Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 311

Search results for: accident

311 Applying Pre-Accident Observational Methods for Accident Assessment and Prediction at Intersections in Norrkoping City in Sweden

Authors: Ghazwan Al-Haji, Adeyemi Adedokun

Abstract:

Traffic safety at intersections is highly represented, given the fact that accidents occur randomly in time and space. It is necessary to judge whether the intersection is dangerous or not based on short-term observations, and not waiting for many years of assessing historical accident data. There are active and pro-active road infrastructure safety methods for assessing safety at intersections. This study aims to investigate the use of quantitative and qualitative pre-observational methods as the best practice for accident prediction, future black spot identification, and treatment. Historical accident data from STRADA (the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) was used within Norrkoping city in Sweden. The ADT (Average Daily Traffic), capacity and speed were used to predict accident rates. Locations with the highest accident records and predicted accident counts were identified and hence audited qualitatively by using Street Audit. The results from these quantitative and qualitative methods were analyzed, validated and compared. The paper provides recommendations on the used methods as well as on how to reduce the accident occurrence at the chosen intersections.

Keywords: intersections, traffic conflict, traffic safety, street audit, accidents predictions

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
310 Location Detection of Vehicular Accident Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units Navigator

Authors: Neda Navidi, Rene Jr. Landry

Abstract:

Vehicle tracking and accident recognizing are considered by many industries like insurance and vehicle rental companies. The main goal of this paper is to detect the location of a car accident by combining different methods. The methods, which are considered in this paper, are Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units (GNSS/IMU)-based navigation and vehicle accident detection algorithms. They are expressed by a set of raw measurements, which are obtained from a designed integrator black box using GNSS and inertial sensors. Another concern of this paper is the definition of accident detection algorithm based on its jerk to identify the position of that accident. In fact, the results convinced us that, even in GNSS blockage areas, the position of the accident could be detected by GNSS/INS integration with 50% improvement compared to GNSS stand alone.

Keywords: driver behavior monitoring, integration, IMU, GNSS, monitoring, tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
309 Railway Accidents: Using the Global Railway Accident Database and Evaluation for Risk Analysis

Authors: Mathias Linden, André Schneider, Harald F. O. von Korflesch

Abstract:

The risk of train accidents is an ongoing concern for railway organizations, governments, insurance companies and other depended sectors. Safety technologies are installed to reduce and to prevent potential damages of train accidents. Since the budgetary for the safety of railway organizations is limited, it is necessary not only to achieve a high availability and high safety standard but also to be cost effective. Therefore, an economic assessment of safety technologies is fundamental to create an accurate risk analysis. In order to conduct an economical assessment of a railway safety technology and a quantification of the costs of the accident causes, the Global Railway Accident Database & Evaluation (GRADE) has been developed. The aim of this paper is to describe the structure of this accident database and to show how it can be used for risk analyses. A number of risk analysis methods, such as the probabilistic safety assessment method (PSA), was used to demonstrate this accident database’s different possibilities of risk analysis. In conclusion, it can be noted that these analyses would not be as accurate without GRADE. The information gathered in the accident database was not available in this way before. Our findings are relevant for railway operators, safety technology suppliers, assurances, governments and other concerned railway organizations.

Keywords: accident causes, accident costs, accident database, global railway accident database & evaluation, GRADE, probabilistic safety assessment, PSA, railway accidents, risk analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
308 Assessment of Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in Construction Accident Prevention

Authors: Zakari Mustapha, Clinton Aigbavboa, Wellington Didi Thwala

Abstract:

Majority of the incidents and accidents in complex high-risk systems that exist in the construction industry and other sectors have been attributed to unsafe acts of workers. The purpose of this paper was to asses Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in construction accident prevention. The study was conducted through the use of secondary data from journals, books and internet to achieve the objective of the study. The review of literature looked into details of different views from different scholars about HFACS framework in accidents investigations. It further highlighted on various sections or disciplines of accident occurrences in human performance within the construction. The findings from literature review showed that unsafe acts of a worker and unsafe working conditions are the two major causes of accident in the construction industry.Most significant factor in the cause of site accident in the construction industry is unsafe acts of a worker. The findings also show how the application of HFACS framework in the investigation of accident will lead to the identification of common trends. Further findings show that provision for the prevention of accident will be made based on past accident records to identify and prioritize where intervention is needed within the construction industry.

Keywords: accident, construction, HFACS, unsafe acts

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
307 The Influence of Trait of Personality, Stress and Driver Behavior on Road Accident among Bas Driver in Indonesia

Authors: Fikri, Rozmi Ismail, Fatimah Wati Halim, Sarah Waheeda

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of personality and driver behavior on road accident among bus driver who have the high risk behavior on road accident in Riau Province. The hypotheses proposed this research is there are has a significant influences of Treat of Personality and Driver Behavior among bus driver in Riau Province Indonesia. Subject participated in this research are 100 bus driver in Riau Province. This study using the purposive random sampling technique and quantitative design. The data is collected using the Big Five Personality questionnaires, Driver Behavior questionnaires and Road Accident Inventory. Research found that there are significant influence of personality and driver behavior on road accident among bus driver in Riau Province Indonesia.

Keywords: personality, driver behavior, driver stress, road accident

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
306 Development of a Multi-Factorial Instrument for Accident Analysis Based on Systemic Methods

Authors: C. V. Pietreanu, S. E. Zaharia, C. Dinu

Abstract:

The present research is built on three major pillars, commencing by making some considerations on accident investigation methods and pointing out both defining aspects and differences between linear and non-linear analysis. The traditional linear focus on accident analysis describes accidents as a sequence of events, while the latest systemic models outline interdependencies between different factors and define the processes evolution related to a specific (normal) situation. Linear and non-linear accident analysis methods have specific limitations, so the second point of interest is mirrored by the aim to discover the drawbacks of systemic models which becomes a starting point for developing new directions to identify risks or data closer to the cause of incidents/accidents. Since communication represents a critical issue in the interaction of human factor and has been proved to be the answer of the problems made by possible breakdowns in different communication procedures, from this focus point, on the third pylon a new error-modeling instrument suitable for risk assessment/accident analysis will be elaborated.

Keywords: accident analysis, multi-factorial error modeling, risk, systemic methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
305 A Study on Accident Result Contribution of Individual Major Variables Using Multi-Body System of Accident Reconstruction Program

Authors: Donghun Jeong, Somyoung Shin, Yeoil Yun

Abstract:

A large-scale traffic accident refers to an accident in which more than three people die or more than thirty people are dead or injured. In order to prevent a large-scale traffic accident from causing a big loss of lives or establish effective improvement measures, it is important to analyze accident situations in-depth and understand the effects of major accident variables on an accident. This study aims to analyze the contribution of individual accident variables to accident results, based on the accurate reconstruction of traffic accidents using PC-Crash’s Multi-Body, which is an accident reconstruction program, and simulation of each scenario. Multi-Body system of PC-Crash accident reconstruction program is used for multi-body accident reconstruction that shows motions in diverse directions that were not approached previously. MB System is to design and reproduce a form of body, which shows realistic motions, using several bodies. Targeting the 'freight truck cargo drop accident around the Changwon Tunnel' that happened in November 2017, this study conducted a simulation of the freight truck cargo drop accident and analyzed the contribution of individual accident majors. Then on the basis of the driving speed, cargo load, and stacking method, six scenarios were devised. The simulation analysis result displayed that the freight car was driven at a speed of 118km/h(speed limit: 70km/h) right before the accident, carried 196 oil containers with a weight of 7,880kg (maximum load: 4,600kg) and was not fully equipped with anchoring equipment that could prevent a drop of cargo. The vehicle speed, cargo load, and cargo anchoring equipment were major accident variables, and the accident contribution analysis results of individual variables are as follows. When the freight car only obeyed the speed limit, the scattering distance of oil containers decreased by 15%, and the number of dropped oil containers decreased by 39%. When the freight car only obeyed the cargo load, the scattering distance of oil containers decreased by 5%, and the number of dropped oil containers decreased by 34%. When the freight car obeyed both the speed limit and cargo load, the scattering distance of oil containers fell by 38%, and the number of dropped oil containers fell by 64%. The analysis result of each scenario revealed that the overspeed and excessive cargo load of the freight car contributed to the dispersion of accident damage; in the case of a truck, which did not allow a fall of cargo, there was a different type of accident when driven too fast and carrying excessive cargo load, and when the freight car obeyed the speed limit and cargo load, there was the lowest possibility of causing an accident.

Keywords: accident reconstruction, large-scale traffic accident, PC-Crash, MB system

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
304 A Review of Literature on Theories of Construction Accident Causation Models

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Razali Bin Adul Hamid, M. S. Misnan, Taki Eddine Seghier, D. I. Ajayi

Abstract:

Construction sites are characterized with occupational risks. Review of literature on construction accidents reveals that a lot of theories have been propounded over the years by different theorists, coupled with multifarious models developed by different proponents at different times. Accidents are unplanned events that are prominent in construction sites, involving materials, objects and people with attendant damages, loses and injuries. Models were developed to investigate the causations of accident with the aim of preventing its occurrence. Though, some of these theories were criticized, most especially, the Heinrich Domino theory, being mostly faulted for placing much blame on operatives rather than the management. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the significant construction accident causation theories and models for the benefit of understanding of the theories, and consequently enabling construction stakeholders identify the possible potential hazards on construction sites, as all stakeholders have significant roles to play in preventing accident. Accidents are preventable; hence, understanding the risk factors of accident and the causation theories paves way for its prevention. However, findings reveal that still some gaps missing in the existing models, while it is recommended that further research can be made in order to develop more models in order to maintain zero accident on construction sites.

Keywords: domino theory, construction site, site safety, accident causation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
303 A Concept for Design of Road Super-Elevation Based on Horizontal Radius, Vertical Gradient and Accident Rate

Authors: U. Chattaraj, D. Meena

Abstract:

Growth of traffic brings various negative effects, such as road accidents. To avoid such problems, a model is developed for the purpose of highway safety. In such areas, fuzzy logic is the most well-known simulation in the larger field. A model is accomplished for hilly and steep terrain based on Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), for which output is super elevation and input data is horizontal radius, vertical gradient, accident rate (AR). This result shows that the system can be efficaciously applied as for highway safety tool distinguishing hazards components correlated to the characteristics of the highway and has a great influence to the making of decision for accident precaution in transportation models. From this model, a positive relationship between geometric elements, accident rate, and super elevation is also identified.

Keywords: accident rate, fuzzy inference system, fuzzy logic, gradient, radius, super elevation

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
302 Effects of the Visual and Auditory Stimuli with Emotional Content on Eyewitness Testimony

Authors: İrem Bulut, Mustafa Z. Söyük, Ertuğrul Yalçın, Simge Şişman-Bal

Abstract:

Eyewitness testimony is one of the most frequently used methods in criminal cases for the determination of crime and perpetrator. In the literature, the number of studies about the reliability of eyewitness testimony is increasing. The study aims to reveal the factors that affect the short-term and long-term visual memory performance of the participants in the event of an accident. In this context, the effect of the emotional content of the accident and the sounds during the accident on visual memory performance was investigated with eye-tracking. According to the results, the presence of visual and auditory stimuli with emotional content during the accident decreases the participants' both short-term and long-term recall performance. Moreover, the data obtained from the eye monitoring device showed that the participants had difficulty in answering even the questions they focused on at the time of the accident.

Keywords: eye tracking, eyewitness testimony, long-term recall, short-term recall, visual memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
301 Integrating Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment to Decrease Risk & Energy Consumption in a Typical PWR

Authors: Ebrahim Ghanbari, Mohammad Reza Nematollahi

Abstract:

Integrating deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment (IDPSA) is one of the most commonly used issues in the field of safety analysis of power plant accident. It has also been recognized today that the role of human error in creating these accidents is not less than systemic errors, so the human interference and system errors in fault and event sequences are necessary. The integration of these analytical topics will be reflected in the frequency of core damage and also the study of the use of water resources in an accident such as the loss of all electrical power of the plant. In this regard, the SBO accident was simulated for the pressurized water reactor in the deterministic analysis issue, and by analyzing the operator's behavior in controlling the accident, the results of the combination of deterministic and probabilistic assessment were identified. The results showed that the best performance of the plant operator would reduce the risk of an accident by 10%, as well as a decrease of 6.82 liters/second of the water sources of the plant.

Keywords: IDPSA, human error, SBO, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
300 Study and Analysis of the Factors Affecting Road Safety Using Decision Tree Algorithms

Authors: Naina Mahajan, Bikram Pal Kaur

Abstract:

The purpose of traffic accident analysis is to find the possible causes of an accident. Road accidents cannot be totally prevented but by suitable traffic engineering and management the accident rate can be reduced to a certain extent. This paper discusses the classification techniques C4.5 and ID3 using the WEKA Data mining tool. These techniques use on the NH (National highway) dataset. With the C4.5 and ID3 technique it gives best results and high accuracy with less computation time and error rate.

Keywords: C4.5, ID3, NH(National highway), WEKA data mining tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
299 Safety Analysis and Accident Modeling of Transportation in Srinagar City

Authors: Adinarayana Badveeti, Mohammad Shafi Mir

Abstract:

In Srinagar city, in India, road safety is an important aspect that creates ecological balance and social well being. A road accident creates a situation that leaves behind distress, sorrow, and sufferings. Therefore identification of causes of road accidents becomes highly essential for adopting necessary preventive measures against a critical event. The damage created by road accidents to large extent is unrepairable and therefore needs attention to eradicate this continuously increasing trend of awful 'epidemic'. Road accident in India is among the highest in the world, with at least approximately 142.000 people killed each year on the road. Kashmir region is an ecologically sensitive place but lacks necessary facilities and infrastructure regarding road transportation, ultimately resulting in the critical event-road accidents creating a major problem for common people in the region. The objective of this project is to study the safety aspect of Srinagar City and also model the accidents with different aspect that causes accidents and also to suggest the possible remedies for lessening/eliminating the road accidents.

Keywords: road safety, road accident, road infrastructure, accident modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
298 Eliminating Injury in the Work Place and Realizing Vision Zero Using Accident Investigation and Analysis as Method: A Case Study

Authors: Ramesh Kumar Behera, Md. Izhar Hassan

Abstract:

Accident investigation and analysis are useful to identify deficiencies in plant, process, and management practices and formulate preventive strategies for injury elimination. In India and other parts of the world, industrial accidents are investigated to know the causes and also to fulfill legal compliances. However, findings of investigation are seldom used appropriately to strengthen Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in expected lines. The mineral rich state of Odisha in eastern coast of India; known as a hub for Iron and Steel industries, witnessed frequent accidents during 2005-2009. This article based on study of 982 fatal ‘factory-accidents’ occurred in Odisha during the period 2001-2016, discusses the ‘turnaround-story’ resulting in reduction of fatal accident from 122 in 2009 to 45 in 2016. This paper examines various factors causing incidents; accident pattern in steel and chemical sector; role of climate and harsh weather conditions on accident causation. Software such as R, SQL, MS-Excel and Tableau were used for analysis of data. It is found that maximum fatality is caused due to ‘fall from height’ (24%); steel industries are relatively more accident prone; harsh weather conditions of summer increase chances of accident by 20%. Further, the study suggests that enforcement of partial work-restriction around lunch time during peak summer, screening and training of employees reduce accidents due to fall from height. The study indicates that learning from accident investigation and analysis can be used as a method to reduce work related accidents in the journey towards ‘Vision Zero’.

Keywords: accident investigation and analysis, fatal accidents in India, fall from height, vision zero

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
297 Road Accident Blackspot Analysis: Development of Decision Criteria for Accident Blackspot Safety Strategies

Authors: Tania Viju, Bimal P, Naseer M. A.

Abstract:

This study aims to develop a conceptual framework for the decision support system (DSS), that helps the decision-makers to dynamically choose appropriate safety measures for each identified accident blackspot. An accident blackspot is a segment of road where the frequency of accident occurrence is disproportionately greater than other sections on roadways. According to a report by the World Bank, India accounts for the highest, that is, eleven percent of the global death in road accidents with just one percent of the world’s vehicles. Hence in 2015, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways of India gave prime importance to the rectification of accident blackspots. To enhance road traffic safety and reduce the traffic accident rate, effectively identifying and rectifying accident blackspots is of great importance. This study helps to understand and evaluate the existing methods in accident blackspot identification and prediction that are used around the world and their application in Indian roadways. The decision support system, with the help of IoT, ICT and smart systems, acts as a management and planning tool for the government for employing efficient and cost-effective rectification strategies. In order to develop a decision criterion, several factors in terms of quantitative as well as qualitative data that influence the safety conditions of the road are analyzed. Factors include past accident severity data, occurrence time, light, weather and road conditions, visibility, driver conditions, junction type, land use, road markings and signs, road geometry, etc. The framework conceptualizes decision-making by classifying blackspot stretches based on factors like accident occurrence time, different climatic and road conditions and suggesting mitigation measures based on these identified factors. The decision support system will help the public administration dynamically manage and plan the necessary safety interventions required to enhance the safety of the road network.

Keywords: decision support system, dynamic management, road accident blackspots, road safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
296 Using TRACE and SNAP Codes to Establish the Model of Maanshan PWR for SBO Accident

Authors: B. R. Shen, J. R. Wang, J. H. Yang, S. W. Chen, C. Shih, Y. Chiang, Y. F. Chang, Y. H. Huang

Abstract:

In this research, TRACE code with the interface code-SNAP was used to simulate and analyze the SBO (station blackout) accident which occurred in Maanshan PWR (pressurized water reactor) nuclear power plant (NPP). There are four main steps in this research. First, the SBO accident data of Maanshan NPP were collected. Second, the TRACE/SNAP model of Maanshan NPP was established by using these data. Third, this TRACE/SNAP model was used to perform the simulation and analysis of SBO accident. Finally, the simulation and analysis of SBO with mitigation equipments was performed. The analysis results of TRACE are consistent with the data of Maanshan NPP. The mitigation equipments of Maanshan can maintain the safety of Maanshan in the SBO according to the TRACE predictions.

Keywords: pressurized water reactor (PWR), TRACE, station blackout (SBO), Maanshan

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
295 Perceived Competence toward Helping an Accident Victim in Pre-Hospital Setting among Medical Graduates: A Cross Sectional Study from Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Authors: Neeti Rustagi, Naveen Dutt, Arvind Sinha, Mahaveer S. Rhodha, Pankaja R. Raghav

Abstract:

Background: Pre-hospital trauma care services are in developing stage in fast-urbanizing cities of India including Jodhpur. Training of health professionals in providing necessary pre-hospital trauma care is an essential step in decreasing accident related morbidity and mortality. The current study explores the response of a medical graduate toward helping an accident victim in a pre-hospital setting before patient can be transferred to definitive trauma facility. Methodology: This study examines the perceived competence in predicting response to an accident victim by medical graduates in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Participants completed measures of attitude, normative influence and perceived behavior control toward providing pre-hospital care to an accident victim. Likert scale was used to measure the participant responses. Preliminary and descriptive analysis were used using SPSS 21.0. Internal consistency of the responses received was measured using Cronbach’s alpha. Results: Almost all medical graduates agreed that road accidents are common in their area (male: 92%; female: 78%). More male medical graduates (28%) reported helping an accident victim as compared to female physicians (9%) in the previous three months. Majority of study participants (96%) reported that providing immediate care to an accident victim is essential to save the life of an individual. Experience of helping an accident victim was considered unpleasant by the majority of female participants (70%) as compared to male participants (36%). A large number of participants believed that their friends (80%) and colleagues (96%) would appreciate them helping an accident victim in a pre-hospital setting. A large number of participants also believed that they possess the necessary skills and competencies (80%) towards helping a roadside accident victim in the pre-hospital care environment. Perceived competence of helping a roadside accident victim until they are transferred to a health facility was reported by less than half of the participants (male: 56%; female: 43%). Conclusion: Medical graduates have necessary attitude, competencies, and intention of helping a roadside accident victim. The societal response towards helping a road side accident victim is also supportive. In spite of positive determinants, a large proportion of medical graduates have perceived lack of competence in helping a roadside accident victim. This is essential to explore further as providing pre-hospital care to a roadside accident victim is an essential step in establishing the continuum of care to an accident victim especially in countries where pre-hospital services are in developing phase.

Keywords: prehospital care, perceived behavior, perceived competence, medical graduates

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
294 An Accidental Forecasting Modelling for Various Median Roads

Authors: Pruethipong Xinghatiraj, Rajwanlop Kumpoopong

Abstract:

Considering the current situation of road safety, Thailand has the world’s second-highest road fatality rate. Therefore, decreasing the road accidents in Thailand is a prime policy of the Thai government seeking to accomplish. One of the approaches to reduce the accident rate is to improve road environments to fit with the local behavior of the road users. The Department of Highways ensures that choosing the road median types right to the road characteristics, e.g. roadside characteristics, traffic volume, truck traffic percentage, etc., can decrease the possibility of accident occurrence. Presently, raised median, depressed median, painted median and median barriers are typically used in Thailand Highways. In this study, factors affecting road accident for each median type will be discovered through the analysis of the collecting of accident data, death numbers on sample of 600 Kilometers length across the country together with its roadside characteristics, traffic volume, heavy vehicles percentage, and other key factors. The benefits of this study can assist the Highway designers to select type of road medians that can match local environments and then cause less accident prone.

Keywords: highways, road safety, road median, forecasting model

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
293 Human Error Analysis in the USA Marine Accidents Reports

Authors: J. Sánchez-Beaskoetxea

Abstract:

The analysis of accidents, such as marine accidents, is one of the most useful instruments to avoid future accidents. In the case of marine accidents, from a simple collision of a small boat in a port to the wreck of a gigantic tanker ship, the study of the causes of the accidents is the basis of a great part of the marine international legislation. Some countries have official institutions who investigate all the accidents in which a ship with their flag is involved. In the case of the USA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is responsible for these researches. The NTSB, after a deep investigation into each accident, publishes a Marine Accident Report with the possible cause of the accident. This paper analyses all the Marine Accident Reports published by the NTBS and focuses its attention especially in the Human Errors that led to reported accidents. In this research, the different Human Errors made by crew members are cataloged in 10 different groups. After a complete analysis of all the reports, the statistical analysis on the Human Errors typology in marine accidents is presented in order to use it as a tool to avoid the same errors in the future.

Keywords: human error, marine accidents, ship crew, USA

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
292 The Role of Speed Reduction Model in Urban Highways Tunnels Accidents

Authors: Khashayar Kazemzadeh, Mohammad Hanif Dasoomi

Abstract:

According to the increasing travel demand in cities, bridges and tunnels are viewed as one of the fundamental components of cities transportation systems. Normally, due to geometric constraints forms in the tunnels, the considered speed in the tunnels is lower than the speed in connected highways. Therefore, drivers tend to reduce the speed near the entrance of the tunnels. In this paper, the effect of speed reduction on accident happened in the entrance of the tunnels has been discussed. The relation between accidents frequency and the parameters of speed, traffic volume and time of the accident in the mentioned tunnel has been analyzed and the mathematical model has been proposed.

Keywords: urban highway, accident, tunnel, mathematical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
291 Optimal Allocation of Multiple Emergency Resources for a Single Potential Accident Node: A Mixed Integer Linear Program

Authors: Yongjian Du, Jinhua Sun, Kim M. Liew, Huahua Xiao

Abstract:

Optimal allocation of emergency resources before a disaster is of great importance for emergency response. In reality, the pre-protection for a single critical node where accidents may occur is common. In this study, a model is developed to determine location and inventory decisions of multiple emergency resources among a set of candidate stations to minimize the total cost based on the constraints of budgetary and capacity. The total cost includes the economic accident loss which is accorded with probability distribution of time and the warehousing cost of resources which is increasing over time. A ratio is set to measure the degree of a storage station only serving the target node that becomes larger with the decrease of the distance between them. For the application of linear program, it is assumed that the length of travel time to the accident scene of emergency resources has a linear relationship with the economic accident loss. A computational experiment is conducted to illustrate how the proposed model works, and the results indicate its effectiveness and practicability.

Keywords: emergency response, integer linear program, multiple emergency resources, pre-allocation decisions, single potential accident node

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
290 Simulation of Heat Exchanger Behavior during LOCA Accident in THTL Test Loop

Authors: R. Mahmoodi, A. R. Zolfaghari

Abstract:

In nuclear power plants, loss of coolant from the primary system is the type of reduced removed capacity that is given most attention; such an accident is referred as Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). In the current study, investigation of shell and tube THTL heat exchanger behavior during LOCA is implemented by ANSYS CFX simulation software in both steady state and transient mode of turbulent fluid flow according to experimental conditions. Numerical results obtained from ANSYS CFX simulation show good agreement with experimental data of THTL heat exchanger. The results illustrate that in large break LOCA as short term accident, heat exchanger could not fast response to temperature variables but in the long term, the temperature of shell side of heat exchanger will be increase.

Keywords: shell-and-tube heat exchanger, shell-side, CFD, flow and heat transfer, LOCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
289 Assessment of Vehicular Accidents and Possible Mitigation Measures: A Case of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Authors: K. Omkar, D. Nayan

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization is one of the consequences of rapid population explosion, which has also led to massive increase in number of motorized vehicles essential for carrying out all activities needed for sustaining urban livelihood. With this increased use of motorized vehicles over the time there has also been an increase in number of accidents. Study of road network and geometric features are essential to tackle problems of road accidents in any district or town. The increase in road accidents is one of the burning issues in the present society. Records show that there is one death at every 3.7 minutes because of road accident. It has been found from the research that, accidents occur due to, mistakes of the driver (86%) followed by bad street condition (5%), mistake of pedestrian (4%), as well as technical and maintenance defects (1%). Here, case study of Ahmedabad, Gujarat is taken up where first road safety level is assessed considering various parameters. The study confined to accident characteristics of all types of vehicles. For deeper analysis, road safety index for various stretches in Ahmedabad was found out. Crash rate for same stretches was found out. Based on various parameters priority was decided so that which stretch should be look out first to minimize road accidents on that stretch and which stretch should look out last. The major findings of the study are that accident severity of Ahmedabad has increased, but accident fatality risk has decreased; thus there is need to undertake some traffic engineering measures or make some traffic rules that are strictly followed by traffic. From the above study and literature studied it is found that Ahmedabad is suffering from similar problem of accidents and injuries and deaths caused by them, after properly investigating the issue short-term and long-term solutions to minimize road accidents have been presented in this paper.

Keywords: accident severity index, accident fatality rate, accident fatality risk, accident risk, road safety index

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
288 High Temperature Creep Analysis for Lower Head of Reactor Pressure Vessel

Authors: Dongchuan Su, Hai Xie, Naibin Jiang

Abstract:

Under severe accident cases, the nuclear reactor core may meltdown inside the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Retaining the melt pool inside the RPV is an important strategy of severe accident management. During this process, the inner wall of the lower head will be heated to high temperature of a thousand centigrade, and the outer wall is immersed in a large amount of cooling water. The material of the lower head will have serious creep damage under the high temperature and the temperature difference, and this produces a great threat to the integrity of the RPV. In this paper, the ANSYS program is employed to build the finite element method (FEM) model of the lower head, the creep phenomena is simulated under the severe accident case, the time dependent strain and stress distribution is obtained, the creep damage of the lower head is investigated, the integrity of the RPV is evaluated and the theoretical basis is provided for the optimized design and safety assessment of the RPV.

Keywords: severe accident, lower head of RPV, creep, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
287 Effectiveness and Efficiency of Unified Philippines Accident Reporting and Database System in Optimizing Road Crash Data Usage with Various Stakeholders

Authors: Farhad Arian Far, Anjanette Q. Eleazar, Francis Aldrine A. Uy, Mary Joyce Anne V. Uy

Abstract:

The Unified Philippine Accident Reporting and Database System (UPARDS), is a newly developed system by Dr. Francis Aldrine Uy of the Mapua Institute of Technology. The main purpose is to provide an advanced road accident investigation tool, record keeping and analysis system for stakeholders such as Philippine National Police (PNP), Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Department of Health (DOH), and insurance companies. The system is composed of 2 components, the mobile application for road accident investigators that takes advantage of available technology to advance data gathering and the web application that integrates all accident data for the use of all stakeholders. The researchers with the cooperation of PNP’s Vehicle Traffic Investigation Sector of the City of Manila, conducted the field-testing of the application in fifteen (15) accident cases. Simultaneously, the researchers also distributed surveys to PNP, Manila Doctors Hospital, and Charter Ping An Insurance Company to gather their insights regarding the web application. The survey was designed on information systems theory called Technology Acceptance Model. The results of the surveys revealed that the respondents were greatly satisfied with the visualization and functions of the applications as it proved to be effective and far more efficient in comparison with the conventional pen-and-paper method. In conclusion, the pilot study was able to address the need for improvement of the current system.

Keywords: accident, database, investigation, mobile application, pilot testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
286 Disaster Probability Analysis of Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for Train Accidents and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Bangladesh

Authors: Shahab Uddin, Kazi M. Uddin, Hamamah Sadiqa

Abstract:

The paper deals with the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge (BMB), the 11th longest bridge in the world was constructed in 1998 aimed at contributing to promote economic development in Bangladesh. In recent years, however, the high incidence of traffic accidents and injuries at the bridge sites looms as a great safety concern. Investigation into the derailment of nine bogies out of thirteen of Dinajpur-bound intercity train ‘Drutajan Express ’were derailed and inclined on the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge on 28 April 2014. The train accident in Bridge will be deep concern for both structural safety of bridge and people than other vehicles accident. In this study we analyzed the disaster probability of the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for accidents by checking the fitness of Bridge structure. We found that train accident impact is more risky than other vehicles accidents. We also found that socio-economic impact on Bangladesh will be deep concerned.

Keywords: train accident, derailment, disaster, socio-economic

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
285 Using RASCAL Code to Analyze the Postulated UF6 Fire Accident

Authors: J. R. Wang, Y. Chiang, W. S. Hsu, S. H. Chen, J. H. Yang, S. W. Chen, C. Shih, Y. F. Chang, Y. H. Huang, B. R. Shen

Abstract:

In this research, the RASCAL code was used to simulate and analyze the postulated UF6 fire accident which may occur in the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). There are four main steps in this research. In the first step, the UF6 data of INER were collected. In the second step, the RASCAL analysis methodology and model was established by using these data. Third, this RASCAL model was used to perform the simulation and analysis of the postulated UF6 fire accident. Three cases were simulated and analyzed in this step. Finally, the analysis results of RASCAL were compared with the hazardous levels of the chemicals. According to the compared results of three cases, Case 3 has the maximum danger in human health.

Keywords: RASCAL, UF₆, safety, hydrogen fluoride

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
284 Outcomes of Using Guidelines for Caring and Referring ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital, Thailand

Authors: Thanom Kaeniam

Abstract:

ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) is a state of sudden death of the heart muscle due to sudden blockage of the artery. STEMI patients are usually in critical condition and with a potential opportunity for sudden death. Therefore, management guidelines for safety in caring and referring STEMI patients are needed. The objective of this developmental research was to assess the effectiveness of using the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital. The subjects of the study were 22 nurses in the emergency room, and doctors on duty in the accident and emergency room selected using purposive sampling with inclusion criteria. The research instruments were the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients, and record forms for the effectiveness of using the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients (a general record form for STEMI patients, a record form for SK administering, a referring record form for PCI, and a record form for dead patient in the accident and emergency room and during referring). The instruments were tested for content validity by three experts, and the reliability was tested using Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR20). The descriptive statistic employed was the percentage. The outcomes of using the guidelines for caring and referring ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients at the Accident and Emergency Department revealed that before using the guidelines in 2009, 2010, and 2011, there were 84, 73, and 138 STEMI patients receiving services at the accident and emergency room, of which, only 9, 32, and 48 patients were referred for PCI/SK medications, or 10.74; 43.84; and 34.78 percent, and the death rates were 10.71; 10.95; and 11.59 percent, respectively. However, after the use of the guidelines in 2012, 2013, and 2014, there were 97, 77, and 57 patients, of which, the increases to 77, 72, and 55 patients were referred for PCI /SK medications or 79.37; 93.51; and 96.49 percent, and the death rates were reduced to 10.30; 6.49; and 1.76 percent, respectively. The results of the study revealed that the use of the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients at the Accident and Emergency Department increased the effectiveness and quality of nursing, especially in terms of SK medication, caring and referring patients for PCI to reduce the death rate.

Keywords: outcomes, guidelines for caring, referring, myocardial infarction, STEMI

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
283 Highway Casualty Rate in Nigeria: Implication for Human Capital Development

Authors: Ali Maji

Abstract:

Highway development is an important factor for economic growth and development in both developed and developing countries. In Nigeria about two-third of transportation of goods and persons are done through highway network. It was this that made highway investment to enjoy position of relative high priority on the list of government expenditure programmes in Nigeria today. The paper noted that despite expansion of public investment in highway construction and maintenance of them, road traffic accident is increasing rate. This has acted as a drain of human capital which is a key to economic growth and development in Nigeria. In order to avoid this, the paper recommend introduction of Highway Safety Education (HSE) in Nigerian’s education system and investment in train transportation among other as a sure measure for curtailing highway accident.

Keywords: accident rate, high way development, human capital, national development

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
282 Smart Alert System for Dangerous Bend

Authors: Sathapath Kilaso

Abstract:

Thailand has a large range of geographic diversity. Thailand can be divided into 5 regions which are North Region, East Region, West Region, South Region and North-East Region which each region has a different geographic and climate. Especially in North Region, the geographic is mountain and intermontane plateau which will be a reason that the roads in the North Region have a lot of bends. So the driver in the North Region road will have to have a very high skill of driving. If the accident is occurred, the emergency rescue will have a hard time to reach the accident area and rescue the victim of the accident as the long distance and steep road. This article will apply the concept of the wireless sensor network with the micro-controller to alert the driver when the driver reaches the very dangerous bend.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, motion sensor, smart alert, dangerous bend

Procedia PDF Downloads 168