Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 97

Search results for: schizophrenia

97 Investigation of Emotional Indicators of Schizophrenia Patients on Draw a Person Test in Pakistan

Authors: Shakir Iqbal, Muhammad Aqeel, Asghar Ali Shah, Aftab Hussain

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The present study was aimed to investigate and compare the emotional indicators of patients with schizophrenia on Draw a Person test in Pakistan. Draw a Person test was administered on a sample of 400 (Schizophrenia patients=200, Normal=200) age ranged from 20 to 50 years. The data was collected from two provinces of Pakistan (Punjab and Khyber Pakhtun Khwa). The sample was selected by the age levels. According to the Koppitz method of scoring a list of 40 Emotional indicators was selected that were derived from the literature review. It was found that 26 out of 40 emotional indicators (EIs) on Draw a Person test significantly differentiated between patients with schizophrenia and normal (healthy) population. Chi square analysis of the study indicated that 23 EIs were found significant at (p=.001) level, while three EIs were found significant at (P=.05) levels. It was also found that 9 exclusive and 4 frequent EIs on Human Figure Drawings may be significant diagnostic emotional indicators for schizophrenia. It was found that DAP test can be used as a diagnostic tool with the battery of psychological tests such as MCMI-III, MMPI, MSE, HTP for schizophrenia in Pakistan.

Keywords: draw a person test, normal population, Schizophrenia patients, psychological sciences

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96 Video-Based Psychoeducation for Caregivers of Persons with Schizophrenia

Authors: Jilu David

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Background: Schizophrenia is one of the most misunderstood mental illnesses across the globe. Lack of understanding about mental illnesses often delay treatment, severely affects the functionality of the person, and causes distress to the family. The study, Video-based Psychoeducation for Caregivers of Persons with Schizophrenia, consisted of developing a psychoeducational video about Schizophrenia, its symptoms, causes, treatment, and the importance of family support. Methodology: A quasi-experimental pre-post design was used to understand the feasibility of the study. Qualitative analysis strengthened the feasibility outcomes. Knowledge About Schizophrenia Interview was used to assess the level of knowledge of 10 participants, before and after the screening of the video. Results: Themes of usefulness, length, content, educational component, format of the intervention, and language emerged in the qualitative analysis. There was a statistically significant difference in the knowledge level of participants before and after the video screening. Conclusion: The statistical and qualitative analysis revealed that the video-based psychoeducation program was feasible and that it facilitated a general improvement in knowledge of the participants.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, mental illness, psychoeducation, video-based psychoeducation, family support

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95 Genome-Wide Significant SNPs Proximal to Nicotinic Receptor Genes Impact Cognition in Schizophrenia

Authors: Mohammad Ahangari

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Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with symptoms that include cognitive deficits and nicotine has been suggested to have an effect on cognition. In recent years, the advents of Genome-Wide Association Studies(GWAS) has evolved our understanding about the genetic causes of complex disorders such as schizophrenia and studying the role of genome-wide significant genes could potentially lead to the development of new therapeutic agents for treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The current study identified six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) from schizophrenia and smoking GWAS that are located on or in close proximity to the nicotinic receptor gene cluster (CHRN) and studied their association with cognition in an Irish sample of 1297 cases and controls using linear regression analysis. Further on, the interaction between CHRN gene cluster and Dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) during working memory was investigated. The effect of these polymorphisms on nicotinic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, which is disrupted in schizophrenia, have been characterized in terms of their effects on memory, attention, social cognition and IQ as measured by a neuropsychological test battery and significant effects in two polymorphisms were found across global IQ domain of the test battery.

Keywords: cognition, dopamine, GWAS, nicotine, schizophrenia, SNPs

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94 Preliminary Studies: Relationship between Serum Level of Vitamin D and Symptoms of Schizophrenia Measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in Sumatera Utara

Authors: Novi Prasanty, Mustafa Ma, Elmeida Effendy

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Background: Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that most often encountered. Nearly 1% of the world population suffers from schizophrenia during their lifetime. Schizophrenia is a severe form of psychotic disorders, and tend to be chronic. Vitamin D plays crucial roles in neuroprotection and neurodevelopment, and low levels are commonly associated with schizophrenia. Lower vitamin D levels were correlated with more severe positive, negative, and overall symptoms in schizophrenia patient men and women. Methods: 54 schizophrenic patients, male and female, who are diagnosed with semistructured MINI ICD-X. A symptom of schizophrenia was measured by using positive and negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Examination of serum vitamin D using ELFA. Analysis to compare the serum levels of vitamin D male and female with Independent T-test, and the relationship between serum level of vitamin D and symptom with correlation. Results: In this study serum levels in male schizophrenic patients 22.12 (4.16), and 16.54 (2.88) in female schizophrenic patients. There are differences in male schizophrenic patients and women (p < 0.001). The negative correlation between serum levels of vitamin D in the PANSS total score in patients with schizophrenic male with r -0.58, p (0,016), and the female schizophrenic patients with r -0.69, p (0.031). Conclusion and Suggestion: There is a negative correlation between serum levels of vitamin D with a total score of PANSS, the lower the serum levels of vitamin D, the higher the total score of the PANSS.

Keywords: PANSS, schizophrenia, serum levels of vitamin D, severity illness

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93 Temperament and Psychopathology in Children of Patients Suffering from Schizophrenia

Authors: Rushi Naaz, Diksha Suchdeva

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Background: Temperament is a very important aspect of functioning that needs to be understood in children of patients suffering from schizophrenia. The children of parents with mental disorder have substantially increased risk of psychiatric illness in them and may exhibit a range of problems from minor variations in temperament and adjustment to manifest psychiatric disorder. Method: A case control study was conducted to study the temperament characteristics and psychopathology in children of patients suffering from schizophrenia as compared to those of healthy controls. Both the groups were evaluated on Temperament Measurement Schedule and Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule. Results: The results showed that children of patients suffering from schizophrenia were withdrawing, less adaptable, less sociable and had lower activity level than children of healthy parents. However, on the measure of psychopathology, no significant difference was found. Conclusion: Since temperament can be identified at an early age, children at risk for the disorder later on could be identified early enough for possible primary intervention.

Keywords: children, childhood psychopathology, parental psychopathology, psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia, temperament

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92 Victimization in Schizophrenia: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Study

Authors: Mehmet Budak, Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

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Objectives: In this research, we studied the extent of exposure to physical violence and committing violence in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in comparison to a control group consisting of patients with psychiatric diseases other than psychotic and mood disorders. Method: Between August 2019 and October 2019, a total of 100 hospitalized patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (clinically in remission, Brief Psychiatric Rate Scale < 30) were sequentially studied while undergoing inpatient treatment at Erenkoy Mental Health Training and Research Hospital. From the outpatient clinic, 50 patients with psychiatric disorders other than psychotic disorders or mood disorders were consecutively included as a control group. All participants were evaluated by the sociodemographic data that also questions the history of violence, physical examination, bilateral comparative hand, and forearm anterior-posterior and lateral radiography. Results: While 59% of patients with schizophrenia and 28% of the control group stated that they were exposed to physical violence at least once in a lifetime (p < 0,001); a defensive wound or fracture was detected in 29% of patients with schizophrenia and 2% of the control group (p < 0.001). On the other hand, 61% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 32% of the control group expressed that they committed physical violence at least once in a lifetime (p: 0.001). A self-destructive wound or fracture was detected in 53% of the patients with schizophrenia and 24% of the control group (p: 0,001). In the schizophrenia group, the rate of committing physical violence is higher in those with substance use compared to those without substance use (p:0.049). Also, wounds and bone fractures (boxer’s fracture) resulting from self-injury are more common in schizophrenia patients with substance use (p:0,002). In the schizophrenia group, defensive wounds and parry fractures (which are located in the hand, forearm, and arm usually occur as a result of a trial to shield the face against an aggressive attack and are known to be the indicators of interpersonal violence) are higher in those with substance use compared to those who do not (p:0,007). Conclusion: This study shows that exposure to physical violence and the rate of violence is higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the control group. It is observed that schizophrenia patients who are stigmatized as being aggressive are more exposed to violence. Substance use in schizophrenia patients increases both exposure to physical violence and the use of physical violence. Physical examination and anamnesis that question violence are important tools to reveal the exposure to violence in patients. Furthermore, some specific bone fractures and wounds could be used to detect victimization even after plenty of time passes.

Keywords: fracture, physical violence, schizophrenia, substance use

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91 Determinants of Post-Psychotic Depression in Schizophrenia Patients in ACSH and Mekellle Hospital Tigray, Ethiopia, 2019

Authors: Ashenafi Ayele, Shewit Haftu, Tesfalem Araya

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Background: “Post-psychotic depression”, “post schizophrenic depression”, and “secondary depression” have been used to describe the occurrence of depressive symptoms during the chronic phase of schizophrenia. Post-psychotic depression is the most common cause of death due to suicide in schizophrenia patients. Overall lifetime risk for patients with schizophrenia is 50% for suicide attempts and 9-13% lifetime risk for completed suicide and also it is associated with poor prognosis and poor quality of life. Objective: To assess determinant of post psychotic depression in schizophrenia patients ACSH and Mekelle General Hospital, Tigray Ethiopia 2019. Methods: An institutional based unmatched case control study was conducted among 69 cases and 138 controls with the ratio of case to control 1 ratio 2. The sample is calculated using epi-info 3.1 to assess the determinant factors of post-psychotic depression in schizophrenia patients. The cases were schizophrenia patients who have been diagnosed at least for more than one-year stable for two months, and the controls are any patients who are diagnosed as schizophrenia patients. Study subjects were selected using a consecutive sampling technique. The Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia self-administered questionnaire was used. Before the interview, it was assessed the client’s capacity to give intended information using a scale called the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent (UBACC). Bivariant and multiple Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine between the independent and dependent variables. The significant independent predictor was declared at 95% confidence interval and P-value of less than 0.05. Result: Females were affected by post psychotic depression with the (AOR=2.01, 95%CI: 1.003- 4.012, P= 0.49).Patients who have mild form of positive symptom of schizophrenia affected by post psychotic depression with (AOR =4.05, 95%CI: 1.888- 8.7.8, P=0001).Patients who have minimal form of negative symptom of schizophrenia are affected by post psychotic depression with (AOR =4.23, 95%CI: 1.081-17.092, P=.038). Conclusion: In this study, sex (female) and presence of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were significantly associated. It is recommended that the post psychotic depression should be assessed in every schizophrenia patient to decrease the severity of illness, and to improve patient’s quality of life.

Keywords: determinants, post-psychotic depression, Mekelle city

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90 Validation of the Arabic Version of the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) among the Arab Population in Qatar

Authors: S. Hammoudeh, S. Ghuloum, A. Abdelhakam, A. AlMujalli, M. Opler, Y. Hani, A. Yehya, S. Mari, R. Elsherbiny, Z. Mahfoud, H. Al-Amin

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Introduction: Suicidal ideation and attempts are very common in patients with schizophrenia and still contributes to the high mortality in this population. The InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) is a validated tool used to assess suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia. This research aims to validate the Arabic version of the ISST among the Arabs residing in Qatar. Methods: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited from the department of Psychiatry, Rumailah Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Healthy controls were recruited from the primary health care centers in Doha, Qatar. The validation procedures including professional and expert translation, pilot survey and back translation of the ISST were implemented. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed using the validated Arabic version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6, module K) for schizophrenia. The gold standard was the module B on suicidality from MINI 6 also. This module was administered by a rater who was blinded to the results of ISST. Results: Our sample (n=199) was composed of 98 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (age 36.03 ± 9.88 years; M/F is 2/1) and 101 healthy participants (age 35.01 ± 8.23 years; M/F is 1/2). Among patients with schizophrenia: 26.5% were married, 17.3% had a college degree, 28.6% were employed, 9% had committed suicide once, and 4.4% had more than 4 suicide attempts. Among the control group: 77.2% were married, 57.4% had a college degree, and 99% were employed. The mean score on the ISST was 2.36 ± 3.97 vs. 0.47 ± 1.44 for the schizophrenia and control groups, respectively. The overall Cronbach’s alpha was 0.91. Conclusions: This is the first study in the Arab world to validate the ISST in an Arabic-based population. The psychometric properties indicate that the Arabic version of the ISST is a valid tool to assess the severity of suicidal ideation in Arabic speaking patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Keywords: mental health, Qatar, schizophrenia, suicide

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89 Mental Health Literacy in Ghana: Consequences of Religiosity, Education, and Stigmatization

Authors: Peter Adu

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Although research on the concept of Mental Health Literacy (MHL) is growing internationally, to the authors’ best of knowledge, the beliefs and knowledge of Ghanaians on specific mental disorders have not yet been explored. This vignette study was conducted to explore the relationships between religiosity, education, stigmatization, and MHL among Ghanaians using a sample of laypeople (N = 409). The adapted questionnaire presented two vignettes (depression and schizophrenia) about a hypothetical person. The results revealed that more participants were able to recognize depression (47.4%) than schizophrenia (15.9%). Religiosity was not significantly associated with recognition of mental disorders (MHL) but was positively related with both social and personal stigma for depression and negatively associated with personal and perceived stigma for schizophrenia. Moreover, education was found to relate positively with MHL and negatively with perceived stigma. Finally, perceived stigma was positively associated with MHL, whereas personal stigma for schizophrenia related negatively to MHL. In conclusion, education but not religiosity predicted identification accuracy, but both predictors were associated with various forms of stigma. Findings from this study have implications for MHL and anti-stigma campaigns in Ghana and other developing countries in the region.

Keywords: depression, education, mental health literacy, religiosity, schizophrenia

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88 Autoantibodies against Central Nervous System Antigens and the Serum Levels of IL-32 in Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Fatemeh Keshavarz

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Background: Schizophrenia is a disease of the nervous system, and immune system disorders can affect its pathogenesis. Activation of microglia, proinflammatory cytokines, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to inflammation, activation of autoreactive B cells, and consequently the production of autoantibodies against system antigens are among the immune processes involved in neurological diseases. interleukin 32 (IL-32) a proinflammatory cytokine that important player in the activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. This study aimed to measure the serum level of IL-32 as well as the frequency of autoantibody positivity against several nervous system antigens in patients with schizophrenia. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy individuals in the control group. Serum IL-32 levels were measured by ELISA. The frequency of autoantibodies against Hu, Ri, Yo, Tr, CV2, Amphiphysin, SOX1, Zic4, ITPR1, CARP, GAD, Recoverin, Titin, and Ganglioside antigens were measured by indirect immunofluorescence method. Results: Serum IL-32 levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly higher compared to the control group. Autoantibodies were positive in 8 patients for GAD antigen and 5 patients for Ri antigen, which showed a significant relationship compared to the control group. Autoantibodies were also positive in 2 patients for CV2, in 1 patient for Hu, and in 1 patient for CARP. Negative results were reported for other antigens. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated the serum IL-32 level and autoantibody positivity against several nervous system antigens may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

Keywords: schizophrenia, microglia, autoantibodies, IL-32

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87 Test-Retest Agreement, Random Measurement Error and Practice Effect of the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs for Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Kuan-Wei Chen, Chien-Wei Chen, Tai-Ling Chang, Nan-Cheng Chen, Ching-Lin Hsieh, Gong-Hong Lin

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Background and Purposes: Deficits in sustained attention are common in patients with schizophrenia. Such impairment can limit patients to effectively execute daily activities and affect the efficacy of rehabilitation. The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest agreement, random measurement error, and practice effect of the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP) (a commonly used sustained attention test) in patients with schizophrenia. The results can provide empirical evidence for clinicians and researchers to apply a sustained attention test with sound psychometric properties in schizophrenia patients. Methods: We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia to be assessed twice with 1 week interval using CPT-IP. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to examine the test-retest agreement. The percentage of minimal detectable change (MDC%) was used to examine the random measurement error. Moreover, the standardized response mean (SRM) was used to examine the practice effect. Results: A total of 56 patients participated in this study. Our results showed that the ICC was 0.82, MDC% was 47.4%, and SRMs were 0.36 for the CPT-IP. Conclusion: Our results indicate that CPT-IP has acceptable test-retests agreement, substantial random measurement error, and small practice effect in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, to avoid overestimating patients’ changes in sustained attention, we suggest that clinicians interpret the change scores of CPT-IP conservatively in their routine repeated assessments.

Keywords: schizophrenia, sustained attention, CPT-IP, reliability

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86 Correlation between Visual Perception and Social Function in Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Candy Chieh Lee

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Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between visual perception and social function in patients with schizophrenia. The specific aims are: 1) To explore performances in visual perception and social function in patients with schizophrenia 2) to examine the correlation between visual perceptual skills and social function in patients with schizophrenia The long-term goal is to be able to provide the most adequate intervention program for promoting patients’ visual perceptual skills and social function, as well as compensatory techniques. Background: Perceptual deficits in schizophrenia have been well documented in the visual system. Clinically, a considerable portion (up to 60%) of schizophrenia patients report distorted visual experiences such as visual perception of motion, color, size, and facial expression. Visual perception is required for the successful performance of most activities of daily living, such as dressing, making a cup of tea, driving a car and reading. On the other hand, patients with schizophrenia usually exhibit psychotic symptoms such as auditory hallucination and delusions which tend to alter their perception of reality and affect their quality of interpersonal relationship and limit their participation in various social situations. Social function plays an important role in the prognosis of patients with schizophrenia; lower social functioning skills can lead to poorer prognosis. Investigations on the relationship between social functioning and perceptual ability in patients with schizophrenia are relatively new but important as the results could provide information for effective intervention on visual perception and social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: We recruited 50 participants with schizophrenia in the mental health hospital (Taipei City Hospital, Songde branch, Taipei, Taiwan) acute ward. Participants who have signed consent forms, diagnosis of schizophrenia and having no organic vision deficits were included. Participants were administered the test of visual-perceptual skills (non-motor), third edition (TVPS-3) and the personal and social performance scale (PSP) for assessing visual perceptual skill and social function. The assessments will take about 70-90 minutes to complete. Data Analysis: The IBM SPSS 21.0 will be used to perform the statistical analysis. First, descriptive statistics will be performed to describe the characteristics and performance of the participants. Lastly, Pearson correlation will be computed to examine the correlation between PSP and TVPS-3 scores. Results: Significant differences were found between the means of participants’ TVPS-3 raw scores of each subtest with the age equivalent raw score provided by the TVPS-3 manual. Significant correlations were found between all 7 subtests of TVPS-3 and PSP total score. Conclusions: The results showed that patients with schizophrenia do exhibit visual perceptual deficits and is correlated social functions. Understanding these facts of patients with schizophrenia can assist health care professionals in designing and implementing adequate rehabilitative treatment according to patients’ needs.

Keywords: occupational therapy, social function, schizophrenia, visual perception

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85 Theta-Phase Gamma-Amplitude Coupling as a Neurophysiological Marker in Neuroleptic-Naive Schizophrenia

Authors: Jun Won Kim

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Objective: Theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling (TGC) was used as a novel evidence-based tool to reflect the dysfunctional cortico-thalamic interaction in patients with schizophrenia. However, to our best knowledge, no studies have reported the diagnostic utility of the TGC in the resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) of neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Thus, the purpose of this EEG study was to understand the underlying mechanisms in patients with schizophrenia by comparing the TGC at rest between two groups and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of TGC. Method: The subjects included 90 patients with schizophrenia and 90 healthy controls. All patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) by two independent psychiatrists using semi-structured clinical interviews. Because patients were either drug-naïve (first episode) or had not been taking psychoactive drugs for one month before the study, we could exclude the influence of medications. Five frequency bands were defined for spectral analyses: delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), slow alpha (8–10 Hz), fast alpha (10–13.5 Hz), beta (13.5–30 Hz), and gamma (30-80 Hz). The spectral power of the EEG data was calculated with fast Fourier Transformation using the 'spectrogram.m' function of the signal processing toolbox in Matlab. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to compare the TGC results between the groups, which were adjusted using a Bonferroni correction (P < 0.05/19 = 0.0026). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to examine the discriminating ability of the TGC data for schizophrenia diagnosis. Results: The patients with schizophrenia showed a significant increase in the resting-state TGC at all electrodes. The delta, theta, slow alpha, fast alpha, and beta powers showed low accuracies of 62.2%, 58.4%, 56.9%, 60.9%, and 59.0%, respectively, in discriminating the patients with schizophrenia from the healthy controls. The ROC analysis performed on the TGC data generated the most accurate result among the EEG measures, displaying an overall classification accuracy of 92.5%. Conclusion: As TGC includes phase, which contains information about neuronal interactions from the EEG recording, TGC is expected to be useful for understanding the mechanisms the dysfunctional cortico-thalamic interaction in patients with schizophrenia. The resting-state TGC value was increased in the patients with schizophrenia compared to that in the healthy controls and had a higher discriminating ability than the other parameters. These findings may be related to the compensatory hyper-arousal patterns of the dysfunctional default-mode network (DMN) in schizophrenia. Further research exploring the association between TGC and medical or psychiatric conditions that may confound EEG signals will help clarify the potential utility of TGC.

Keywords: quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG), theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling (TGC), schizophrenia, diagnostic utility

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84 Corneal Confocal Microscopy As a Surrogate Marker of Neuronal Pathology In Schizophrenia

Authors: Peter W. Woodruff, Georgios Ponirakis, Reem Ibrahim, Amani Ahmed, Hoda Gad, Ioannis N. Petropoulos, Adnan Khan, Ahmed Elsotouhy, Surjith Vattoth, Mahmoud K. M. Alshawwaf, Mohamed Adil Shah Khoodoruth, Marwan Ramadan, Anjushri Bhagat, James Currie, Ziyad Mahfoud, Hanadi Al Hamad, Ahmed Own, Peter Haddad, Majid Alabdulla, Rayaz A. Malik

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Introduction:- We aimed to test the hypothesis that, using corneal confocal microscopy (a non-invasive method for assessing corneal nerve fibre integrity), patients with schizophrenia would show neuronal abnormalities compared with healthy participants. Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental and progressive neurodegenerative disease, for which there are no validated biomarkers. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a non-invasive ophthalmic imaging biomarker that can be used to detect neuronal abnormalities in neuropsychiatric syndromes. Methods:- Patients with schizophrenia (DSM-V criteria) without other causes of peripheral neuropathy and healthy controls underwent CCM, vibration perception threshold (VPT) and sudomotor function testing. The diagnostic accuracy of CCM in distinguishing patients from controls was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characterstics (ROC) curve. Findings:- Participants with schizophrenia (n=17) and controls (n=38) with comparable age (35.7±8.5 vs 35.6±12.2, P=0.96) were recruited. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher body weight (93.9±25.5 vs 77.1±10.1, P=0.02), lower Low Density Lipoproteins (2.6±1.0 vs 3.4±0.7, P=0.02), but comparable systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and High Density Lipoproteins were comparable with control participants. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD, fibers/mm2) (23.5±7.8 vs 35.6±6.5, p<0.0001), branch density (CNBD, branches/mm2) (34.4±26.9 vs 98.1±30.6, p<0.0001), and fiber length (CNFL, mm/mm2) (14.3±4.7 vs 24.2±3.9, p<0.0001) but no difference in VPT (6.1±3.1 vs 4.5±2.8, p=0.12) and electrochemical skin conductance (61.0±24.0 vs 68.9±12.3, p=0.23) compared with controls. The diagnostic accuracy of CNFD, CNBD and CNFL to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls were, according to the AUC, (95% CI): 87.0% (76.8-98.2), 93.2% (84.2-102.3), 93.2% (84.4-102.1), respectively. Conclusion:- In conclusion, CCM can be used to help identify neuronal changes and has a high diagnostic accuracy to distinguish subjects with schizophrenia from healthy controls.

Keywords:

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83 Schizophrenia in Childhood and Adolescence: Research Topics and Applied Methodology

Authors: Jhonas Geraldo Peixoto Flauzino, Pedro Pompeo Boechat Araujo, Alexia Allis Rocha Lima, Giovanna Biângulo Lacerda Chaves, Victor Ryan Ferrão Chaves

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Schizophrenia is characterized as a set of psychiatric signs and symptoms (syndrome) that commonly erupt in the stages of adolescence or early adulthood, being recognized as one of the most serious diseases, as it causes important problems during the life of the patient. carrier - both in mental health and in physical health and in social life. Objectives: This is an integrative literature review that aimed to verify what has been produced of scientific knowledge in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry regarding schizophrenia in these stages of life, correlated to the most discussed themes and methodologies of choice for the preparation of studies. Methods: Articles were selected from the following databases: Virtual Health Library and CAPES Journal Portal, published in the last five years; and on Google Scholar, published in 2021, totaling 62 works, searched in September 2021. Results: The studies focus mainly on diagnosis through the DSM-V (25.8%), on drug treatment (25.8%) and in psychotherapy (24.2%), most of them in the literature review format: integrative (27.4%) and systematic (24.2%). Conclusion: The themes and study methods are redundant, and do not cover in depth the immense aspects that encompass Schizophrenia in Childhood and Adolescence, giving attention to the disease in a general way or focusing on the adult patient.

Keywords: schizophrenia, mental health, childhood, adolescence

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82 Effect of Risperidone and Haloperidol on Clinical Picture and Some Biochemical Parameters of Schizophrenic Libyan Patients

Authors: Mabruka S. Elashheb, Adullah Ali Bakush

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Schizophrenia is referred to as a disorder, not a disease, because there has not been any clear, reliable, and specific etiological factor. Even if schizophrenia is not a very frequent disease, it is among the most burdensome and costly illnesses worldwide. Prevention of relapse is a major goal of maintenance treatment in patients with psychotic disorders. We performed a comparison of a newer, atypical antipsychotic drug, Risperidone, and an older, conventional neuroleptic drug, Haloperidol, in terms of the effect on the usual kidney and liver functions and negative and positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder after three and five weeks of their treatments. It is apparent from the comparative data of Haloperidol and Risperidone treatments in schizophrenic patients that Resperidone had superior improvement of negative and positive symptoms of patients, no harmful effect on liver and kidney functions and greater efficacy and faster recovery from schizophrenic symptoms in patients. On the basis of our findings of the present study, we concluded that treatment with Risperidone is superior to Haloperidol in reducing the risk of relapse among outpatients with schizophrenic disorders.

Keywords: schizophrenia, Haloperidol, Risperidone, positive and negative symptom

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81 Anti-DNA Antibodies from Patients with Schizophrenia Hydrolyze DNA

Authors: Evgeny A. Ermakov, Lyudmila P. Smirnova, Valentina N. Buneva

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Schizophrenia associated with dysregulation of neurotransmitter processes in the central nervous system and disturbances in the humoral immune system resulting in the formation of antibodies (Abs) to the various components of the nervous tissue. Abs to different neuronal receptors and DNA were detected in the blood of patients with schizophrenia. Abs hydrolyzing DNA were detected in pool of polyclonal autoantibodies in autoimmune and infectious diseases, such catalytic Abs were named abzymes. It is believed that DNA-hydrolyzing abzymes are cytotoxic, cause nuclear DNA fragmentation and induce cell death by apoptosis. Abzymes with DNAase activity are interesting because of the mechanism of formation and the possibility of use as diagnostic markers. Therefore, in our work we have set following goals: to determine the level anti-DNA Abs in the serum of patients with schizophrenia and to study DNA-hydrolyzing activity of IgG of patients with schizophrenia. Materials and methods: In our study there were included 41 patients with a verified diagnosis of paranoid or simple schizophrenia and 24 healthy donors. Electrophoretically and immunologically homogeneous IgGs were obtained by sequential affinity chromatography of the serum proteins on protein G-Sepharose and gel filtration. The levels of anti-DNA Abs were determined using ELISA. DNA-hydrolyzing activity was detected as the level of supercoiled pBluescript DNA transition in circular and linear forms, the hydrolysis products were analyzed by agarose electrophoresis followed by ethidium bromide stain. To correspond the registered catalytic activity directly to the antibodies we carried out a number of strict criteria: electrophoretic homogeneity of the antibodies, gel filtration (acid shock analysis) and in situ activity. Statistical analysis was performed in ‘Statistica 9.0’ using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results: The sera of approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients displayed a higher level of Abs interacting with single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) compared with healthy donors. The average level of Abs interacting with ssDNA was only 1.1-fold lower than that for interacting with dsDNA. IgG of patient with schizophrenia were shown to possess DNA hydrolyzing activity. Using affinity chromatography, electrophoretic analysis of isolated IgG homogeneity, gel filtration in acid shock conditions and in situ DNAse activity analysis we proved that the observed activity is intrinsic property of studied antibodies. We have shown that the relative DNAase activity of IgG in patients with schizophrenia averaged 55.4±32.5%, IgG of healthy donors showed much lower activity (average of 9.1±6.5%). It should be noted that DNAase activity of IgG in patients with schizophrenia with a negative symptoms was significantly higher (73.3±23.8%), than in patients with positive symptoms (43.3±33.1%). Conclusion: Anti-DNA Abs of patients with schizophrenia not only bind DNA, but quite efficiently hydrolyze the substrate. The data show a correlation with the level of DNase activity and leading symptoms of patients with schizophrenia.

Keywords: anti-DNA antibodies, abzymes, DNA hydrolysis, schizophrenia

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80 Psychosocial Strategies Used by Individuals with Schizophrenia: An Analysis of Internet Forum Posts

Authors: Charisse H. Tay

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Background: Schizophrenia is a severe chronic mental disorder that can result in hallucinations, delusions, reduced social engagement, and lack of motivation. While antipsychotic medications often provide the basis for treatment, psychosocial strategies complement the benefit of medications and can result in meaningful improvements in symptoms and functioning. The aim of the study was to investigate psychosocial strategies used by internet self-help forum participants to effectively manage symptoms caused by schizophrenia. Internet self-help forums are a resource for medical and psychological problems and are commonly used to share information about experiences with symptom management. Method: Three international self-help internet forums on schizophrenia were identified using a search engine. 1,181 threads regarding non-pharmacological, psychosocial self-management of schizophrenia symptoms underwent screening, resulting in the final identification and coding of 91 threads and 191 posts from 134 unique forum users that contained details on psychosocial strategies endorsed personally by users that allowed them to effectively manage symptoms of schizophrenia, including positive symptoms (e.g., auditory/visual/tactile hallucinations, delusions, paranoia), negative symptoms (e.g.., avolition, apathy, anhedonia), symptoms of distress, and cognitive symptoms (e.g., memory loss). Results: Effective symptom management strategies personally endorsed by online forum users were psychological skills (e.g., re-focusing, mindfulness/meditation, reality checking; n = 94), engaging in activities (e.g., exercise, working/volunteering, hobbies; n = 84), social/familial support (n = 48), psychotherapy (n = 33), diet (n = 18), and religion/spirituality (n = 14). 44.4% of users reported using more than one strategy to manage their symptoms. The most common symptoms targeted and effectively managed, as specified by users, were positive symptoms (n = 113), negative symptoms (n = 17), distress (n = 8), and memory loss (n = 6). 10.5% of users reported more than one symptom effectively targeted. 70.2% of users with positive symptoms reported that psychological skills were effective for symptom relief. 88% of users with negative symptoms and 75% with distress symptoms reported that engaging in activities was effective. Discussion: Individuals with schizophrenia rely on a variety of different psychosocial methods to manage their symptoms. Different symptomology appears to be more effectively targeted by different types of psychosocial strategies. This may help to inform treatment strategy and tailored for individuals with schizophrenia.

Keywords: psychosocial treatment, qualitative methods, schizophrenia, symptom management

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79 Comparison Serum Vitamin D by Geographic between the Highland and Lowland Schizophrenic Patient in the Sumatera Utara

Authors: Novita Linda Akbar, Elmeida Effendy, Mustafa M. Amin

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Background: The most common of psychotic disorders is schizophrenia. Vitamin D is made from sunlight, and in the skin from UVB radiation from sunlight. If people with Vitamin D deficiency is common severe mental illness such as schizophrenia.Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness characterised by positive symptoms and negatives symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, flat affect and lack of motivation we can found. In patients with Schizophrenia maybe have several environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, such as season of birth, latitude, and climate has been linked to vitamin D deficiency. There is also relationship between the risk of schizophrenia and latitude, and with an increased incidence rate of schizophrenia seen at a higher latitude. Methods: This study was an analytical study, conducted in BLUD RS Jiwa Propinsi Sumatera Utara and RSUD Deli Serdang, the period in May 2016 and ended in June 2016 with a sample of the study 60 sample (20 patients live in the Highland and Lowland, 20 healthy controls). Inclusion criteria were schizophrenic patients both men and women, aged between 18 to 60 years old, acute phase no agitation or abstinence antipsychotic drugs for two weeks, live in the Highland and Lowland, and willing to participate this study. Exclusion criteria were history of other psychotic disorders, comorbidities with other common medical condition, a history of substance abuse. Sample inspection for serum vitamin D using ELFA method. Statistical analysis using numeric comparative T-independent test. Results: The results showed that average levels of vitamin D for a group of subjects living in areas of high land was 227.6 ng / mL with a standard deviation of 86.78 ng / mL, the lowest levels of vitamin D is 138 ng / mL and the highest 482 ng / mL. In the group of subjects who settled in the low lands seem mean vitamin D levels higher than the mountainous area with an average 237.8 ng / mL with a standard deviation of 100.16 ng / mL. Vitamin D levels are lowest and the highest 138-585 ng / mL. Conclusion and Suggestion: The results of the analysis using the Mann Whitney test showed that there were no significant differences between the mean for the levels of vitamin D based on residence subject with a value of p = 0.652.

Keywords: latitude, schizophrenia, Vitamin D, Sumatera Utara

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78 Beyond Recognition: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking for Depression and Schizophrenia in Ghana

Authors: Peter Adu

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Background: There is a paucity of mental health research in Ghana. Little is known about the beliefs and attitudes regarding specific mental disorders in Ghana. Method: A vignette study was conducted to examine the relationship between causal attributions, help-seeking, and stigma towards depression and schizophrenia using lay Ghanaians (N = 410). This adapted questionnaire presented two unlabelled vignettes about a hypothetical person with the above disorders for participants to provide their impressions. Next, participants answered questions on beliefs and attitudes regarding this person. Results: The results showed that causal beliefs about mental disorders were related to treatment options and stigma: spiritual causal attributions associated positively with spiritual help-seeking and perceived stigma for the mental disorders, whilst biological and psychosocial causal attribution of the mental disorders was positively related with professional help-seeking. Finally, contrary to previous literature, belonging to a particular religious group did not negatively associate with professional help-seeking for mental disorders. Conclusion: In conclusion, results suggest that Ghanaians may benefit from exposure to corrective information about depression and schizophrenia. Our findings have implications for mental health literacy and anti-stigma campaigns in Ghana and other developing countries in the region.

Keywords: stigma, mental health literacy, depression, schizophrenia, spirituality, religion

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77 Validation of the Arabic Version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

Authors: Arij Yehya, Suhaila Ghuloum, Abdlmoneim Abdulhakam, Azza Al-Mujalli, Mark Opler, Samer Hammoudeh, Yahya Hani, Sundus Mari, Reem Elsherbiny, Ziyad Mahfoud, Hassen Al-Amin

Abstract:

Introduction: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is a valid instrument developed by Kay and colleagues6 to assess symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. It consists of 30 items that factor the symptoms into three subscales: positive, negative and general psychopathology. This scale has been translated and validated in several languages. Objective: This study aims to determine the validity and psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the PANSS. Methods: A standardized translation and cultural adaptation method was adopted. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=98), according to psychiatrist’s diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria, were recruited from the Psychiatry Department at Rumailah Hospital, Qatar. A first rater confirmed the diagnosis using the Arabic version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6). A second and independent rater-administered the Arabic version of PANSS. Also, a control group (n=101), with no history of psychiatric disorder was recruited from the family and friends of the patients and from primary health care centers in Qatar. Results: There were more males than females in our sample of patients with schizophrenia (68.9% and 31.6%, respectively). On the other hand, in the control group the number of females outweighed that of males (58.4% and 41.6% respectively). The scale had a good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha 0.91. There was a significant difference between the scores on the three subscales of the PANSS. Patients with schizophrenia scored significantly higher (p<.0001) than the control subjects on subscales for positive symptoms 20.01(SD=7.21) and 7.30(SD=1.38), negative symptoms 18.89(SD=8.88) and 7.37(SD=2.38) and general psychopathology 34.41 (SD=11.56) and 16.93 (SD=3.93), respectively. Factor analysis and ROC curve were carried out to further test the psychometrics of the scale. Conclusions: The Arabic version of PANSS is a reliable and valid tool to assess both positive and negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia in a balanced manner. In addition to providing the Arab population with a standardized tool to monitor symptoms of schizophrenia, this version provides a gateway to compare the prevalence of positive and negative symptoms in the Arab world which can be compared to others done elsewhere.

Keywords: Arabic version, assessment, diagnosis, schizophrenia, validation

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76 Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Review of the Indian Scenario

Authors: Garima Joshi, Pratap Sharan, V. Sreenivas, Nand Kumar, Kameshwar Prasad, Ashima N. Wadhawan

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Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder and is marked by cognitive impairment, which deleteriously impacts the social and professional functioning along with the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers. Often the cognitive symptoms are in their prodromal state and worsen as the illness progresses; they have proven to have a good predictive value for the prognosis of the illness. It has been shown that intensive cognitive rehabilitation (CR) leads to improvements in the healthy as well as cognitively-impaired subjects. As the majority of population in India falls in the lower to middle socio-economic status and have low education levels, using the existing packages, a majority of which are developed in the West, for cognitive rehabilitation becomes difficult. The use of technology is also restricted due to the high costs involved and the limited availability and familiarity with computers and other devices, which pose as an impedance for continued therapy. Cognitive rehabilitation in India uses a plethora of retraining methods for the patients with schizophrenia targeting the functions of attention, information processing, executive functions, learning and memory, and comprehension along with Social Cognition. Psychologists often have to follow an integrative therapy approach involving social skills training, family therapy and psychoeducation in order to maintain the gains from the cognitive rehabilitation in the long run. This paper reviews the methodologies and cognitive retaining programs used in India. It attempts to elucidate the evolution and development of methodologies used, from traditional paper-pencil based retraining to more sophisticated neuroscience-informed techniques in cognitive rehabilitation of deficits in schizophrenia as home-based or supervised and guided programs for cognitive rehabilitation.

Keywords: schizophrenia, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological interventions, integrated approached to rehabilitation

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75 A Comparative Psychological Interventional Study of Nicotine Dependence in Schizophrenic Patients

Authors: S. Madhusudhan, G. V. Vaniprabha

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Worldwide statistics have shown that smoking contributes significantly to mortality, with nicotine, being more addictive. Smoking causes more than 7,00,000 deaths/year in India. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of smoking is found to be much higher among people with psychotic disorders and, more so in schizophrenia. Schizophrenic patients who smoke tend to have higher frequency of heavy smoking, with rates ranging from 60% to as high as 80%. Hence, smokers with psychiatric disorders suffer higher rates of morbidity and mortality secondary to smoking related illnesses.

Keywords: brief intervention, nicotine dependence, schizophrenia

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74 The Difference of Serum Tnf-α Levels between Patients Schizophrenic Male with Smoking and Healthy Control

Authors: Rona Hanani Simamora, Bahagia Loebis, M. Surya Husada

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Background: The exact cause of schizophrenia is not known, although several etiology theories have been proposed for the disease, including immune dysfunction or autoimmune mechanisms. Cytokines including Tnf-α has an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the effects of pharmacological treatment with antipsychotics. Nicotine is widespread effects on the brain, immune system and cytokine levels. Smoking among schizophrenic patients could play a role in the altered cytokine profiles of schizophrenia such as Tnf-α. Aims: To determine differences of serum Tnf-α levels between schizophrenic patients with smoking in male and healthy control. Methods: This study was a comparative analytic study, divided into two groups: 1) group of male schizophrenic patients with smoking (n1=30) with inclusion criteria were patients who have been diagnosed schizophrenic based PPDGJ-III, 20-60 years old, male, smoking, chronic schizophrenic patients in the stable phase and willing to participate this study. Exclusion criteria were having other mental disorders and comorbidity with other medical illnesses. 2) healthy control group (n2=30) with inclusion criteria were 20-60 years old, male, smoking, willing to participate this study. Exclusion criteria were having mental disorder, a family history of psychiatric disorders, the other medical illnesses, a history of alcohol and other substances abuse (except caffeine and nicotine). Serum Tnf-α were analyzed using the Quantikine HS Human Tnf –α Immunoassay. Results: Serum Tnf-α level measure in patient schizophrenia male with smoking and compared with the healthy control subjects. Tnf-α levels were significantly higher in patients schizophrenic male with smoking (25,79±27,96) to healthy control subjects (2,74±2,19), by using the Mann Whitney U test showed a statistically significant difference was observed for serum Tnf-α level (p < 0,001). Conclusions: Schizophrenia is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and this study shows an increase Tnf-α as pro-inflammation cytokines in schizophrenics. These results suggest an immune abnormalities may be involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

Keywords: male, schizophrenic, smoking, Tnf Alpha

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73 Microglia Activation in Animal Model of Schizophrenia

Authors: Esshili Awatef, Manitz Marie-Pierre, Eßlinger Manuela, Gerhardt Alexandra, Plümper Jennifer, Wachholz Simone, Friebe Astrid, Juckel Georg

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Maternal immune activation (MIA) resulting from maternal viral infection during pregnancy is a known risk factor for schizophrenia. The neural mechanisms by which maternal infections increase the risk for schizophrenia remain unknown, although the prevailing hypothesis argues that an activation of the maternal immune system induces changes in the maternal-fetal environment that might interact with fetal brain development. It may lead to an activation of fetal microglia inducing long-lasting functional changes of these cells. Based on post-mortem analysis showing an increased number of activated microglial cells in patients with schizophrenia, it can be hypothesized that these cells contribute to disease pathogenesis and may actively be involved in gray matter loss observed in such patients. In the present study, we hypothesize that prenatal treatment with the inflammatory agent Poly(I:C) during embryogenesis at contributes to microglial activation in the offspring, which may, therefore, represent a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and underlines the need for new pharmacological treatment options. Pregnant rats were treated with intraperitoneal injections a single dose of Poly(I:C) or saline on gestation day 17. Brains of control and Poly(I:C) offspring, were removed and into 20-μm-thick coronal sections were cut by using a Cryostat. Brain slices were fixed and immunostained with ba1 antibody. Subsequently, Iba1-immunoreactivity was detected using a secondary antibody, goat anti-rabbit. The sections were viewed and photographed under microscope. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed increases in microglia cell number in the prefrontal cortex, in offspring of poly(I:C) treated-rats as compared to the controls injected with NaCl. However, no significant differences were observed in microglia activation in the cerebellum among the groups. Prenatal immune challenge with Poly(I:C) was able to induce long-lasting changes in the offspring brains. This lead to a higher activation of microglia cells in the prefrontal cortex, a brain region critical for many higher brain functions, including working memory and cognitive flexibility. which might be implicated in possible changes in cortical neuropil architecture in schizophrenia. Further studies will be needed to clarify the association between microglial cells activation and schizophrenia-related behavioral alterations.

Keywords: Microglia, neuroinflammation, PolyI:C, schizophrenia

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72 Accuracy and Depiction of Mental Illness-Popular Cinema

Authors: Ankur Kapur, Moosath Vasudevan

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This movie review looks at the depiction of mental illness in popular cinema, using the movie A Beautiful Mind as a case study. It tries to understand cinema and media from a clinical psychology perspective in terms of the portrayal of symptoms and caregiver support. The review aims to analyze the portrayal of schizophrenia in the book and the movie ‘A Beautiful Mind’ on Professor John Nash. It will analyze the differences in portrayal of schizophrenia, under different media and the creative applications of the author, directors and actors in depicting the disorder as closely as it is understood in Clinical Psychology. The differences would be studied for romanticisation of symptoms in the book and the movie. Even within a medium (only the movie), verbal and non-verbal cues of the disorder will be compared for the depiction of schizophrenia. The study will dwell on the comparative description of how the caregivers coped with the patient and his illness. For this, the study will understand it through the lens of Bowen’s Family Systems Theory.

Keywords: caregiver, communication, media, systems theory

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71 The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Frailty and Its Relationship with Falls in Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Bo-Jian Wu, Si-Heng Wu

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Objectives: Frailty is a condition of a person who has chronic health problems complicated by a loss of physiological reserve and deteriorating functional abilities. The frailty syndrome was defined by Fried and colleagues, i.e., weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity. However, to our best knowledge, there have been rare studies exploring the prevalence of frailty and its association with falls in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 559 hospitalized patients were recruited from a public psychiatric hospital in 2013. The majority of the subjects were males (361, 64.6%). The average age was 53.5 years. All patients received the assessment of frailty status defined by Fried and colleagues. The status of a fall within one year after the assessment of frailty, clinical and demographic data was collected from medical records. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio of associated factors. Results : A total of 9.2% of the participants met the criteria of frailty. The percentage of patients having a fall was 7.2%. Age were significantly associated with frailty (odds ratio = 1.057, 95% confidence interval = 1.025-1.091); however, sex was not associated with frailty (p = 0.17). After adjustment for age and sex, frailty status was associated with a fall (odds ratio = 3.62, 95% confidence interval = 1.58-8.28). Concerning the components of frailty, decreased grip strength (odds ratio = 2.44, 95% confidence interval = 1.16-5.14), slow gait speed (odds ratio = 2.82, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-6.53), and low physical activity (odds ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-5.78) were found to be associated with a fall. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the prevalence of frailty was about 10% in hospitalized patients with chronic patients with schizophrenia, and frailty status was significant with a fall in this group. By using the status of frailty, it may be beneficial to potential target candidates having fallen in the future as early as possible. The effective intervention of prevention of further falls may be given in advance. Our results bridge this gap and open a potential avenue for the prevention of falls in patients with schizophrenia. Frailty is certainly an important factor for maintaining wellbeing among these patients.

Keywords: fall, frailty, schizophrenia, Taiwan

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70 A Survey Proposal towards Holistic Management of Schizophrenia

Authors: Pronab Ganguly, Ahmed A. Moustafa

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Holistic management of schizophrenia involves mainstream pharmacological intervention, complimentary medicine intervention, therapeutic intervention and other psychosocial factors such as accommodation, education, job training, employment, relationship, friendship, exercise, overall well-being, smoking, substance abuse, suicide prevention, stigmatisation, recreation, entertainment, violent behaviour, arrangement of public trusteeship and guardianship, day-day-living skill, integration with community, and management of overweight due to medications and other health complications related to medications amongst others. Our review shows that there is no integrated survey by combining all these factors. An international web-based survey was conducted to evaluate the significance of all these factors and present them in a unified manner. It is believed this investigation will contribute positively towards holistic management of schizophrenia. There will be two surveys. In the pharmacological intervention survey, five popular drugs for schizophrenia will be chosen and their efficacy as well as harmful side effects will be evaluated on a scale of 0 -10. This survey will be done by psychiatrists. In the second survey, each element of therapeutic intervention and psychosocial factors will be evaluated according to their significance on a scale of 0 - 10. This survey will be done by care givers, psychologists, case managers and case workers. For the first survey, professional bodies of psychiatrists in English speaking countries will be contacted to request them to ask their members to participate in the survey. For the second survey, professional bodies of clinical psychologist and care givers in English speaking countries will be contacted to request them to ask their members to participate in the survey. Additionally, for both the surveys, relevant professionals will be contacted through personal contact networks. For both the surveys, mean, mode, median, standard deviation and net promoter score will be calculated for each factor and then presented in a statistically significant manner. Subsequently each factor will be ranked according to their statistical significance. Additionally, country specific variation will be highlighted to identify the variation pattern. The results of these surveys will identify the relative significance of each type of pharmacological intervention, each type of therapeutic intervention and each type of psychosocial factor. The determination of this relative importance will definitely contribute to the improvement in quality of life for individuals with schizophrenia.

Keywords: schizophrenia, holistic management, antipsychotics, quality of life

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69 Neural Correlates of Attention Bias to Threat during the Emotional Stroop Task in Schizophrenia

Authors: Camellia Al-Ibrahim, Jenny Yiend, Sukhwinder S. Shergill

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Background: Attention bias to threat play a role in the development, maintenance, and exacerbation of delusional beliefs in schizophrenia in which patients emphasize the threatening characteristics of stimuli and prioritise them for processing. Cognitive control deficits arise when task-irrelevant emotional information elicits attentional bias and obstruct optimal performance. This study is investigating neural correlates of interference effect of linguistic threat and whether these effects are independent of delusional severity. Methods: Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), neural correlates of interference effect of linguistic threat during the emotional Stroop task were investigated and compared patients with schizophrenia with high (N=17) and low (N=16) paranoid symptoms and healthy controls (N=20). Participants were instructed to identify the font colour of each word presented on the screen as quickly and accurately as possible. Stimuli types vary between threat-relevant, positive and neutral words. Results: Group differences in whole brain effects indicate decreased amygdala activity in patients with high paranoid symptoms compared with low paranoid patients and healthy controls. Regions of interest analysis (ROI) validated our results within the amygdala and investigated changes within the striatum showing a pattern of reduced activation within the clinical group compared to healthy controls. Delusional severity was associated with significant decreased neural activity in the striatum within the clinical group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the emotional interference mediated by the amygdala and striatum may reduce responsiveness to threat-related stimuli in schizophrenia and that attenuation of fMRI Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal within these areas might be influenced by the severity of delusional symptoms.

Keywords: attention bias, fMRI, Schizophrenia, Stroop

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68 Nutrition Role in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders

Authors: Abeer Mohammed, Nevein Mustafa Elashery, Mona Hassan Abdel Aal, Ereny Wilson Nagib

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The Aim of the current study is to investigate nutrition role in the management of psychiatric disorders. Research Design: A quasi- experimental research design was utilized for this study. Setting The study was conducted at outpatient clinic at Institute of Psychiatry affiliated to Ain Shams University hospitals, using a convenient sample of 50 psychiatric patients with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders. Tools: data were collected through; first, an interview questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, second, nutrition assessment tools Third, nutrition risk assessment. Fourth, nutrition management program Results showed that there were highly statistically significant improvements in modified nutritional supplements for patients with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders' patients after conducting the nutrition management program. Regarding psychiatric patients’ knowledge about healthy food, healthy nutritional habits, and patients’ awareness & readiness for change, there were highly statistically significant improvements. Concerning signs and symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there were highly statistically significant improvements for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive-compulsive patients after conducting the management program. In conclusion, the nutrition management program was effective in improving symptoms associated with, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders. The study recommended that nurses should have more contribution in counseling psychiatric patients, and their families about healthy diet and healthy habits. Further research should recommend studying the effectiveness of herbs on enhancing mental health for psychiatric patients.

Keywords: nutrition, role, management, psychiatric disorders

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