Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: ayurveda

29 Status of Popularity of Ayurveda Products in Chandigarh, North India

Authors: Upasana Sharma, Jayanti Dutta, Amarjeet Singh

Abstract:

Background: Ayurveda is a comprehensive natural health care system. It is widely used in India as a system of primary health care, and interest in it is growing worldwide. Objectives: 1) To assess the extent and pattern of use of Ayurvedic medicines/ products by the people of Chandigarh. 2) To assess the perceived impact of use of Ayurvedic medicines/ products among the users. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in a city of North India. Overall 371 households were covered from rural, urban and slum areas from December 2010 to April 2011. Respondents were interviewed regarding practices about Ayurveda products. Results: Around 160 (43%; 95% CI= 38.15, 47.85) of the respondents were using Ayurvedic products in one form or the other. Out of them, 91 (57%) had used Ayurvedic medicines in combination with some other system of medicine rather than as a standalone therapy. Most of them (81%) preferred Ayurveda products for chronic digestive system related problems. Conclusion: The present study revealed that respondents had keen interest in Ayurveda. A section of population was taking Ayurvedic treatment for their health ailments. There was a great level of satisfaction among the users but high cost bothered them at times.

Keywords: ayurveda, alternative medicine, chronic diseases, complimentary medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
28 Skin Care through Ayurveda

Authors: K. L. Virupaksha Gupta

Abstract:

Ayurveda offers a holistic outlook regarding skin care. Most Initial step in Ayurveda is to identify the skin type and care accordingly which is highly personalized. Though dermatologically there are various skin type classifications such Baumann skin types (based on 4 parameters i) Oily Vs Dry ii) Sensitive Vs Resistant iii) Pigmented Vs Non-Pigmented iv) Wrinkled Vs Tight (Unwrinkled) etc but Skin typing in Ayurveda is mainly determined by the prakriti (constitution) of the individual as well as the status of Doshas (Humors) which are basically of 3 types – i.e Vata Pitta and Kapha,. Difference between them is mainly attributed to the qualities of each dosha (humor). All the above said skin types can be incorporated under these three types. The skin care modalities in each of the constitution vary greatly. Skin of an individual of Vata constitution would be lustreless, having rough texture and cracks due to dryness and thus should be given warm and unctuous therapies and oil massage for lubrication and natural moisturizers for hydration. Skin of an individual of Pitta constitution would look more vascular (pinkish), delicate and sensitive with a fair complexion, unctuous and tendency for wrinkles and greying of hair at an early age and hence should be given cooling and nurturing therapies and should avoid tanning treatments. Skin of an individual of kapha constitution will have oily skin, they are delicate and look beautiful and radiant and hence these individuals would require therapies to mainly combat oily skin. Hence, the skin typing and skin care in Ayurveda is highly rational and scientific.

Keywords: Ayurveda, dermatology, Dosha, skin types

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
27 Antioxidants: Some Medicinal Plants in Indian System of Medicine Work as Anti-cervical Cancer

Authors: Kamini Kaushal

Abstract:

Medicinal plants of Ayurveda are effective in the treatment of cervical cancer. The aim of this paper is to assess anti cancerous activities of these medicinal plants against cancer. Most of the medicinal plants in Ayurveda are using to treat cervical cancer as name of disease as treatment of YONI VYAPADA. The selected plants has been studied scientifically in India and evidence based written since Vedic era. The compilation results showed potential anti cervical cancer activity of the tested plants. There plants are remaining under the dark due to lack of awareness, lack of popularity and barrier of language. Now this is the time to eye opener regarding the classical text and clinical evidences, so that we can give the hope to world's affected women from this disease. World is waiting for such type of remedy which is having zero side effects, low cost and effective.

Keywords: anti cancerous, cervical cancer, ayurveda, medicinal plants, scientific study, classical text

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
26 Marine Natural Products: A Rich Source of Medicine in Ayurveda, the Ancient Indian Medical Science

Authors: Ashok D. Satpute

Abstract:

Ayurveda, the ancient Indian Medical system is practiced all over India and abroad, is rich in natural source of medicines, including marine products. The marine drugs which prominently used are pravala (coral), mukta (pearl), kapardika (cowry).Shukti (oyster shell), shankha (conch), agnijara (amber) etc. Except agnijara (amber) all are rich in calcium. Interestingly they are not used as supplements in calcium deficiency as done in conventional medical practice. They are used as medicines in the disease like fever, tuberculosis, bleeding disorders, eye problems, digestive complaints etc. Many scientific studies have shown their potent medicinal value. Each has its own properties and used therapeutically after subjecting them to various purificatory processes which are called shodhana in which several medicinal plants are used which also help in enhancing therapeutical activity. Then these purified marine products are subjected to marana (incineration) process and obtained in the form of Bhasma (a finest form of medicine). Agnijara, a derivative of whale is useful as aphrodisiac and prescribed in neuromuscular disorders and tetanus. The ancient scriptures written in Sanskrit language thousands of years back have rich information about all these natural marine products and their medicinal usage.

Keywords: Ayurveda, bhasma, marana, shodhana

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
25 Effect of a Polyherbal Gut Therapy Protocol in Changes of Gut and Behavioral Symptoms of Antibiotic Induced Dysbiosis of Autistic Babies

Authors: Dinesh K. S., D. R. C. V. Jayadevan

Abstract:

Autism is the most prevalent of a subset of the disorders organized under the umbrella of pervasive developmental disorders. After the publication of Andrew Wakefield's paper in lancet, many critiques deny this connection even without looking in to the matter. The British Medical Journal even put an editorial regarding this issue. BMJ 2010; 340:c1807. But ayurveda has ample of evidences to believe this connectivity. Dysbiosis, yeast growth of the gut, nutritional deficiencies, enzyme deficiencies, essential fatty acid deficiencies, Gastro esophageal reflux disease, indigestion, inflammatory bowel, chronic constipation & its cascade are few of them to note. The purpose of this paper is to present the observed changes in the behavioural symptoms of autistic babies after a gut management protocol which is a usual programme of our autism treatment plan especially after dysbiotic changes after antibiotic administration. Is there any correlation between changes (if significant) in gut symptoms and behavioral problems of autistic babies especially after a dysbiosis induced by antibiotics. Retrospective analysis of the case sheets of autistic patients admitted in Vaidyaratnam P.S.Varier Ayurveda College hospital, kottakkal,kerala, india from September 2010 are taken for the data processing. Autistic patients are used to come to this hospital as a part of their usual course of treatment. We investigated 40 cases diagnosed as autistic by clinical psychologists from different institutions who had dysbiosis induced by antibiotics. Significant change in gut symptoms before and after treatment p<0.05 in most of its components Significant change in behavioral symptoms before and after treatments p<0.05 in most of the components Correlation between gut symptoms change and behavioral symptoms changes after treatment is + 0.86. Conclusion : Selected Polyherbal Ayurveda treatment has significant role to play to make changes abnormal behaviors in autistic babies and has a positive correlation with changes in gut symptoms induced by dysbiosis of antibiotic intake.

Keywords: ayurveda, autism, dysbiosis, antibiotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
24 Study of Irritant and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Snuhi/Zaqqum (Euphorbia nerifolia) with Special Reference to Holy Quran and Ayurveda

Authors: Mohammed Khalil Ur Rahman, Pradnya Chigle, Bushra Farhen

Abstract:

Indian mythology believes that Vedas are eternal treatises. Vedas are categorized into four divisions viz., Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samveda, Atharveda. All these spiritual classics not only deal with rituals and customs but also consist of inclusion of many references related to health. Out of these four, Atharveda deals with maximum principles pertaining to health sciences. Therefore, it is said that the science and the art of Ayurveda has developed from Atharveda. Ayurveda deals with many medicinal plants either as a single therapeutic use or in combination. One such medicinal plant is Snuhi (Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.) which finds its extensive importance along with Haridra and Apamargakshar, in the preparation of Ksharsutra which in turn is used for the treatment of Fistula in Ano. It is interesting to note that this plant Snuhi is also referred in Holy Quran as the Tree of Zaqqum advocated as the food for the sinners as a part of torment. The reference in Surat Ad-Dukhan is as follows: - 44:43-46. “Verily, the tree of Zaqqum will be the food of the sinners, Like boiling oil, it will boil in the bellies, like the boiling of scalding water.” The above verse implies that plant Snuhi/Zaqqum due to irritant property acts as a drastic purgative but at the same time it also possesses anti inflammatory properties in order to relieve the irritation. These properties of Zaqqum has been unfolded in the modern research which states that, Diterpene polycyclic esters are responsible for its toxic and irritant nature whereas; triterpenes are responsible for its anti inflammatory property. Present work will be an effort to review the concept of Quran about latex of the Tree of Zaqqum in terms of its phytochemistry and its therapeutic use in Ksharsutra pertaining to irritant and anti inflammatory property.

Keywords: ayurveda, Quran, zaqqum, ksharsutra, latex piles, inflammation

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
23 Anti Oxidant Ayurvedic Rasyan Herbs Concept to Disease Managment

Authors: Mohammed Khalil Ur Rahman, Khanita Aammatullh

Abstract:

Rasayana is one of the eight clinical specialities of classical Ayurveda The disease preventive and health promotive approach of ‘Ayurveda’, which takes into consideration the whole body, mind and spirit while dealing with the maintenance of health, promotion of health and treating ailments is holistic and finds increasing acceptability in many regions of the world. Ancient Ayurvedic physicians had developed certain dietary and therapeutic measures to arrest/delay ageing and rejuvenating whole functional dynamics of the body system. This revitalization and rejuvenation is known as the ‘Rasayan chikitsa’ (rejuvenation therapy). Traditionally, Rasayana drugs are used against a plethora of seemingly diverse disorders with no pathophysiological connections according to modern medicine. Though, this group of plants generally possesses strong antioxidant activity, only a few have been investigated in detail. Over about 100 disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, CVS disorders, cystic fibrosis, metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal ulcerogenesis and AIDS have been reported as reactive oxygen species mediated. In this review, the role of free radicals in these diseases has been briefly reviewed. ‘Rasayana’ plants with potent antioxidant activity have been reviewed for their traditional uses, and mechanism of antioxidant action. Fifteen such plants have been dealt with in detail and some more plants with less work have also been reviewed briefly The Rasayanas are rejuvenators, nutritional supplements and possess strong antioxidant activity. They also have antagonistic actions on the oxidative stressors, which give rise to the formation of different free radicals. Ocimum sanctum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Centella asiatica, Bacopa monniera, Withania somnifera, Triphala rasayana, Chyawanprash, Brahma rasayana are very important rasayanas which are described in ayurveda and proved by new researches.

Keywords: rasayana, antioxidant activity, Bacopa monniera, Withania somnifera Triphala, chyawanprash

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
22 Holistic Approach Illustrating the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pain and Stress Management for Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Priyanka Kalra

Abstract:

Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes various practices like Ayurveda, Yoga & Meditation Acupressure Acupuncture and Reiki. These practices are frequently used by patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). They have shown effectiveness in the management of pain and stress consequently improving overall quality of life post injury. Objective: The goals of the present case series were to evaluate the feasibility of 1) Using of Ayurvedic herbal oil massages in shoulder pain management, 2) Using yoga & meditation on managing the stress in spinal cord injury. Methodology: 15 SCI cases with muscular pain around shoulder were treated with Ayurvedic herbal oil massage for 10 days in CAM Department. Each session consisted of 30 min oil massage followed by 10 min hot towel fomentation. The patients continued regular therapy medications along with CAM. Another 15 SCI cases were treated with yoga and meditation for 15 days 30 min yoga (20 min Asana+ 10 min Pranayam + 15 min Meditation) in isolated yoga room of CAM department. Results: On the VAS scale the patients reported a reduction in their pain score by 70 %. On the PSS scale, the patients reported a reduction in their stress score by 80 %. Conclusion: These case series may encourage more people to explore CAM therapies.

Keywords: spinal cord injury, Ayurveda, complementary and alternative medicine, yoga, meditation

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
21 Analysis of Radial Pulse Using Nadi-Parikshan Yantra

Authors: Ashok E. Kalange

Abstract:

Diagnosis according to Ayurveda is to find the root cause of a disease. Out of the eight different kinds of examinations, Nadi-Pariksha (pulse examination) is important. Nadi-Pariksha is done at the root of the thumb by examining the radial artery using three fingers. Ancient Ayurveda identifies the health status by observing the wrist pulses in terms of 'Vata', 'Pitta' and 'Kapha', collectively called as tridosha, as the basic elements of human body and in their combinations. Diagnosis by traditional pulse analysis – NadiPariksha - requires a long experience in pulse examination and a high level of skill. The interpretation tends to be subjective, depending on the expertise of the practitioner. Present work is part of the efforts carried out in making Nadi-Parikshan objective. Nadi Parikshan Yantra (three point pulse examination system) is developed in our laboratory by using three pressure sensors (one each for the Vata, Pitta and Kapha points on radial artery). The radial pulse data was collected of a large number of subjects. The radial pulse data collected is analyzed on the basis of relative amplitudes of the three point pulses as well as in frequency and time domains. The same subjects were examined by Ayurvedic physician (Nadi Vaidya) and the dominant Dosha - Vata, Pitta or Kapha - was identified. The results are discussed in details in the paper.

Keywords: Nadi Parikshan Yantra, Tridosha, Nadi Pariksha, human pulse data analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
20 Exploring the Correlation between Body Constitution of an Individual as Per Ayurveda and Gut Microbiome in Healthy, Multi Ethnic Urban Population in Bangalore, India

Authors: Shalini TV, Gangadharan GG, Sriranjini S Jaideep, ASN Seshasayee, Awadhesh Pandit

Abstract:

Introduction: Prakriti (body-mind constitution of an individual) is a conventional, customized and unique understanding of which is essential for the personalized medicine described in Ayurveda, Indian System of Medicine. Based on the Doshas( functional, bio humoral unit in the body), individuals are categorized into three major Prakriti- Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. The human gut microbiome hosts plenty of highly diverse and metabolically active microorganisms, mainly dominated by the bacteria, which are known to influence the physiology of an individual. Few researches have shown the correlation between the Prakriti and the biochemical parameters. In this study, an attempt was made to explore any correlation between the Prakriti (phenotype of an individual) with the Genetic makeup of the gut microbiome in healthy individuals. Materials and methods: 270 multi-ethnic, healthy volunteers of both sex with the age group between 18 to 40 years, with no history of antibiotics in the last 6 months were recruited into three groups of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. The Prakriti of the individual was determined using Ayusoft, a software designed by CDAC, Pune, India. The volunteers were subjected to initial screening for the assessment of their height, weight, Body Mass Index, Vital signs and Blood investigations to ensure they are healthy. The stool and saliva samples of the recruited volunteers were collected as per the standard operating procedure developed, and the bacterial DNA was isolated using Qiagen kits. The extracted DNA was subjected to 16s rRNA sequencing using the Illumina kits. The sequencing libraries are targeting the variable V3 and V4 regions of the 16s rRNA gene. Paired sequencing was done on the MiSeq system and data were analyzed using the CLC Genomics workbench 11. Results: The 16s rRNA sequencing of the V3 and V4 regions showed a diverse pattern in both the oral and stool microbial DNA. The study did not reveal any specific pattern of bacterial flora amongst the Prakriti. All the p-values were more than the effective alpha values for all OTUs in both the buccal cavity and stool samples. Therefore, there was no observed significant enrichment of an OTU in the patient samples from either the buccal cavity or stool samples. Conclusion: In healthy volunteers of multi-ethnicity, due to the influence of the various factors, the correlation between the Prakriti and the gut microbiome was not seen.

Keywords: gut microbiome, ayurveda Prakriti, sequencing, multi-ethnic urban population

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
19 Traditional Medicine and Islamic Holistic Approach in Palliative Care Management of Terminal Illpatient of Cancer

Authors: Mohammed Khalil Ur Rahman, Mohammed Alsharon, Arshad Muktar, Zahid Shaik

Abstract:

Any ailment can go into terminal stages, cancer being one such disease which is many times detected in latent stages. Cancer is often characterized by constitutional symptoms which are agonizing in nature which disturbs patients and their family as well. In order to relieve such intolerable symptoms treatment modality employed is known to be ‘Palliative Care’. The goal of palliative care is to enhance patient’s quality of life by relieving or rather reducing the distressing symptoms of patients such as pain, nausea/ vomiting, anorexia/loss of appetite, excessive salivation, mouth ulcers, weight loss, constipation, oral thrush, emaciation etc. which are due to the effect of disease or due to the undergoing treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation etc. Ayurveda and Unani as well as other traditional medicines is getting more and more international attention in recent years and Ayurveda and Unani holistic perspective of the disease, it seems that there are many herbs and herbomineral preparation which can be employed in the treatment of malignancy and also in palliative care. Though many of them have yet to be scientifically proved as anti-cancerous but there is definitely a positive lead that some of these medications relieve the agonising symptoms thereby making life of the patient easy. Health is viewed in Islam in a holistic way. One of the names of the Quran is al-shifa' meaning ‘that which heals’ or ‘the restorer of health’ to refer to spiritual, intellectual, psychological, and physical health. The general aim of medical science, according to Islam, is to secure and adopt suitable measures which, with Allah’s permission, help to preserve or restore the health of the human body. Islam motivates the Physician to view the patient as one organism. The patient has physical, social, psychological, and spiritual dimensions that must be considered in synthesis with an integrated, holistic approach. Aims & Objectives: - To suggest herbs which are mentioned in Ayurveda Unani with potential palliative activity in case of Cancer patients. - Most of tibb nabawi [Prophetic Medicine] is preventive medicine and must have been divinely inspired. - Spiritual Aspects of Healing: Prayer, dua, recitation of the Quran - Remembrance of Allah play a central role.Materials & Method: Literary review of the herbs supported with experiential evidence will be discussed. Discussion: On the basis of collected data subject will be discussed in length. Conclusion: Will be presented in paper.

Keywords: palliative care, holistic, Ayurvedic and Unani traditional system of medicine, Quran, hadith

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
18 De-Pigmentary Effect of Ayurvedic Treatment on Hyper-Pigmentation of Skin Due to Chloroquine: A Case Report

Authors: Sunil Kumar, Rajesh Sharma

Abstract:

Toxic epidermal necrolysis, pruritis, rashes, lichen planus like eruption, hyper pigmentation of skin are rare toxic effects of choloroquine used over a long time. Skin and mucus membrane hyper pigmentation is generally of a bluish black or grayish color and irreversible after discontinuation of the drug. According to Ayurveda, Dushivisha is the name given to any poisonous substance which is not fully endowed with the qualities of poison by nature (i.e. it acts as an impoverished or weak poison) and because of its mild potency, it remains in the body for many years causing various symptoms, one among them being discoloration of skin.The objective of this case report is to investigate the effect of Ayurvedic management of chloroquine induced hyper-pigmentation on the line of treatment of Dushivisha. Case Report: A 26-year-old female was suffering from hyper-pigmentation of the skin over the neck, forehead, temporo-mandibular joints, upper back and posterior aspect of both the arms since 8 years had history of taking Chloroquine came to Out Patient Department of National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, India in Jan. 2015. The routine investigations (CBC, ESR, Eosinophil count) were within normal limits. Punch biopsy skin studied for histopathology under hematoxylin and eosin staining showed epidermis with hyper-pigmentation of the basal layer. In the papillary dermis as well as deep dermis there were scattered melanophages along with infiltration by mononuclear cells. There was no deposition of amyloid-like substances. These histopathological findings were suggestive of Chloroquine induced hyper-pigmentation. The case was treated on the line of treatment of Dushivisha and was given Vamana and Virechana (therapeutic emesis and purgation) every six months followed by Snehana karma (oleation therapy) with Panchatikta Ghrit and Swedana (sudation). Arogyavardhini Vati -1 g, Dushivishari Vati 500 mg, Mahamanjisthadi Quath 20 ml were given twelve hourly and Aragwadhadi Quath 25 ml at bed time orally. The patient started showing lightening of the pigments after six months and almost complete remission after 12 months of the treatment. Conclusion: This patient presented with the Dushivisha effect of Chloroquineandwas administered two relevant procedures from Panchakarma viz. Vamana and Virechana. Both Vamana and Virechanakarma here referred to Shodhana karma (purification procedures) eliminates accumulated toxins from the body. In this process, oleation dislodge the toxins from the tissues and sudation helps to bring them to the alimentary tract. The line of treatment did not target direct hypo pigmentary effects; rather aimed to eliminate the Dushivisha. This gave promising results in this condition.

Keywords: Ayurveda, chloroquine, Dushivisha, hyper-pigmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
17 Antiasthmatic Effect of Kankasava in OVA-Induced Asthma Mouse Model

Authors: Bharti Ahirwar

Abstract:

The main object of this study was to evaluate the effect of kankasava on OVA-induced asthma in mouse model. Present study has demonstrated that kankasava exhibited an antiasthmatic effect by attenuated AHR and reducing level of IgE, IL-5, and IL-13, in both serum and BALF in OVA induced asthmatic mice. Effect of kankasav on airway responsiveness was obtained by monitoring the enhanced pen value . Kankasava significantly reduced AHR can be explained, in part, by reduction in both IgE overexoression and cytokine levels. Kankasava significantly decreased IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in BALF indicate that it may suppress the excess activity of T-cells and Th2 cytokines, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, and consequently restore the Th1/Th2 imbalance of the immune system. In summary, we hypothesize that kankasava effectively suppressed elevations in IgE and cytokines levels, AHR, and mucus overproduction in mice with OVA-induced asthma suggested kankasava could be effective in immunological and pharmacological modulation of allergic asthma.

Keywords: asthma, ayurveda, kankasava, cytokine

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
16 Genetic Improvement of Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban. For Therapeutically Active Compounds

Authors: Dalave S. C., S. G. Auti, B. J. Apparao

Abstract:

Centella asiatica (L) Urban, commonly known as Brahmi and Mandookaparni is a valuable medicinal plant highly valued for its asiaticoside and madecassoside. It is widely used in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine. Attempts are made in the present investigation to improve the genotype of Centella plant that can yield higher amount of the therapeutically active compounds viz., asiaticosides and madecassosides, employing techniques of polyploidy breeding. Young developing shoots of Centella were treated with different concentrations of colchicine for varying time intervals. 0.4 % colchicine for 6 hours duration at room temperature was effective in inducing autopolyploidy in this plant. The colchicine treated plants were allowed to reproduce vegetatively for several generations in a polyhouse. The colchicine treated plants showed significant increase in plant size, fresh & dry weights, vigorous growth, broad leaves and double the number of chromosomes. HPTLC analysis of dried leaves of control and polyploid plants, even after 9th generations, revealed that the tetraploids synthesized at two times more asiaticoside and madecassoside, as compared to control, untreated diploid plants.

Keywords: Centella asiatica, polyploidy, asiaticosides, madecassoside, HPTLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
15 The Cell Viability Study of Extracts of Bark, Flowers, Leaves and Seeds of Indian Dhak Tree, Flame of Forest

Authors: Madhavi S. Apte, Milind Bhitre

Abstract:

In pharmaceutical research and new drug development, medicinal plants have important roles. Similarly, Indian dhak tree belonging to family Fabaceae has been widely used in the traditional Indian medical system of ‘Ayurveda’ for the treatment of a variety of ailments. Hence the cell viability study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the activity of extracts of various parts like flower, bark, leaf, seed by conducting MTT assay method along with other pharmacognostical studies. The methanolic extracts of bark, flowers, leaves, and seeds were used for the study. The cell viability MTT assay was performed using the standard operating procedures. The extracts were dissolved in DMSO and serially diluted with complete medium to get the concentrations range of test concentration. DMSO concentration was kept < 0.1% in all the samples. HUVEC cells maintained in appropriate conditions were seeded in 96 well plates and treated with different concentrations of the test samples and incubated at 37°C, 5% CO₂ for 96 hours. MTT reagent was added to the wells and incubated for 4 hours; the dark blue formazan product formed by the cells was dissolved in DMSO under a safety cabinet and read at 550nm. Percentage inhibitions were calculated and plotted with the concentrations used to calculate the IC50 values. The bark, flower, leaves and seed extracts have shown the cytotoxicity activity and can be further studied for antiangiogenesis activity.

Keywords: pharmacognosy, Cell viability, MTT assay, anti-angiogenesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
14 Paradigm Shift in Classical Drug Research: Challenges to Mordern Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Riddhi Shukla, Rajeshri Patel, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Mihir Raval, Navin Sheth

Abstract:

Many classical drugs are claimed to have blood sugar lowering properties that make them valuable for people with or at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Vijaysar (Pterocarpus marsupium) and Gaumutra (Indian cow urine) both have been shown antidiabetic property since primordial time and both shows synergistic effect in combination for hypoglycaemic activity. The study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic effects of the combination of Vijaysar and Gaumutra which is a classical preparation mentioned in Ayurveda named as Pramehari ark. Rats with Type 2 diabetes which is induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 35mg/kg) given a high-fat diet for one month and compared with normal rats. Diabetic rats showed raised level of body weight, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration and other serum, cardiac and hypertrophic parameters in comparison of normal rats. After treatment of different doses of drug the level of parameters like TG, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration found to be decreased in standard as well as in treatment groups. In addition treatment groups also found to be decreased in the level of serum markers, cardiac markers, and hypertrophic parameters. The findings demonstrated that Pramehari ark prevented the pathological progression of type 2 diabetes in rats.

Keywords: cow urine, hypoglycemic effect, synergic effect, type 2 diabetes, vijaysar

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
13 Toxicological Standardization of Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamination Haematinic Herbal Formulations Marketed in India

Authors: A. V. Chandewar, Sanjay Bais

Abstract:

Backgound: In India, drugs of herbal origin have been used in traditional systems of medicines such as Unani and Ayurveda since ancient times. WHO limit for Escherichia coli is 101/gm cfu, for Staphylococus aureus 105/gm cfu, and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa 103/gm cfu and for Salmonella species nil cfu. WHO mentions maximum permissible limits in raw materials only for arsenic, cadmium, and lead, which amount to 1.0, 0.3, and 10 ppm, respectively. Aim: The main purpose of the investigation was to document evidence for the users, and practitioners of marketed haematinic herbal formulations. In the present study haematinic herbal formulations marketed in Yavatmal India were determined for the presence of microbial and heavy metal content. Method: The investigations were performed by using specific medias and atomic absorption spectrometry. Result: The present work indicates the presence of heavy metal contents in herbal formulations selected for study. It was found that arsenic content in formulations was below the permissible limit in all formulations. The cadmium and lead content in six formulations were above the permissible limits. Such formulations are injurious to health of patient if consumed regularly. The specific medias were used to determining the presence of Escherichia coli 4 samples, Staphylococcus aureus 3 samples, and P. aeruginosa 4 samples. The data indicated suggest that there is requirement of in process improvement to provide better quality for consumer health in order to be competitive in international markets. Summary/Conclusion: The presence of microbial and heavy metal content above WHO limits indicates that the GMP was not followed during manufacturing of herbal formulations marketed in India.

Keywords: toxicological standardization, heavy metals, microbial contamination, haematinic herbal formulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
12 In Vitro Hepatoprotective and Anti-Hepatitis B Activitis of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome Fractions

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari

Abstract:

Cyperus rotendus rhizomes are used as traditional medicine, including Ayurveda in chronic liver diseases and hepatitis B. We investigated the in vitro hepatoprotective and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of Cyperus rotundus rhizome organic and aqueous fractions. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-injured HepG2 cells at 48 h. DCFH-toxicated cells were recovered to about 88% and 96%, upon treatment with n-butanol and aqueous fractions (200 g/ml), respectively compared to DCFH-only treated cells. Further, C. rotundus fractions were tested for anti-HBV activities by measuring the expression levels of viral antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 culture supernatants. At 48 h post-treatment, the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed dose-dependent inhibition wherein at a higher dose (100 g/ml), HBsAg production was reduced to 60.27%, 46.87 and 42.76%, respectively. In a time-course study, HBsAg production was inhibited up to 50% and 40% by ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions (100 g/ml), respectively on day 5. Three three active fractions were further subjected to time-dependent inhibition of HBeAg expression, an indirect measure of HBV active DNA replication. At day 5 post-treatment, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions downregulated HBV replication by 44.14% and 24.70%, respectively. In conclusion, our results showed very promising hepatoprotective and anti-HBV potential of C. rotendus tubers fractions in vitro. Our data could, therefore, provide the basis for the claimed traditional use of C. rotendus for jaundice and hepatitis.

Keywords: anti-hepatitis B, cyperus rotundus, hepatitis B virus, hepatoprotection

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
11 Highly Efficient in Vitro Regeneration of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten: A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant

Authors: Mahendran Ganesan, Sanjeet Kumar Verma, Zafar Iqbal, Ashish Chandran, Zakir Husain, Shama Afroz, Sana Shahid, Laiq Ur Rahman

Abstract:

Highly efficient in vitro regeneration system has been developed for Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst, a high prized traditional medicinal plant to treat numerous ailments such as liver disorders, malaria and diabetes and are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the British and the American pharmacopeias, and in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medical systems. Nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various phytohormones for multiple shoot induction. The nodal segments failed to respond in growth regulator free medium. All the concentrations of BAP, Kin and TDZ facilitated shoot bud break and multiple shoot induction. Among the various cytokinins tested, BAP was found to be more effective with respect to initiation and subsequent development of shoots. Of the various concentrations BAP tested, BAP at 4.0 mg/L showed the higher average number of shoot regeneration (10.80 shoots per explant). Kin at 4 mg/L and TDZ at 4 mg/L induced 5.70 and 04.5+0 shoots per explant, respectively. Further increase in concentration did not favour an increase in the number of shoots. However, these shoots failed to elongate further. Hence, addition of GA₃ (1 mg/L) was added to the above medium. This treatment resulted in the elongation of shoots (2.50 cm) and a further increase in the number of microshoots (34.20 shoots/explant). Roots were also induced in the same medium containing BAP (4 mg/L) + GA₃ (1 mg/L) + NAA (0.5 mg/L). In vitro derived plantlets with well-developed roots were transferred to the potting media containing garden soil: sand: vermicompost (2:1:1). Plantlets were covered with a polyethylene bag and irrigated with water. The pots were maintained at 25 ± 2ºC, and then the polyethylene cover was gradually loosened, thus dropping the humidity (65–70%). This procedure subsequently resulted in in vitro hardening of the plantlet.

Keywords: micropropagation, nodal explant, plant growth regulators, Swertia chirayita

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
10 Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Potential of Aqueous Extract of Jasminum humile Leaves in Nicotinamide/Streptozotocin induced Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Rat

Authors: Parminder Nain, Jaspreet kaur, Vipin Saini, Sunil Sharma

Abstract:

Jasminum humile commonly known as yellow Jasmine or Pili chameli, is a medicinal plant used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus. The current study aimed to establish the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves (AEJHL) in nicotinamide/streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Phytochemical screening, HPLC analysis, and acute toxicity study of AEJHL were carried out. Male albino wistar rats (n=42) were divided into seven equal groups. Rats with moderate diabetes having hyperglycemia (blood glucose 250-400 mg/dl) were taken for the experiment. Various concentrations of aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.), and glibenclamide (1mg/kg, p.o.) were orally administered to diabetic rats for 45 days. The effect of AEJHL on blood glucose, plasma insulin and biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin, total protein, serum creatinine, serum urea, alkaline phosphate, Glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), as well as total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were also studied. The antioxidant effect of AEJHL was determined by analyzing hepatic and renal antioxidant markers, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in diabetic rats. After 45-days oral administration of aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood sugar and increase plasma insulin level and also reverse all above biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzyme level at dose dependent manner. These findings provide in vivo evidence that the aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves possess significant antidiabetic and antioxidant potential in nicotinamide/streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus in rats.

Keywords: antidiabetic, antioxidant, jasminum humile, nicotinamide/streptozotocin, type-2 diabetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
9 Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Hypothyroidism Activity of Lepidium sativum Ethanolic Extract

Authors: Reham Hajomer, Ikram Elsiddig, Amna Hamad

Abstract:

Lepidium sativum (Garden Cress) belonging to Brassicaceae family is an annual herb locally known as El-rshad. In Ayurveda it is an important medicinal plant, traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice, liver problems, spleen diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, menstrual problems, fracture, arthritis, inflammatory conditions and for treatment of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones (Triiodithyronine T3 and Thyroxine T4) which are commonly caused by iodine deficiency. It’s divided into primary and secondary hypothyroidism, the primary caused by failure of thyroid function and secondary due to the failure of adequate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the pituitary gland or thyroid -releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus. The disease is most common in women over age 60. The objective regarding this study is to know whether Lepidium sativum would affect the level of thyroid hormones. The extract was prepared with 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The anti-hypothyroidism activity was tested by using thirty male Wistar rats weighing (100-140 g) were used in the experiment. They were grouping into five groups, Group 1: Normal group= Administered only distilled water. Then 10 mg/kg Propylthiouracil was added to the drinking water of all other groups to induce hypothyroidism. Group 2: Negative control without any treatment; Group 3: Test group= treated with oral administration of 500mg/kg extract; Group 4: treated with oral administration of 250mg/kg of the extract; Group 5: Standard group (positive control) = treated with intraperitoneal Levothyroxine. All rats were incubated for 20 days at animal house with room temperature of proper ventilation provided with standard diet. The result show that the Lepidium sativum extract was found to increases the T3 and T4 in the propylthiouracil induced rats with values (0.29 ng/dl T3 and 0.57 U T4) for the 500mg/kg and (0.27 ng/dl T3 and 0.517 U T4) for the 250mg/kg in comparison with standard with values (0.241 ng/dl T3 and 0.516 U T4) so that Lepidium sativum can be stimulatory to thyroid function and possess significant anti-hypothyroidism effect with p-values ranges from (0.000006*-0.893472). In conclusion, from results obtained, Lepidium sativum plant extract was found to posses anti-hypothyroidism effects so its act as an agent that stimulates thyroid hormone secretion.

Keywords: anti-hypothyroidism, extract, lepidium, sativum

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
8 Afrikan Natural Medicines: An Innovation-Based Model for Medicines Production, Curriculum Development and Clinical Application

Authors: H. Chabalala, A. Grootboom, M. Tang

Abstract:

The innovative development, production, and clinical utilisation of African natural medicines requires frameworks from systematisation, innovation, registration. Afrika faces challenges when it comes to these sectors. The opposite is the case as is is evident in ancient Asian (Traditional Chinese Medicine and Indian Ayurveda and Siddha) medical systems, which are interfaced into their respective national health and educational systems. Afrikan Natural Medicines (ANMs) are yet to develop systematisation frameworks, i.e. disease characterisation and medicines classification. This paper explores classical medical systems drawn from Afrikan and Chinese experts in natural medicines. An Afrikological research methodology was used to conduct in-depth interviews with 20 key respondents selected through purposeful sampling technique. Data was summarised into systematisation frameworks for classical disease theories, patient categorisation, medicine classification, aetiology and pathogenesis of disease, diagnosis and prognosis techniques and treatment methods. It was discovered that ancient Afrika had systematic medical cosmologies, remnants of which are evident in most Afrikan cultural health practices. Parallels could be drawn from classical medical concepts of antiquity, like Chinese Taoist and Indian tantric health systems. Data revealed that both the ancient and contemporary ANM systems were based on living medical cosmologies. The study showed that African Natural Healing Systems have etiological systems, general pathogenesis knowledge, differential diagnostic techniques, comprehensive prognosis and holistic treatment regimes. Systematisation models were developed out of these frameworks, and this could be used for evaluation of clinical research, medical application including development of curriculum for high-education. It was envisaged that frameworks will pave way towards the development, production and commercialisation of ANMs. This was piloted in inclusive innovation, technology transfer and commercialisation of South African natural medicines, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals and health infusions. The central model presented here in will assist in curriculum development and establishment of Afrikan Medicines Hospitals and Pharmaceutical Industries.

Keywords: African Natural Medicines, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Medical Cosmology, Clinical Application

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
7 The Roles of Non-Codified Traditional Medicine in a Suburban Village in Kerala, India

Authors: Sachi Matsuoka

Abstract:

This study aimed at implicating a current community health in South India focusing on a Vaidya, a non-codified traditional doctor, based on long-term field works. As the prevalence of colonic diseases is increasing in all over the world, it is needed to know the potential of non-codified medicines and how they can effectively take in a part in community health. Describing the people’s treatment seeking behaviours in a suburban village which is susceptible to modernization can give us a new insight for studying Indian medicines, that is included not only non-codified but also codified traditional ones, affected by global, national and local communities. Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered via participatory fieldworks and open-ended interviews to a Vaidya and his 97 patients and 31 individuals who lived in a community near the Vaidya’s station. It was found that the community members seldom consulted the Vaidya while a number of patients outside the village (mainly from urban nearby area) daily visited the Vaidya. Thus, the role of the Vaidya as the community’ s primary health care provider had nearly disappeared. Nonetheless, the Vaidya was deeply respected as one of the community’ s leaders by its members because of the spiritual and financial support he provided to them. The reasons for choosing the Vaidya for the patients from urban area are characterized by several social factors of the patients such as their religious belief, seriousness, occupation and medical history. Meanwhile, not only the Vaidya but also other codified traditional medicines, e.g., Ayurveda, were less popular among the community members. It sounds paradoxical given that the traditional Indian medical system has been becoming popular as an alternative medicine in societies outside of India, such as in Europe. The community members who are less educated and engaged in religious activities in daily life preferred to allopathy, the biomedicine in Indian context. It is thus concluded that roles of non-codified medicine has changed depending on its cultural and social contexts, even though its medical system is not authorized by the government. Nowadays, traditional medical effectiveness is recognized as evidenced by scientific survey and the codified medical doctors treats diseases rather than people. However, this study implicated that people’s treatment seeking behaviors are likely based on the social context in which people live their lives even though evidenced based codified medicine is provided in their community.

Keywords: medical pluralism, non-codified medicine, south india, treatment-seeking behaviours

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
6 Impact on the Yield of Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Content from Pomegranate Fruit by Different Extraction Methods

Authors: Udeshika Yapa Bandara, Chamindri Witharana, Preethi Soysa

Abstract:

Pomegranate fruits are used in cancer treatment in Ayurveda, Sri Lanka. Due to prevailing therapeutic effects of phytochemicals, this study was focus on anti-cancer properties of the constituents in the parts of Pomegranate fruit. Furthermore, the method of extraction, plays a crucial step of the phytochemical analysis. Therefore, this study was focus on different extraction methods. Five techniques were involved for the peel and the pericarp to evaluate the most effective extraction method; Boiling with electric burner (BL), Sonication (SN), Microwaving (MC), Heating in a 50°C water bath (WB) and Sonication followed by Microwaving (SN-MC). The presence of polyphenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated to recognize the best extraction method for polyphenols. The total phenolic content was measured spectrophotometrically by Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as Gallic Acid Equivalents (w/w% GAE). Total flavonoid content was also determined spectrophotometrically with Aluminium chloride colourimetric assay and expressed as Quercetin Equivalents (w/w % QE). Pomegranate juice was taken as fermented juice (with Saccharomyces bayanus) and fresh juice. Powdered seeds were refluxed, filtered and freeze-dried. 2g of freeze-dried powder of each component was dissolved in 100ml of De-ionized water for extraction. For the comparison of antioxidant activity and total phenol content, the polyphenols were removed by the Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVVP) column and fermented and fresh juice were tested for the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, before and after the removal of polyphenols. For the peel samples of Pomegranate fruit, total phenol and flavonoid contents were high in Sonication (SN). In pericarp, total phenol and flavonoid contents were highly exhibited in method of Sonication (SN). A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05) in total phenol and flavonoid contents, between five extraction methods for both peel and pericarp samples. Fermented juice had a greatest polyphenolic and flavonoid contents comparative to fresh juice. After removing polyphenols of fermented juice and fresh juice using Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVVP) column, low antioxidant activity was resulted for DPPH antioxidant activity assay. Seeds had a very low total phenol and flavonoid contents according to the results. Although, Pomegranate peel is the main waste component of the fruit, it has an excellent polyphenolic and flavonoid contents compared to other parts of the fruit, devoid of the method of extraction. Polyphenols play a major role for antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, flavonoids, polyphenols, pomegranate

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
5 Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Study the Antimicrobial Property of Eleaocarpus Ganitrus Fruits

Authors: Velvizhi Dharmalingam, Rajalaksmi Ramalingam, Rekha Prabhu, Ilavarasan Raju

Abstract:

Background: The use of herbal products for various therapeutic regimens has increased tremendously in the developing countries. Elaeocarpus ganitrus(Rudraksha) is a broad-leaved tree, belonging to the family Elaeocarpaceae found in tropical and subtropical areas. It is popular in an indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. According to Ayurvedic medicine, Rudraksha is used in the managing of blood pressure, asthma, mental disorders, diabetes, gynaecological disorders, neurological disorders such as epilepsy and liver diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to study the physicochemical parameters of Elaeocarpus ganitrus(fruits) and identify the phenolic compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid). To estimate the microbial load and the antibacterial activity of extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus for selective pathogens. Methodology: The dried powdered fruit of Elaeocarpus ganitrus was performed the physicochemical parameters (such as Loss on drying, Alcohol soluble extractive, Water soluble extractive, Total ash and Acid insoluble ash) and pH was measured. The dried coarse powdered fruit of Elaeocarpus ganitrus was extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and aqueous alcohol by cold percolation method. Identification of phenolic compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid) was done by HPTLC method and confirmed by co-TLC using different solvent system.The successive extracts of Elaeocarpus ganitrus and standards (like gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid) was approximately weighed and made up with alcohol. HPTLC (CAMAG) analysis was performed on a TLC over silica gel 60F254 precoated aluminium plate, layer thickness 0.2 mm (E.Merck, Germany) by using ATS4, Visualizer and Scanner with wavelength at 254 nm, 366 nm and derivatized with different reagents. The microbial load such as total bacterial count, total fungal count, Enterobacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by serial dilution method and antibacterial activity of was measured by Kirby bauer method for selective pathogens. Results: The physicochemical parameter of Elaeocarpus ganitrus was studied for standardization of crude drug. Among all the successive extracts were identified with phenolic compounds and Elaeocarpus ganitrus extract having potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Elaeocarpus ganitrus, HPTLC, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
4 Curcumin and Its Analogues: Potent Natural Antibacterial Compounds against Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Prince Kumar, Shamseer Kulangara Kandi, Diwan S. Rawat, Kasturi Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus is the most pathogenic of all staphylococci, a major cause of nosocomial infections, and known for acquiring resistance towards various commonly used antibiotics. Due to the widespread use of synthetic drugs, clinicians are now facing a serious threat in healthcare. The increasing resistance in staphylococci has created a need for alternatives to these synthetic drugs. One of the alternatives is a natural plant-based medicine for both disease prevention as well as the treatment of chronic diseases. Among such natural compounds, curcumin is one of the most studied molecules and has been an integral part of traditional medicines and Ayurveda from ancient times. It is a natural polyphenolic compound with diverse pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancerous and antibacterial activities. In spite of its efficacy and potential, curcumin has not been approved as a therapeutic agent yet, because of its low solubility, low bioavailability, and rapid metabolism in vivo. The presence of central β-diketone moiety in curcumin is responsible for its rapid metabolism. To overcome this, in the present study, curcuminoids were designed by modifying the central β-diketone moiety of curcumin into mono carbonyl moiety and their antibacterial potency against S. aureus ATCC 29213 was determined. Further, the mode of action and hemolytic activity of the most potent curcuminoids were studied. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and in vitro killing kinetics were used to study the antibacterial activity of the designed curcuminoids. For hemolytic assay, mouse Red blood cells were incubated with curcuminoids and hemoglobin release was measured spectrophotometrically. The mode of action of curcuminoids was analysed by membrane depolarization assay using membrane potential sensitive dye 3,3’-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide (DiSC3(5)) through spectrofluorimetry and membrane permeabilization assay using calcein-AM through flow cytometry. Antibacterial screening of the designed library (61 curcuminoids) revealed excellent in vitro potency of six compounds against S. aureus (MIC 8 to 32 µg/ml). Moreover, these six compounds were found to be non-hemolytic up to 225 µg/ml that is much higher than their corresponding MIC values. The in vitro killing kinetics data showed five of these lead compounds to be bactericidal causing >3 log reduction in the viable cell count within 4 hrs at 5 × MIC while the sixth compound was found to be bacteriostatic. Depolarization assay revealed that all the six curcuminoids caused depolarization in their corresponding MIC range. Further, the membrane permeabilization assay showed that all the six curcuminoids caused permeabilization at 5 × MIC in 2 hrs. This membrane depolarization and permeabilization caused by curcuminoids found to be in correlation with their corresponding killing efficacy. Both these assays point out that membrane perturbations might be a primary mode of action for these curcuminoids. Overall, the present study leads us six water soluble, non-hemolytic, membrane-active curcuminoids and provided an impetus for further research on therapeutic use of these lead curcuminoids against S. aureus.

Keywords: antibacterial, curcumin, minimum inhibitory concentration , Staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
3 Medicinal Plant Resources and Conservation of Nallamalais, Forest Range, Eastern Ghats, India

Authors: S. K. M. Basha

Abstract:

Nallamalas one of the centres of Plant Diversity (CPD) (WWF&IUCN,1995) is located in the central eastern Ghats between latitudes 15.20’-16.30’N and Longitude 78.30-80.10E in Andhra Pradesh, extended to an area of 7640 Sq.Km. No Comprehensive work available for RET Plants in the study area, therefore the objective of the present paper is to document the RET Medicinal Plants of Nallamalias and their uses by the local people of the area. In India, one of the major resources to know about the number of plant species and their medicinal values is the groups who are habituated in near and deep forests. The most common groups in south Indian forests are Yanadis and Yerukulas. These two groups of people are residing in the forest, which is located very far from the modern society, towns and cities. They are following traditional methods obtained from their forefathers in all respects, including medication. They are the only source to know many medicinal plants in the areas where they reside and are also important to record the medicinal properties of various plant species which are not reported. The new reports may help in drug industry in order to develop pharmaceutical herbal medicine for human health. In the present study, nearly 150 rare species have been found to be used for various ailments. Out of these 23 species are critically endangered, over 25 are vulnerable and around 22 comes under the category of near threatened. Some important species like Christella dentate, Careya arborea are used for curing cough and cold. Piper attnuatum, piper nigrum are used for curing skin disease. Ipomoea mauritiana is used against male impotency.Glycosmis cochinensis, Entada perseatha are used as contraceptives. The roots of Andrographis nallamalayana and Acrocephalus indicus are used for leucorrhoea. While the stem barks of Gyrocarpus americanus is given orally for spider bite. Piper hymenophyllum leaves mixed with turmeric and gingerly oil is used externally for mouth ulcers in cattle. Piper nigrum fruits are used for skin diseases. Vernonia anthelmentica seeds are used for indigestion. It was widely distributed in this hills. Due to over exploitation this species was in declined condition. Sterculia urens which is a sorce of gum for tribal, due to over exploitation this species declaimed in these hills. Hence, there is an urgent need to conserve the medicinal plants and prevent their exploitation and extinction with the help of tribals. There is a need to adopt sustainable utilization, cultivation and micro propagation techniques. Medicinal plants are as potent and effective today as they were thousands of years ago. They are natures wonderful gift to mankind and are involved in India as a very rich ancient heritage of traditional systems medicine i.e., ayurveda, siddha and unani. Unfortunately, these traditions have been largely eroded because of lack of support and recognition as well as rapid destruction of natural habitats which has led to shrinkage of medicinal plants therefore the conservation of medicinal plants and the revitalization of local health traditions has been taken up on priority basis.

Keywords: RET plants CPD, IUCN, nallamalas, yanadis, yerukulas

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
2 Asparagus racemosus Willd for Enhanced Medicinal Properties

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Parveen Parveen

Abstract:

India is bestowed with an extremely high population of plant species with medicinal value and even has two biodiversity hotspots. Indian systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani have historically been serving humankind across the world since time immemorial. About 1500 plant species have well been documented in Ayurvedic Nighantus as official medicinal plants. Additionally, several hundred species of plants are being routinely used as medicines by local people especially tribes living in and around forests. The natural resources for medicinal plants have unscientifically been over-exploited forcing rapid depletion in their genetic diversity. Moreover, renewed global interest in herbal medicines may even lead to additional depletion of medicinal plant wealth of the country, as about 95% collection of medicinal plants for pharmaceutical preparation is being carried out from natural forests. On the other hand, huge export market of medicinal and aromatic plants needs to be seriously tapped for enhancing inflow of foreign currency. Asparagus racemosus Willd., a member of family Liliaceae, is one of thirty-two plant species that have been identified as priority species for cultivation and conservation by the National Medicinal Plant Board (NMPB), Government of India. Though attention is being focused on standardization of agro-techniques and extraction methods, little has been designed on genetic improvement and selection of desired types with higher root production and saponin content, a basic ingredient of medicinal value. The saponin not only improves defense mechanisms and controls diabetes but the roots of this species promote secretion of breast milk, improved lost body weight and considered as an aphrodisiac. There is ample scope for genetic improvement of this species for enhancing productivity substantially, qualitatively and quantitatively. It is emphasized to select desired genotypes with sufficient genetic diversity for important economic traits. Hybridization between two genetically divergent genotypes could result in the synthesis of new F1 hybrids consisting of useful traits of both the parents. The evaluation of twenty seed sources of Asparagus racemosus assembled different geographical locations of India revelled high degree of variability for traits of economic importance. The maximum genotypic and phenotypic variance was observed for shoot height among shoot related traits and for root length among root related traits. The shoot height, genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance, the phenotypic coefficient of variance was recorded to be 231.80, 3924.80, 61.26 and 1037.32, respectively, where those of the root length were 9.55, 16.80, 23.46 and 41.27, respectively. The maximum genetic advance and genetic gain were obtained for shoot height among shoot-related traits and root length among root-related traits. Index values were developed for all seed sources based on the four most important traits, and Panthnagar (Uttrakhand), Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Dehradun (Uttarakhand), Chandigarh (Punjab), Jammu (Jammu & Kashmir) and Solan (Himachal Pradesh) were found to be promising seed sources.

Keywords: asparagus, genetic, genotypes, variance

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
1 Azadirachta indica Derived Protein Encapsulated Novel Guar Gum Nanocapsules against Colon Cancer

Authors: Suman Chaudhary, Rupinder K. Kanwar, Jagat R. Kanwar

Abstract:

Azadirachta indica, also known as Neem belonging to the mahogany family is actively gaining interest in the era of modern day medicine due to its extensive applications in homeopathic medicine such as Ayurveda and Unani. More than 140 phytochemicals have been extracted from neem leaves, seed, bark and flowers for agro-medicinal applications. Among the various components, neem leaf protein (NLP) is currently the most investigated active ingredient, due to its immunomodulatory activities against tumor growth. However, these therapeutic ingredients of neem are susceptible to degradation and cannot withstand the drastic pH changes under physiological environment, and therefore, there is an urgent need of an alternative strategy such as a nano-delivery system to exploit its medicinal benefits. This study hypothesizes that guar gum (GG) derived biodegradable nano-carrier based encapsulation of NLP will improve its stability, specificity and sensitivity, thus facilitating targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. GG is a galactomannan derived from the endosperm of the guar beans seeds. Synthesis of guar nanocapsules (NCs) was performed using nanoprecipitation technique where the GG was encapsulated with NLP. Preliminary experiments conducted to characterize the NCs confirmed spherical morphology with a narrow size distribution of 30-40 nm. Differential scanning colorimetric analysis (DSC) validated the stability of these NCs even at a temperature range of 50-60°C which was well within the physiological and storage conditions. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis indicated high decomposition temperature of these NCs ranging upto 350°C. Additionally, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the SDS-PAGE data acquired confirmed the successful encapsulation of NLP in the NCs. The anti-cancerous therapeutic property of this NC was tested on colon cancer cells (caco-2) as they are one of the most prevalent form of cancer. These NCs (both NLP loaded and void) were also tested on human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs 74) cells to evaluate their effect on normal cells. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the NCs in the cell lines confirmed that the IC50 for NLP in FHs 74 cells was ~2 fold higher than in caco-2 cells, indicating that this nanoformulation system possessed biocompatible anti-cancerous properties Immunoconfocal microscopy analysis confirmed the time dependent internalization of the NCs within 6h. Recent findings performed using Annexin V and PI staining indicated a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in the early and late apoptotic cell population when treated with the NCs signifying the role of NLP in inducing apoptosis in caco-2 cells. This was further validated using Western blot, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) aided protein expressional analysis which presented a downregulation of survivin, an anti-apoptotic cell marker and upregulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (pro-apoptotic indicator). Further, both the NLP NC and unencapsulated NLP treatment destabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential subsequently facilitating the release of the pro-apoptotic caspase cascade initiator, cytochrome-c. Future studies will be focused towards granting specificity to these NCs towards cancer cells, along with a comprehensive analysis of the anti-cancer potential of this naturally occurring compound in different cancer and in vivo animal models, will validate the clinical application of this unprecedented protein therapeutic.

Keywords: anti-tumor, guar gum, nanocapsules, neem leaf protein

Procedia PDF Downloads 70