitioners, rehabilitation centers

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1047 Effect of Migraine on Functional Performance and Reported Symptoms in Children with Concussion

Authors: Abdulaziz Alkathiry


Concussion is a common brain injury that affect physical and cognitive performance. While several studies indicated that adolescents are more likely to develop concussion, in the last decade concussion has been mainly explored in adults. Migraine has been identified as a common symptom reported after concussion and was tied with worse prognoses. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effect of migraine on functional performance and self-reported symptoms in children with concussion. This cross-sectional study involved 35 symptomatic children aged 9 – 17 years recruited within 1 year from their concussion injury at a tertiary balance center. Participants’ symptoms and functional performance were assessed using the post-concussion symptoms scale (PCSS) and the functional gait assessment (FGA) respectively. Concussed children with migraine showed significantly worse symptoms including fatigue, sleeping impairment, difficulty concentrating, and visual problems (P < 0.05). Functional performance didn’t show differences between concussed children with and without migraine. Although concussed children with and without migraine didn’t show any differences on functional performance, worse cognitive symptoms were found in concussed children with migraine. A customized treatment approach is indicated in the presence of migraine for the management of children with concussion. Keywords: Concussion; Migraine; Balance; Post-Concussion Symptoms Scale; Functional Gait Assessment

Keywords: concussion, migraine, post-concussion symptoms scale, functional gait assessment, balance

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1046 Prevalence of Work Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Surgeons

Authors: Nirav P. Vaghela


Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WMS) are a major health issue in many occupations all over the world. Past research on hospital workers have mainly been focused on nurses [8] and very few studies have examined musculoskeletal symptoms among doctors in various specialties. The work of surgeons can involve high levels of mental concentration and very precise movements that can be categorized as mild-to-moderate physical demands. Design: Forty-three surgeons were enrolled in this study. To investigate musculoskeletal disorder among the surgeons we had used Standardised Nordic Questionnaire, Quick Exposure Check (QEC) and Workstyle Short Form. Result: In the current study, total 43 surgeons participants out of 30 males and 13 females. Their mean age was 42.07 ± 12.35, and the mean working years of the group were 15.14years ±9.017. On the average, they worked a total of about 8.58 h (±1.967) per day. The prevalence of work related musculoskeletal symptoms among the surgeons indicating 83.70% surgeons had atleast one joint affected while 16.30% had no symptoms at all. Conclusion: The present survey study has shown high prevalence rates of neck, back and shoulder musculoskeletal symptoms in surgeons.

Keywords: repetitive stress injury, pain, occupational hazards, disability, abneetism, physical health, quality of life

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1045 Defense Mechanism Maturity and the Severity of Mood Disorder Symptoms

Authors: Maja Pandža, Sanjin Lovrić, Iva Čolak, Josipa Mandarić, Miro Klarić


This study explores the role of symptoms related to mood disorders salience on different types of defense mechanisms (mature, neurotic, immature) predominance. Total of 177 both clinical and non-clinical participants in Mostar, Bosnia & Herzegovina, completed a battery of questionnaires associated with defense mechanisms and self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms. The sample was additionally divided into four groups, given the level of symptoms experienced: 1. minimal, 2. mild, 3. moderate, 4. severe depression/anxiety. Participants with minimal anxiety and depression symptoms use mature defense mechanisms more often than other three groups. Immature mechanisms are most commonly used by the group with severe depression/anxiety levels in comparison with other groups. These differences are discussed on the dynamic level of analysis to have a better understanding of the relationship between defense mechanisms' maturity and degree of mood disorders' symptom severity. Also, results given could serve as an implication for the psychotherapeutic treatment plans.

Keywords: anxiety/depression symptoms, clinical/non-clinical sample, defense mechanism maturity, dynamic approach

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1044 Decisional Regret in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer among Various Treatment Options and the Association with Erectile Functioning and Depressive Symptoms: A Moderation Analysis

Authors: Caren Hilger, Silke Burkert, Friederike Kendel


Men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) have to choose among different treatment options, such as active surveillance (AS) and radical prostatectomy (RP). All available treatment options may be accompanied by specific psychological or physiological side effects. Depending on the nature and extent of these side effects, patients are more or less likely to be satisfied or to struggle with their treatment decision in the long term. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess and explain decisional regret in men with localized PCa. The role of erectile functioning as one of the main physiological side effects of invasive PCa treatment, depressive symptoms as a common psychological side effect, and the association of erectile functioning and depressive symptoms with decisional regret were investigated. Men with localized PCa initially managed with AS or RP (N=292) were matched according to length of therapy (mean 47.9±15.4 months). Subjects completed mailed questionnaires assessing decisional regret, changes in erectile functioning, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic variables. Clinical data were obtained from case report forms. Differences among the two treatment groups (AS and RP) were calculated using t-tests and χ²-tests, relationships of decisional regret with erectile functioning and depressive symptoms were computed using multiple regression. Men were on average 70±7.2 years old. The two treatment groups differed markedly regarding decisional regret (p<.001, d=.50), changes in erectile functioning (p<.001, d=1.2), and depressive symptoms (p=.01, d=.30), with men after RP reporting higher values, respectively. Regression analyses showed that after adjustment for age, tumor risk category, and changes in erectile functioning, depressive symptoms were still significantly associated with decisional regret (B=0.52, p<.001). Additionally, when predicting decisional regret, the interaction of changes in erectile functioning and depressive symptoms reached significance for men after RP (B=0.52, p<.001), but not for men under AS (B=-0.16, p=.14). With increased changes in erectile functioning, the association of depressive symptoms with decisional regret became stronger in men after RP. Decisional regret is a phenomenon more prominent in men after RP than in men under AS. Erectile functioning and depressive symptoms interact in their prediction of decisional regret. Screening and treating depressive symptoms might constitute a starting point for interventions aiming to reduce decisional regret in this target group.

Keywords: active surveillance, decisional regret, depressive symptoms, erectile functioning, prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy

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1043 Educational Attainment Inequalities in Depressive Symptoms in More Than 100 000 Individuals in Europe

Authors: Adam Chlapecka, Anna Kagstrom, Pavla Cermakova


Background: Increasing educational attainment (EA) could decrease the occurrence of depression. We investigated the relationship between EA and depressive symptoms in older individuals across four European regions. Methods: We studied 108 315 Europeans (54 % women, median age 63 years old) from the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe assessing EA (7 educational levels based on ISCED classification); and depressive symptoms (≥ 4 points on EURO-D scale). Logistic regression estimated the association between EA and depressive symptoms, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors; testing for sex/age/region and education interactions. Results: Higher EA was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic and health-related factors. A threshold of the lowest odds of depressive symptoms was detected at the first stage of tertiary education (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.55-0.65; p<0.001; relative to no education). Central and Eastern Europe showed the strongest association (OR for high vs. low education 0.37; 95% CI 0.33-0.40; p<0.001) and Scandinavia the weakest (OR for high vs. low education 0.69; 95% CI 0.60-0.80; p<0.001). The association was strongest amongst younger individuals. There was a sex and education interaction only within Central and Eastern Europe. Conclusion: The level of EA is reflected in later-life depressive symptoms, suggesting that supporting individuals in achieving EA, and considering those with lower EA at increased risk for depression, could lead to the decreased burden of depression across the life course. Further educational support in Central and Eastern Europe may decrease the higher burden of depressive symptoms in women.

Keywords: depression, education, epidemiology, Europe

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1042 Social Support and Depressive Symptoms in Participants of a University of the Third Age: Evidences From a Cross-Sectional Study in Brazil

Authors: Ana Luiza Blanco, Juliana Cordeiro Carvalho, Tábatta Renata Pereira Brito, Ariene Angelini dos Santos Orlandi, Ligiana Pires Corona, Daniella Pires Nunes


Depressive symptoms are recurrent in older adults and affect the quality of life and well-being of individuals. One of the strategies to reduce depression is social support, but studies are still needed to determine which types of social support are most effective in moderating this effect in certain populations. The objective was to identify the relationship between social support and depressive symptoms in participants of a University of the Third Age. This is a cross-sectional study. Participants were 82 individuals (≥ 50 years) who responded to the Geriatric Depression Scale - GDS and the Medical Outcomes Study - MOS. Data collection was carried out from November 2020 to May 2021. The Chi-Square and Mann Whitney tests were used, at a significance level of 5% for data analysis. Among the participants, 83.4% were female, 57.3% were age between 60 to 69 years, 83.1% studied 12 year or more and 48.1% receive from 4 to 10 minimum wages. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 12.2%. The type of support with the highest median score was affective (100 points) and the lowest, or emotional (87.5 points). The results showed that participants without depressive symptoms had higher median scores for informational support when compared to those with depressive symptoms (p=0.029). The other types of social support were not statistically significant. The findings suggested that informational support is related to depressive symptoms in older adults. Promote informational support and educational actions in Universities of the Third Age may be an important strategy for preventing depressive symptoms and improve the quality of life of this population.

Keywords: aged, depressive symptoms, social support, university of the third age

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1041 Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Day-Care Centres

Authors: Kenneth Larsen, Astrid Aasland, Synnve Schjølberg, Trond Diseth


Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders emerging in early development characterized by impairment in social communication skills and a restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests. Early identification and interventions potentially improve development and quality of life of children with ASD. Symptoms of ASD are apparent through the second year of life, yet diagnostic age are still around 4 years of age. This study explored whether symptoms associated with ASD are possible to identify in typical Norwegian day-care centers in the second year of life. Results of this study clearly indicates that most described symptoms also are identifiable by day-care staff, and that a short observation list of 5 symptoms clearly identify children with ASD from a sample of normal developing peers.

Keywords: autism, early identification, day-care, screening

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1040 Assessing Musculoskeletal Disorder Prevalence and Heat-Related Symptoms: A Cross-sectional Comparison in Indian Farmers

Authors: Makkhan Lal Meena, R. C. Bairwa, G. S. Dangayach, Rahul Jain


The current study looked at the frequency of chronic illness conditions, accidents, health complaints, and ergonomic issues among 100 conventional and 100 greenhouse farmers. Data related to the health symptoms and ergonomic problems were collected through questionnaires by conducting direct interviews of farmers. According to the findings, symptoms of heat exposure (skin rashes, headache, dizziness, and lack of appetite) were substantially higher among conventional farmers than greenhouse farmers. The greenhouse farmers reported much more pain, numbness, or weakness in wrists/hands, fingers, upper back, hips, and ankles/feet than conventional farmers. The findings of the study suggest that suitable ergonomic knowledge and awareness campaign programs concentrating on safety at work, particularly low back pain, should be implemented in workplaces to allow for earlier detection of symptoms among the greenhouse farmers.

Keywords: accident, conventional farmer, ergonomics, health symptoms, greenhouse farmers, pesticide

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1039 Psychosocial Strategies Used by Individuals with Schizophrenia: An Analysis of Internet Forum Posts

Authors: Charisse H. Tay


Background: Schizophrenia is a severe chronic mental disorder that can result in hallucinations, delusions, reduced social engagement, and lack of motivation. While antipsychotic medications often provide the basis for treatment, psychosocial strategies complement the benefit of medications and can result in meaningful improvements in symptoms and functioning. The aim of the study was to investigate psychosocial strategies used by internet self-help forum participants to effectively manage symptoms caused by schizophrenia. Internet self-help forums are a resource for medical and psychological problems and are commonly used to share information about experiences with symptom management. Method: Three international self-help internet forums on schizophrenia were identified using a search engine. 1,181 threads regarding non-pharmacological, psychosocial self-management of schizophrenia symptoms underwent screening, resulting in the final identification and coding of 91 threads and 191 posts from 134 unique forum users that contained details on psychosocial strategies endorsed personally by users that allowed them to effectively manage symptoms of schizophrenia, including positive symptoms (e.g., auditory/visual/tactile hallucinations, delusions, paranoia), negative symptoms (e.g.., avolition, apathy, anhedonia), symptoms of distress, and cognitive symptoms (e.g., memory loss). Results: Effective symptom management strategies personally endorsed by online forum users were psychological skills (e.g., re-focusing, mindfulness/meditation, reality checking; n = 94), engaging in activities (e.g., exercise, working/volunteering, hobbies; n = 84), social/familial support (n = 48), psychotherapy (n = 33), diet (n = 18), and religion/spirituality (n = 14). 44.4% of users reported using more than one strategy to manage their symptoms. The most common symptoms targeted and effectively managed, as specified by users, were positive symptoms (n = 113), negative symptoms (n = 17), distress (n = 8), and memory loss (n = 6). 10.5% of users reported more than one symptom effectively targeted. 70.2% of users with positive symptoms reported that psychological skills were effective for symptom relief. 88% of users with negative symptoms and 75% with distress symptoms reported that engaging in activities was effective. Discussion: Individuals with schizophrenia rely on a variety of different psychosocial methods to manage their symptoms. Different symptomology appears to be more effectively targeted by different types of psychosocial strategies. This may help to inform treatment strategy and tailored for individuals with schizophrenia.

Keywords: psychosocial treatment, qualitative methods, schizophrenia, symptom management

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1038 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Exhibited by Secondary School Students Exposed to Conflict in Kano Metropolis: Efficacy of a Brief Intervention

Authors: Valentine Ayo Mebu


The study examined the efficacy of a brief intervention programme in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms exhibited by secondary school students exposed to conflict in Kano metropolis. The study tested three hypotheses that there is no significant difference between post-test re-experiencing, hyper-arousal, and avoidance mean scores of students exposed to the intervention and those who were not exposed to the intervention. The design of the study was an experimental design, specifically the pre-test and post-test control group design. The purposive sampling technique was used to select 60 research participants (male=30, female=30, Mean Age=15.50) for the study. These participants met the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria of PTSD symptoms and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Instrument for data collection was the University of California Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD Index). Findings from the study indicated that there was a significant effect of the intervention on post re-experiencing symptoms scores [ F (1, 57) = 85.97, p=.00, partial eta squared η²=.60], hyper-arousal symptoms scores[ F (1, 57) = 27.81, p=.00, partial eta squared η² =.33], and avoidance symptoms scores [ F (1, 57) = 59.56, p=.00, partial eta squared η² =.51]. The efficacy of this brief psycho-educational intervention as an effective treatment in reducing PTSD symptoms among secondary school students exposed to conflict is supported by the results of this study and this will also add to the existing literature on the effectiveness of psycho-educational intervention in treating PTSD symptoms among students exposed to conflict.

Keywords: avoidance symptoms, hyper-arousal symptoms, re-experiencing symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder, psycho-education

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1037 Levels of Anxiety during the 1st Stage of Labour, Respectively Cervical Effacement

Authors: Shpresa Agani, Nysret Agani


Studies have found that women, during the 1st stage of labour, respectively cervical effacement, experience anxiety. This study aims to measure the degree of anxiety during cervical effacement, using Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) for measuring anxiety symptoms (HSCL-25). A randomized prospective study with 300 women during the 1st stage of labour was conducted where cervical effacement percentage in parallel with the symptoms of anxiety was examined. Anxiety degree levels were examined by HSCL-25. Results showed that 81% were primiparous, while 19% were multiparous. All participants experienced anxiety symptoms, and the degree of anxiety depended on the stage of the birth process. Groups-based modeling according to HSCL- 2 identified three distinct groups of anxiety symptoms: group 1 (low degree, 32 cases or 11%), group 2 (mild degree, 186 cases or 62%), and group 3 (high degree, 82 cases or 27%). Depending on the percentage of cervical effacement, the anxiety degree increased. In a cervical effacement of 0-60-%, 125 cases or 41.6% had symptoms of anxiety, while in a cervical effacement of 60-100%, 174 cases or 58.4% had symptoms of anxiety (Chi-Square X2 (4,N=300)=10.755, p=0.02). This study showed a correlation between cervical effacement and the degree of anxiety. Further, it was found that the majority of participants experienced symptoms of anxiety during the cervical effacement process. The degree of anxiety increased in direct proportion to the degree of the cervical effacement process. The higher the percentage of cervical effacement, the higher the degree of anxiety. A continuing assessment of the psychological well-being of women throughout the birth process.

Keywords: anxiety, cervical effacement, pregnancy, HSCL-25

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1036 The Effects of Supportive Care Interventions with Psychotherapeutic and Exercise Approaches on Depressive Symptoms Among Patients with Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Chia-Chen Hsieh, Fei-Hsiu Hsiao


Objective: To examine the effects of supportive care interventions on depressive symptoms in patients with lung cancer. Methods: The databases of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid EMBASE, PubMed, and Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS) were searched from their inception until September 2015. We included the studies with randomized controlled trial design that compared standard care with supportive care interventions using psychotherapeutic or exercises approach. The standardized mean differences (SMD) (Cohen’s d) were calculated to estimate the treatment effects. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used for quality assessment and subgroup analysis was conducted to identify possible sources of heterogeneity. Results: A total of 1472 patients with lung cancer were identified. Compared with standard care, the overall effects of all supportive care interventions significantly reduced depressive symptoms (SMD = -0.74 with 95% CI = -1.07 to -0.41), and the effect was maintained at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks of follow-up. Either psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation or exercise alone produced significant improvements in depressive symptoms, while psychoeducation alone did not. The greater improvements in depressive symptoms occurred in lung cancer patients with severe depressive symptoms at baseline, total duration of interventions of less than ten weeks, and intervention provided through face-to-face delivery. Conclusions: Psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation can help patients manage the causes of depressive symptoms, including both symptom distress and psychological trauma due to lung cancer. Exercise can target the impaired respiratory function that is a cause of depressive symptoms in lung cancer patients.

Keywords: supportive care intervention, depressive symptoms, lung cancer, meta-analysis

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1035 The Role of Concussion and Physical Pain on Depressive Symptoms and Quality of Life

Authors: Daniel Walker, Adam Qureshi, David Marchant, Alex Bahrami Balani


The present study aimed to assess the impact of concussion and physical pain on depression and health-related quality of life. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale, and scores of health-related quality of life were measured by health-related quality of life short form-12. Data analysis of 67 participants (concussed 32 vs. 35 non-concussed) revealed that (i) 52% were displaying depressive symptoms (concussed 30% vs. non-concussed 22%) (ii) concussion had a significant effect on depressive symptoms when controlling for pain but no effect on the quality of life scores when controlling the same variable (iii) pain had a significant effect on depressive symptoms and quality of life. With this, both concussion and physical pain seem to have a negative impact on mental health; however, individuals may only recognise a reduction in quality of life with increased physical pain, hence a deterioration in mental well-being could be disregarded as a factor of health-related quality of life.

Keywords: depression, quality of life, concussion, physical pain

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1034 Ergonomical Study of Hand-Arm Vibrational Exposure in a Gear Manufacturing Plant in India

Authors: Santosh Kumar, M. Muralidhar


The term ‘ergonomics’ is derived from two Greek words: ‘ergon’, meaning work and ‘nomoi’, meaning natural laws. Ergonomics is the study of how working conditions, machines and equipment can be arranged in order that people can work with them more efficiently. In this research communication an attempt has been made to study the effect of hand-arm vibrational exposure on the workers of a gear manufacturing plant by comparison of potential Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) symptoms and effect of different exposure levels of vibration on occurrence of CTS in actual industrial environment. Chi square test and correlation analysis have been considered for statistical analysis. From Chi square test, it has been found that the potential CTS symptoms occurrence is significantly dependent on the level of vibrational exposure. Data analysis indicates that 40.51% workers having potential CTS symptoms are exposed to vibration. Correlation analysis reveals that potential CTS symptoms are significantly correlated with exposure to level of vibration from handheld tools and to repetitive wrist movements.

Keywords: CTS symptoms, hand-arm vibration, ergonomics, physical tests

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1033 An Open Trial of Mobile-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Pupillometry Predictors of Outcome

Authors: Eric Granholm, Christophe Delay, Jason Holden, Peter Link


Negative symptoms are an important unmet treatment needed for schizophrenia. We conducted an open trial of a novel blended intervention called mobile-assisted cognitive behavior therapy for negative symptoms (mCBTn). mCBTn is a weekly group therapy intervention combining in-person and smartphone-based CBT (CBT2go app) to improve experiential negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Both the therapy group and CBT2go app included recovery goal setting, thought challenging, scheduling of pleasurable activities and social interactions, and pleasure savoring interventions to modify defeatist attitudes, a target mechanism associated with negative symptoms, and improve experiential negative symptoms. We tested whether participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=31) who met prospective criteria for persistent negative symptoms showed improvement in experiential negative symptoms. Retention was excellent (87% at 18 weeks) and severity of defeatist attitudes and motivation and pleasure negative symptoms declined significantly in mCBTn with large effect sizes. We also tested whether pupillary responses, a measure of cognitive effort, predicted improvement in negative symptoms mCBTn. Pupillary responses were recorded at baseline using a Tobii pupillometer during the digit span task with 3-, 6- and 9-digit spans. Mixed models showed that greater dilation during the task at baseline significantly predicted a greater reduction in experiential negative symptoms. Pupillary responses may provide a much-needed prognostic biomarker of which patients are most likely to benefit from CBT. Greater pupil dilation during a cognitive task predicted greater improvement in experiential negative symptoms. Pupil dilation has been linked to motivation and engagement of executive control, so these factors may contribute to benefits in interventions that train cognitive skills to manage negative thoughts and emotions. The findings suggest mCBTn is a feasible and effective treatment for experiential negative symptoms and justify a larger randomized controlled clinical trial. The findings also provide support for the defeatist attitude model of experiential negative symptoms and suggest that mobile-assisted interventions like mCBTn can strengthen and shorten intensive psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia.

Keywords: cognitive-behavioral therapy, mobile interventions, negative symptoms, pupillometry schizophrenia

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1032 Narrative Review Evaluating Systematic Reviews Assessing the Effect of Probiotic Interventions on Depressive Symptoms

Authors: Ibrahim Nadeem, Mohammed Rahman, Yasser Ad-Dab’Bagh, Mahmood Akhtar


Depression is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses and is often associated with various other medical disorders. In this review, we aim to evaluate existing systematic reviews that investigate the use of probiotics as a treatment for depressive symptoms. Five online databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2017. Systematic reviews that included randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of depressive symptoms were included. Seven systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. Three of these reviews conducted meta-analyses, out of which, two found probiotics to significantly improve depressive symptoms in the sample population. Two meta-analyses conducted subgroup analysis based on health status, and both found probiotics to significantly decrease depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder, but only one review found it to significantly decrease in healthy patients. Another subgroup analysis was conducted based on age, and found probiotics to produce significant effects on subjects under the age of 60, but close to no effect on patients over the age of 65. Out of the four reviews that conducted qualitative analysis, three reviews concluded that probiotics have the potential to be used as a treatment. Due to the differences in clinical trials, a definitive effect of probiotics on depressive symptoms cannot be concluded. Nonetheless, probiotics seem to produce a significant therapeutic effect for subjects with pre-existing depressive symptoms. Further studies are warranted for definitive conclusions.

Keywords: depression, gut-brain axis, gut microbiota, probiotic, psychobiotic

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1031 The Untreated Burden of Parkinson’s Disease: A Patient Perspective

Authors: John Acord, Ankita Batla, Kiran Khepar, Maude Schmidt, Charlotte Allen, Russ Bradford


Objectives: Despite the availability oftreatment options, Parkinson’s disease (PD) continues to impact heavily on a patient’s quality of life (QoL), as many symptoms that bother the patient remain unexplored and untreated in clinical settings. The aims of this research were to understand the burden of PDsymptoms from a patient perspective, particularly those which are the most persistent and debilitating, and to determine if current treatments and treatment algorithms adequately focus on their resolution. Methods: A13-question, online, patient-reported survey was created based on the MDS-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS)and symptoms listed on Parkinson’s Disease Patient Advocacy Groups websites, and then validated by 10 Parkinson’s patients. In the survey, patients were asked to choose both their most common and their most bothersome symptoms, whether they had received treatment for those and, if so, had it been effective in resolving those symptoms. Results: The most bothersome symptoms reported by the 111 participants who completed the survey were sleep problems (61%), feeling tired (56%), slowness of movements (54%), and pain in some parts of the body (49%). However, while 86% of patients reported receiving dopamine or dopamine like drugs to treat their PD, far fewer reported receiving targeted therapies for additional symptoms. For example, of the patients who reported having sleep problems, only 33% received some form of treatment for this symptom. This was also true for feeling tired (30% received treatment for this symptom), slowness of movements (62% received treatment for this symptom), and pain in some parts of the body (61% received treatment for this symptom). Additionally, 65% of patients reported that the symptoms they experienced were not adequately controlled by the treatments they received, and 9% reported that their current treatments had no effect on their symptoms whatsoever. Conclusion: The survey outcomes highlight that the majority of patients involved in the study received treatment focused on their disease, however, symptom-based treatments were less well represented. Consequently, patient-reported symptoms such as sleep problems and feeling tired tended to receive more fragmented intervention than ‘classical’ PD symptoms, such as slowness of movement, even though they were reported as being amongst the most bothersome symptoms for patients. This research highlights the need to explore symptom burden from the patient’s perspective and offer Customised treatment/support for both motor and non-motor symptoms maximize patients’ quality of life.

Keywords: survey, patient reported symptom burden, unmet needs, parkinson's disease

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1030 Hope as a Predictor for Complicated Grief and Anxiety: A Bayesian Structural Equational Modeling Study

Authors: Bo Yan, Amy Y. M. Chow


Bereavement is recognized as a universal challenging experience. It is important to gather research evidence on protective factors in bereavement. Hope is considered as one of the protective factors in previous coping studies. The present study aims to add knowledge by investigating hope at the first month after death to predict psychological symptoms altogether including complicated grief (CG), anxiety, and depressive symptoms at the seventh month. The data were collected via one-on-one interview survey in a longitudinal project with Hong Kong hospice users (sample size 105). Most participants were at their middle age (49-year-old on average), female (72%), with no religious affiliation (58%). Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling (BSEM) analysis was conducted on the longitudinal dataset. The BSEM findings show that hope at the first month of bereavement negatively predicts both CG and anxiety symptoms at the seventh month but not for depressive symptoms. Age and gender are controlled in the model. The overall model fit is good. The current study findings suggest assessing hope at the first month of bereavement. Hope at the first month after the loss is identified as an excellent predictor for complicated grief and anxiety symptoms at the seventh month. The result from this sample is clear, so it encourages cross-cultural research on replicated modeling and development of further clinical application. Particularly, practical consideration for early intervention to increase the level of hope has the potential to reduce the psychological symptoms and thus to improve the bereaved persons’ wellbeing in the long run.

Keywords: anxiety, complicated grief, depressive symptoms, hope, structural equational modeling

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1029 Effect of a Polyherbal Gut Therapy Protocol in Changes of Gut and Behavioral Symptoms of Antibiotic Induced Dysbiosis of Autistic Babies

Authors: Dinesh K. S., D. R. C. V. Jayadevan


Autism is the most prevalent of a subset of the disorders organized under the umbrella of pervasive developmental disorders. After the publication of Andrew Wakefield's paper in lancet, many critiques deny this connection even without looking in to the matter. The British Medical Journal even put an editorial regarding this issue. BMJ 2010; 340:c1807. But ayurveda has ample of evidences to believe this connectivity. Dysbiosis, yeast growth of the gut, nutritional deficiencies, enzyme deficiencies, essential fatty acid deficiencies, Gastro esophageal reflux disease, indigestion, inflammatory bowel, chronic constipation & its cascade are few of them to note. The purpose of this paper is to present the observed changes in the behavioural symptoms of autistic babies after a gut management protocol which is a usual programme of our autism treatment plan especially after dysbiotic changes after antibiotic administration. Is there any correlation between changes (if significant) in gut symptoms and behavioral problems of autistic babies especially after a dysbiosis induced by antibiotics. Retrospective analysis of the case sheets of autistic patients admitted in Vaidyaratnam P.S.Varier Ayurveda College hospital, kottakkal,kerala, india from September 2010 are taken for the data processing. Autistic patients are used to come to this hospital as a part of their usual course of treatment. We investigated 40 cases diagnosed as autistic by clinical psychologists from different institutions who had dysbiosis induced by antibiotics. Significant change in gut symptoms before and after treatment p<0.05 in most of its components Significant change in behavioral symptoms before and after treatments p<0.05 in most of the components Correlation between gut symptoms change and behavioral symptoms changes after treatment is + 0.86. Conclusion : Selected Polyherbal Ayurveda treatment has significant role to play to make changes abnormal behaviors in autistic babies and has a positive correlation with changes in gut symptoms induced by dysbiosis of antibiotic intake.

Keywords: ayurveda, autism, dysbiosis, antibiotic

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1028 An Acerbate Psychotics Symptoms, Social Support, Stressful Life Events, Medication Use Self-Efficacy Impact on Social Dysfunction: A Cross Sectional Self-Rated Study of Persons with Schizophrenia Patient and Misusing Methamphetamines

Authors: Ek-Uma Imkome, Jintana Yunibhand, Waraporn Chaiyawat


Background: Persons with schizophrenia patient and misusing methamphetamines suffering from social dysfunction that impact on their quality of life. Knowledge of factors related to social dysfunction will guide the effective intervention. Objectives: To determine the direct effect, indirect effect and total effect of an acerbate Psychotics’ Symptoms, Social Support, Stressful life events, Medication use self-efficacy impact on social dysfunction in Thai schizophrenic patient and methamphetamine misuse. Methods: Data were collected from schizophrenic and methamphetamine misuse patient by self report. A linear structural relationship was used to test the hypothesized path model. Results: The hypothesized model was found to fit the empirical data and explained 54% of the variance of the psychotic symptoms (X2 = 114.35, df = 92, p-value = 0.05, X2 /df = 1.24, GFI = 0.96, AGFI = 0.92, CFI = 1.00, NFI = 0.99, NNFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.02). The highest total effect on social dysfunction was psychotic symptoms (0.67, p<0.05). Medication use self-efficacy had a direct effect on psychotic symptoms (-0.25, p<0.01), and social support had direct effect on medication use self efficacy (0.36, p <0.01). Conclusions: Psychotic symptoms and stressful life events were the significance factors that influenced direct on social dysfunctioning. Therefore, interventions that are designed to manage these factors are crucial in order to enhance social functioning in this population.

Keywords: psychotic symptoms, methamphetamine, schizophrenia, stressful life events, social dysfunction, social support, medication use self efficacy

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1027 Israeli Palestinian Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence and their Academic Achievements: The Indirect Effects of Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms and Parental Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Neveen Ali-Saleh Darawsha


Exposure to community violence (CV) is alarmingly high and emphasizes negative consequences. The present study examines the rates and consequences of exposure to community violence, among Palestinian adolescents from Israel, age ranged 14-18. Specifically, it examines whether exposure to community violence is indirectly related to academic achievement through internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents; and whether the indirect effects of exposure to CV and academic achievements will differ when the parents have different levels of psychological well-being. Method: Semi systematic random sample of 760 Palestinian adolescents in Israel, (320 boys, and 440 girls) filled out a self-administration questionnaire. Most of the adolescents had witnessed community violence during the last year and during their lifetime, and more than one third had directly experienced such violence during lifetime compared with 19.6% during the last year. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effects of exposure to CV and academic achievement. Results revealed that externalizing symptoms mediated the association between exposure to CV and academic achievement. There were no indirect effects through internalizing symptoms. Moreover, parental psychological well-being moderated the indirect effects between externalizing symptoms and academic achievements. Conclusion: Findings highlight the importance of targeting externalizing symptoms for adolescents that could improve their behaviors and also their academic achievements as well. limitations of the study, implications for the practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Keywords: community violence, witnessing violence, direct personal experiencing, academic achievement, psychological well-being, Palestinian adolescents

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1026 The Impact of Psychiatric Symptoms on Return to Work after Occupational Injury

Authors: Kuan-Han Lin, Kuan-Yin Lin, Ka-Chun Siu


The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) symptom or depressive symptoms on return to work (RTW) after occupational injury. The original articles of clinical trials and observational studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO between January 1980 and November 2016 were retrieved. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts identified by the search criteria for full-text review. To be included in the final analysis, studies were required to use either intervention or observational study design to examine the association between psychiatric symptoms and RTW. A modified checklist designed by Downs & Black and Crombie was used to assess the methodological quality of included study. A total of 58 articles were identified from the electronic databases after duplicate removed. Seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were critically reviewed. The rates of RTW in the included studies were reported to be 6% to 63.6% among workers after occupational injuries. This review found that post-traumatic stress symptom and depressive symptoms were negatively associated with RTW. Although the impact of psychiatric symptoms on RTW after occupational injury remains poorly understood, this review brought up the important information that injured workers with psychiatric symptoms had poor RTW outcome. Future work should address the effective management of psychiatric factors affecting RTW among workers.

Keywords: depressive symptom, occupational injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, return to work

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1025 The Association of IL-17 Serum Levels with Disease Severity and Onset of Symptoms in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Fatemeh Keshavarz


Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases, often leading to joint damage and physical disability. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of serum levels of interleukin 17 and anti-CCP factor with disease severity in RA patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with RA confirmed by clinical and laboratory criteria were recruited. A 5 ml venous blood sample was taken from every patient, its serum was separated. Based on clinical data and severity of symptoms, patients were classified into three groups of those with mild, moderate, and severe symptoms. Serum levels of IL-17 and anti-CCP in all samples were measured using ELISA. Results: Analysis of IL-17 serum levels in different groups showed that its amount was higher in the group with mild clinical symptoms than in other groups. Comparison of IL-17 serum levels between mild and moderate disease severity groups showed a statistically significant relationship. There was also a positive linear relationship between anti-CCP and serum IL-17 levels in different groups of the disease, and serum IL-17 levels were inversely related to the duration of exposure to the disease. Conclusion: Higher IL-17 serum levels in patients with mild symptom severity confirm that this highly specific marker is involved in the pathogenesis of RA and may be effective in initiating patients’ clinical symptoms.

Keywords: IL-17, anti-CCP, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune

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1024 Botulinum A Toxin Injection in Two Filipino Brothers with X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism (XDP) in Cebu City, Philippines: A Case Report

Authors: Ana Katrina C. Longos, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul


Objectives: To present a case of two Filipino male siblings initially seen with parkinsonism and eventually with dystonia and to present botulinum A toxin as part of the treatment for X-linked dystonia parkinsonism in Cebu City. Discussion: A 54 year old man presented initially with parkinsonian symptoms and later developed oromandibular and truncal dystonia. Further history revealed that he had an older brother who also presented with the same symptoms. Neuroimaging done on both patients revealed CVD infarcts in the pons and corona radiata respectively which where were not compatible with their symptoms. Family history revealed that their mother was originally from Panay and a diagnosis of X-linked dystonia parkinsonism (XDP) was made. Both patients were able to receive botulinum A toxin injections which provided temporary relief of symptoms. Conclusion: XDP was considered in 2 Filipino male siblings who presented with oromandibular dystonia, truncal dystonia, shuffling gait, resting tremors with ancestry from Panay on the maternal side. There is no cure for XDP, only symptomatic treatment. Until recently, only oral chemotherapy was available in Cebu. Botulinum A toxin injection done in both patients afforded temporary resolution of symptoms.

Keywords: XDP, dystonia of Panay, lubag, dystonia parkinsonism, botulinum a toxin

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1023 A Survey on General Health Status of Paddy Field Workers in Mazandaran Province Using the GHQ-28 Questionnaire

Authors: Sharifirad M., Poursaeed A., Lashgarara F., Mirdamadi S. M.


Introduction: Paddy farming has been reported as one of the most important causes of non-fatal injuries and occupational accidents among farmers. The ignorance of the health of farmers can cause harm to farmers and lead to disability. As a result, these health consequences can result in less exploitation and economic growth in households. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the general health status of paddy field workers in Mazandaran province, Iran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated 384 paddy farmers in Mazandaran province, Iran, who were selected using stratified random sampling. The required data were collected using the standard questionnaire of GHQ-28 with four domains of somaticsymptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and symptoms of depression. The obtained data were then analyzed using SPSS software (version 25) through Spearman, Kendall, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings: The highest number of participants in this study was in the age group of 50-59 years, with a mean age of 46.9 years. According to the results, the total general health score was obtained at 64.3% for the subjects. Moreover, the scores of four areas of general health were determined at 91.1% (depression symptoms), 73.4% (social dysfunction), 48.7% (anxiety symptoms and insomnia), and 47.1% (somatic symptoms) in descending order. Discussions& Conclusions: The general health of the studied population was not in a good range. In addition, the most observed disorder in the general health of paddy farmers was related to the symptoms of depression, followed by somatic symptoms.

Keywords: general-health, mazandaran, paddyfield

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