Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2275

Search results for: play

2275 Symbolic Play and Language: A Developmental Relationship

Authors: Sherri Franklin-Guy


Play activities have long been utilized to support the development of expressive language in young children. More specifically, stages of symbolic play, or pretend play, have served as indicators of levels of cognitive development, the foundation of language. This presentation will examine the relationship between symbolic play and language development in toddlers and preschoolers. Implications for clinicians and educators will be discussed.

Keywords: cognition, language development, pretend play, symbolic play

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2274 Teachers’ Involvement in their Designed Play Activities in a Chinese Context

Authors: Shu-Chen Wu


This paper will present a study by the author which investigates Chinese teachers’ perspectives on learning at play and their teaching activities in the designed play activities. It asks the question of how Chinese teachers understand learning at play and how they design play activities in the classroom. Six kindergarten teachers in Hong Kong were invited to select and record exemplary play episodes which contain the largest amount of learning elements in their own classrooms. Applying video-stimulated interview, eight teachers in two focus groups were interviewed to elicit their perspectives on designing play activity and their teaching activities. The findings reveal that Chinese teachers have a very structured representation of learning at play, and the phenomenon of uniformity of teachers’ act was found. The contributions of which are important and useful for professional practices and curricular policies.

Keywords: learning at play, teacher involvement, video-stimulated interview, uniformity

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2273 A Co-Constructed Picture of Chinese Teachers' Conceptions of Learning at Play

Authors: Shu-Chen Wu


This qualitative study investigated Chinese teachers’ perspectives on learning at play. Six kindergarten teachers were interviewed to obtain their understanding of learning at play. Exemplary play episodes from their classrooms were selected with the assistance of the participating teachers. Four three-minute videos containing the largest amount of learning elements based on the teachers’ views were selected for analysis. Applying video-stimulated interviews, the selected video clips were shown to eight teachers in two focus groups to elicit their perspectives on learning at play. The findings revealed that Chinese teachers have a very structured representation of learning at play, which should contribute to the development of professional practices and curricular policies.

Keywords: learning at play, teachers’ perspectives, co-constructed views, video-stimulated interviews

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2272 Play-Based Approaches to Stimulate Language

Authors: Sherri Franklin-Guy


The emergence of language in young children has been well-documented and play-based activities that support its continued development have been utilized in the clinic-based setting. Speech-language pathologists have long used such activities to stimulate the production of language in children with speech and language disorders via modeling and elicitation tasks. This presentation will examine the importance of play in the development of language in young children, including social and pragmatic communication. Implications for clinicians and educators will be discussed.

Keywords: language development, language stimulation, play-based activities, symbolic play

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2271 How Educational Settings Can Influence Development of Creativity through Play in Young Children

Authors: D. M. W. Munasinghe


This study focuses on how teachers view and use play to influence creativity in preschool children. Play is strongly featured in most of the discussions about creativity in young children. Hence, it was noted through direct observation that most preschool teachers are not concerned with promoting play to develop the child’s creativity. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate how the teachers use play, for the development of creativity in the preschool environment. The survey method was used as the research design and interviews, observations and document perusal were used as data collection methods. The sample consisted of 20 preschools from selected administrative divisions in the Colombo district. It was revealed that a majority of preschool teachers used folk games as a means of involving children in play. Teachers assume that this type of guided play will motivate the child learn new words, memorization and provide enjoyment. Eighty percent of the preschool teachers used the play equipment installed in the preschool premises to encourage children to get involved in activities calculated at promoting the physical development of the child. In 40% of the preschools visited it was noticed that when children were given their break they created their own forms of free play and enjoyed themselves thoroughly in the little time available to them. Also, about 20% of preschool teachers promoted imaginative play with their preschoolers. There was also the situation where the role of play was interpreted negatively by the teachers who assigned the children to copy letters and numerals during the time assigned for play. This has a negative impact on the child’s creativity. In conclusion, it was felt that the teachers do not make the best use of the opportunity available to use the child’s enthusiasm to stimulate creative actions his/her and that there is no suitable environment to develop creativity through play.

Keywords: creativity, preschool children, preschool environment, play method

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2270 The Effectiveness of Using Video Modeling Procedures on the ipad to Teach Play Skills Children with ASD

Authors: Esra Orum Cattik


This study evaluated the effects of using video modeling procedures on the iPad to teach play skills to children with autism spectrum disorders. A male student with autism spectrum disorders participated in this study. A multiple baseline-across-skills single-subject design was used to evaluate the effects of using video modeling procedures on the iPad. During baseline, no prompts were presented to participants. In the intervention phase, the teacher gave video model on iPad to the first skill and asked play with toys for him. When the first play skill completed the second play skill began intervention. This procedure continued till all three play skill completed intervention. Finally, the participant learned all three play skills to use video modeling presented on the iPad. Based upon findings of this study, suggestions have been made to future researches.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, play, play skills, video modeling, single subject design

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2269 Learning to Play in South Africa

Authors: Thelma Mort


Currently, in South African schools, under the fast-paced and content-heavy CAPS curriculum, the notion of play is being lost in the foundation phase. Even in Grade R, aimed at improving the quality of education, there is a focus on mathematical literacy, language, and life skills (DoE, 2001). This is largely due to the dichotomizing of play and learning. And although the play is meant to be the primary means of achieving these skills, it somehow loses its playfulness in the face of early academic pressure. Student teachers similarly have not been trained to use play in the early years of schooling. This action research study shares findings from the “Learn to Play” intervention in teacher training at one university in which student teachers were given substantial training in types of play, the ways they could use and promote play, and the changing roles of teachers in play-based learning. Using observation focus group interviews, reflections, student teacher engagement in learning communities, and Theories of Change, the study measures the changes made by the intervention in student teachers’ approaches and attitudes to play in the classroom. Key findings were that the student teachers learned new skills, had better relationships with pupils, and became more confident in their foundation phase settings.

Keywords: action research, foundation phase, South Africa, student teacher training

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2268 Saudi Teachers’ Perceptions of Rough and Tumble Play in Early Learning

Authors: Rana Alghamdi


This study explored teachers’ perceptions of rough-and-tumble (R&T) play in early childhood education in Saudi Arabia. The literature on rough-and-tumble play in Saudi Arabia is limited in scope, and more research is needed to explore teachers’ perceptions on this type of play for early learners. The pertinent literature reveals that R&T play, which includes running, jumping, fighting, wrestling, chasing, pulling, pushing, and climbing, among other rough playful activities, can positively impact learning and development across psychosocial, emotional, and cognitive domains. Teachers’ understanding of R & T play is key, and the attitudes of Saudi early childhood teachers who are responsible for implementing curriculum-based play have not been fully researched. Four early childhood teachers from an urban Saudi preschool participated in the study. The data collected in this study were interpreted through a sociocultural lens. Data sources included in-depth interviews, photo-elicitation interviews, and participant-generated drawings. Three overarching themes emerged: teachers’ concerns about rough-and-tumble play, teachers’ perceptions about the benefits of rough-and-tumble play, and teachers’ expression of gender roles in R & T play as contextualized within Saudi culture. Saudi teachers’ perceptions are discussed in detail, and implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are put forth.

Keywords: rough and tumble play, gender, culture, early childhood, Saudi Arabia

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2267 Interactive Shadow Play Animation System

Authors: Bo Wan, Xiu Wen, Lingling An, Xiaoling Ding


The paper describes a Chinese shadow play animation system based on Kinect. Users, without any professional training, can personally manipulate the shadow characters to finish a shadow play performance by their body actions and get a shadow play video through giving the record command to our system if they want. In our system, Kinect is responsible for capturing human movement and voice commands data. Gesture recognition module is used to control the change of the shadow play scenes. After packaging the data from Kinect and the recognition result from gesture recognition module, VRPN transmits them to the server-side. At last, the server-side uses the information to control the motion of shadow characters and video recording. This system not only achieves human-computer interaction, but also realizes the interaction between people. It brings an entertaining experience to users and easy to operate for all ages. Even more important is that the application background of Chinese shadow play embodies the protection of the art of shadow play animation.

Keywords: hadow play animation, Kinect, gesture recognition, VRPN, HCI

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2266 Case Study: The Impact of Creative Play on Children's Bilingualism

Authors: Mingxi Xiao


This case study focused on a bilingual child named Emma and her play. Emma was a four-year-old girl born in Australia while her parents were both Chinese. Emma could speak fluent English, while her Mandarin was not as good as her spoken English. With the research question to figure out whether creative play had an impact on children’s bilingualism, this case study mainly used the anecdotes method to observe Emma’s play and this report presented five observations of Emma, describing detailed information about her play and recording her language use. Based on Emma’s interests and daily activities, this case study chose her creative play for observation, which incorporates a whole range of activities from dancing to drawing, as well as playing instruments. From the five observations, it could be seen that Emma often mixed languages to help her express her meaning. It could be seen that Emma made an effort to use her bilingualism in her creative play. In other words, play encouraged Emma to use the two languages. In conclusion, the observations with Emma showed that although her Mandarin was not good enough, she displayed confidence in speaking both languages and had gradually shifted from mixing languages to code-switching. Recommendations were provided to support Emma’s bilingual abilities for further development in the end.

Keywords: bilingual, case study, code-switching, creative play, early childhood

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2265 Profiling of Mother Child Behaviors during Free Play: A South Indian Scenario

Authors: Jayashree S. Bhat, Megha Mohan


Play is any activity spontaneously chosen, inherently motivated, and personally directed. There is a wide range of literature and research supporting the concept of play in promoting healthy development in young children. Modern children are experiencing nurture that has more structure and adult involvement than previous generations and free, unstructured, and child directed play is under peril. Play behaviors serve as a reflection of a child’s cultural and ethnic background and can be an index of a child’s development. The influence and impact of culture in children’s play is diverse. The culturally variable dimensions of play includes the choice of objects, the involvement of specific play partners, the amount of child initiations of social pretend play with caregivers along with its the components, and sequences and specific themes involved during play. India is a country well known for its cultural diversity. In this study, a cross sectional study design with convenient sampling was adopted. The mother child free play interaction was video clipped at their residence among typically developing children between 12 to 24 months in an urban city from South India. It was ascertained that all the children were first born and mothers were unemployed belonging to middle socioeconomic status. The video clippings were coded and analysed using SPSS software version 17. The results revealed interesting behaviors demonstrated by the mother as well as the child during the play interaction. The results high light the need for focusing on the play behaviors of children during their developmental assessment, especially so for children with challenges.

Keywords: culture, free play, interaction, typically developing

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2264 American Slavery and the Consciousness of Play

Authors: Janaka B. Lewis


“Narratives of Slavery and the Culture of Play” examines how play is discussed in early African American literature by both men and women to illustrate ways that they negotiated the hierarchy and oppression of enslavement. Reading narratives categorized as “slave narratives,” including those written by Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs, and Olaudah Equiano, through the lens of play theory offers an illuminated analysis of the significance of play culture in these texts. It then reads late nineteenth-century play culture (or absence thereof) portrayed in literature as a lens for more contemporary African American oral and literary culture. These discussions of social constructions through literature bridge analyses of African American-authored texts and create a larger conversation about print media as a tool of activism and resistance. This essay also contributes to a larger body of analysis of nineteenth-century African American culture through literature.

Keywords: childhood, slavery, consciousness of play, 19th century African American culture

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2263 The Musical Imagination: Re-Imagining a Sound Education through Musical Boundary Play

Authors: Michael J. Cutler


This paper presents what musical boundary play can look like when beginning music learners work with professional musicians with an emphasis on composition. Music education can be re-imagined through the lenses of boundary objects and boundary play by engaging non-professional musicians in collaborative sound creation, improvisation and composition along with professional musicians. To the author’s best knowledge, no similar study exists on boundary objects and boundary play in music education. The literature reviewed for this paper explores the epistemological perspectives connected to music education and situates musical boundary play as an alternative approach to the more prevalent paradigms of music education in K-12 settings. A qualitative multiple-case study design was chosen to seek an in-depth understanding of the role of boundary objects and musical boundary play. The constant comparative method was utilized in analyzing and interpreting the data resulting in the development of effective, transferable theory. The study gathered relevant data using audio and video recordings of musical boundary play, artifacts, interviews, and observations. Findings from this study offer insight into the development of a more inclusive music education and yield a pedagogical framework for music education based on musical boundary play. Through the facilitation of musical boundary play, it is possible for music learners to experience musical sound creation, improvisation and composition in the same way an instrumentalist or vocalist would without the acquisition of complex component operations required to play a traditional instrument or sing in a proficient manner.

Keywords: boundary play, boundary objects, music education, music pedagogy, musical boundary play

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2262 Come Play with Me: An Exploration of Rough-and-Tumble Play Interactions in Australian Families

Authors: Erin Louise Robinson, Emily Elsa Freeman


Rough-and-tumble play (RTP) is a physical and competitive type of play that parents engage in with their children. While past research has reported RTP to be the preferred play type for western fathers, the frequency of these interactions in Australian families have not been explored. With parental perceptions of play importance playing a major role in the frequency of activity engagement, the present study investigated how perceptions and parent gender impact on RTP play frequency. By utilising child gender in our approach, we also examined the historical trend of boys receiving more physical play interactions with their parents. Three hundred and seventy-nine respondents completed the study with their 0–10-year-old children. The results indicated that, in line with past research, parents engaged more frequently in RTP with their sons than their daughters. While, both mothers and fathers participated in RTP with their children, fathers perceived RTP to be of greater important to their child’s development than mothers did. Moreover, supporting previous findings, this more positive perception of the play was related to greater frequency of RTP in these father-child dyads. Although RTP literature remains heavily focussed on fathers, the fact that mothers are engaging in these interactions as well, establishes the need to explore maternal influences in future research.

Keywords: parenting, play, child development, family, Australia

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2261 Analysis of Delivery of Quad Play Services

Authors: Rahul Malhotra, Anurag Sharma


Fiber based access networks can deliver performance that can support the increasing demands for high speed connections. One of the new technologies that have emerged in recent years is Passive Optical Networks. This paper is targeted to show the simultaneous delivery of triple play service (data, voice, and video). The comparative investigation and suitability of various data rates is presented. It is demonstrated that as we increase the data rate, number of users to be accommodated decreases due to increase in bit error rate.

Keywords: FTTH, quad play, play service, access networks, data rate

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2260 Working Memory in Children: The Relationship with Father-Child Rough-and-Tumble Play

Authors: Robinson, E. L., Freeman, E. E.


Over the last few decades, the social movement of involved fatherhood has stimulated a research focus on fathers, leading to an increase in the body of evidence into the paternal contributions to child development. Past research has suggested that rough-and-tumble play, which involves wrestling, chasing and tumbling, is the preferred play type of western fathers. This type of play remains underutilized and underrepresented in child developmental research as it’s perceived to be dangerous or too aggressive. The limited research available has shown a relationship between high quality rough-and-tumble play interactions, lower childhood aggression and improved child emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to examine father-child rough-and-tumble play and assess the impact on cognitive development in children aged 4-7 years. Father-child dyads completed a 10-minute rough-and-tumble play interaction, which consisted of 2 games, at the University of Newcastle. Children then completed the Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Fourth Edition Australian and New Zealand Standardized Edition (WPPSI-IV A&NZ). Fathers reported on their involvement in various caregiving activities and on their child’s development. Analyses revealed that fathers-child play quality was positively related to working memory outcomes in children. Furthermore, the amount of rough-and-tumble play father and child did together on a regular basis was also related to working memory outcomes. While father-child play interactions remain an understudied area of research, this study outlines the importance of examining the paternal play role in children’s cognitive development.

Keywords: children, development, father, executive function

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2259 Outdoor Physical Play as Critical to Early Childhood Development: Findings from Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rana S. Alghamdi


Play in early childhood education has been stifled across the world due to an overemphasis on academic achievement and a reduced focus on physical play and motor development. In Saudi Arabia, teachers reticent to allocate more time to play for fear of retribution from parents and administrators that children are losing academic seat time. This practice has proven to be detrimental to the social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development of children. Teachers are pressured to prioritize Arabic, math, and science while providing minimal time for physical activities. Administrators tend to push for an ever-increasing emphasis on academia in order to achieve higher test scores. However, young children often find it difficult to concentrate if they are not able to get out energy through physical play. Furthermore, many youth educators are not qualified to oversee physical activities, and many facilities are unprepared for safe, outdoor play. This results in children getting little to no outdoor activity. They are stuck in a strict academic regimen that may dampen the creativity and imagination easily fostered through cooperative play. For a stronger educational system and more well-rounded students, Saudi schools should enact policies that extend the number of required hours dedicated to outdoor and physical play. They should also offer training for unqualified teachers. This training should focus on the benefits of physical play and instruct them on how to facilitate these activities safely and effectively. School administrators must focus on providing adequate equipment and safe environments for the purpose of outdoor play and education. In doing so, they will be setting their students up for a successful future and improving their abilities in all aspects of education.

Keywords: early childhood education, play, outdoor, Saudi Arabia

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2258 Approach-Avoidance and Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation of Adolescent Computer Games Players

Authors: Monika Paleczna, Barbara Szmigielska


The period of adolescence is a time when young people are becoming more and more active and conscious users of the digital world. One of the most frequently undertaken activities by them is computer games. Young players can choose from a wide range of games, including action, adventure, strategy, and logic games. The main aim of this study is to answer the question about the motivation of teenage players. The basic question is what motivates young players to play computer games and what motivates them to play a particular game. Fifty adolescents aged 15-17 participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire in which they determined what motivates them to play, how often they play computer games, and what type of computer games they play most often. It was found that entertainment and learning English are among the most important motives. The most important specific features related to a given game are the knowledge of its previous parts and the ability to play for free. The motives chosen by the players will be described in relation to the concepts of internal and external as well as approach and avoidance motivation. An additional purpose of this study is to present data concerning preferences regarding the type of games and the amount of time they spend playing.

Keywords: computer games, motivation, game preferences, adolescence

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2257 Play Based Practices in Early Childhood Curriculum: The Contribution of High Scope, Modern School Movement and Pedagogy of Participation

Authors: Dalila Lino


The power of play for learning and development in early childhood education is beyond question. The main goal of this study is to analyse how three contemporary early childhood pedagogical approaches, the High Scope, the Modern School Movement (MEM) and the Pedagogy of Participation integrate play in their curriculum development. From this main goal the following objectives emerged: (i) to characterize how play is integrated in the daily routine of the pedagogical approaches under study; (ii) to analyse the teachers’ role during children’s playing situations; (iii) to identify the types of play that children are more often involved. The methodology used is the qualitative approach and is situated under the interpretative paradigm. Data is collected through semi-structured interviews to 30 preschool teachers and through observations of typical daily routines. The participants are 30 Portuguese preschool classrooms attending children from 3 to 6 years and working with the High Scope curriculum (10 classrooms), the MEM (10 classrooms) and the Pedagogy of Participation (10 classrooms). The qualitative method of content analysis was used to analyse the data. To ensure confidentiality, no information is disclosed without participants' consent, and the interviews were transcribed and sent to the participants for a final revision. The results show that there are differences how play is integrated and promoted in the three pedagogical approaches. The teachers’ role when children are at play varies according the pedagogical approach adopted, and also according to the teachers’ understanding about the meaning of play. The study highlights the key role that early childhood curriculum models have to promote opportunities for children to play, and therefore to be involved in meaningful learning.

Keywords: curriculum models, early childhood education, pedagogy, play

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2256 Manifestation of Hybridity in Marie Jones’s "Stones in His Pockets"

Authors: Mahsa Mahjoub Laleh, Nasser Dasht Peyma


This paper explores Marie Jones’s Stones in His Pockets in the light of the postcolonial notion of hybridity. The play is a tragicomedy about a small village in Ireland where many of the locales are extras in a Hollywood film. The actions of the play revolve around a local teenager named Sean who has been vilipended by a famous film star. The Sean character commits suicide by drowning himself with stones in his pockets. This paper explored how the attempts to gain cultural identity is manifested in Marie Jones’s play and how authority causes a change in the culture and destiny of people. Apparently, the play demonstrates that the political, economic and social realities directly affect people’s destiny and identity.

Keywords: cultural identity, hybridity, identity, postcolonial

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2255 Representation of Woman in Vagina Monologue: A Study of Feminism

Authors: Epata Puji Astuti


The Vagina Monologue is a play written by Eve Ensler, which is premiered at Off-Broadway, New York, in 1996. This play is quite different from the other play since it talks about the issue of t men's oppression toward women, and it is performed in monologue. The vagina becomes the main symbol of being discussed in the play. What did men do to women's vagina and how women view and treat her vagina reflects men's attitude toward women. Ensler had interviewed 200 women from various backgrounds to get their stories about the vagina. Ensler also has her own story about vagina. For the researcher, it is interesting to analyze how Ensler represented women in the symbol of vagina. What happened toward vagina reflected the reality about what happened toward women. How Ensler voices the issues of women, such as love, birth, rape, sex work, sexual harassment, etc. are interesting to be analyzed. This research tries to reveal how women are represented in the play. To understand about the representation of women, the researcher uses feminism theory. Textual analysis method is used to find out how women struggle for her own life and speak up for herself. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that Ensler depicted vagina is not as dirty thing, vagina is a noble thing and men should honor it as they honor women. It reflected that women show their power and resistance toward men's oppression.

Keywords: feminism, vagina, women, violence

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2254 The Empowerment of Reminiscence Group Play Therapy for Older People in Taiwan

Authors: Jiun-De Lin


The main purpose of this study was to investigate the empowerment effect of the older people through a structured reminiscence play therapeutic group program in Changhua county of Taiwan. This program was used Taiwanese traditional culture as the main concept based on the topic of reminiscence. In order to assimilate into the process for older people, thematic group activities were easy to operate. During the reminiscence play activities, they would improve their personal control and competence, the same as empowerment. A counselor who acted as a group leader led 10 elderly people participated in this reminiscence group play therapy. The participants of the study were 10 older people consisting of 7 males and 3 females who lived in a rehabilitation center in Changhua county of Taiwan. The participants’ average age was 72.5 years old. The study adopted the methods of survey research and the instruments in this study included subjects’ demographic information and the empowerment inventory for adults. A one-group pretest-posttest design was adopted by researchers to test the study hypothesis. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, and Wilcoxon matched paired signed-ranks test. The main finding of this study was that the reminiscence group play therapy had a significant effect (Z= 2.382, p < .05) to promote the state of empowerment of older people participated in this group play therapy. Based on the conclusion of this study, the suggestions and implications were proposed for the practices and future research.

Keywords: empowerment, group play therapy, older people, reminiscence

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2253 Influence of Urban Fabric on Child’s Upbringing: A Comparative Analysis between Modern and Traditional City

Authors: Mohamed A. Tantawy, Nourelhoda A. Hussein, Moataz A. Mahrous


New planning and city design theories are continuously debated and optimized for seeking efficiency and adequacy in economic and life quality aspects. Here, we examine the children-city relationship, to reflect on how modern and traditional cities affect the social climate. We adopt children as a proper caliber for urbanism, as for their very young age, they are independent and attached to family. Their fragility offers a chance to gauge how various urban settings directly affect their feeling of safety, containment, and their perception of belonging for home territory. The importance of street play for the child development process is discussed thoroughly. The authority they have on their play (when and what to play) pushes us to our conclusion. A mediocre built environment characterized by spontaneity and human-scale semi-private urban spaces, is irreplaceable by a perfectly designed far away playgrounds. Street play has a huge role in empowering children for a gradual engagement with grown-ups’ urban flow.

Keywords: child's psychology, social activity, street play, urban fabric

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2252 State of Play of Mobile Government Apps on Google Play Store

Authors: Abdelbaset Rabaiah


e-Government mobile applications provide an extension for effective e-government services in today’s omniconnected world. They constitute part of m-government platforms. This study explores the usefulness, availability, discoverability and maturity of such applications. While this study impacts theory by addressing a relatively lacking area, it impacts practice more. The outcomes of this study suggest valuable recommendations for practitioners-developers of e-government applications. The methodology followed is to examine a large number of e-government smartphone applications. The focus is on applications available at the Google Play Store. Moreover, the study investigates applications published on government portals of a number of countries. A sample of 15 countries is researched. The results show a diversity in the level of discoverability, development, maturity, and usage of smartphone apps dedicated for use of e-government services. It was found that there are major issues in discovering e-government applications on both the Google Play Store and as-well-as on local government portals. The study found that only a fraction of mobile government applications was published on the Play Store. Only 19% of apps were multilingual, and 43% were developed by third parties including private individuals. Further analysis was made, and important recommendations are suggested in this paper for a better utilization of e-government smartphone applications. These recommendations will result in better discoverability, maturity, and usefulness of e-government applications.

Keywords: mobile applications, e-government, m-government, Google Play Store

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2251 Youths’ Analysis and Evaluation of Characters’ Behavior: A Case Study of a Stage Play, Kaki, at Faculty of Liberal Arts, Prince of Songkhla University

Authors: Montri Meenium


The purpose of this research was to examine youths’ analysis and evaluation of three protagonists, one female and two males involved in sexual relationship in the stage play “Kaki” held by the Faculty of Liberal Arts, Prince of Songkla University. The interviews were conducted with 10 youths in the production team and 10 audience youths, totalling 20. The findings, which were presented in the form of a descriptive analysis, showed that all the 10 youths in the production team and the 10 audience youths did not accept the behaviour of the protagonists: the female who committed adultery and the males who were corrupted by power, had sexual relationship with a married woman and deceived people. The youths, however, knew that such behaviour resulted from being overpowered by human passion, especially infatuation, which was in accordance with the theme of the play. It was suggested that the story twines ideology or points of view that defy moral and ethics, prompting questions to be asked. Hence, the stage play can be used as an instrument to develop critical thinking in youths.

Keywords: descriptive analysis, protagonists, youths, stage-play

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2250 Exploring Ways Early Childhood Teachers Integrate Information and Communication Technologies into Children's Play: Two Case Studies from the Australian Context

Authors: Caroline Labib


This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring the approaches teachers used to integrate computers or smart tablets into their program planning. Their aim was to integrate ICT into children’s play, thereby supporting children’s learning and development. Data was collected in preschool settings in Melbourne in 2016. Interviews with teachers, observations of teacher interactions with children and copies of teachers’ planning and observation documents informed the study. The paper looks closely at findings from two early childhood settings and focuses on exploring the differing approaches two EC teachers have adopted when integrating iPad or computers into their settings. Data analysis revealed three key approaches which have been labelled: free digital play, guided digital play and teacher-led digital use. Importantly, teacher decisions were influenced by the interplay between the opportunities that the ICT tools offered, the teachers’ prior knowledge and experience about ICT and children’s learning needs and contexts. This paper is a snapshot of two early childhood settings, and further research will encompass data from six more early childhood settings in Victoria with the aim of exploring a wide range of motivating factors for early childhood teachers trying to integrate ICT into their programs.

Keywords: early childhood education (ECE), digital play, information and communication technologies (ICT), play, and teachers' interaction approaches

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2249 Paleogene Syn-Rift Play Identification in Palembang Sub-Basin, South Sumatera, Indonesia

Authors: Perdana Rakhmana Putra, Hansen Wijaya, Sri Budiyani, Muhamad Natsir, Alexis badai Samudra


The Palembang Sub-Basin (PSB) located in southern part of South Sumatera basin (SSB) consist of half-graben complex trending N-S to NW-SE. These geometries are believe as an impact of strike-slip regime developed in Eocene-Oligocene. Generally, most of the wells in this area produced hydrocarbon from late stage of syn-rift sequences called Lower Talang Akar (LTAF) and post-rift sequences called Batu Raja Formation (BRF) and drilled to proved hydrocarbon on structural trap; three-way dip anticline, four-way dip anticline, dissected anticline, and stratigraphy trap; carbonate build-up and stratigraphic pinch out. Only a few wells reached the deeper syn-rift sequences called Lahat Formation (LAF) and Lemat Formation (LEF). The new interpretation of subsurface data was done by the tectonostratigraphy concept and focusing on syn-rift sequence. Base on seismic characteristic on basin centre, it divided into four sequences: pre-rift sequence, rift initiation, maximum rift and late rift. These sequences believed as a new exploration target on PSB mature basin. This paper will demonstrate the paleo depositional setting during Paleogene and exploration play concept of syn-rift sequence in PSB. The main play for this area consists of stratigraphic and structure play, where the stratigraphic play is Eocene-Oligocene sediment consist of LAF sandstone, LEF-Benakat formation, and LAF with pinch-out geometry. The pinch-out, lenses geometry and on-lap features can be seen on the seismic reflector and formed at the time of the syn-rift sequence. The structural play is dominated by a 3 Way Dip play related to reverse fault trap.

Keywords: syn-rift, tectono-stratigraphy, exploration play, basin center play, south sumatera basin

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2248 Assessment of Designed Outdoor Playspaces as Learning Environments and Its Impact on Child’s Wellbeing: A Case of Bhopal, India

Authors: Richa Raje, Anumol Antony


Playing is the foremost stepping stone for childhood development. Play is an essential aspect of a child’s development and learning because it creates meaningful enduring environmental connections and increases children’s performance. The children’s proficiencies are ever varying in their course of growth. There is innovation in the activities, as it kindles the senses, surges the love for exploration, overcomes linguistic barriers and physiological development, which in turn allows them to find their own caliber, spontaneity, curiosity, cognitive skills, and creativity while learning during play. This paper aims to comprehend the learning in play which is the most essential underpinning aspect of the outdoor play area. It also assesses the trend of playgrounds design that is merely hammered with equipment's. It attempts to derive a relation between the natural environment and children’s activities and the emotions/senses that can be evoked in the process. One of the major concerns with our outdoor play is that it is limited to an area with a similar kind of equipment, thus making the play highly regimented and monotonous. This problem is often lead by the strict timetables of our education system that hardly accommodates play. Due to these reasons, the play areas remain neglected both in terms of design that allows learning and wellbeing. Poorly designed spaces fail to inspire the physical, emotional, social and psychological development of the young ones. Currently, the play space has been condensed to an enclosed playground, driveway or backyard which confines the children’s capability to leap the boundaries set for him. The paper emphasizes on study related to kids ranging from 5 to 11 years where the behaviors during their interactions in a playground are mapped and analyzed. The theory of affordance is applied to various outdoor play areas, in order to study and understand the children’s environment and how variedly they perceive and use them. A higher degree of affordance shall form the basis for designing the activities suitable in play spaces. It was observed during their play that, they choose certain spaces of interest majority being natural over other artificial equipment. The activities like rolling on the ground, jumping from a height, molding earth, hiding behind tree, etc. suggest that despite equipment they have an affinity towards nature. Therefore, we as designers need to take a cue from their behavior and practices to be able to design meaningful spaces for them, so the child gets the freedom to test their precincts.

Keywords: children, landscape design, learning environment, nature and play, outdoor play

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2247 Stimulating the Social Emotional Development of Children through Play Activities: The Role of Teachers and Parents Support

Authors: Mahani Razali, Nordin Mamat


The purpose of this research is to identify the teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion through play activities. This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s socio emotion during play activities, teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion. This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children, three teachers and three parents as the research sample. On the other hand, parent’s support was obtained from their discussions, supervisions and communication at home. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify socio emotional development element among pre-school children through play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers and parents on the acquired socio emotional development among the children. Besides, documentation analysis method was used as to triangulate acquired information with observations and interviews. In this study, the qualitative data analysis was tabulated in descriptive manner with frequency and percentage format. This study primarily focused on five main socio emotional elements among the pre-school children: 1) Cooperation, 2) Confidence and Courage, 3) Ability to communicate, 4) patience, and 5) Tolerance. The findings of this study were presented in the form of case to case manner from the researches sample. Findings revealed that the children showed positive outcomes on the socio emotional development during their play. Both teachers and parents showed positive perceptions towards the acquired socio emotional development during their play activities. In conclusion, this research summarizes that teacher’s role and parent’s support can improve children`s socio emotional development through play activities. As a whole, this research highlighted the significance of play activities as to stimulate socio emotional development among the pre-school children.

Keywords: social emotional, children, play activities, stimulating

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2246 Play in College: Shifting Perspectives and Creative Problem-Based Play

Authors: Agni Stylianou-Georgiou, Eliza Pitri


This study is a design narrative that discusses researchers’ new learning based on changes made in pedagogies and learning opportunities in the context of a Cognitive Psychology and an Art History undergraduate course. The purpose of this study was to investigate how to encourage creative problem-based play in tertiary education engaging instructors and student-teachers in designing educational games. Course instructors modified content to encourage flexible thinking during game design problem-solving. Qualitative analyses of data sources indicated that Thinking Birds’ questions could encourage flexible thinking as instructors engaged in creative problem-based play. However, student-teachers demonstrated weakness in adopting flexible thinking during game design problem solving. Further studies of student-teachers’ shifting perspectives during different instructional design tasks would provide insights for developing the Thinking Birds’ questions as tools for creative problem solving.

Keywords: creative problem-based play, educational games, flexible thinking, tertiary education

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