Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: ADHD

55 Examining Procrastination and Delay among Individuals with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: S. J. Taylor, S. Chowdhury, T. A. Pychyl


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and procrastination are often discussed in relation to problems with self-regulation and executive functioning (EF). The small body of extant research that has explored the relations between these variables has many limitations particularly in terms of the samples used and the measurement of procrastination. In this study, we recruited a sample of undergraduate students with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of ADHD (n = 48, 66.7% females) as well as a sample of student volunteers without ADHD (n = 68, 75.8% females) to investigate the relations between ADHD subtypes, EF, procrastination and other forms of delay. We used the newly developed Multidimensional Measure of Academic Procrastination and Delay Questionnaire. As hypothesized, the results revealed that individuals with ADHD displayed significantly more irrational delay, general procrastination and academic procrastination compared to individuals without ADHD. This study contributed to the research literature indicating that individuals with ADHD struggle with procrastination as a result of symptoms of ADHD and EF deficits. Theses results provide support for adopting a new language when describing procrastination problems among individuals with ADHD, and they have implications for the nature of academic accommodations and interventions for individuals with ADHD.

Keywords: ADHD, delay, executive functioning, procrastination, self-regulation

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54 The Role of College Teachers’ in Identifying Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Students

Authors: Hargunjeet Shergill, Palwinder Singh


The present paper analyzes the lack of teachers' awareness and knowledge regarding the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the college students. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder causes individuals to consistently display extreme inattention, impulsivity and in many cases hyperactivity as a result of the physiological differences of the brain. Teachers have a formative influence on their students and can play a key role in identifying and supporting students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite the pervasiveness and salience of this disorder, educators at college continue to labor under a number of misconceptions about the nature of ADHD. In order to fulfill this important role, it is imperative for teachers to have explicit knowledge about this disorder. ADHD in college students remains the most under-recognized and undertreated mental health condition. The overall aim of this study is to investigate teachers’ knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD with a particular focus on recognition, assessment and management of ADHD in adult college students. It designed to assess the college teachers' knowledge, opinions, and experience related to the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and by maintaining open lines of communication with the students and understanding some key elements that can affect students’ overall growth and ability. The discussion focuses on the value of the role of teachers and their relationship with each college student dealing with ADHD.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, development of ADHD, diagnostic criteria, role of teachers

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53 The Moderating Roles of Bedtime Activities and Anxiety and Depression in the Relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sleep Problems in Children

Authors: Lian Tong, Yan Ye, Qiong Yan


Background: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience sleep problems, but the comorbidity mechanism has not been sufficiently studied. This study aimed to determine the comorbidity of ADHD and sleep problems as well as the moderating effects of bedtime activities and depression/anxiety symptoms on the relationship between ADHD and sleep problems. Methods: We recruited 934 primary students from third to fifth grade and their parents by stratified random sampling from three primary schools in Shanghai, China. This study used parent-reported versions of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist. We used hierarchical linear regression analysis to clarify the moderating effects of bedtime activities and depression/anxiety symptoms. Results: We found that children with more ADHD symptoms had shorter sleep durations and more sleep problems on weekdays. Screen time before bedtime strengthened the relationship between ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing. Children with more screen time were more likely to have sleep onset delay, while those with less screen time had more sleep onset problems with increasing ADHD symptoms. The high bedtime eating group experienced more night waking with increasing ADHD symptoms compared with the low bedtime eating group. Anxiety/depression exacerbated total sleep problems and further interacted with ADHD symptoms to predict sleep length and sleep duration problems. Conclusions: Bedtime activities and emotional problems had important moderating effects on the relationship between ADHD and sleep problems. These findings indicate that appropriate bedtime management and emotional management may reduce sleep problems and improve sleep duration for children with ADHD symptoms.

Keywords: ADHD, sleep problems, anxiety/depression, bedtime activities, children

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52 Effectiveness of Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Improving Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rehabilitation

Authors: Marjan Ghazisaeedi, Azadeh Bashiri


Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD), is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in early childhood that in addition to its main symptoms provide significant deficits in the areas of educational, social and individual relationship. Considering the importance of rehabilitation in ADHD patients to control these problems, this study investigated the advantages of computer-based cognitive training in these patients. Methods: This review article has been conducted by searching articles since 2005 in scientific databases and e-Journals and by using keywords including computerized cognitive rehabilitation, computer-based training and ADHD. Results: Since drugs have short term effects and also they have many side effects in the rehabilitation of ADHD patients, using supplementary methods such as computer-based cognitive training is one of the best solutions. This approach has quick feedback and also has no side effects. So, it provides promising results in cognitive rehabilitation of ADHD especially on the working memory and attention. Conclusion: Considering different cognitive dysfunctions in ADHD patients, application of the computerized cognitive training has the potential to improve cognitive functions and consequently social, academic and behavioral performances in patients with this disorder.

Keywords: ADHD, computer-based cognitive training, cognitive functions, rehabilitation

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51 Effects of External Body Movement on Visual Attentional Performance in Children with ADHD

Authors: Hung-Yu Lin


Background: Parts of researchers assert that external hyperactivity behaviors of ADHD children interfere with their abilities to perform internal cognitive tasks; however, there are still other researchers hold the opposite viewpoint, the external high level of activity may serve as the role of improving internal executive function.Objectives: Thisstudy explored the effects of external motor behavior of ADHD on internal visual attentional performance. Methods: A randomized, two-period crossover design was used in this study, a total of 80 children (aged 6-12) were recruited in this study. 40participants have received ADHD diagnosis, and others are children with typically developing. These children were measured through the visual edition of TOVA (The Test of Variables of Attention) when they wore actigraphy, their testing behavior and movement data werecollected through closely observation and the actigraphies under different research conditions. Result: According to the research result, the author found (1) Higherfrequencyof movement under attentional testing condition was found in children with ADHD, comparing to children with typically developing, and (2) Higher frequency of foot movement showed better attentional performance of the visual attentional test in children with ADHD. However, these results were not showed in children with typically developing. Conclusions: The findings support the functional working memory model, which advocated that a positive relation between gross motor activity and attentional performance within the context of attentive behavior in children with ADHD.

Keywords: ADHD, movement, visual attention, children

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50 Quality of Life of Mothers of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Based on Lazarus-Folkman's Coping

Authors: Simin Hosseinian, Roghieh Nooripour


Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major neuropsychiatric disorder diagnosis in children, adolescents. This study was aimed to investigate the quality of life of mothers of adolescents with ADHD based on Lazarus-Folkman's coping. Method: Due to this purpose, 120 mothers were selected with convenience sampling method that referred to counseling centers with their adolescents with ADHD for treatment of their adolescents and then they completed Iranian Quality of Life Questionnaire and The Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). Data were analyzed by the Pearson correlation and stepwise regression methods with SPSS-19. Results: The result showed that there was a positive significant relationship between quality of life and self-controlling and also a negative relationship between quality of life and accepting responsibility (p < 0.05). Conclusion: According to these findings, we can suggest suitable intervention for mothers who have adolescents with ADHD and enhance their quality of life.

Keywords: ADHD, mother, adolescent, quality of life, Lazarus-Folkman

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49 Measuring the Effect of Continuous Performance Test-3 Administration on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow with Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Adult ADHD

Authors: Claire Stafford, Charles Golden, Daniel Amen, Kristen Willeumier


The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the administration of the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT-3) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in adults with ADHD. The data for this study was derived from a large SPECT database. Participants in the ADHD group (n=81, Mage=37.97) were similar to those in the healthy control group (n=8503, Mage=41.86). All participants were assessed for cerebral blood flow levels before and after CPT-3 administration. Both age and gender were considered covariates. Multiple 2-by-2 ANCOVAs with repeated measures were conducted with sphericity assumed. The main effects of CPT-3 administration on CBF levels were significant in the left and right side of the frontal and occipital, and right temporal lobe. The main effects of ADHD diagnosis were significant in all brain areas assessed. The interaction between CPT-3 administration and ADHD diagnosis was significant in the left and right side of the limbic system, basal ganglia, the frontal lobe, and occipital lobe. Post hoc tests with a Bonferroni adjustment revealed that CBF levels increased following CPT-3 administration but less so in the ADHD group. Individuals had higher levels of CBF following the administration of CPT-3. Due to a significant interaction, we can infer that ADHD diagnosis changes the effect of CPT-3 administration on CBF levels. This is consistent with our hypothesis considering that CPT-3 is a test of sustained attention, a common challenge for children with ADHD. The aforementioned interaction was not found to be significant in the parietal lobe. This may be due to the nature of CPT- 3 which does not require an integration of sensory information.

Keywords: SPECT, ADHD, conners continuous performance test, cerebral blood flow

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48 The Efficacy of Methylphenidate vs Atomoxetine in Treating Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Child and Adolescent

Authors: Gadia Duhita, Noorhana, Tjhin Wiguna


Background: ADHD is the most common behavioural disorder in Indonesia. A stimulant, specifically methylphenidate, has been the first drug of choice for an ADHD treatment more than half a century. During the last decade, non-stimulant therapy (atomoxetine) for ADHD treatment has been developing. Growing evidence of its efficacy and the difference in its side effects profile to stimulant therapy have made methylphenidate’s position as a first line therapy for ADHD in need of re-evaluation. Both methylphenidate and atomoxetine have proven themselves against placebos in reducing core symptoms of ADHD. More recent studies directly compare the efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Objective: The objective of this paper is to find out if either methylphenidate or atomoxetine is superior to another. This paper will assess the validity, importance, and applicability of current available evidence which compare the effectivity, efficacy, and safety of methylphenidate to atomoxetine for treatment in children and adolescents with ADHD. Method: The articles were searched for through the PubMed and Cochrane databases with “attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder OR adhd”, “methylphenidate”, and “atomoxetine” as the search keywords. Two articles which were relevant and eligible were chosen by using inclusion and exclusion criterias to be critically appraised. Result: The study by Hazel et al. showed that the efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine are comparable for treatment in child and adolescent ADHD. The result shows 53.6% (95% CI 48.5%-58.4%) of the patient responded to the treatment by atomoxetine and 54.4% (95% CI 47.6%-61.1%) patients responded to methylphenidate, with the difference in proportion of–0.9% (95% CI –9.2%-7.5%). The other study by Hanwella et al. also showed that the efficacy of atomoxetine was not inferior to metilphenidate (SMD = 0.09, 95% CI –0.08-0.26) (Z = 1.06, p = 0.29). However, the sub-group analysis showed that OROS methylphenidate is more effective compared to atomoxetine (SMD = 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.53) (Z = 3.05, p < 0.02). Conclusion: The efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in reducing symptoms of ADHD is comparable. None is proven inferior to another. The choice of pharmacological tratment children and adolescents with ADHD should be made based on contraindication and the side effects profile of each drug.

Keywords: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, atomoxetine, methylphenidate

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47 Benefits of Therapeutic Climbing on Multiple Components of Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children

Authors: Elaheh Hosseini, Otmar Bock, Monika Thomas


The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of climbing therapy on the components of attention of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty children with ADHD were assigned to either an intervention group or a control group. The exercise group participated in a climbing therapy program for ten weeks, whereas no intervention was administered to the control group. All two groups were then assessed with the same battery of attention tests used in our earlier study. We found that compared to the ‘intervention’ group, performance was higher in the ‘control’ group on tests of sustained, divided and distributed attention, on all four tests. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in components of attention after ten weeks. From this we conclude that climbing therapy can improve the attention of children with ADHD and can be considered as a promising intervention and a standalone treatment for children with ADHD.

Keywords: ADHD, climbing therapy, distributed attention, divided attention, selective attention, sustained attention

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46 The Knowledge and Beliefs Concerning Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Held by Parents of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohaned G. Abed


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric childhood disorders. It has an effect on 3–5% of school-aged children, and brings about difficulties in academic and social interaction. This study explored the knowledge and beliefs of parents in Saudi Arabia about children with ADHD. The Knowledge about Attention Deficit Disorder Questionnaire (KADD-Q) was administered to a sample of parents, followed by interviews with a subset of the total respondents. The results indicated that the parents knew more about the characteristics of ADHD than they knew about its related causes and treatment. Overall, the findings indicated that these parents had some knowledge about general characteristics of ADHD, but they had little understanding of causes and possible interventions. These results suggest an important need for more formal parents training regarding all aspects of ADHD in school age children.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood disorders, school-aged children, difficulties in academic, social interaction

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45 Development a Fine Motor and Executive Function Assessment (FiM&EF) for Assessing School Aged Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

Authors: Negar Miri-Lavasani


Background: Children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show fine motor skills difficulties, and it is controversial whether this difficulty is based on problems in their fine motor skills or their executive function impairments. Objectives of Study: The Fine Motor and Executive Function assessment tool (FiM&EF) was developed to answer the question, ‘Do the fine motor skill deficits in children with ADHD come from their fine motor problems or is it caused by their executive function problems?’. This paper describes the development of a new assessment of Fine Motor and Executive Function (FiM &EF) needed by primary school students with ADHD aged 6-12 years with ADHD. Methods: A study on the content validity established through a survey of a panel of nine experts is explained in detail. Findings: Most the experts agreed such an assessment was needed and two items were deleted as a result of experts’ feedback. Relevance to Clinical Practice: Distinguishing the main reason of fine motor problem in these children could help the clinician for their therapy plans. Knowledge on the influence of executive functioning on fine motor ability in selected age children with ADHD would provide a clearer clinical picture of the fine motor capabilities and executive function for these children.

Keywords: children with ADHD, executive function, fine motor, test

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44 A Child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Trap of Expectations: About the Golem Effect at School

Authors: Natalia Kajka, Agnieszka Kulik


The aim of the study is to present the results regarding differences in perception of cognitive progress of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by adults and children themselves. The experiment was attended by 45 children with ADHD, their parents and teachers. The children attended the 3-month metacognitive training. Both children and adults were examined before and after joining this project. In order to show significant differences between the first and second measurement of the test, non-parametric Wilcoxon tests were performed. The analysis showed statistically significant differences in the change of cognitive functioning in children with ADHD participating in metacognitive training, this was also confirmed by the results of the parents' research. There were no significant differences in the teachers' assessment of these children.

Keywords: ADHD, executive function, Golem effect metacognitive training

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43 Clinical Utility of Salivary Cytokines for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Masaki Yamaguchi, Daimei Sasayama, Shinsuke Washizuka


The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of salivary cytokines for the screening of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. We carried out a case-control study, including 19 children with ADHD and 17 healthy children (controls). A multiplex bead array immunoassay was used to conduct a multi-analysis of 27 different salivary cytokines. Six salivary cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL12p70, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were significantly associated with the presence of ADHD (p < 0.05). An informative salivary cytokine panel was developed using VEGF by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 0.251). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that assessment of a panel using VEGF showed “good” capability for discriminating between ADHD patients and controls (area under the curve: 0.778). ADHD has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex, due to reduced VEGF levels. Our study highlights the possibility of utilizing differential salivary cytokine levels for point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in children with ADHD.

Keywords: cytokine, saliva, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, child

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42 Mediating Role of Psychological Capital in Relations Between Social Support and Subjective Wellbeing among Students with Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Ofra Walter Btel Liran Hazan


This study’s goal was to clarify whether psychological capital (PsyCap) mediated the relations between social support and subjective well-being among post-secondary students during the Covid-19 pandemic and to assess whether students diagnosed with a learning disability (LD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differed from others in their reliance on social support and their level of PsyCap and subjective wellbeing. Participants were257 students, 152 diagnosed with LD/ADHD and the rest neurotypical. The study used four questionnaires: demographic and academic information; Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ); Subjective Well-Being Index; social support questionnaire. The results indicated PsyCapmediated relations between social support and subjective wellbeing. Students diagnosed with LD/ADHD differed from neurotypicals in their PsyCap and subjective wellbeing levels but not in their social support. In addition, the relations between PsyCap and social support were stronger among students diagnosed with LD/ADHD. PsyCap was an important resource for all participants and was related to social support and subjective wellbeing, making it especially valuable for LD/ADHD students facing new and threatening situations, such as the Covid-19 pandemic.

Keywords: LD/ADHD post-secondary students, subjective wellbeing, social support, PsyCap, covid-19

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41 Exploration of the Possible Link Between Emotional Problems and Cholesterol Levels Among Children Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Rosa S. Wong, Keith T.S. Tung, H.W. Tsang, Frederick K. Ho, Patrick Ip


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior. Evidence shows that ADHD and mood problems such as depression and anxiety often co-occur and yet not everyone with ADHD reported elevated emotional problems. Given that cholesterol is essential for healthy brain development including the regions governing emotion regulation, reports found lower cholesterol levels in patients with major depressive disorder and those with suicide attempt behavior compared to healthy subjects. This study explored whether ADHD adolescents experienced more emotional problems and whether emotional problems correlated with cholesterol levels in these adolescents. This study used a portion of data from the longitudinal cohort study which was designed to investigate the long-term impact of family socioeconomic status on child development. In 2018/19, parents of 300 adolescents (average age: 12.57+/-0.49 years) were asked to rate their children’s emotional problems and report whether their children had doctor-diagnosed psychiatric diseases. We further collected blood samples from 263 children to study their lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol). Regression analyses were performed to test the relationships between variables of interest. Among 300 children, 27 (9%) had ADHD diagnosis. Analysis based on overall sample found no association between ADHD and emotional problems, but when investigating the relationship by gender, there was a significant interaction effect of ADHD and gender on emotional problems (p=0.037), with ADHD males displaying more emotional problems than ADHD females. Further analyses based on 263 children (21 with ADHD diagnosis) found significant interaction effect of ADHD and gender on total cholesterol (p=0.038) and low LDL-cholesterol levels (p=0.013) after adjusting for the child’s physical disease history. Specifically, ADHD males had significantly lower total cholesterol and low lipoprotein-cholesterol levels than ADHD females. In ADHD males, more emotional problems were associated with lower LDL-cholesterol levels (B = -4.26, 95%CI (-7.46, -1.07), p=0.013). We found preliminary support for the association between more emotional problems and lower cholesterol levels in ADHD children, especially among males. Although larger prospective studies are needed to substantiate these claims, the evidence highlights the importance of healthy lifestyle to keep cholesterol levels in normal range which can have positive effects on physical and mental health.

Keywords: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, cholesterol, emotional problems, adolescents

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40 An Educational Application of Online Games for Learning Difficulties

Authors: Maria Margoudi, Zacharoula Smyraniou


The current paper presents the results of a conducted case study, which was part of the author’s master thesis. During the past few years the number of children diagnosed with Learning Difficulties has drastically augmented and especially the cases of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). One of the core characteristics of ADHD is a deficit in working memory functions. The review of the literature indicates a plethora of educational software that aim at training and enhancing the working memory. Nevertheless, in the current paper, the possibility of using for the same purpose free, online games will be explored. Another issue of interest is the potential effect of the working memory training to the core symptoms of ADHD. In order to explore the abovementioned research questions, three digital tests are employed, all of which are developed on the E-slate platform by the author, in order to check the level of ADHD’s symptoms and to be used as diagnostic tools, both in the beginning and in the end of the case study. The tools used during the main intervention of the research are free online games for the training of working memory. The research and the data analysis focus on the following axes: a) the presence and the possible change in two of the core symptoms of ADHD, attention and impulsivity and b) a possible change in the general cognitive abilities of the individual. The case study was conducted with the participation of a thirteen year-old, female student, diagnosed with ADHD, during after-school hours. The results of the study indicate positive changes both in the levels of attention and impulsivity. Therefore we conclude that the training of working memory through the use of free, online games has a positive impact on the characteristics of ADHD. Finally, concerning the second research question, the change in general cognitive abilities, no significant changes were noted.

Keywords: ADHD, attention, impulsivity, online games

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39 The Correlation between Eye Movements, Attentional Shifting, and Driving Simulator Performance among Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Navah Z. Ratzon, Anat Keren, Shlomit Y. Greenberg


Car accidents are a problem worldwide. Adolescents’ involvement in car accidents is higher in comparison to the overall driving population. Researchers estimate the risk of accidents among adolescents with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be 1.2 to 4 times higher than that of their peers. Individuals with ADHD exhibit unique patterns of eye movements and attentional shifts that play an important role in driving. In addition, deficiencies in cognitive and executive functions among adolescents with ADHD is likely to put them at greater risk for car accidents. Fifteen adolescents with ADHD and 17 matched controls participated in the study. Individuals from both groups attended local public schools and did not have a driver’s license. Participants’ mean age was 16.1 (SD=.23). As part of the experiment, they all completed a driving simulation session, while their eye movements were monitored. Data were recorded by an eye tracker: The entire driving session was recorded, registering the tester’s exact gaze position directly on the screen. Eye movements and simulator data were analyzed using Matlab (Mathworks, USA). Participants’ cognitive and metacognitive abilities were evaluated as well. No correlation was found between saccade properties, regions of interest, and simulator performance in either group, although participants with ADHD allocated more visual scan time (25%, SD = .13%) to a smaller segment of dashboard area, whereas controls scanned the monitor more evenly (15%, SD = .05%). The visual scan pattern found among participants with ADHD indicates a distinct pattern of engagement-disengagement of spatial attention compared to that of non-ADHD participants as well as lower attention flexibility, which likely affects driving. Additionally the lower the results on the cognitive tests, the worse driving performance was. None of the participants had prior driving experience, yet participants with ADHD distinctly demonstrated difficulties in scanning their surroundings, which may impair driving. This stresses the need to consider intervention programs, before driving lessons begin, to help adolescents with ADHD acquire proper driving habits, avoid typical driving errors, and achieve safer driving.

Keywords: ADHD, attentional shifting, driving simulator, eye movements

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38 The Effect of an Abnormal Prefrontal Cortex on the Symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Irene M. Arora


Hypothesis: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the result of an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex which is the primary cause for the signs and symptoms seen as defining features of ADHD. Methods: Through ‘PubMed’, ‘Wiley’ and ‘Google Scholar’ studies published between 2011-2018 were evaluated, determining if a dysfunctional prefrontal cortex caused the characteristic symptoms associated with ADHD. The search terms "prefrontal cortex", "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder", "cognitive control", "frontostriatal tract" among others, were used to maximize the assortment of relevant studies. Excluded papers were systematic reviews, meta-analyses and publications published before 2010 to ensure clinical relevance. Results: Nine publications were analyzed in this review, all of which were non-randomized matched control studies. Three studies found a decrease in the functional integrity of the frontostriatal tract fibers in conjunction with four studies finding impaired frontal cortex stimulation. Prefrontal dysfunction, specifically medial and orbitofrontal areas, displayed abnormal functionality of reward processing in ADHD patients when compared to their normal counterparts. A total of 807 subjects were studied in this review, yielding that a little over half (54%) presented with remission of symptoms in adulthood. Conclusion: While the prefrontal cortex shows the highest consistency of impaired activity and thinner volumes in patients with ADHD, this is a heterogenous disorder implicating its pathophysiology to the dysfunction of other neural structures as well. However, remission of ADHD symptomatology in adulthood was found to be attributable to increased prefrontal functional connectivity and integration, suggesting a key role for the prefrontal cortex in the development of ADHD.

Keywords: prefrontal cortex, ADHD, inattentive, impulsivity, reward processing

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37 Understanding the Cause(S) of Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties of Adolescents with ADHD and Its Implications for the Successful Implementation of Intervention(S)

Authors: Elisavet Kechagia


Due to the interplay of different genetic and environmental risk factors and its heterogeneous nature, the concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has shaped controversy and conflicts, which have been, in turn, reflected in the controversial arguments about its treatment. Taking into account recent well evidence-based researches suggesting that ADHD is a condition, in which biopsychosocial factors are all weaved together, the current paper explores the multiple risk-factors that are likely to influence ADHD, with a particular focus on adolescents with ADHD who might experience comorbid social, emotional and behavioural disorders (SEBD). In the first section of this paper, the primary objective was to investigate the conflicting ideas regarding the definition, diagnosis and treatment of ADHD at an international level as well as to critically examine and identify the limitations of the two most prevailing sets of diagnostic criteria that inform current diagnosis, the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) diagnostic scheme, DSM-V, and the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) classification of diseases, ICD-10. Taking into consideration the findings of current longitudinal studies on ADHD association with high rates of comorbid conditions and social dysfunction, in the second section the author moves towards an investigation of the transitional points −physical, psychological and social ones− that students with ADHD might experience during early adolescence, as informed by neuroscience and developmental contextualism theory. The third section is an exploration of the different perspectives of ADHD as reflected in individuals’ with ADHD self-reports and the KENT project’s findings on school staff’s attitudes and practices. In the last section, given the high rates of SEBDs in adolescents with ADHD, it is examined how cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), coupled with other interventions, could be effective in ameliorating anti-social behaviours and/or other emotional and behavioral difficulties of students with ADHD. The findings of a range of randomised control studies indicate that CBT might have positive outcomes in adolescents with multiple behavioural problems, hence it is suggested to be considered both in schools and other community settings. Finally, taking into account the heterogeneous nature of ADHD, the different biopsychosocial and environmental risk factors that take place during adolescence and the discourse and practices concerning ADHD and SEBD, it is suggested how it might be possible to make sense of and meaningful improvements to the education of adolescents with ADHD within a multi-modal and multi-disciplinary whole-school approach that addresses the multiple problems that not only students with ADHD but also their peers might experience. Further research that would be based on more large-scale controls and would investigate the effectiveness of various interventions, as well as the profiles of those students who have benefited from particular approaches and those who have not, will generate further evidence concerning the psychoeducation of adolescents with ADHD allowing for generalised conclusions to be drawn.

Keywords: adolescence, attention deficit hyperctivity disorder, cognitive behavioural theory, comorbid social emotional behavioural disorders, treatment

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36 Memory-Guided Oculomotor Task in High School Football Players with ADHD, Post-Concussive Injuries, and Controls

Authors: B. McGovern, J. F. Luck, A. Gade, I. V. Lake, D. O’Connell, H. C. Cutcliffe, K. P. Shah, E. E. Ginalis, C. M. Lambert, N. Christian, J. R. Kait, A. W. Yu, C. P. Eckersley, C. R. Bass


Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the form of post-concussive injuries and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share similar cognitive impairments, including impaired working memory and executive function. The memory-guided oculomotor task separates working memory and inhibitory components to provide further information on the nature of these deficits in each pathology. Eleven subjects with ADHD, fifteen control subjects, and ten subjects with recent concussive injury were matched on age, gender, and education (all high school-age males). Eye movements were recorded during memory-guided oculomotor tasks with varying delays using EyeLink 1000 (SR Research). The percentage of premature saccades and the latency of correct response are the analyzed measures for response inhibition and working memory, respectively. No significant differences were found in latencies between controls subjects and subjects with ADHD or post-concussive injuries, in accordance with previous studies. Subjects with ADHD and post-concussive injuries both demonstrated a trend of increased percentages of premature saccades compared to control subjects in the same oculomotor task. This trend reached statistical significance between the post-concussive and control groups (p < 0.05). These findings support the primary nature of the executive function deficits in response inhibition in ADHD and mTBI. The interpretation of results is limited by the small sample size and the exploratory nature of the study. Further investigation into oculomotor performance differences in mTBI and ADHD may help in differentiating these pathologies in consequent diagnoses and provide insight into the interaction of these deficits in mTBI.

Keywords: attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), concussion, diagnosis, oculomotor, pediatrics

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35 The Effect of High Intensity by Intervals Training on Plasma Interleukin 13 and Insulin Resistance in Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Authors: Goodarzvand Fatemeh, Soori Rahman, Effatpanah Mohammad, Ajbarnejad Ali


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of developmentally inappropriate inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive behaviors that typically begin during the preschool ages and often persist into adulthood. This disorder is related to autism and schizophrenia and other psychological disorders and clinical conditions such as insulin resistance and they may operate through common pathways, and treatments used exclusively for one of these conditions may prove beneficial for the others. While ADHD is not fully understood as developmental disorder with an etiopathogeny, but studies show that core symptom of disorder was associated with and increased by the interleukins IL-13, where relation of IL-13 with inattention was notable. Regular exercise improves functions associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the impact of exercise on cytokines associated with the disease activity remains relatively unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6 weeks high intensity by intervals training (HIIT) on IL-13 levels and insulin resistance in boys with ADHD. Twenty eight boys with ADHD disease in a range of 12-18 year of old participated in this study as the subject. Subjects were divided into control group (n=10) and training group (n=18) randomly. The training group performed progressive HIIT program, 3 days a week for 6 weeks. The control group was in absolute rest at the same time. The results showed that after six weeks of HIIT, IL-13 decreased in the exercise group and these changes achieved (p= 0.002) statistical significance (p < 0.005). The results suggest HIIT with specific intensity and duration utilized in this study had not significant effect on insulin resistance levels in female patients with ADHD (p=0.39), while the difference in the average control and case group was decreased.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, interleukin 13, insulin resistance, high intensity by intervals training

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34 Investigating the Effect of the Pedagogical Agent on Visual Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Students

Authors: Nasrin Mohammadhasani, Rosa Angela Fabio


The attention to relevance information is the key element for learning. Otherwise, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) students have a fuzzy visual pattern that prevents them to attention and remember learning subject. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the presence of a pedagogical agent can effectively support ADHD learner's attention and learning outcomes in a multimedia learning environment. The learning environment was integrated with a pedagogical agent, named Koosha as a social peer. This study employed a pretest and posttest experimental design with control group. The statistical population was 30 boys students, age 10-11 with ADHD that randomly assigned to learn with/without an agent in well designed environment for mathematic. The results suggested that experimental and control groups show a significant difference in time when they participated and mathematics achievement. According to this research, using the pedagogical agent can enhance learning of ADHD students by gaining and guiding their attention to relevance information part on display, so it can be considered as asocial cue that provides theme cognitive supports.

Keywords: attention, computer assisted instruction, multimedia learning environment, pedagogical agent

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33 COVID-19’s Impact on the Use of Media, Educational Performance, and Learning in Children and Adolescents with ADHD Who Engaged in Virtual Learning

Authors: Christina Largent, Tazley Hobbs


Objective: A literature review was performed to examine the existing research on COVID-19 lockdown as it relates to ADHD child/adolescent individuals, media use, and impact on educational performance/learning. It was surmised that with the COVID-19 shut-down and transition to remote learning, a less structured learning environment, increased screen time, in addition to potential difficulty accessing school resources would impair ADHD individuals’ performance and learning. A resulting increase in the number of youths diagnosed and treated for ADHD would be expected. As of yet, there has been little to no published data on the incidence of ADHD as it relates to COVID-19 outside of reports from several nonprofit agencies such as CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ), who reported an increased number of calls to their helpline, The New York based Child Mind Institute, who reported an increased number of appointments to discuss medications, and research released from Athenahealth showing an increase in the number of patients receiving new diagnosis of ADHD and new prescriptions for ADHD medications. Methods: A literature search for articles published between 2020 and 2021 from Pubmed, Google Scholar, PsychInfo, was performed. Search phrases and keywords included “covid, adhd, child, impact, remote learning, media, screen”. Results: Studies primarily utilized parental reports, with very few from the perspective of the ADHD individuals themselves. Most findings thus far show that with the COVID-19 quarantine and transition to online learning, ADHD individuals’ experienced decreased ability to keep focused or adhere to the daily routine, as well as increased inattention-related problems, such as careless mistakes or lack of completion in homework, which in turn translated into overall more difficulty with remote learning. To add further injury, one study showed (just on evaluation of two different sites within the US) that school based services for these individuals decreased with the shift to online-learning. Increased screen time, television, social media, and gaming were noted amongst ADHD individuals. One study further differentiated the degree of digital media, identifying individuals with “problematic “ or “non-problematic” use. ADHD children with problematic digital media use suffered from more severe core symptoms of ADHD, negative emotions, executive function deficits, damage to family environment, pressure from life events, and a lower motivation to learn. Conclusions and Future Considerations: Studies found not only was online learning difficult for ADHD individuals but it, in addition to greater use of digital media, was associated with worsening ADHD symptoms impairing schoolwork, in addition to secondary findings of worsening mood and behavior. Currently, data on the number of new ADHD cases, in addition to data on the prescription and usage of stimulants during COVID-19, has not been well documented or studied; this would be well-warranted out of concern for over diagnosing or over-prescribing our youth. It would also be well-worth studying how reversible or long-lasting these negative impacts may be.

Keywords: COVID-19, remote learning, media use, ADHD, child, adolescent

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32 Developing an Edutainment Game for Children with ADHD Based on SAwD and VCIA Model

Authors: Bruno Gontijo Batista


This paper analyzes how the Socially Aware Design (SAwD) and the Value-oriented and Culturally Informed Approach (VCIA) design model can be used to develop an edutainment game for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The SAwD approach seeks a design that considers new dimensions in human-computer interaction, such as culture, aesthetics, emotional and social aspects of the user's everyday experience. From this perspective, the game development was VCIA model-based, including the users in the design process through participatory methodologies, considering their behavioral patterns, culture, and values. This is because values, beliefs, and behavioral patterns influence how technology is understood and used and the way it impacts people's lives. This model can be applied at different stages of design, which goes from explaining the problem and organizing the requirements to the evaluation of the prototype and the final solution. Thus, this paper aims to understand how this model can be used in the development of an edutainment game for children with ADHD. In the area of education and learning, children with ADHD have difficulties both in behavior and in school performance, as they are easily distracted, which is reflected both in classes and on tests. Therefore, they must perform tasks that are exciting or interesting for them, once the pleasure center in the brain is activated, it reinforces the center of attention, leaving the child more relaxed and focused. In this context, serious games have been used as part of the treatment of ADHD in children aiming to improve focus and attention, stimulate concentration, as well as be a tool for improving learning in areas such as math and reading, combining education and entertainment (edutainment). Thereby, as a result of the research, it was developed, in a participatory way, applying the VCIA model, an edutainment game prototype, for a mobile platform, for children between 8 and 12 years old.

Keywords: ADHD, edutainment, SAwD, VCIA

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31 Attention and Creative Problem-Solving: Cognitive Differences between Adults with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Lindsey Carruthers, Alexandra Willis, Rory MacLean


Introduction: It has been proposed that distractibility, a key diagnostic criterion of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), may be associated with higher creativity levels in some individuals. Anecdotal and empirical evidence has shown that ADHD is therefore beneficial to creative problem-solving, and the generation of new ideas and products. Previous studies have only used one or two measures of attention, which is insufficient given that it is a complex cognitive process. The current study aimed to determine in which ways performance on creative problem-solving tasks and a range of attention tests may be related, and if performance differs between adults with and without ADHD. Methods: 150 adults, 47 males and 103 females (mean age=28.81 years, S.D.=12.05 years), were tested at Edinburgh Napier University. Of this set, 50 participants had ADHD, and 100 did not, forming the control group. Each participant completed seven attention tasks, assessing focussed, sustained, selective, and divided attention. Creative problem-solving was measured using divergent thinking tasks, which require multiple original solutions for one given problem. Two types of divergent thinking task were used: verbal (requires written responses) and figural (requires drawn responses). Each task is scored for idea originality, with higher scores indicating more creative responses. Correlational analyses were used to explore relationships between attention and creative problem-solving, and t-tests were used to study the between group differences. Results: The control group scored higher on originality for figural divergent thinking (t(148)= 3.187, p< .01), whereas the ADHD group had more original ideas for the verbal divergent thinking task (t(148)= -2.490, p < .05). Within the control group, figural divergent thinking scores were significantly related to both selective (r= -.295 to -.285, p < .01) and divided attention (r= .206 to .290, p < .05). Alternatively, within the ADHD group, both selective (r= -.390 to -.356, p < .05) and divided (r= .328 to .347, p < .05) attention are related to verbal divergent thinking. Conclusions: Selective and divided attention are both related to divergent thinking, however the performance patterns are different between each group, which may point to cognitive variance in the processing of these problems and how they are managed. The creative differences previously found between those with and without ADHD may be dependent on task type, which to the author’s knowledge, has not been distinguished previously. It appears that ADHD does not specifically lead to higher creativity, but may provide explanation for creative differences when compared to those without the disorder.

Keywords: ADHD, attention, creativity, problem-solving

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30 The Effects of Goal Setting and Feedback on Inhibitory Performance

Authors: Mami Miyasaka, Kaichi Yanaoka


Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; symptoms often manifest during childhood. In children with ADHD, the development of inhibitory processes is impaired. Inhibitory control allows people to avoid processing unnecessary stimuli and to behave appropriately in various situations; thus, people with ADHD require interventions to improve inhibitory control. Positive or negative reinforcements (i.e., reward or punishment) help improve the performance of children with such difficulties. However, in order to optimize impact, reward and punishment must be presented immediately following the relevant behavior. In regular elementary school classrooms, such supports are uncommon; hence, an alternative practical intervention method is required. One potential intervention involves setting goals to keep children motivated to perform tasks. This study examined whether goal setting improved inhibitory performances, especially for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms. We also focused on giving feedback on children's task performances. We expected that giving children feedback would help them set reasonable goals and monitor their performance. Feedback can be especially effective for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms because they have difficulty monitoring their own performance, perceiving their errors, and correcting their behavior. Our prediction was that goal setting by itself would be effective for children with mild ADHD-related symptoms, and goal setting based on feedback would be effective for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms. Japanese elementary school children and their parents were the sample for this study. Children performed two kinds of go/no-go tasks, and parents completed a checklist about their children's ADHD symptoms, the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, and the Conners 3rd edition. The go/no-go task is a cognitive task to measure inhibitory performance. Children were asked to press a key on the keyboard when a particular symbol appeared on the screen (go stimulus) and to refrain from doing so when another symbol was displayed (no-go stimulus). Errors obtained in response to a no-go stimulus indicated inhibitory impairment. To examine the effect of goal-setting on inhibitory control, 37 children (Mage = 9.49 ± 0.51) were required to set a performance goal, and 34 children (Mage = 9.44 ± 0.50) were not. Further, to manipulate the presence of feedback, in one go/no-go task, no information about children’s scores was provided; however, scores were revealed for the other type of go/no-go tasks. The results revealed a significant interaction between goal setting and feedback. However, three-way interaction between ADHD-related inattention, feedback, and goal setting was not significant. These results indicated that goal setting was effective for improving the performance of the go/no-go task only with feedback, regardless of ADHD severity. Furthermore, we found an interaction between ADHD-related inattention and feedback, indicating that informing inattentive children of their scores made them unexpectedly more impulsive. Taken together, giving feedback was, unexpectedly, too demanding for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms, but the combination of goal setting with feedback was effective for improving their inhibitory control. We discuss effective interventions for children with ADHD from the perspective of goal setting and feedback. This work was supported by the 14th Hakuho Research Grant for Child Education of the Hakuho Foundation.

Keywords: attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, feedback, goal-setting, go/no-go task, inhibitory control

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29 Functional Impairment in South African Children with ADHD: Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Targeted Intervention

Authors: Mareli Fischer, Kevin G. F. Thomas


Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood neurobehavioural disorders, little empirical research has been published on its clinical presentation in Africa, and, globally, few studies evaluate ADHD intervention programs that emphasize parent training. Hence, Stage 1 of this research programme aimed to describe the functional impairment of South African children with ADHD, and also sought to investigate the influence of sociodemographic variables (e.g., sex, age, socioeconomic status, family environment) and clinical variables (e.g., ADHD subtype and comorbidity) on the degree of that impairment. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents as a diagnostic tool, and the Child Behavior Checklist, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Impairment Rating Scale as measures of functional impairment. Results from this stage of the research indicated that South African children and adolescents who meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD experience most functional impairment in the school domain, as well as in the area of social functioning. None of the measured sociodemographic variables had a significant detrimental or protective effect on how ADHD symptoms impacted on functioning. In terms of comorbidity, the presence of Major Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder were all associated with significantly impaired overall functioning. Stage 2 of the research programme aimed to design, implement, and evaluate a child-specific intervention that targeted the primary areas of impairment identified in Stage 1. Existing literature suggests that a positive parent-training programme, in the group format, is one of the best options for cost-effective and successful ADHD intervention. Hence, the intervention took that form. Parents were taught basic behaviour analysis concepts within a supportive group context. Evaluation of the intervention’s efficacy used many of the same measures as in Stage 1, but also featured semi-structured interviews with participants and naturalistic observation of parent-child interaction. We will discuss preliminary results of that evaluation. Studying functional impairment and designing intervention plans in this way will pave the way for evidence-based treatment plans for children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD.

Keywords: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, children, intervention, parenting groups

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28 Estimating the Efficiency of a Meta-Cognitive Intervention Program to Reduce the Risk Factors of Teenage Drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder While Driving

Authors: Navah Z. Ratzon, Talia Glick, Iris Manor


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic disorder that affects the sufferer’s functioning throughout life and in various spheres of activity, including driving. Difficulties in cognitive functioning and executive functions are often part and parcel of the ADHD diagnosis, and thus form a risk factor in driving. Studies examining the effectiveness of intervention programs for improving and rehabilitating driving in typical teenagers have been conducted in relatively small numbers; while studies on similar programs for teenagers with ADHD have been especially scarce. The aim of the present study has been to examine the effectiveness of a metacognitive occupational therapy intervention program for reducing risk factors in driving among teenagers with ADHD. The present study included 37 teenagers aged 17 to 19. They included 23 teenagers with ADHD divided into experimental (11) and control (12) groups; as well as 14 non-ADHD teenagers forming a second control group. All teenagers taking part in the study were examined in the Tel Aviv University driving lab, and underwent cognitive diagnoses and a driving simulator test. Every subject in the intervention group took part in 3 assessment meetings, and two metacognitive treatment meetings. The control groups took part in two assessment meetings with a follow-up meeting 3 months later. In all the study’s groups, the treatment’s effectiveness was tested by comparing monitoring results on the driving simulator at the first and second evaluations. In addition, the driving of 5 subjects from the intervention group was monitored continuously from a month prior to the start of the intervention, a month during the phase of the intervention and another month until the end of the intervention. In the ADHD control group, the driving of 4 subjects was monitored from the end of the first evaluation for a period of 3 months. The study’s findings were affected by the fact that the ADHD control group was different from the two other groups, and exhibited ADHD characteristics manifested by impaired executive functions and lower metacognitive abilities relative to their peers. The study found partial, moderate, non-significant correlations between driving skills and cognitive functions, executive functions, and perceptions and attitudes towards driving. According to the driving simulator test results and the limited sampling results of actual driving, it was found that a metacognitive occupational therapy intervention may be effective in reducing risk factors in driving among teenagers with ADHD relative to their peers with and without ADHD. In summary, the results of the present study indicate a positive direction that speaks to the viability of using a metacognitive occupational therapy intervention program for reducing risk factors in driving. A further study is required that will include a bigger number of subjects, add actual driving monitoring hours, and assign subjects randomly to the various groups.

Keywords: ADHD, driving, driving monitoring, metacognitive intervention, occupational therapy, simulator, teenagers

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27 A Risk Management Approach to the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Lloyd A. Taylor


An increase in the prevalence of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) highlights the need to consider factors that may be exacerbating symptom presentation. Traditional diagnostic criteria provide a little framework for healthcare providers to consider as they attempt to diagnose and treat children with behavioral problems. In fact, aside from exclusion criteria, limited alternative considerations are available, and approaches fail to consider the impact of outside factors that could increase or decrease the likelihood of appropriate diagnosis and success of interventions. This paper will consider specific systems-based factors that influence behavior and intervention successes that, when not considered, could account for the upsurge of diagnoses. These include understanding (1) challenges in the healthcare system, (2) the influence and impact of educators and the educational system, (3) technology use, and (4) patient and parental attitudes about the diagnosis of ADHD. These factors must be considered both individually and as a whole when considering both the increase in diagnoses and the subsequent increases in prescriptions for psychostimulant medication. A theoretical model based on a risk management approach will be presented. Finally, data will be presented that demonstrates pediatric provider satisfaction with this approach to diagnoses and treatment of ADHD as it relates to practice trends.

Keywords: ADHD, diagnostic criteria, risk management model, pediatricians

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26 EEG-Based Screening Tool for School Student’s Brain Disorders Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Abdelrahman A. Ramzy, Bassel S. Abdallah, Mohamed E. Bahgat, Sarah M. Abdelkader, Sherif H. ElGohary


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and autism affect millions of children worldwide, many of which are undiagnosed despite the fact that all of these disorders are detectable in early childhood. Late diagnosis can cause severe problems due to the late treatment and to the misconceptions and lack of awareness as a whole towards these disorders. Moreover, electroencephalography (EEG) has played a vital role in the assessment of neural function in children. Therefore, quantitative EEG measurement will be utilized as a tool for use in the evaluation of patients who may have ADHD, epilepsy, and autism. We propose a screening tool that uses EEG signals and machine learning algorithms to detect these disorders at an early age in an automated manner. The proposed classifiers used with epilepsy as a step taken for the work done so far, provided an accuracy of approximately 97% using SVM, Naïve Bayes and Decision tree, while 98% using KNN, which gives hope for the work yet to be conducted.

Keywords: ADHD, autism, epilepsy, EEG, SVM

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