Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: gut microbiota

74 Dietary Gluten and the Balance of Gut Microbiota in the Dextran Sulphate Sodium Induced Colitis Model

Authors: Austin Belfiori, Kevin Rinek, Zach Barcroft, Jennifer Berglind

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Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota and host's health. Disruption of the balance among the microbiota, epithelial cells, and resident immune cells in the intestine is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To study the role of gut microbiota in intestinal inflammation, the microbiome of control mice (C57BL6) given a gluten-containing standard diet versus C57BL6 mice given the gluten-free (GF) feed (n=10 in each group) was examined. All mice received the 3% DSS for 5 days. Throughout the study, feces were collected and processed for DNA extraction and MiSeq Illumina sequencing of V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Alpha and beta diversities and compositional differences at phylum and genus levels were determined in intestinal microbiota. The mice receiving the GF diet showed a significantly increased abundance of Firmicutes and a decrease of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus at phylum level. Therefore, the gluten free diet led to reductions in beneficial gut bacteria populations. These findings indicate a role of wheat gluten in dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota.

Keywords: gluten, colitis, microbiota, DSS, dextran sulphate sodium

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73 Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota: A Signature in Fecal Samples from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Mina Hojat Ansari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Ali Reza Safarpour

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common bowel disorder which is usually diagnosed through the abdominal pain, fecal irregularities and bloating. Alteration in the intestinal microbial composition is implicating to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders which is recently also noted as an IBS feature. Owing to the potential importance of microbiota implication in both efficiencies of the treatment and prevention of the diseases, we examined the association between the intestinal microbiota and different bowel patterns in a cohort of subjects with IBS and healthy controls. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 50 subjects, 30 of whom met the Rome IV criteria for IBS and 20 Healthy control. Total DNA was extracted and library preparation was conducted following the standard protocol for small whole genome sequencing. The pooled libraries sequenced on an Illumina Nextseq platform with a 2 × 150 paired-end read length and obtained sequences were analyzed using several bioinformatics programs. The majority of sequences obtained in the current study assigned to bacteria. However, our finding highlighted the significant microbial taxa variation among the studied groups. The result, therefore, suggests a significant association of the microbiota with symptoms and bowel characteristics in patients with IBS. These alterations in fecal microbiota could be exploited as a biomarker for IBS or its subtypes and suggest the modification of the microbiota might be integrated into prevention and treatment strategies for IBS.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal microbiota, small whole genome sequencing, fecal samples, Illumina

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72 Gut Microbiota and Their Modulating Role in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Hypertensive Rats Fed with Selected Local Wild Beans

Authors: Bankole Do, Omodara T. R., Awyinka O. A.

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Probiotic supplementation has been known to be associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension. Against these backdrop, activities of the gut microbiota from hypertensive induced pregnant and non-pregnant rats as mediated by the soluble and indigestible fraction of carbohydrates derived from Otiliand fermentedIru were studied in this present work. Microbiota from hypertensive induced non- pregnant rats fed with Otili and Iruhad Proteus vulgaris + Staphylococcus aureus. However, hypertensive induced pregnant rats fed with Otilipredominantly contained Proteus vulgaris + Bacillus lichniformiswhile the group fed with Iruhad Staphylococcus aureus + Bacillus lichniformis. Thus, showingdysbiosis in hypertensive induced rats is influenced by pregnancy. Further In-vitro study showed Proteus vulgaris playing a key role in the fermentative process of the indigestible fraction of carbohydrates while Esherichia coli played the key role in the fermentative process of the soluble fraction of carbohydrates in all the bean samples. This dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, as seen in hypertension in rats in this present study, might be part of the strategies for the prevention and treatment of this Non-Communicable Disease.

Keywords: probiotic, microbiota, dysbiosis, hypertension

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71 The Effect of Heat Stress on the Gastro-Intestinal Microbiota of Pigs

Authors: Yadnyavalkya Patil, Ravi Gooneratne, Xiang-Hong Ju

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Heat stress (HS) negatively affects the physiology of pigs. In this study, 6 pigs will be subjected to temperatures of 35 ± 2℃ for 12 hrs/day for a duration of 21 days. The changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota will be observed by analyzing the freshly collected faeces on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. The changes will be compared to faeces from a set of 6 control pigs kept simultaneously at temperatures of 26 ± 2℃ for the same duration of 21 days. Different types of stresses such a weaning have a detrimental effect on GIT microflora. Similarly, HS is expected to have a harmful effect on the microbial diversity of the GIT. How these changes affect the immune system of the pigs will be studied and therapeutics to reduce the negative effects of HS will be developed.

Keywords: GIT microbiota, heat stress, immune system, therapeutics

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70 Metagenomics Features of The Gut Microbiota in Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Anna D. Kotrova, Alexandr N. Shishkin, Elena I. Ermolenko

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The aim. To study the quantitative and qualitative colon bacteria ratio from patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. Fecal samples from patients of 2 groups were identified and analyzed: the first group was formed by patients with metabolic syndrome, the second one - by healthy individuals. The metagenomics method was used with the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The libraries of the variable sites (V3 and V4) gene 16S RNA were analyzed using the MiSeq device (Illumina). To prepare the libraries was used the standard recommended by Illumina, a method based on two rounds of PCR. Results. At the phylum level in the microbiota of patients with metabolic syndrome compared to healthy individuals, the proportion of Tenericutes was reduced, the proportion of Actinobacteria was increased. At the genus level, in the group with metabolic syndrome, relative to the second group was increased the proportion of Lachnospira. Conclusion. Changes in the colon bacteria ratio in the gut microbiota of patients with metabolic syndrome were found both at the type and the genus level. In the metabolic syndrome group, there is a decrease in the proportion of bacteria that do not have a cell wall. To confirm the revealed microbiota features in patients with metabolic syndrome, further study with a larger number of samples is required.

Keywords: gut microbiota, metabolic syndrome, metagenomics, tenericutes

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69 The Promising Way to Minimize the Negative Effects of Iron Fortification

Authors: M. Juffrie, Siti Helmyati, Toto Sudargo, B. J. Istiti Kandarina

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Background: Iron fortification is one potential way to overcome anemia but it can cause gut microbiota imbalance. Probiotics addition can increase the growth of good gut bacteria while prebiotics can support the probiotics growth. Tempeh is rich in nutrients required for hemoglobin synthesis, such as protein, vitamin B12, vitamin C, zinc, iron and copper. Objective: To know the efficacy of fermented tempeh extract fortified with iron and synbiotic in maintain gut microbiota balance. Methods: Fermented synbiotic tempeh extract was made using Lactobacillus plantarum Dad13 and Fructo-oligosaccharides. A total of 32 anemic Wistar rats underwent the iron repletion phase then divided into 4 groups, given: 1) Fermented synbiotic tempeh extract with 50 ppm Fe/NaFeEDTA (Na), 2) Fermented synbiotic tempeh extract with 50 ppm Fe/FeSO4 (Fe), 3) Fermented synbiotic tempeh extract (St), and 4) not receive any interventions (Co). Rats were feed AIN-93 free Fe during intervention. Gut microbiota was measured with culture technique using selective media agar while hemoglobin concentration (Hb) was measured with photometric method before and after intervention. Results: There were significant increase in Hb after intervention in Na, Fe, and St, 6.85 to 11.80; 6.41 to 11.48 and 6.47 to 11.03 mg/dL, respectively (p <0.05). Co did not show increase in Hb (6.40 vs. 6.28 mg/dL). Lactobacilli increased in all groups while both of Bifidobacteria increased and E. coli decreased only in Na and St groups. Conclusion: Iron fortification of fermented synbiotic tempeh extract can increase hemoglobin concentrations in anemic animal, increase Lactobacilli and decrease E. coli. It can be an alternative solution to conduct iron fortification without deteriorate the gut microbiota.

Keywords: tempeh, synbiotic, iron, haemoglobin, gut microbiota

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68 Value Added by Spirulina Platensis in Two Different Diets on Growth Performance, Gut Microbiota, and Meat Quality of Japanese Quails

Authors: Mohamed Yusuf

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Aim: The growth promoting the effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP) was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD])- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet) on growth performance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old). Results: Data revealed improvement (p<0.05) of weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP)/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP)/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g(SP)/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP)/kgVPD and 2 g (SP)/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP)/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP) may not be invited to share fishmeal based diet for growing Japanese quails. Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet.

Keywords: isocaloric, isonitrogenous, meat quality, performances, quails, spirulina, spirulina

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67 Probiotics as Therapeutic Agents in the Treatment of Various Diseases: A Literature Review

Authors: K. B. Chathyushya, M. Shiva Prakash, R. Hemalatha

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Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) tract has a number of microorganisms (microbiota) that influences the host’s health. The imbalance in the gut microbiota, which is also called as gut dysbiosis, affects human health which causes various metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Probiotics play an important role in reinstating the gut balance. Probiotics are involved in the maintenance of healthier gut microbiota and have also been identified as effective adjuvants in insulin resistance therapies. Methods: This paper systematically reviews different randomized, controlled, blinded trials of probiotics for the treatment of various diseases along with the therapeutic or prophylactic properties of probiotic bacteria in different metabolic, inflammatory, infectious and anxiety-related disorders. Conclusion: The present review summarises that probiotics have some considerable effect in the management of various diseases, however, the benefits are strain specific, although more clinical trials are need to be carried out with different probiotic and symbiotic combinations as some probiotics have broad spectrum of benefits and few with specific activity

Keywords: life style diseases, cognition, health, gut dysbiosis, probiotics

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66 Effects of Brewer's Yeast Peptide Extract on the Growth of Probiotics and Gut Microbiota

Authors: Manuela Amorim, Cláudia S. Marques, Maria Conceição Calhau, Hélder J. Pinheiro, Maria Manuela Pintado

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Recently it has been recognized peptides from different food sources with biological activities. However, no relevant study has proven the potential of brewer yeast peptides in the modulation of gut microbiota. The importance of human intestinal microbiota in maintaining host health is well known. Probiotics, prebiotics and the combination of these two components, can contribute to support an adequate balance of the bacterial population in the human large intestine. The survival of many bacterial species inhabiting the large bowel depends essentially on the substrates made available to them, most of which come directly from the diet. Some of these substrates can be selectively considered as prebiotics, which are food ingredients that can stimulate beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli or Bifidobacteria growth in the colon. Moreover, conventional food can be used as vehicle to intake bioactive compounds that provide those health benefits and increase people well-being. In this way, the main objective of this work was to study the potential prebiotic activity of brewer yeast peptide extract (BYP) obtained via hydrolysis of yeast proteins by cardosins present in Cynara cardunculus extract for possible use as a functional ingredient. To evaluate the effect of BYP on the modulation of gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity model, Wistar rats were fed either with a standard or a high-fat diet. Quantified via 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expression by quantitative PCR (qPCR), genera of beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.) and three main phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria) were assessed. Results showed relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Bacteroidetes was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by BYP. Consequently, the potential health-promoting effects of WPE through modulation of gut microbiota were demonstrated in vivo. Altogether, these findings highlight the possible intervention of BYP as gut microbiota enhancer, promoting healthy life style, and the incorporation in new food products, leads them bringing associated benefits endorsing a new trend in the improvement of new value-added food products.

Keywords: functional ingredients, gut microbiota, prebiotics, brewer yeast peptide extract

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65 Characterization of Genus Candida Yeasts Isolated from Oral Microbiota of Brazilian Schoolchildren with Different Caries Experience

Authors: D. S. V. Barbieri, R. R. Gomes, G. D. Santos, P. F. Herkert, M. Moreira, E. S. Trindade, V. A. Vicente

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The importance of yeast infections has increased in recent decades. The monitoring of Candida yeasts has been relevant in the study of groups and populations. This research evaluated 31 Candida spp. isolates from oral microbiota of 12 Brazilian schoolchildren coinfected with Streptococcus mutans. The isolates were evaluated for their ability to form biofilm in vitro and molecularly characterized based on the sequencing of intergenic spacer regions ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 and variable domains of the large subunit (D1/D2) regions of the rDNA, as well as ABC system genotyping. The sequencing confirmed 26 lineages of Candida albicans, three Candida tropicalis, one Candida guillhermondii and one Candida glabrata. Genetic variability and differences on in biofilm formation were observed among Candida yeasts lineages. At least one Candida strain from each caries activity child was C.albicans genotype A or Candida non-albicans. C. tropicalis was associated with highest cavities rates. These results indicate that the presence of C. albicans genotype A or multi-colonization by non albicans species seem to be associates to the potentialization of caries risk.

Keywords: biofilm, Candida albicans, oral microbiota, caries

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64 The Role of Oral and Intestinal Microbiota in European Badgers

Authors: Emma J. Dale, Christina D. Buesching, Kevin R. Theis, David W. Macdonald

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This study investigates the oral and intestinal microbiomes of wild-living European badgers (Meles meles) and will relate inter-individual differences to social contact networks, somatic and reproductive fitness, varying susceptibility to bovine tuberculous (bTB) and to the olfactory advertisement. Badgers are an interesting model for this research, as they have great variation in body condition, despite living in complex social networks and having access to the same resources. This variation in somatic fitness, in turn, affects breeding success, particularly in females. We postulate that microbiota have a central role to play in determining the successfulness of an individual. Our preliminary results, characterising the microbiota of individual badgers, indicate unique compositions of microbiota communities within social groups of badgers. This basal information will inform further questions related to the extent microbiota influence fitness. Hitherto, the potential role of microbiota has not been considered in determining host condition, but also other key fitness variables, namely; communication and resistance to disease. Badgers deposit their faeces in communal latrines, which play an important role in olfactory communication. Odour profiles of anal and subcaudal gland secretions are highly individual-specific and encode information about group-membership and fitness-relevant parameters, and their chemical composition is strongly dependent on symbiotic microbiota. As badgers sniff/ lick (using their Vomeronasal organ) and over-mark faecal deposits of conspecifics, these microbial communities can be expected to vary with social contact networks. However, this is particularly important in the context of bTB, where badgers are assumed to transmit bTB to cattle as well as conspecifics. Interestingly, we have found that some individuals are more susceptible to bTB than are others. As acquired immunity and thus potential susceptibility to infectious diseases are known to depend also on symbiotic microbiota in other members of the mustelids, a role of particularly oral microbiota can currently not be ruled out as a potential explanation for inter-individual differences in infection susceptibility of bTB in badgers. Tri annually badgers are caught in the context of a long-term population study that began in 1987. As all badgers receive an individual tattoo upon first capture, age, natal as well as previous and current social group-membership and other life history parameters are known for all animals. Swabs (subcaudal ‘scent gland’, anal, genital, nose, mouth and ear) and fecal samples will be taken from all individuals, stored at -80oC until processing. Microbial samples will be processed and identified at Wayne State University’s Theis (Host-Microbe Interactions) Lab, using High Throughput Sequencing (16S rRNA-encoding gene amplification and sequencing). Acknowledgments: Gas-Chromatography/ Mass-spectrometry (in the context of olfactory communication) analyses will be performed through an established collaboration with Dr. Veronica Tinnesand at Telemark University, Norway.

Keywords: communication, energetics, fitness, free-ranging animals, immunology

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63 Assessing Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Midgutmicroflora of Aedesaegypti

Authors: V. Baweja, K. K. Gupta, V. Dubey, C. Keshavam

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Antimicrobial activity of six indigenous plants such as Tulsi Ocimum sanctum, Neem Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera, Turmeric Curcuma longa, Lantana Lantana camara, and Clove Syzygium aromaticum was assessed against the gut microbiota of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, keeping in view that the presence of midgut bacteria may affect the ability of the vector to transmit pathogens. Eleven different types of bacterial clones were isolated from the midgut of lab-reared fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and were grown on LB agar medium at an optimum temperature of 25 ºC. Identification of these bacteria was done on the basis of their colony characteristic such as colony size, shape, opacity, elevation, consistency, and growth. Light microscopic studies of the gut microbiota revealed dominance of Gram-negative cocci over gram positive cocci and bacilli and Gram-negative bacilli. Identification of species was done by chemical characterization of the colonies. Crude extracts of all test plants were screened for their antimicrobial activities against gut microbiota by disc diffusion assay. The zone of exclusion seen after 24 hr of incubation in different assays revealed the most potent antibacterial activities in neem followed by clove and turmeric. Lantana and Aloe vera were least effective.

Keywords: plant extract, aedes, dengue, antimicrobial activity

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62 Theory of Negative Trigger: The Contract between Oral Probiotics and Immune System

Authors: Cliff Shunsheng Han

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Identifying the direct allergy cause that can be easily mitigated is the foundation to stop the allergy epidemic that has been started in the seventies. It has confirmed that the personal and social hygiene practices are associated with the allergy prevalence. But direct causes have been found, and proposed translational measures have not been effective. This study, assisted by a particular case of allergies, has seen the direct cause of allergies, developed a valid test resulted in lasting relief for allergies, and constructed theory describing general relationship between microbiota and host immune system. Saliva samples were collected from a subject for three years during which time the person experienced yearlong allergy, seasonal allergy, and remission of allergy symptoms. Bacterial DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were profiled with Illumina sequencing technology. The analyzing results indicate that the possible direct cause of allergy is the lacking probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity, such as genera Streptococcus and Veilonella, that can produce metabolites to pacify immune system. Targeted promotion of those bacteria with a compound designed for them, has led to lasting remissions of allergic rhinitis. During the development of the translational measure, the subject's oral biofilm was completely destructed by a moderate fever due to an unrelated respiratory infection. The incident not only facilitated the development of the heat based microbiota reseeding procedure but also indicated a possible natural switch that subsequently increases the efficacy of the immune system previously restrained by metabolites from microbiota. These results lead to the proposal of a Theory of Negative Trigger (TNT) to describe the relationship between oral probiotics and immune system, in which probiotics are the negative trigger that will release the power of immune system when removed by fever or modern lifestyles. This study could open doors leading to further understanding of how the immune system functions under the influence of microbiota as well as validate simple traditional practices for healthy living.

Keywords: oral microbiome, allergy, immune system, infection

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61 Isolation and Identification of the Dominant Flora of the Intestinal Microbiota of Rattus norvegicus an Algerian Firm West

Authors: Karima Ould Yerou, B. Meddah, A. Tir Touil

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The intestinal flora also called the intestinal microbiota, consists of different bacteria and other microorganisms which occur naturally in the gastrointestinal tract organs components. These intestinal bacteria are present in their millions and help the functioning of the body in particular allowing aid to degradation of certain molecules into absorbable substrates. They also protect against invasion of the gut by other pathogenic bacteria, that is to say which may be responsible for disease. Factors like stress, antibiotics and diet can affect the balance of intestinal flora and in case of imbalance, digestive disorders type bloating, diarrhea or vomiting may occur. Rattus norvegicus of bad weight of 100 kg, an Algerian firm West are scarified and isolation of their ileum and colon respectively two Bactrian strains Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus are then purified and identified.

Keywords: intestinal flora, Rattus norvegicus, Escherichia coli, lactobacillus, West Algerian farm

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60 Soil and the Gut Microbiome: Supporting the 'Hygiene Hypothesis'

Authors: Chris George, Adam Hamlin, Lily Pereg, Richard Charlesworth, Gal Winter

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Background: According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ the current rise in allergies and autoimmune diseases stems mainly from reduced microbial exposure due, amongst other factors, to urbanisation and distance from soil. However, this hypothesis is based on epidemiological and not biological data. Useful insights into the underlying mechanisms of this hypothesis can be gained by studying our interaction with soil. Soil microbiota may be directly ingested or inhaled by humans, enter the body through skin-soil contact or using plants as vectors. This study aims to examine the ability of soil microbiota to colonise the gut, study the interaction of soil microbes with the immune system and their potential protective activity. Method: The nutrition of the rats was supplemented daily with fresh or autoclaved soil for 21 days followed by 14 days of no supplementations. Faecal samples were collected throughout and analysed using 16S sequencing. At the end of the experiment rats were sacrificed and tissues and digesta were collected. Results/Conclusion: Results showed significantly higher richness and diversity following soil supplementation even after recovery. Specific soil microbial groups identified as able to colonise the gut. Of particular interest was the mucosal layer which emerged as a receptive host for soil microorganisms. Histological examination revealed innate and adaptive immune activation. Findings of this study reinforce the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ by demonstrating the ability of soil microbes to colonise the gut and activate the immune system. This paves the way for further studies aimed to examine the interaction of soil microorganisms with the immune system.

Keywords: gut microbiota, hygiene hypothesis, microbiome, soil

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59 Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Fermented Feed Mulberry(Morus alba L.) on Reproductive Performance and Fecal M Icro Biota of Pregnant Sows

Authors: Yuping Zhang, Teng Ma, Nadia Everaert, Hongfu Zhang

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Supplying dietary fiber during gestation is known to improve the welfare of feed-restricted sows. However, whether high fiber supplementation during pregnancy can improve the performance of sows and their offspring depends on the type, amount, source, etc., in which the solubility plays a key important role. Insoluble fibers have been shown to increase feed intake of sows in lactation, meet the needs of sows for milk production, reduce sow’s weight and backfat loss, and thus improve the performance of sows and their offspring. In this study, we investigated the effect of the addition of fermented feed mulberry (FFM), rich in insoluble fiber, during the whole gestation on the performance of sows and their offspring and explored possible mechanisms by determining serum hormones and fecal microbiota. The FFM-diet contained 25.5% FFM (on dry matter basis) and was compared with the control–diet (CON, corn, and soybean meal diet). The insoluble fiber content of the FFM and CON diet are respectively 29.3% and 19.1%. both groups were allocated 20 multiparous sows, and they are fed different feed allowance to make sure all the sows get the same digestible energy for each day. After farrowing, all sows were fed the same lactation diet ad libitum. The serum estradiol, progesterone concentration, blood glucose, and insulin levels at gestation day 0, 20, and 60 were tested. And also, the composition and differences fecal microbiota at day 60 of gestation were analyzed. Fecal consistency was determined with Bristol stool scale method, those with a score below 3 were counted as constipation The results showed that there was no impact of the FFM treatment on sows’ backfat, bodyweight changes, blood glucose, serum estradiol, and progesterone concentration, litter size, and performance of the offspring(p > 0.05), Except significant decrease in the concentration of insulin in sows’ serum at 60 days of gestation were observed in the FFM group compare to the CON group (P < 0.01). FFM diet also significantly increased feed intake on the first, third, and 21st days of sow lactation. (p < 0.01); The α- and β- diversity and abundance of the microbiota were significant increased (p < 0.01) compared with the CON group, The abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were significantly increased, meanwhile the abundances of Spirochetes, Proteobacteria, and Euryarchaeota, were significantly reduced in the feces of the FFM group. We also analyzed the fecal microbiota of constipated sows vs non-constipated sows and found that the diversity and abundance did also differ between these two groups. FFM and CON group < 0.01). The relationship between sow’s constipation and microbiota merits further investigation.

Keywords: fermented feed mulberry, reproductive performance, fecal flora, sow

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
58 In Silico Study of Cell Surface Structures of Parabacteroides distasonis Involved in Its Maintain Within the Gut Microbiota and Its Potential Pathogenicity

Authors: Jordan Chamarande, Lisiane Cunat, Corentine Alauzet, Catherine Cailliez-Grimal

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Gut microbiota (GM) is now considered a new organ mainly due to the microorganism’s specific biochemical interaction with its host. Although mechanisms underlying host-microbiota interactions are not fully described, it is now well-defined that cell surface molecules and structures of the GM play a key role in such relation. The study of surface structures of GM members is also fundamental for their role in the establishment of species in the versatile and competitive environment of the digestive tract and as a potential virulence factor. Among these structures are capsular polysaccharides (CPS), fimbriae, pili and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), all well-described for their central role in microorganism colonization and communication with host epithelium. The health-promoting Parabacteroides distasonis, which is part of the core microbiome, has recently received a lot of attention, showing beneficial properties for its host and as a new potential biotherapeutic product. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the cell surface molecules and structures of P. distasonis that allow its maintain within the GM are not identified. Moreover, although P. distasonis is strongly recognized as intestinal commensal species with benefits for its host, it has also been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we reported gene clusters potentially involved in the synthesis of the capsule, fimbriae-like and pili-like cell surface structures in 26 P. distasonis genomes and applied the new RfbA-Typing classification in order to better understand and characterize the beneficial/pathogenic behaviour related to P. distasonis strains. In context, 2 different types of fimbriae, 3 of pilus and up to 14 capsular polysaccharide loci, have been identified over the 26 genomes studied. Moreover, the addition of data to the rfbA-Type classification modified the outcome by rearranging rfbA genes and adding a fifth group to the classification. In conclusion, the strain variability in terms of external proteinaceous structure could explain the inter-strain differences previously observed in P. distasonis adhesion capacities and its potential pathogenicity.

Keywords: gut microbiota, Parabacteroides distasonis, capsular polysaccharide, fimbriae, pilus, O-antigen, pathogenicity, probiotic, comparative genomics

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57 Evaluation of Methods for Simultaneous Extraction and Purification of Fungal and Bacterial DNA from Vaginal Swabs

Authors: Vanessa De Carvalho, Chad MacPherson, Julien Tremblay, Julie Champagne, Stephanie-Anne Girard

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Background: The interactions between bacteria and fungi in the human vaginal microbiome are fundamental to the concept of health and disease. The means by which the microbiota and mycobiota interact is still poorly understood and further studies are necessary to properly characterize this complex ecosystem. The aim of this study was to select a DNA extraction method capable of recovering high qualities of fungal and bacterial DNA from a single vaginal swab. Methods: 11 female volunteers ( ≥ 20 to < 55 years old) self-collected vaginal swabs in triplicates. Three commercial extraction kits: Masterpure Yeast Purification kit (Epicenter), PureLink™ Microbiome DNA Purification kit (Invitrogen), and Quick-DNA™ Fecal/Soil Microbe Miniprep kit (Zymo) were evaluated on the ability to recover fungal and bacterial DNA simultaneously. The extraction kits were compared on the basis of recovery, yield, purity, and the community richness of bacterial (16S rRNA - V3-V4 region) and fungal (ITS1) microbiota composition by Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing. Results: Recovery of bacterial DNA was achieved with all three kits while fungal DNA was only consistently recovered with Masterpure Yeast Purification kit (yield and purity). Overall, all kits displayed similar microbiota profiles for the top 20 OTUs; however, Quick-DNA™ Fecal/Soil Microbe Miniprep kit (Zymo) showed more species richness than the other two kits. Conclusion: In the present study, Masterpure Yeast purification kit proved to be a good candidate for purification of high quality fungal and bacterial DNA simultaneously. These findings have potential benefits that could be applied in future vaginal microbiome research. Whilst the use of a single extraction method would lessen the burden of multiple swab sampling, decrease laboratory workload and off-set costs associated with multiple DNA extractions, thoughtful consideration must be taken when selecting an extraction kit depending on the desired downstream application.

Keywords: bacterial vaginosis, DNA extraction, microbiota, mycobiota, vagina, vulvovaginal candidiasis, women’s health

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56 Evaluation of Herbal Extracts for Their Potential Application as Skin Prebiotics

Authors: Anja I. Petrov, Milica B. Veljković, Marija M. Ćorović, Ana D. Milivojević, Milica B. Simović, Katarina M. Banjanac, Dejan I. Bezbradica

Abstract:

One of the fundamental requirements for overall human well-being is a stable and balanced microbiome. Aside from the microorganisms that reside within the body, a large number of microorganisms, especially bacteria, swarming the human skin are in homeostasis with the host and represent a skin microbiota. Even though the immune system of the skin is capable of distinguishing between commensal and potentially harmful transient bacteria, the cutaneous microbial balance can be disrupted under certain circumstances. In that case, reduction in the skin microbiota diversity, as well as changes in metabolic activity, result in dermal infections and inflammation. Probiotics and prebiotics have the potential to play a significant role in the treatment of these skin disorders. The most common resident bacteria found on the skin, Staphylococcus epidermidis, can act as a potential skin probiotic, contributing to the protection of healthy skin from pathogen colonization, such as Staphylococcus aureus, which is related to atopic dermatitis exacerbation. However, as it is difficult to meet regulations in cosmetic products, another therapy approach could be topical prebiotic supplementation of the skin microbiota. In recent research, polyphenols are attracting scientists' interest as biomolecules with possible prebiotic effects on the skin microbiota. This research aimed to determine how herbal extracts rich in different polyphenolic compounds (lemon balm, St. John's wort, coltsfoot, pine needle, and yarrow)affected the growth of S. epidermidis and S. aureus. The first part of the study involved screening plants to determine if they could be regarded as probable candidates to be skin prebiotics. The effect of each plant on bacterial growth was examined by supplementing the nutrient medium with their extracts and comparing it with control samples (without extract). The results obtained after 24 h of incubation showed that all tested extracts influenced the growth of the examined bacteria to some extent. Since lemon balm and St. John's wort extracts displayed bactericidal activity against S. epidermidis, whereas coltsfoot inhibited both bacteria equally, they were not explored further. On the other hand, pine needle and yarrow extract led to an increase in S. epidermidis/S. aureus ratio, making them prospective candidates to be used as skin prebiotics. By examining the prebiotic effect of two extracts at different concentrations, it was revealed that, in the case of yarrow, 0.1% of extract dry matter in the fermentation medium was optimal, while for the pine needle extract, aconcentration of 0.05% was preferred, since it selectively stimulated S. epidermidis growth and inhibited S. aureus proliferation. Additionally, total polyphenols and flavonoids content of two extracts were determined, revealing different concentrations and polyphenol profiles. Since yarrow and pine extracts affected the growth of skin bacteria in a dose-dependent manner, by carefully selecting the quantities of these extracts, and thus polyphenols content, it is possible to achieve desirable alterations of skin microbiota composition, which may be suitable forthe treatment of atopic dermatitis.

Keywords: herbal extracts, polyphenols, skin microbiota, skin prebiotics

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55 In silico Statistical Prediction Models for Identifying the Microbial Diversity and Interactions Due to Fixed Periodontal Appliances

Authors: Suganya Chandrababu, Dhundy Bastola

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Like in the gut, the subgingival microbiota plays a crucial role in oral hygiene, health, and cariogenic diseases. Human activities like diet, antibiotics, and periodontal treatments alter the bacterial communities, metabolism, and functions in the oral cavity, leading to a dysbiotic state and changes in the plaques of orthodontic patients. Fixed periodontal appliances hinder oral hygiene and cause changes in the dental plaques influencing the subgingival microbiota. However, the microbial species’ diversity and complexity pose a great challenge in understanding the taxa’s community distribution patterns and their role in oral health. In this research, we analyze the subgingival microbial samples from individuals with fixed dental appliances (metal/clear) using an in silico approach. We employ exploratory hypothesis-driven multivariate and regression analysis to shed light on the microbial community and its functional fluctuations due to dental appliances used and identify risks associated with complex disease phenotypes. Our findings confirm the changes in oral microbiota composition due to the presence and type of fixed orthodontal devices. We identified seven main periodontic pathogens, including Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Firmicutes, whose abundances were significantly altered due to the presence and type of fixed appliances used. In the case of metal braces, the abundances of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Candidatus saccharibacteria, and Spirochaetes significantly increased, while the abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria decreased. However, in individuals With clear braces, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Candidatus saccharibacteria increased. The highest abundance value (P-value=0.004 < 0.05) was observed with Bacteroidetes in individuals with the metal appliance, which is associated with gingivitis, periodontitis, endodontic infections, and odontogenic abscesses. Overall, the bacterial abundances decrease with clear type and increase with metal type of braces. Regression analysis further validated the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results, supporting the hypothesis that the presence and type of the fixed oral appliances significantly alter the bacterial abundance and composition.

Keywords: oral microbiota, statistical analysis, fixed or-thodontal appliances, bacterial abundance, multivariate analysis, regression analysis

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54 Characterization of the Queuine Salvage Pathway From Bacteria in the Human Parasite Entamoeba Histolytica

Authors: Lotem Sarid, Meirav Trebicz-Geffen, Serge Ankri

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Queuosine (Q) is a naturally occurring modified nucleoside that occurs in the first position of transfer RNA anticodons such as Asp, Asn, His, and Tyr. As eukaryotes lack pathways to synthesize queuine, the nucleobase of queuosine, they must obtain it from their diet or gut microbiota. Our previous work investigated the effects of queuine on the physiology of the eukaryotic parasite Entamoeba histolytica and defined the enzyme EhTGT responsible for its incorporation into tRNA. To our best knowledge, it is unknown how E. histolytica salvages Q from gut bacteria. We used N-acryloyl-3-aminophenylboronic acid (APB) PAGE analysis to demonstrate that E. histolytica trophozoites can salvage queuine from Q or E. coli K12 but not from the modified E. coli QueC strain, which cannot produce queuine. Next, we examined the role of EhDUF2419, a protein with homology to DNA glycosylase, as a queuine salvage enzyme in E. histolytica. When EhDUF2419 expression is silenced, it inhibits Q's conversion to queuine, resulting in a decrease in Q-tRNA levels. We also observed that Q protects control trophozoites from oxidative stress (OS), but not siEhDUF2419 trophozoites. Overall, our data reveal that EhDUF2419 is central for the salvaging of queuine from bacteria and for the resistance of the parasite to OS.

Keywords: entamoeba histolytica, epitranscriptomics, gut microbiota, queuine, queuosine, response to oxidative stress, tRNA modification.

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53 Effect of Radiotherapy/Chemotherapy Protocol on the Gut Microbiome in Pediatric Cancer Patients

Authors: Nourhan G. Sahly, Ahmed Moustafa, Mohamed S. Zaghloul, Tamer Z. Salem

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The gut microbiome plays important roles in the human body that includes but not limited to digestion, immunity, homeostasis and response to some drugs such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Its role has also been linked to radiotherapy and associated gastrointestinal injuries, where the microbial dysbiosis could be the driving force for dose determination or the complete suspension of the treatment protocol. Linking the gut microbiota alterations to different cancer treatment protocols is not easy especially in humans. However, enormous effort was exerted to understand this complex relationship. In the current study, we described the gut microbiota dysbiosis in pediatric sarcoma patients, in the pelvic region, with regards to radiotherapy and antibiotics. Fecal samples were collected as a source of microbial DNA for which the gene encoding for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA was sequenced. Two of the three patients understudy had experienced an increase in alpha diversity post exposure to 50.4 Gy. Although phylum Firmicutes overall relative abundance has generally decreased, six of its taxa increased in all patients. Our results may indicate the possibility of radiosensitivity or enrichment of the antibiotic resistance of the elevated taxa. Further studies are needed to describe the extent of radiosensitivity with regards to antibiotic resistance.

Keywords: combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, gut microbiome, pediatric cancer, radiosensitivity

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52 Functional Beverage to Boosting Immune System in Elderly

Authors: Adineh Tajmousavilangerudi, Ali Zein Alabiden Tlais, Raffaella Di Cagno

Abstract:

The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has exposed our vulnerability to new illnesses and novel viruses that attack our immune systems, particularly in the elderly. The vaccine is being gradually introduced over the world, but new strains of the virus and COVID-19 will emerge and continue to cause illness. Aging is associated with significant changes in intestinal physiology, which increases the production of inflammatory products, alters the gut microbiota, and consequently establish inadequate immune response to minimize symptoms and disease development. In this context, older people who followed a Mediterranean-style diet, rich in polyphenols and dietary fiber, performed better physically and mentally (1,2). This demonstrates the importance of the human gut microbiome in transforming complex dietary macromolecules into the most biologically available and active nutrients, which in turn help to regulate metabolism and both intestinal and systemic immune function (3,4). The role of lactic acid fermentation is prominent also as a powerful tool for improving the nutritional quality of the human diet by releasing nutrients and boosting the complex bioactive compounds and vitamin content. the PhD project aims to design fermented and functional foods/beverages capable of modulating human immune function via the gut microbiome.

Keywords: functional bevarage, fermented beverage, gut microbiota functionality, immun system

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51 The Association between Prior Antibiotic Use and Subsequent Risk of Infectious Disease: A Systematic Review

Authors: Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White

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Introduction: The microbiota lining epithelial surfaces is thought to play an important role in many human physiological functions including defense against pathogens and modulation of immune response. The microbiota is susceptible to disruption from external influences such as exposure to antibiotic medication. It is thought that antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota could predispose to pathogen overgrowth and invasion. We hypothesized that antibiotic use would be associated with increased risk of future infections. We carried out a systematic review of evidence of associations between antibiotic use and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature for observational studies assessing the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection. Eligible studies were published before April 29th, 2016. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science and screened titles and abstracts using a predefined search strategy. Infections caused by Clostridium difficile, drug-resistant organisms and fungal organisms were excluded as their association with prior antibiotic use has been examined in previous systematic reviews. Results: Eighteen out of 21,518 retrieved studies met the inclusion criteria. The association between past antibiotic exposure and subsequent increased risk of infection was reported in 16 studies, including one study on Campylobacter jejuni infection (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.3), two on typhoid fever (ORs 5.7 and 12.2), one on Staphylococcus aureus skin infection (OR 2.9), one on invasive pneumococcal disease (OR 1.57), one on recurrent furunculosis (OR 16.6), one on recurrent boils and abscesses (Risk ratio 1.4), one on upper respiratory tract infection (OR 2.3) and urinary tract infection (OR 1.1), one on invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection (OR 1.51), one on infectious mastitis (OR 5.38), one on meningitis (OR 2.04) and five on Salmonella enteric infection (ORs 1.4, 1.59, 1.9, 2.3 and 3.8). The effect size in three studies on Salmonella enteric infection was of marginal statistical significance. A further two studies on Salmonella infection did not demonstrate a statistically significant association between prior antibiotic exposure and subsequent infection. Conclusion: We have found an association between past antibiotic exposure and subsequent risk of a diverse range of infections in the community setting. Our findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that prior antibiotic usage may predispose to future infection risk, possibly through antibiotic-induced alteration of the microbiota. The findings add further weight to calls to minimize inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions.

Keywords: antibiotic, infection, risk factor, side effect

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50 Plant Microbiota of Coastal Halophyte Salicornia Ramossisima

Authors: Isabel N. Sierra-Garcia, Maria J. Ferreira, Sandro Figuereido, Newton Gomes, Helena Silva, Angela Cunha

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Plant-associated microbial communities are considered crucial in the adaptation of halophytes to coastal environments. The plant microbiota can be horizontally acquired from the environment or vertically transmitted from generation to generation via seeds. Recruiting of the microbial communities by the plant is affected by geographical location, soil source, host genotype, and cultivation practice. There is limited knowledge reported on the microbial communities in halophytes the influence of biotic and abiotic factors. In this work, the microbiota associated with the halophyte Salicornia ramosissima was investigated to determine whether the structure of bacterial communities is influenced by host genotype or soil source. For this purpose, two contrasting sites where S. ramosissima is established in the estuarine system of the Ria de Aveiro were investigated. One site corresponds to a natural salt marsh where S. ramosissima plants are present (wild plants), and the other site is a former salt pan that nowadays are subjected to intensive crop production of S. ramosissima (crop plants). Bacterial communities from the rhizosphere, seeds and root endosphere of S. ramossisima from both sites were investigated by sequencing bacterial 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The analysis of the sequences showed that the three plant-associated compartments, rhizosphere, root endosphere, and seed endosphere, harbor distinct microbiomes. However, bacterial richness and diversity were higher in seeds of wild plants, followed by rhizosphere in both sites, while seeds in the crop site had the lowest diversity. Beta diversity measures indicated that bacterial communities in root endosphere and seeds were more similar in both wild and crop plants in contrast to rhizospheres that differed by local, indicating that the recruitment of the similar bacterial communities by the plant genotype is active in regard to the site. Moreover, bacterial communities from the root endosphere and rhizosphere were phylogenetically more similar in both sites, but the phylogenetic composition of seeds in wild and crop sites was distinct. These results indicate that cultivation practices affect the seed microbiome. However, minimal vertical transmission of bacteria from seeds to adult plants is expected. Seeds from the crop site showed higher abundances of Kushneria and Zunongwangia genera. Bacterial members of the classes Alphaprotebacteria and Bacteroidia were the most ubiquitous across sites and compartments and might encompass members of the core microbiome. These findings indicate that bacterial communities associated with S. ramosissima are more influenced by host genotype rather than local abiotic factors or cultivation practices. This study provides a better understanding of the composition of the plant microbiota in S. ramosissima , which is essential to predict the interactions between plant and associated microbial communities and their effects on plant health. This knowledge is useful to the manipulations of these microbial communities to enhance the health and productivity of this commercially important plant.

Keywords: halophytes, plant microbiome, Salicornia ramosissima, agriculture

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49 Bacterial Diversity in Vaginal Microbiota in Patients with Different Levels of Cervical Lesions Related to Human Papillomavirus Infection

Authors: Michelle S. Pereira, Analice C. Azevedo, Julliane D. Medeiros, Ana Claudia S. Martins, Didier S. Castellano-Filho, Claudio G. Diniz, Vania L. Silva

Abstract:

Vaginal microbiota is a complex ecosystem, composed by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, living in a dynamic equilibrium. Lactobacillus spp. are predominant in vaginal ecosystem, and factors such as immunity and hormonal variations may lead to disruptions, resulting in proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial syndrome, caused by an increasing of anaerobic bacteria replacing Lactobacillus spp. Microorganisms such as Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mobiluncus spp., and Atopobium vaginae can be found in BV, which may also be associated to other infections such as by Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is highly prevalent in sexually active women, and is considered a risk factor for development of cervical cancer. As long as few data is available on vaginal microbiota of women with HPV-associated cervical lesions, our objectives were to evaluate the diversity in vaginal ecosystem in these women. To all patients, clinical and socio-demographic data were collected after gynecological examination. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee from Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vaginal secretion and cervical scraping were collected. Gram-stained smears were evaluated to establish Nugent score for BV determination. Viral and bacterial DNA obtained was used as template for HPV genotyping (PCR) and bacterial fingerprint (REP-PCR). In total 31 patients were included (mean age 35 and 93.6% sexually active). The Nugent score showed that 38.7% were BV. From the medical records, Pap smear tests showed that 32.3% had low grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL), 29% had high grade squamous epithelial lesion (HSIL), 25.8% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and 12.9% with atypical squamous cells that would not exclude high-grade lesion (ASC-H). All participants were HPV+. HPV-16 was the most frequent (87.1%), followed by HPV-18 (61.3%). HPV-31, HPV-52 and HPV-58 were also detected. Coinfection HPV-16/HPV-18 was observed in 75%. In the 18-30 age group, HPV-16 was detected in 40%, and HPV-16/HPV-18 coinfection in 35%. HPV-16 was associated to 30% of ASC-H and 20% of HSIL patients. BV was observed in 50% of HPV-16+ participants and in 45% of HPV-16/HPV-18+. Fingerprints of bacterial communities showed clusters with low similarity suggesting high heterogeneity in vaginal microbiota within the sampled group. Overall, the data is worrisome once cervical-cancer highly risk-associated HPV-types were identified. The high microbial diversity observed may be related to the different levels of cellular lesions, and different physiological conditions of the participants (age, social behavior, education). Further prospective studies are needed to better address correlations and BV and microbial imbalance in vaginal ecosystems which would be related to the different cellular lesions in women with HPV infections. Supported by FAPEMIG, CNPq, CAPES, PPGCBIO/UFJF.

Keywords: human papillomavirus, bacterial vaginosis, bacterial diversity, cervical cancer

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48 Effects of Glucogenic and Lipogenic Diets on Ruminal Microbiota and Metabolites in Vitro

Authors: Beihai Xiong, Dengke Hua, Wouter Hendriks, Wilbert Pellikaan

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To improve the energy status of dairy cows in the early lactation, lots of jobs have been done on adjusting the starch to fiber ratio in the diet. As a complex ecosystem, the rumen contains a large population of microorganisms which plays a crucial role in feed degradation. Further study on the microbiota alterations and metabolic changes under different dietary energy sources is essential and valuable to better understand the function of the ruminal microorganisms and thereby to optimize the rumen function and enlarge feed efficiency. The present study will focus on the effects of two glucogenic diets (G: ground corn and corn silage; S: steam-flaked corn and corn silage) and a lipogenic diet (L: sugar beet pulp and alfalfa silage) on rumen fermentation, gas production, the ruminal microbiota and metabolome, and also their correlations in vitro. The gas production was recorded consistently, and the gas volume and producing rate at times 6, 12, 24, 48 h were calculated separately. The fermentation end-products were measured after fermenting for 48 h. The ruminal bacteria and archaea communities were determined by 16S RNA sequencing technique, the metabolome profile was tested through LC-MS methods. Compared to the diet G and S, the L diet had a lower dry matter digestibility, propionate production, and ammonia-nitrogen concentration. The two glucogenic diets performed worse in controlling methane and lactic acid production compared to the L diet. The S diet produced the greatest cumulative gas volume at any time points during incubation compared to the G and L diet. The metabolic analysis revealed that the lipid digestion was up-regulated by the diet L than other diets. On the subclass level, most metabolites belonging to the fatty acids and conjugates were higher, but most metabolites belonging to the amino acid, peptides, and analogs were lower in diet L than others. Differences in rumen fermentation characteristics were associated with (or resulting from) changes in the relative abundance of bacterial and archaeal genera. Most highly abundant bacteria were stable or slightly influenced by diets, while several amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were sensitive to the dietary changes. The L diet had a significantly higher number of cellulolytic bacteria, including the genera of Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Eubacterium, Lachnospira, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and unclassified Ruminococcaceae. The relative abundances of amylolytic bacteria genera including Selenomonas_1, Ruminobacter, and Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 were higher in diet G and S. These affected bacteria was also proved to have high associations with certain metabolites. The Selenomonas_1 and Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 may contribute to the higher propionate production in the diet G and S through enhancing the succinate pathway. The results indicated that the two glucogenic diets had a greater extent of gas production, a higher dry matter digestibility, and produced more propionate than diet L. The steam-flaked corn did not show a better performance on fermentation end-products than ground corn. This study has offered a deeper understanding of ruminal microbial functions which could assistant the improvement in rumen functions and thereby in the ruminant production.

Keywords: gas production, metabolome, microbiota, rumen fermentation

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47 Combined Effects of Thymol, Carvacrol and Packaging on the Shelf-Life of Marinated Chicken

Authors: Layal Karam, Rayan Roustom, Mohamad G. Abiad, Tahra El-Obeid, Ioannis N. Savvaidis

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The demand for marinated chicken worldwide, is continuously growing. To date, limited data on addition of active components of Essential Oils (EOs) to marinades for chicken preservation are available. The antimicrobial effect of carvacrol and thymol, added at 0.4 and 0.8% v/w to marinated fresh chicken, stored in air and under vacuum packaging (VP), for 21 days at 4°C, was examined. The samples were monitored for microbiological (total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., total coliforms, Escherichia coli, yeasts and molds) and sensory attributes (odor characteristics). Our data supports that among the tested microorganisms, Pseudomonas spp., LAB and B. thermosphacta were the most dominant microbiota in the marinated chicken samples. Additionally, the use of active EOs components, especially the higher concentration (0.8% v/w) in combination with VP, retarded the growth of spoilage microbiota and resulted in a significant reduction of about 2.9-3.1 log cfu/g and a microbiological shelf-life extension of marinated chicken by > 6 days, as judged by TVC data. Interestingly, the combination of active components of EOs at the lower concentration (0.4% v/w) and packaging (air or vacuum) resulted in a significant sensorial shelf-life extension of 15 and >21 days, as compared to the controls’ shelf-life of 9 days. The results of our study demonstrated the potential of the active components, carvacrol and thymol, as natural effective antimicrobial hurdles to control the growth of spoilage microorganisms in marinated chicken meat.

Keywords: chicken, essential oils compounds, marination, meat spoilage, preservation

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46 Sulfur-Containing Diet Shift Hydrogen Metabolism and Reduce Methane Emission and Modulated Gut Microbiome in Goats

Authors: Tsegay Teklebrhan Gebremariam, Zhiliang, Arjan Jonker

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The study investigated that using corn gluten (CG) instead of cornmeal (CM) increased dietary sulfur shifted H₂ metabolism from methanogenesis to alternative sink and modulated microbiome in the rumen as well as hindgut segments of goats. Ruminal fermentation, CH₄ emissions and microbial abundance in goats (n = 24). The experiment was performed using a randomized block design with two dietary treatments (CM and CG with 400 g/kg DM each). Goats in CG increased sulfur, NDF and CP intake and decreased starch intake as compared with those in CM. Goats that received CG diet had decreased dissolved hydrogen (dH₂) (P = 0.01) and dissolved methane yield and emission (dCH₄) (P = 0.001), while increased dH₂S both in the rumen and hindgut segments than those fed CM. Goats fed CG had higher (p < 0.01) gene copies of microbiota and cellulolytic bacteria, whereas starch utilizing bacterial species were less in the rumen and hindgut than those fed CM. Higher (P < 0.05) methanogenic diversity and abundances of Methanimicrococcus and Methanomicrobium were observed in goats that consumed CG, whilst containing lower Methanobrevibacter populations than those receiving CM. The study suggested that goats fed corn gluten improved the gene copies of microbiota and fibrolytic bacterial species while reducing starch utilizing species in the rumen and hindgut segments as compared with that fed cornmeal. Goats consuming corn gluten had a more enriched methanogenic diversity and reduced Methanobrevibacter, a contributor to CH₄ emissions, as compared with goats fed CM. Corn gluten could be used as an alternative feed to decrease the enteric CH₄ emission in ruminant production.

Keywords: dissolved gasses, methanogenesis, microbial community, metagenomics

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45 Microbiota Effect with Cytokine in Hl and NHL Patient Group

Authors: Ekin Ece Gürer, Tarık Onur Tiryaki, Sevgi Kalayoğlu Beşışık, Fatma Savran Oğuz, Uğur Sezerman, Fatma Erdem, Gülşen Günel, Dürdane Serap Kuruca, Zerrin Aktaş, Oral Öncül

Abstract:

Aim: Chemotherapytreatment in HodgkinLymphomaandNon-HodgkinLymphoma (NHL) diseasescausesgastrointestinalepithelialdamage, disruptstheintestinalmicrobiotabalanceandcausesdysbiosis. Inourstudy, it wasaimedtoshowtheeffect of thedamagecausedbychemotherapy on themicrobiotaandtheeffect of thechangingmicrobiota flora on thecourse of thedisease. Materials And Methods: Seven adult HL and seven adult HL patients to be treatedwithchemotherapywereincluded in the study. Stoolsamplesweretakentwice, beforechemotherapytreatmentandafterthe 3th course of treatment. SamplesweresequencedusingNextGenerationSequencing (NGS) methodafternucleicacidisolation. OTU tableswerepreparedusing NCBI blastnversion 2.0.12 accordingtothe NCBI general 16S bacterialtaxonomyreferencedated 10.08.2021. Thegenerated OTU tableswerecalculatedwith R Statistical Computer Language version 4.04 (readr, phyloseq, microbiome, vegan, descrand ggplot2 packages) to calculate Alpha diversityandtheirgraphicswerecreated. Statistical analyzeswerealsoperformedusing R Statistical Computer Language version 4.0.4 and studio IDE 1.4 (tidyverse, readr, xlsxand ggplot2 packages). Expression of IL-12 and IL-17 cytokineswasperformedbyrtPCRtwice, beforeandaftertreatment. Results: InHL patients, a significantdecreasewasobserved in themicrobiota flora of Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 genus (p:0.036) andUndefined Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 species (p:0.036) comparedtopre-treatment. When the post-treatment of HL patientswerecomparedwithhealthycontrols, a significantdecreasewasfound in themicrobiota of Prevotella_7 genus (p:0.049) andButyricimonas (p:0.006) in the post-treatmentmicrobiota of HL patients. InNHL patients, a significantdecreasewasobserved in themicrobiota flora of Coprococccus_3 genus (p:0.015) andUndefined Ruminoclostridium_5 (p:0.046) speciescomparedtopre-treatment. When post-treatment of NHL patientswerecomparedwithhealthycontrols, a significantabundance in theBacilliclass (p:0.029) and a significantdecrease in theUndefinedAlistipesspecies (p:0.047) wereobserved in the post-treatmentmicrobiota of NHL patients. While a decreasewasobserved in IL-12 cytokineexpressionuntilbeforetreatment, an increase in IL-17 cytokineexpressionwasdetected. Discussion: Intestinal flora monitoringafterchemotherapytreatmentshowsthat it can be a guide in thetreatment of thedisease. It is thoughtthatincreasingthediversity of commensalbacteria can alsopositivelyaffecttheprognosis of thedisease.

Keywords: hodgkin lymphoma, non-hodgkin, microbiota, cytokines

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