Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 365

Search results for: pregnancy

365 Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Normal and Preeclamptic Pregnants

Authors: Abdulnasir Hossen, Alaa Barhoum, Deepali Jaju, V. Gowri, L. Al-Kharusi, M. Hassan, K. Al-Hashmi

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Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disorder associated with increase in blood pressure and excess amount of protein in the urine. HRV analysis has been used by many researchers to identify preeclamptic pregnancy from normal pregnancy. A study in this regard to identify preeclamptic pregnancy in Oman from normal pregnant was conducted on 40 subjects (20 patients and 20 normal). The subjects were collected from two hospitals in Oman. A Fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectral analysis has shown that patients with preeclamptic pregnancy have a reduction in the power of the HF band and an increase in the power of the LF band of HRV compared with subjects with normal pregnancy. The accuracy of identification obtained was 80%.

Keywords: preelampsia, pregnancy hypertension, normal pregnant, FFT, spectral analysis, HRV

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364 Pregnancy Outcome in Pregnancy with Low Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A in First Trimester

Authors: Sumi Manjipparambil Surendran, Subrata Majumdar

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Aim: The aim of the study is to find out if low PAPP-A (Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A) levels in the first trimester are associated with adverse obstetric outcome. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 114 singleton pregnancies having undergone combined test screening. Results: There is statistically significant increased incidence of low birth weight infants in the low PAPP-A group. However, significant association was not found in the incidence of pre-eclampsia, miscarriage, and placental abruption. Conclusion: Low PAPP-A in the first trimester is associated with fetal growth restriction. Recommendation: Women with low PAPP-A levels in first trimester pregnancy screening require consultant-led care and serial growth scans.

Keywords: pregnancy, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, PAPP-A, fetal growth restriction, trimester

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363 Designing a Pregnancy Interactive Information Design for a Mobile Application

Authors: Thomas Adi Purnomo Sidhi

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The importance of designing a pregnancy interactive information design for a mobile application is felt in order to assist pregnant women to get an easy access of highly credible pregnancy-related information on which often fail to be fulfilled, while it has been a very critical one. Thus, an observation of needs assessment for designing a pregnancy interactive information system design for a mobile application at iOS becomes current objective study. A comparative study of the top five pregnancy interactive information design available at the Apple Store conducted in order to fulfill it. Whilst, an observation of user experiences included for deeper analyzes. Moreover, a literature study conducted to support the arguments that being provided in the current study. The findings, surprisingly, also reveal the advantages of local wisdom in pregnancy that never been attached to those top five applications before.

Keywords: information system design, interactive design, local wisdom, pregnancy

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362 Current Cosmetic Treatments in Pregnancy

Authors: Daniela F. Maluf, Fernanda Roters, Luma C. F. Silva

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The goal of this work is to report the main dermatological alterations occurring during pregnancy and actual cosmetic protocols available and recommended for safe use. Throughout pregnancy, woman's body undergoes many transformations such as hormonal changes and weight gain. These alterations can result in undesirable skin aspects that end up affecting the future mother's life. The main complaints of pregnant women involve melasma advent, varicose veins, edema, and natural skin aging. Even if most of the time is recommended to wait for the birth to use cosmetics, there are some alternatives to prevent and to treat these alterations during pregnancy. For all these cases, there is a need to update information about safety and efficacy of new actives and technologies in cosmetic products. The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review about the main skin alterations during pregnancy and actual recommended treatments, according to the current legislation.

Keywords: pregnancy, cosmetic, treatment, physiological changes

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361 A Case Study of Spontaneous Heterotopic Pregnancy with Subsequent Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

Authors: M. Elder, L. Beech, A. Mackie

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Heterotopic pregnancy is an uncommon and potentially life-threatening condition in which there is simultaneous occurrence of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies. It has an incidence of approximately 1:3900 pregnancies, occurring in only 1:30000 spontaneous pregnancies. This study presents a rare case of spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy in a 34-year-old primiparous woman who was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department following collapse at 20+1 weeks gestation after normal first trimester screening and morphology scan. She was hemodynamically unstable and fetal heart rate was 60bpm. Initial resuscitation included transfusion of 2 units packed red blood cells and 1g intravenous tranexamic acid. Bedside ultrasound revealed evidence of approximately 1000ml clot in the right upper quadrant. She underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy and washout, which proceeded to a midline exploratory laparotomy. This revealed a 2.6L hemoperitoneum and query right ectopic pregnancy with calcified areas and clot, with no other cause of bleeding identified. Right salpingectomy was performed, and pathology later confirmed ectopic pregnancy. The intrauterine pregnancy had no complications, and she delivered a healthy full-term baby. This case demonstrates that ultrasound confirmation of intrauterine pregnancy does not exclude coexisting ectopic pregnancy. Heterotopic pregnancy should be considered in any pregnant woman presenting with abdominal pain or signs of hemorrhagic shock, as prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to minimize foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: ectopic pregnancy, hemorrhagic shock, salpingectomy, spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy

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360 Pregnancy and Women's Subjectivity Represented in Ali's Brick Lane, Cusk's Arlington Park, and Mcgregor's If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things

Authors: Nurul Imansari

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The study object in this research is 'pregnancy and women’s subjectivity represented in Ali’s Brick Lane, Cusk’s Arlington Park, and McGregor’s If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things'. Pregnancy is invested with both figurative and literal significance in the novels. Being a symbol of domesticity of the woman in the novels, pregnancy conveys the relationship of the women due to their role as a mother and wife in a family and their subjectivity as a woman. The aim of this study is to examine to what extent pregnancy affects the subjectivity of woman in Ali’s 'Brick Lane', Cusk’s 'Arlington Park', and McGregor’s 'If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things'. It also discusses on how pregnancy can be seen as a symbolic sense and the things that symbolise it. The study uses theoretical ideas of female subjectivity proposed by Julia Kristeva. She stated that in patriarchal culture, the meaning of a woman is always being reduced to the function of reproduction. She has emphasized a new discourse about pregnancy that recognizes the importance of maternal function in the development of subjectivity and in culture. The result shows that the three novels represent pregnancy as something which can affect women’s subjectivity but the way in representing the pregnancy are different from each other. Kristeva’s idea about pregnancy and women’s subjectivity can be applied in both Cusk’s Arlington Park, and McGregor’s If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things as the characters in the texts come from the same background as her. However, it can hardly be applied to Ali’s Brick Lane because this idea can justify the women to choose their own way and South Asian culture still bound to the strong patriarchal system.

Keywords: culture, pregnancy, subjectivity, women

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359 Length of Pregnancy and Dental Caries Observation in Relation to BMI

Authors: Edit Xhajanka, Gresa Baboci, Irene Malagnino, Mimoza Canga, Vito Antonio Malagnino

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Purpose: This study aimed at identifying dental caries increment or reduction, based on factors such as smoking, the scaling of teeth, BMI before and during pregnancy, carbohydrates consumption in relation to childbirth. Material and method: In this observational study, the sample included a total of 98 pregnant women and their age class was 18-45 years old, with a median age of 31.5 years. The setting of the participants resides in Vlora –Albania. Moreover, 64.4% were from the city and 35.6% were from the nearby villages. The study was conducted in the time period January 2018 –June 2021. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the standard formula (kg/m²). Maternal pre, during and post-pregnancy BMI was collected by using a validated questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0. The significance level (α) was set at 0.05, whereas P-value and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. Results: Based on the data analysis, 44.4% of the sample declared that they did smoke before pregnancy and 55.6% not smoked during their pregnancy. As a result, no association was found between smoking and length of pregnancy P=0.95. There is also a strong relation (P=0.000) between the number of teeth with caries before pregnancy and the number of teeth with caries during pregnancy. There is a significant relationship between the scaling of teeth and childbirth, P=0.05. BMI before and during pregnancy in relation to carbohydrates consumption have a significant correlation P=0.004 and P=0.002. The values of BMI before and during pregnancy in relation to childbirth have a strong correlation: P=0.043 and P=0.040, respectively. As a result, obesity was associated with preterm birth. The percentage of children born during 34-36 weeks of pregnancy was 69%, and children born during 32-34 weeks of pregnancy were 31%. CONCLUSION: There was a positive association between dental caries experience, BMI and carbohydrates consumption. Obesity in pregnancy is increasing worldwide; that is why this study suggests the importance of an appropriate weight before and during pregnancy.

Keywords: BMI, dental caries, pregnancy, scaling, smoking

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358 Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Udomporn Yingpaisuk, Premwadee Karuhadej

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The purposed of this research was to study the eating habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically significant level of 0.001.

Keywords: teenage pregnancy, knowledge of eating, eating behavior, alcohol, caffeine

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357 Social Representations: Unplanned and Unwanted Pregnancy in Adolescents from Leon-Mexico

Authors: Alejandra Sierra, Maria de los Angeles Covarrubias, Guillermo Julian Gonzalez, Noe Alfaro

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The objective of this study was to identify the cultural dimensions of the terms unplanned pregnancy and unwanted pregnancy built by adolescent women, through the focus of the social representations. Two associative methods were used: free listings and the paired comparison. 72 female students between the ages of 15 and 19 were interviewed, from the downtown area of Leon Guanajuato, Mexico. Words related to inducer terms were classified into five thematic categories: facilitators, consequences, reactions, expectations, and lexicon. The results showed that the social representations of unplanned pregnancy highlighted elements related to economic difficulties and negative emotional aspects, while unwanted pregnancy was associated with negative emotional aspects such as anger, anxiety, and sadness. The meanings each person attributes to terms related to pregnancy are culturally constructed and differ between populations; therefore, more attention should be paid to understanding the cultural meanings and attitudes of people in fertility decision-making, including also the views of adolescent men and other types of population, stratified by age groups and social conditions.

Keywords: adolescent, qualitative research, unplanned pregnancy, unwanted pregnancy

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356 Assessing Level of Pregnancy Rate and Milk Yield in Indian Murrah Buffaloes

Authors: V. Jamuna, A. K. Chakravarty, C. S. Patil, Vijay Kumar, M. A. Mir, Rakesh Kumar

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Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits viz. pregnancy rate has lead to deterioration in their performances. Aim of study is to develop an optimum model for predicting pregnancy rate and to assess the level of pregnancy rate with respect to milk production Murrah buffaloes. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 21 years were analyzed and it was observed that pregnancy rate depicted negative phenotypic association with lactation milk yield (-0.08 ± 0.04). For developing optimum model for pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes seven simple and multiple regression models were developed. Among the seven models, model II having only Service period as an independent reproduction variable, was found to be the best prediction model, based on the four statistical criterions (high coefficient of determination (R 2), low mean sum of squares due to error (MSSe), conceptual predictive (CP) value, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). For standardizing the level of fertility with milk production, pregnancy rate was classified into seven classes with the increment of 10% in all parities, life time and their corresponding average pregnancy rate in relation to the average lactation milk yield (MY).It was observed that to achieve around 2000 kg MY which can be considered optimum for Indian Murrah buffaloes, level of pregnancy rate should be in between 30-50%.

Keywords: life time, pregnancy rate, production, service period, standardization

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355 Low Molecular Weight Heparin during Pregnancy

Authors: Sihana Ahmeti Lika, Merita Dauti, Ledjan Malaj

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The objective of this study is to analyze the prophylactic usage of low molecular weight heparine (LMWH) along pregnancy and the correlation between their usage and month/week of pregnancy, in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, at Clinical Hospital in Tetovo. A retrospective study was undertaken during 01 January–31 December 2012. Over of one year, the total number of patients was 4636. Among the 1447 (32.21%) pregnant women, 298 (20.59%) of them were prescribed LMWH. The majority of patients given LMWH, 119 (39.93%) were diagnosed hypercoagulable. The age group with the highest attendance was 25-35, 141 patients (47.32%). For 195 (65.44%) patients, this was their first pregnancy. Earliest stage of using LMWH was the second month of pregnancy 4 (1.34%) cases. The most common patients, were 70 women along the seventh month (23.49%), followed by 68 in the ninth month of pregnancy (22.81%). Women in the 28th gestational week, were found to be the most affected, a total of 55 (78.57%) were in that week. Clexane 2000 and Fraxiparine 0.3 were the most common for which low molecular weight heparine was prescribed. The number of patients which received Clexane 2000 was 84 (28.19%), followed by those with Fraxiparine 0.3 81 (27.18%). The administration of LMWH is associated with long hospitalization (median 14,6 days).

Keywords: hypercoagulable state, low moleculare weight heparine, month of pregnancy, pregnant women

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354 The MTHFR C677T Polymorphism Screening: A Challenge in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Authors: Rim Frikha, Nouha Bouayed, Afifa Sellami, Nozha Chakroun, Salima Daoud, Leila Keskes, Tarek Rebai

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Introduction: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) defined as two or more pregnancy losses, is a serious clinical problem. Methylene-tetrahydro-folate-reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, commonly the variant C677T is recognized as an inherited thrombophilia which might affect embryonic development and pregnancy success and cause pregnancy complications as RPL. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and PCR-RFLP was performed for the molecular diagnosis of the C677T MTHFR polymorphism among 70 patients (35 couples) with more than 2 fetal losses. Aims and Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of MTHFR C677T among Tunisian couples with RPL and to critically analyze the available literature on the importance of MTHFR polymorphism testing in the management of RPL. Result and comments: No C677T mutation was detected in the carriers of RPL. This result would be related to sample size and to different criteria (number of abortion), - The association between MTHFR polymorphisms and pregnancy complications has been reported but with controversial results. - A lack of evidence for MTHFR polymorphism testing previously recommended by ACMG (American College of Medical medicine). Our study highlights the importance of screening of MTHFR polymorphism since the real impact of such thrombotic molecular defect on the pregnancy outcome is evident. - Folic supplementation of these patients during pregnancy can prevent such complications and lead to a successful pregnancy outcome.

Keywords: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, C677T, recurrent pregnancy loss, genetic testing

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353 Factors Associated with Unintended Pregnancy amongst Currently Married Pregnant Women in Ilesa Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: O. S. Asaolu, A. Bolorunduro

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Background: Unwanted, mistimed and unintended pregnancy is an important public health issue and the most common cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. Unintended pregnancy is a potential hazard for every sexually active woman as it most times ends in unsafe abortion. The study aimed at assessing the pre-conception contraceptive use, prevalence of unintended pregnancies and the non-contraceptive factors associated with unintended pregnancy amongst currently married women in Osun state. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study among randomly selected 341 currently married pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Ilesa town of Osun state was conducted in 5 health facilities. A random selection of 5 of the 22 health facilities in the state was done. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire and all completed questionnaires were analyzed with SPSS. Result: About two-fifth of the currently pregnant women (40%) who has never used an FP method reported that their current pregnancy was unintended. The results indicate that age of women, age at first sex, substance use, total children ever born of children, religion, and extramarital affairs were key predictors of unintended pregnancy. Women who have higher parity are more likely to experience unintended pregnancy compared to women with lower parity (odds ratio, 0.25). Furthermore, those women who don’t engage in extra marital affairs were less likely to experience unintended pregnancy (odds ratio, 0.3) compared to those who do not. Contribution to knowledge: The predicted probability, using logistic regression, has shown that women who engage in extramarital affairs and women with high parity are more likely to have unintended pregnancy. Conclusion: Behaviour change programs should aim to reduce unintended pregnancy by focusing mostly on identified factors so that the need for abortion is decreased and the overall well-being of the family is maintained and enhanced.

Keywords: unintended pregnancy, factors, pregnant women, Nigeria

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352 Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy: The Case of School Adolescents of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Aleme Mekuria, Samuel Mathewos

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Background: Teenage pregnancy has long been a worldwide social, economic and educational concern for the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. Studies on adolescent sexuality and pregnancy are very limited in our country. Therefore, this study aims at assessing the prevalence of teenage pregnancy and its determinants among school adolescents of Arba Minch town. Methods: Institution- based, cross-sectional study was conducted from 20-30 March 2014. Systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 578 students from four schools of the town. Data were collected by trained data collectors using a pre-tested, self-administered structured questionnaire. The analysis was made using the software SPSS version 20.0 statistical packages. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of teenage pregnancy. Results: The prevalence of teenage pregnancy among school adolescents of Arba Minch town was 7.7%. Being grade11(AOR=4.6;95%CI:1.4,9.3) and grade12 student (AOR=5.8;95% CI:1.3,14.4), not knowing the correct time to take emergency contraceptives(AOR=3.3;95%CI:1.4,7.4), substance use(AOR=3.1;95%CI:1.1,8.8), living with either of biological parents (AOR=3.3;95%CI:1.1,8.7) and poor parent-daughter interaction (AOR=3.1;95%CI:1.1,8.7) were found to be significant predictors of teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: This study revealed a high level of teenage pregnancy among school adolescents of Arba Minch town. A significant number of adolescent female school students were at risk of facing the challenges of teenage pregnancy in the study area. School-based reproductive health education and strong parent-daughter relationships should be strengthened.

Keywords: adolescent, Arba minch, risk factors, school, southern Ethiopia, teenage pregnancy

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351 The Knowledge and Experiences of Pregnant Women Regarding Physical Activity during Pregnancy

Authors: Katarzyna Kwiatkowska, Izabela Walasik, Katarzyna Kosińska-Kaczyńska, Olga Płaza, Kinga Żebrowska

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Introduction Adequate physical activity of a pregnant woman has been proven to decrease the risk of pregnancy complications. The knowledge of women regarding physical exercise in pregnancy is a part of conscious motherhood, while a lack of it may lead to not taking up any form of physical activity during pregnancy. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and experience of women regarding physical activity during their latest pregnancy. Material and methodology: An anonymous questionnaire, consisting of 57 questions, was completed electronically in 2018 by women who gave birth at least once. The respondents were qualified as 'physically active during pregnancy' if they performed physical exercises such as regular walks, marching, jogging, working out at a gym, swimming, yoga, pilates, fitness, exercise-ball workouts or home gymnastics. Results: The study group consisted of 9345 women. 52% of them performed exercises during pregnancy. The main reasons for the lack of physical activity were: lack of interest in physical activity (45%), lack of energy (40%), lack of knowledge regarding proper exercise during pregnancy (34%), lack of time (27%) and medical contraindications (25%). Non-active respondents suffered from gestational hypertension (6,7% vs 9,2%; p<00,1) and gave birth prematurely (11% vs 15%; p < 001) to newborns with a lower birth weight significantly more often ( < 2500g vs > 2500g; p < 0,001). Physically active women reported suffering from pregnancy-related ailments such as fatigue, back pain or constipation significantly less often. 22% of all respondents were unable to identify reliable sources of information regarding exercise during pregnancy. A majority of the exercising women used the Internet to obtain gain information on physical activity during pregnancy (69,1%). 4% of women thought that exercising during pregnancy is forbidden, while 20% thought it is not allowed in the 3rd trimester. Physically active women had vaginal delivery more often (61% vs 55%; p < 0,05). Episiotomy was performed most often on non-active primiparous respondents (77,5% vs 71% active primiparous, p < 0,001). 13% of women felt discriminated due to their physical activity during pregnancy. 22% of respondents’ physical activity was not accepted by their environment. 39,1% of the women were told by others to stop physical exercise because it was bad for the baby’s health. Conclusion: The knowledge of Polish women regarding proper physical activity during pregnancy is insufficient, which may influence a lack of will to initiate such activity among pregnant women. Physical activity of a pregnant woman may have an impact on the course of pregnancy and birth.

Keywords: childbirth, discrimination, physical activity, pregnancy

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350 Thrombophilic Risk Factors and Pregnancy Complications

Authors: Hanan Azzam1, Nashwa Abousamra1, Amany Mansour1, Yaser Abd El-dayem2, , Solafa Elsharawy1

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Background: Inherited thrombophilias are a heterogenous group of conditions which have been implicated in a variety of pregnancy complications. More recently, deficiency of protein Z (PZ) has been liked to pregnancy complications, including preterm delivery. Aim: We designed this study to evaluate the association of inherited thrombophilias including [Protein C (PC), Protein S (PS), Anti thrombin III (ATIII) deficiency and activated protein C (APC) resistance] and protein Z deficiency with a variety of pregnancy complications. Patients and Methods: 60 women with different pregnancy complications, including 20 patients with preeclampsia, 20 patients with intrauterine growth resistance (IUGR), and 20 patients with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), in addition to 30 healthy pregnant women were recruited for the present study. PC and free PS antigen, ATIII activity, modified functional APC-resistance, and PZ levels were determined. Results: There was no significant association between inherited thrombophilias and complicated pregnancies as regards PC deficiency (p=1.0), AT III and PS deficiency (p=0.312), and APC-resistance (P=0.083). PZ was significantly associated with complicated pregnancies (p=0.012). Patients with protein Z levels below 1.5 µg/ml were considered deficient. Accordingly, we demonstrated protein Z deficiency in 30% of complicated pregnancies (RR 6.0, 95% CI 1.29-27.90;p=0.022), 20% of preeclampsia (RR 3.5, 95% CI 0.57 – 21.28; P = 0.174), 40% of IUGR (RR 9.3 95% CI 1.72-50.61; P = 0.010) and 30% of IUFD (RR 6, 95% CI 1.07 – 33.64; P = 0.042). Conclusions: These findings indicate the absence of association of inherited thrombophilias, including PC, PS, AT III deficiency, and APC resistance with pregnancy complications. However, PZ deficiency is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine fetal death.

Keywords: protein C, protein S, thrombophelia, pregnancy, protein Z

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349 Ovarian Surface Epithelium Receptors during Pregnancy and Estrus Cycle of Rats with Emphasis on Steroids and Gonadotropins Fluctuation

Authors: Salina Yahya Saddik

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The present study is designed to demonstrate the Ovarian Surface Epithelial cells (OSE) Estrogen Receptor α (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) during pregnancy and estrous cycle in rat. Moreover, determination of the levels of plasma progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH were also made. The levels of plasma progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were determined on days 7 (n=5), 14 (n=5), and 21(n=5) of pregnancy in three groups of rats and during the estrous cycle (n=5) using ELISA kit. Immunohistochemical method for PR and ERα expression was also made on the ovary. During pregnancy, FSH and LH remained low except at term when LH levels began to increase from 16 ng/ml to 47 ng/ml. Progesterone levels significantly exceeded estradiol values in all pregnant rats with a peak value of 202 ng/ml on day 14. Elevated progesterone levels were associated negatively with LH and estradiol levels during pregnancy. The levels of estradiol surged significantly on day 21. Immunohistochemistry of the ovary showed low levels of OSE cells staining positive for ERα expression. ERα positive cells were absent on day 7 and 14 of pregnancy, only day 21 recorded a very low percentage of immunostaining (0.5%) within the nuclei of OSE cells. On the contrary, immunostaining of PR was not observed within the nuclei of OSE cells in all groups of study. In conclusions, these results may suggest that progesterone effect during pregnancy seems to be overriding the positive effect of estrogens on OSE cells. High progesterone levels may have a direct negative effect on gonadotropin production and thereby it might inhibit events leading to both follicular development and OSE proliferation. Understanding the factors affecting OSE proliferation may help elucidating the mechanism(s) of assisted diseases such as ovarian cancer.

Keywords: ovarian surface, pregnancy, gonadotropins, steroids

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348 Renal Transplant, Pregnancy, and Complications: A Literature Review

Authors: Sara Iqbal

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Introduction:Renal transplant is increasingly one of the most popular transplants within the UK; with an aging population along with obesity epidemic we are witnessing increasing rates of diabetes – one of the commonest indications for renal transplant. However, the demand is far greater than supply. Many donors are provided by women of child-bearing age; however the long-term effects are still uncertain. Aim:Determine pregnancy outcomes and complications of women of child-bearing age following renal donation. Methods: A review of the current available literature was preformed using MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 2014. Search criteria included key terms such as pregnancy outcome post-renal donor, pregnancy outcomes and complications. Relevant articles were selected based on pure methodological medical research, after careful analysis, they were recorded within this review. Results: Out of 1141 women involved in transplant studies, 574 pregnancies reported having donated a single-renal donor prior to pregnancy. Of which a staggering miscarriage rate 32.4% (n=186) was reported, amongst this other complications included gestational hypertension of 10% (n=59) and gestational diabetes 2.3% (n=13). Other significantly noted complications included chronic hypertension, low-birth weights, and pregnancy-related death. Conclusions: After unilateral renal donor transplant, haemodynamics change along with pregnancy, predisposing women to developing several complications compared to pregnancies with no history any renal-donor transplant. Despite this, further investigation is required in order to accurately determine the safety of renal-donors in women of child-bearing age.

Keywords: renal transplant, pregnancy, complications, medical and health sciences

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347 The Prevalence of X-Chromosome Aneuploidy in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Authors: Rim Frikha, Nouha Bouayed, Afifa Sellami, Nozha Chakroun, Salima Douad, Leila Keskes, Tarek Rebai

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Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), classically defined as the occurrence of two or more failed pregnancies, is a serious reproductive problem, in which, chromosomal rearrangements in either carrier are a major cause; mainly the chromosome aneuploidy. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and contribution of X-chromosome aneuploidy in recurrent pregnancy loss. A retrospective study was carried out among 100 couples with more than 2 miscarriages, referred to our genetic counseling. In all the cases the detailed reproductive histories were taken. Chromosomal analysis was performed using RHG banding in peripheral blood. Of a total of 100 couples; 3 patients with a detected X-chromosome aneuploidy were identified with an overall frequency of 3%. Chromosome abnormalities are as below: a Turner syndrome with 45, X/46, XX mosaicism, a 47, XXX, and a Klinefelter syndrome with 46, XY/47, XXY. These data show a high incidence of X-chromosome aneuploidy; mainly with mosaicism; in RPL. Thus, couples with such chromosomal abnormality should be referred to a clinical geneticist with whom the option of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in subsequent pregnancy should be discussed.

Keywords: aneuploidy, genetic testing, recurrent pregnancy loss, X-chromosome

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346 Analysis of the Demographic Variable Associated with Common Pregnancy Related Illnesses among Pregnant Mothers in Anambra

Authors: Nkiru Nnaemezie, J. O. Okafor

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The high mortality as a result of pregnancy related illnesses is a global public health problem and a source of concern to most countries including Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the Demographic Variables associated with common pregnancy related illnesses among pregnant mothers in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. The design of the study was an expost-facto research design. All the folders of the pregnant mothers that were studied from 2010-2014 formed the population of the study which included 10,250 folders. Based on the content of the folders, a researcher developed pro-forma (RDP) was used for data collection. Five research questions and five hypotheses were postulated for the study. Research questions postulated were answered using simple percentage. Hypotheses stated were analyzed at 0.05 level of significance using chi-square (X²) statistics. The result among others showed that pregnant mothers within 15-29 years had the most pregnancy related illnesses than mothers on other age brackets. Pregnant mothers with 0-1 parity level experienced the most pregnancy related illnesses than mothers on other parity levels. Public servants experienced the most pregnancy related illnesses than mothers in other occupations. Married pregnant mothers experienced the most pregnancy related illnesses than single mothers. Pregnant mothers with secondary education had the most pregnancy related illnesses than mothers in other education levels. There were significant differences in the common pregnancy related illnesses among the pregnant mothers of the study in relation to the demographic variables of the study which included age, parity, occupation, marital status and educational level. Based on the findings, conclusions were drawn, and the following recommendations among others were made: there is need for health education in terms of educating those pregnant mothers during antenatal clinics; single mothers should be advised to register for antenatal early enough.

Keywords: analysis, demographic variables, pregnancy related illnesses, pregnant mothers

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345 Effect of Pregnancy Intention, Postnatal Depressive Symptoms and Social Support on Early Childhood Stunting: Findings from India

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay

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Background: According to United Nation Children’s Fund, it has been estimated that worldwide about 165 million children were stunted in 2012 and India alone accounts for 38% of global burden of stunting. In terms of incidence, India is home of more than 60 million stunted children worldwide. Our study aims to examine the effect of pregnancy intention and maternal postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting in India. We hypothesized that effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were mediated by social support. Methods: We used data from first wave of Young Lives Study India. Out of 2011 children recruited in original cohort, 1833 children had complete information on pregnancy intention, maternal depression and other variables. A series of multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting. Results: Bivariate result indicates that a higher percent of children born after unintended pregnancy (40%) were stunted than children of intended pregnancy (26%). Likewise, proportion of stunted children was also higher among women of high postnatal depressive symptoms (35%) than low level of depression (24%). Results of multivariate logistic regression model indicate that children born after unintended pregnancy were significantly more likely to be stunted than children born after intended pregnancy (Coefficient: 1.70, CI: 1.17, 2.48). Likewise, early childhood stunting was also associated with maternal postnatal depressive symptoms among women (Coefficient: 1.48, CI: 1.16, 1.88). The effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting remains unchanged after controlling for social support and other variables. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide conclusive evidence regarding consequences of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting in India. Therefore, there is need to identify the women with unintended pregnancy and incorporate the promotion of mental health into their national reproductive and child health programme.

Keywords: pregnancy intention, postnatal depressive symptoms, social support, childhood stunting, young lives study, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
344 Epidemiological and Clinical Profile of Patients with Chorioamnionitis

Authors: Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Lina Maria Martinez Sanchez, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Daniel Gallego Gonzalez, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez

Abstract:

Chorioamnionitis, is a pregnancy infection, causes different fetal and maternal symptoms. Streptococcus agalactiae present in the normal vaginal microflora of some women, favouring its abnormal multiplication during pregnancy, causing perinatal morbidity and mortality. Objective. Describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of the patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. Methodology. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population was patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. The information was taken from the medical records. The research was approved by the Ethics Committee. We used the program SPSS ® version 17.0 (SPSS Inc; Chicago, Illinois, USA) for the information analysis, descriptive statistics were used. Results. 78 patients in total with clinical chorioamnionitis, with a mean age of 26.3 ±5, 8 years old, the 69.2% primigravid women. 2.6% of women had positive culture for Streptococcus agalactiae in urine sample during current pregnancy and 30.7% had received some kind of antibiotics during current pregnancy. The 57.7% had 37 to 40 weeks of gestation in the current pregnancy it was calculated more frequently by ultrasound (66.7% in first quarter, 11.5% in the second and 1.9% in the third). In a 60.3% way of termination of pregnancy was vaginal and a 35.9 percent were caesarean section. Among the women in the study, a 30.8% had premature rupture of membranes. Conclusion. The chorioamnionitis continues to be an important cause of antibiotic use during pregnancy or labour and the decision to do a caesarean, with highest percentage in pregnancies-preterm and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

Keywords: chorioamnionitis, Streptococcus agalactiae, pregnancy complications, infectious

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
343 Clinical Outcome after in Vitro Fertilization in Women Aged 40 Years and Above: Reasonable Cut-Off Age for Successful Pregnancy

Authors: Eun Jeong Yu, Inn Soo Kang, Tae Ki Yoon, Mi Kyoung Koong

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Advanced female age is associated with higher cycle cancelation rates, lower clinical pregnancy rate, increased miscarriage and aneuploidy rates in IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) cycles. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a Cha Fertility Center, Seoul Station. All fresh non-donor IVF cycles performed in women aged 40 years and above from January 2016 to December 2016 were reviewed. Donor/recipient treatment, PGD/PGS (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis/ Preimplantation Genetic Screening) were excluded from analysis. Of the 1,166 cycles from 753 women who completed ovulation induction, 1,047 were appropriate for the evaluation according to inclusion and exclusion criterion. IVF cycles were categorized according to age and grouped into the following 1-year age groups: 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 and > 46. The mean age of patients was 42.4 ± 1.8 years. The median AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone) level was 1.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL. The mean number of retrieved oocytes was 4.9 ± 4.3. The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in women > 40 years significantly decreased with each year of advancing age (p < 0.001). The clinical pregnancy rate decreased from 21% at the age of 40 years to 0% at ages above 45 years. Live birth rate decreased from 12.3% to 0%, respectively. There were no clinical pregnancy outcomes among 95 patients aged above 45 years of age. The overall miscarriage rate was 40.7% (range, 36.7%-70%). The transfer of at least one good quality embryo was associated with about 4-9% increased chance of a clinical pregnancy rate. Therefore, IVF in old age women less than 46 had a reasonable chance for successful pregnancy outcomes especially when good quality embryo is transferred.

Keywords: advanced maternal age, in vitro fertilization, pregnancy rate, live birth rate

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342 The Effect of Age on the Outcome of Teenage Pregnancy in Nigeria: A Demographic Study

Authors: Chinelo Igwenagu

Abstract:

Teenage childbearing in developing countries has been a thing of great concern as it has often led to a number of socioeconomic problems both to the society and to the families affected. The outcome of teenage pregnancy has been generally associated with higher rates of maternal morbidity and mortality, greater risks for delivery complications, low-birth weight infants and child mortality. As a result of teenagers’ physiological and social immaturity and their lack of adequate prenatal care, health risks associated with their pregnancies and childbearing are more pronounced than those of older women. Therefore this study has examined the relationship between the age of teenagers and the outcome of teenage pregnancy. Based on this study, the result of the analysis shows that both teenagers and older mothers suffer similarly during child bearing. Hence improve medical care is paramount in all the situations.

Keywords: childbearing, mortality, Nigeria, pregnancy, prematurity, teenagers

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
341 Thrombophilic Mutations in Tunisian Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Authors: Frikha Rim, Abdelmoula Bouayed Nouha, Rebai Tarek

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Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state which causing a defective maternal haemostatic response and leading to thrombosis of the uteroplacental vasculature, that might cause pregnancy complications as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Since heritable Thrombophilic defects are associated with increased thrombosis, their prevalence was evaluated in patients with special emphasis on combinations of the above pathologies. Especially, Factor V Leiden (FVL) G1691A, methylene tetra hydro folate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, and factor II (FII) G20210A mutations are three important causes of thrombophilia, which might be related to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). In this study we evaluated the presence of these three mutations [factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin G20210A (PTG) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T] amongst 35 Tunisian women with more than 2 miscarriages, referred to our genetic counseling. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and PCR-RFLP was performed for the molecular diagnosis of each mutation. Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin mutation were detected respectively in 5.7% and 2.9% of women with particular history of early fetal loss and thrombotic events. Despites the luck of strength of this study, we insist that testing for the most inherited thrombophilia (FVL and FII mutation) should be performed in women with RPL in the context of thrombotic events. Multi-centre collaboration is necessary to clarify the real impact of thrombotic molecular defects on the pregnancy outcome, to ascertain the effect of thrombophilia on recurrent pregnancy loss and then to evaluate the appropriate therapeutic approach.

Keywords: thrombophilia, recurrent pregnancy loss, factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, methylene tetra hydro folate reductase

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
340 Anemia Maternal in Pregnancy as a Risk Factor of Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review

Authors: Herlena Hayati, Diyan Reni Jayathi, Hairida Anggun, Citra Amelia

Abstract:

This systematic review research is aimed to find out anemia maternal during pregnancy as a risk factor of low birth weight. This research was done by searching some journals which have associated to maternal anemia during pregnancy with low birth weight that had been published in journal accreditation and scopus index. Study literature that researcher had been done by March – April 2016 through online library of UI. The journals that had been selected according to inclusive criteria and exclusive criteria had been through the critial appraisal process. This systematic review towards 4 journals that had been selected and published showed the significant result statistically that anemia maternal is one of the risk factors which causes low birth weight. Anemia maternal on the first-trimester pregnancy showed significant association with low birth weight. Moderate anemia and severe anemia also showed significant association with low birth weight. Meanwhile, mild anemia doesn’t have an association with low birth weight. The conclusion of this study is anemia maternal (as an independent risk factor) have an influence towards low birth weight.

Keywords: anemia maternal, low birth weight, pregnancy, systematic review

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
339 The Applications of Group Counseling on Self-Concept, Depression, and Resilience of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Fauziah Mohd Sa’ad, Mohammad Aziz Shah, B. Mohammad Arip, Norazani Ahmad, Mohd Noor Idris, Hapsah M. Yusof

Abstract:

This study was carried out to assess the application of person-centred therapy and Cognitive Psychology Ad-Din group counseling on self-concept, depression, and resilience of teenage pregnancy. This study involved 55 teenage pregnancy at three women’s refuge centers which are from KEWAJA, Rhaidatus Sakinah, and Taman Seri Puteri Cheras (JKM). Subjects were classed into two treatment groups and one control group. The Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Beck Depression inventory (BDI) and Adolescent Resiliency Attitude Scale (ARAS) was administered to assess self-concept, depression, and resilience of teenage pregnancy. The control pre and post test design was used for this study. The research data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, ANOVA, MANCOVA and Tuckey Post Hoc with the significant level of .01 and .05. All treatment group received group counseling sessions for 7 consecutive week, once in each week. The Person-centred group and Cognitive Psychology Ad-Din group counseling showed a significant reduction (pre-test to post-test) on depression, enhancing self-concept and resilience of teenage pregnancy.

Keywords: group counseling, person-centred therapy, cognitive psychology Ad-Din, teenage pregnancy

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338 Comparison of hCG and GnRH in Enhancing Pregnancy Rate of Non-Lactating Cycling Brood Mares

Authors: Sanan Raza, Muhammad Younus, Ahmad Yar Qamar, Tariq Abbas, Hamayun Khan, Amanullah Khan

Abstract:

Mares are considered to be seasonally polyestrous animals. The breeding season of mare ranges from March to May in Pakistan. However, fertility problems of mares have been trifling the horse breeders and stud owners since long, and it comes out that the fertility status of mares in Pakistan is relatively lower than the world average. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of hCG and GnRH in improving pregnancy rate of mares in a transition period of month March and April. A total of n=66 mares showing normal estrus cycles with age ranging 5-12 y, weighing between 400-600 kg, BCS 6 ± 0.5 (1-9) and lactation varied from first to 5th were included in the experiment. These mares were administered PGF2α (75 μg; Dalmazine®, Fatro, Italy; 1 ml; i.m.) and divided into 3 groups. Mares of group 1 (n=22) were administered GnRH (100 μg; Dalmarelin®, Fatro, Italy; 4ml; im) while group 2 (n=22) mares were given hCG (5000 IU; IVF-C, LG Pharma; 1ml; iv). Likewise, mares of group 3 (n=22) were injected normal saline. Each treatment was given, when follicle attained the size of 35mm, keeping in view, the maturity of ovulating follicle at 35mm size and response to each treatment after routine ultrasound examination. All the mares of three groups were bred at 12 and 36 hours of treatment when the follicle reached the size of 35mm measured by ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography on day 18th and 42nd mating. On day 18th, pregnancy rate was 81.8% for hCG followed by 54.5% for GnRH and 45.5% for control. On day 42nd, pregnancy rate was (47.4%) for hCG which is significantly high (p<0.05) followed by GnRH (31.6%) and control (21.1%). Additionally the pregnancy loss was (25%, 20% respectively) in control and GnRH treated groups; whereas, hCG treated group showed no pregnancy loss (0.00%). Since no embryonic loss has been observed with hCG treatment during current study. Also hCG treated mares were 7.87 times more likely to conceive than controls. There were two times more chances of pregnancy in hCG treated mares than GnRH treated mares Therefore, it is concluded that the use of hCG in breeding season can improve pregnancy rate at a significant level when compared with GnRH hormone.

Keywords: mares, ovulation, hCG, pregnancy rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
337 Maternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Jac J. W. Andrews, Tyrone Donnon

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The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of maternal smoking for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, smoking, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eighteen studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for overweight and obesity; mothers who smoke during pregnancy are at a greater risk for developing obesity or overweight; the quantity of cigarettes consumed by the mother during pregnancy influenced the odds of offspring overweight and/or obesity. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, smoking, parents, risk factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
336 Factors Leading to Teenage Pregnancy in the Selected Villages of Mopani District, in Limpopo Province

Authors: Z. N. Salim, R. T. Lebese, M. S. Maputle

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Background: The international community has been concerned about population growth for more than a century. Teenagers in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at high risk of HIV infection, and this is exacerbated by poverty, whereby many teenagers in Africa come from disadvantaged families/background, which leads them to engage in sexual activities at an early age for survival hence leading to increased rate of teenage pregnancy. Purpose: The study sought to explore, describe and to identify the factors that lead to teenage pregnancy in the selected villages in Mopani District. Design: The study was conducted using a qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual approach. A non-probability purposive sampling approach was used. Researcher collected the data with the assistance of research assistant. Participants were interviewed and information was captured on a tape recorder and analysed using open coding and thereafter collected into main themes, themes and sub-themes. The researcher conducted four focus groups, Participants aged between 10-19 years of age. Results: The finding of the study revealed that there are several factors that is contributing to teenagers falling pregnant. Personal, intuitional, and cultural were identified to be the factors leading to teenage pregnancy.

Keywords: factors, leading, pregnancy, teenage

Procedia PDF Downloads 102