Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 114

Search results for: pesticide

114 Farmers’ Awareness and Behavior of Chemical Pesticide Uses in Suan Luang Sub-District Municipality, Ampawa, Samut Songkram, Thailand

Authors: Paiboon Jeamponk, Tikamporn Thipsaeng

Abstract:

This paper is aimed to investigate farmers’ level of awareness and behavior of chemical pesticide uses, by using a case study of Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality, Ampawa, Samut Songkram Province. Questionnaire was employed in this study with the farmers from 46 households to explore their level of awareness in chemical pesticide uses, while interview and observation were adopted in exploring their behavior of chemical pesticide uses. The findings reflected the farmers’ high level of awareness in chemical pesticide uses in the hazardous effects of the chemical to human and environmental health, while their behavior of chemical pesticide uses explained their awareness paid to the right way of using pesticides, for instance reading the direction on the label, keeping children and animals away from the area of pesticide mixing, covering body with clothes and wearing hat and mask, no smoking, eating or drinking during pesticide spray or standing in windward direction.

Keywords: awareness, behavior, pesticide, farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
113 Pesticide Residue Determination on Cumin Plant (Nigella orientalis L.) with LC-MS/MS and GC-MS

Authors: Nilda Ersoy, Sevinç Şener, Ayşe Yalçın Elidemir, Ebru Evcil, Ergün Döğen

Abstract:

In this study, pesticide residues were investigated in black cumin (Nigella orientalis L.) seeds grown in Turkey. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analytical instruments are used in high precision when determining residue limits. A total of 100 pesticide active ingredients in LC-MS/MS devices have been performed in Nigella orientalis L. seeds samples. Also for the same aim, 103 pesticide active ingredients were analyzed in GC-MS. This study was conducted in 2012 and 2013. Sample residues were not found in detectable levels for two years.

Keywords: pesticide, residue, black cumin, Nigella orientalis L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
112 Pesticide Residue Determination on Cumin Plant (Nigella orientalis L.) Grown through Agricultural Practices with LC-MS/MS and GC-MS

Authors: Nilda Ersoy, Sevinç Şener, Ayşe Yalçın Elidemir, Ebru Evcil, Ergün Döğen

Abstract:

In this study, pesticide residues were investigated in black cumin (Nigella orientalis L.) seeds which grown in Turkey. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analytical instruments are used in high precision, when determining residue limits. A total of 100 pesticide active ingredients in LC-MS/MS devices have been performed in Nigella orientalis L. seeds samples. Moreover, for same aim, 103 pesticide active ingredients were analyzed in GC-MS. This study conducted in 2012 and 2013. Samples residues were not found in detectable levels for two years.

Keywords: pesticide, residue, black cumin, Nigella orientalis L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
111 Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues by Various Physiological Groups of Population in Andhra Pradesh, South India

Authors: Padmaja R. Jonnalagadda

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Dietary exposure assessment of fifteen pesticide residues was done in Andhra Pradesh. Twelve commonly consumed foods including water, which were representative of the diet, were collected, processed as table ready and analysed for the presence of various Organochlorines, organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. All the samples were contaminated with one or more of the 15 pesticide residues and all of them were within the MRLs. DDT and its isomers, Chlorpyriphos and Cypermethrin were frequently detected in many of the food samples. The mean concentration of the pesticide residues ranged from 0.02 μg kg-1 to 5.1 μg kg-1 (fresh weight) in the analysed foods. When exposure assessments was carried out for different age, sex and physiological groups it was found that the estimates of daily dietary intakes of the analysed pesticide residues in the present study are much lower than the violative levels in all age groups that were computed.

Keywords: table ready foods, pesticide residues, dietary intake, physiological groups, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
110 Efficient Reduction of Organophosphate Pesticide from Fruits and Vegetables Using Cost Effective Neutralizer

Authors: Debjani Dasgupta, Aman Zalawadia, Anuj Thapa, Pranjali Sing, Ashish Dabade

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Organophosphate group pesticides are common pesticide group, which gain entry into food product due to incomplete removal of pesticide residues. The current food industry raw material handling process is not sufficient to eliminate pesticide residues. A neutralizer was used to neutralize the residues of pesticide on Vitis vinifera (Grapes). The water based dilution of neutralizer was demonstrated on fruits like grapes. Analysis for pesticides in water wash and neutralizer wash was carried out using GCMS. Fruits washed with neutralizer exhibited 72.95% removal of pesticides compared with normal water wash method. An economical chemical neutralizer can be used to remove such residues in raw material handling at industrial scale with minor modification in process to achieve minimum pesticide entry into final food products.

Keywords: GCMS, organophosphate, raw material handling, Vitis vinifera, pesticide neutralizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
109 Evaluation of Non-Destructive Application to Detect Pesticide Residue on Leaf Mustard Using Spectroscopic Method

Authors: Nazmi Mat Nawi, Muhamad Najib Mohamad Nor, Che Dini Maryani Ishkandar

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This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of spectroscopic methods to detect the presence of pesticide residues on leaf mustard. A total of 105 leaf mustard used were divided into five batches, four batches were treated with four different types of pesticides whereas one batch with no pesticide applied. Spectral data were obtained using visible shortwave near infrared spectrometer (VSWNIRS) which is Ocean Optics HR4000 High-resolution Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. Reflectance value was collected to determine the difference between one pesticide to the other. The obtained spectral data were pre-processed for optimum performance. The effective wavelength of approximate 880 nm, 675-710 nm also 550 and 700 nm indicates the overtones -CH stretching vibration, tannin, also chlorophyll content present in the leaf mustard respectively. This study has successfully demonstrated that the spectroscopic method was able to differentiate between leaf mustard sample with and without pesticide residue.

Keywords: detect, leaf mustard, non-destructive, pesticide residue

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
108 Studies on Pesticide Usage Pattern and Farmers Knowledge on Pesticide Usage and Technologies in Open Field and Poly House Conditions

Authors: B. Raghu, Shashi Vemuri, Ch. Sreenivasa Rao

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The survey on pesticide use pattern was carried out by interviewing farmers growing chill in open fields and poly houses based on the questionnaire prepared to assess their knowledge and practices on crop cultivation, general awareness on pesticide recommendations and use. Education levels of poly house farmers are high compared to open field farmers, where 57.14% poly house farmers are high school educated, whereas 35% open field farmers are illiterates. Majority farmers use nursery of 35 days and grow in <0.5 acre poly house in summer and rabi and < 1 acre in open field during kharif. Awareness on pesticide related issues is varying among poly house and open field farmers with some commonality, where 28.57% poly house farmers know about recommended pesticides while only 10% open field farmers are aware of this issue. However, in general, all farmers contact pesticide dealer for recommendations, poly house farmers prefer to contact scientists (35.71%) and open field farmers prefer to contact agricultural officers (33.33). Most farmers are unaware about pesticide classification and toxicity symbols on packing. Farmers are aware about endosulfan ban, but only 21.42% poly house and 11.66% open field farmers know about ban of monocrotofos on vegetables. Very few farmers know about pesticide residues and related issues, but know washing helps to reduce contamination.

Keywords: open field, pesticide usage, polyhouses, residues survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
107 Food Safety Aspects of Pesticide Residues in Spice Paprika

Authors: Sz. Klátyik, B. Darvas, M. Mörtl, M. Ottucsák, E. Takács, H. Bánáti, L. Simon, G. Gyurcsó, A. Székács

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Environmental and health safety of condiments used for spicing food products in food processing or by culinary means receive relatively low attention, even though possible contamination of spices may affect food quality and safety. Contamination surveys mostly focus on microbial contaminants or their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. Chemical contaminants, particularly pesticide residues, however, are clearly substantial factors in the case of given condiments in the Capsicum family including spice paprika and chilli. To assess food safety and support the quality of the Hungaricum product spice paprika, the pesticide residue status of spice paprika and chilli is assessed on the basis of reported pesticide contamination cases and non-compliances in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the European Union since 1998.

Keywords: spice paprika, Capsicum, pesticide residues, RASFF

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
106 Physicochemical Studies and Screening of Aflatoxins and Pesticide Residues in Some 'Honey Pastes' Marketed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rashad Al-Hindi

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The study aimed at investigating and screening of some contaminants in some honey-based products. Sixty-nine 'honey paste' samples marketed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were subjected to physicochemical studies and screening of aflatoxins and pesticide residues. The physicochemical parameters studied were mainly: moisture content, total sugars, total ash, total nitrogen, fibres, total acidity as citric acid and pH. These parameters were investigated using standard methods of analysis. Mycotoxins (aflatoxins) and pesticide residues were by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to official methods. Results revealed that mean values of the examined criteria were: 15.44±0.36%; 74±4.30%; 0.40±0.062%; 0.22±0.05%; 6.93±1.30%; 2.53±0.161 mmol/kg; 4.10±0.158, respectively. Overall results proved that all tested honey pastes samples were free from mycotoxins (aflatoxins) and pesticide residues. Therefore, we conclude that 'honey pastes' marketed in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia were safe for human consumption.

Keywords: aflatoxins, honey mixtures, pesticide residues, physicochemical

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
105 Occurrence and Spatial Distribution of Pesticide Residues in Butter and Ghee (Clarified Butter Fat) in Punjab (India)

Authors: J. S. Bedi, J. P. S. Gill, R. S. Aulakh, Prabhjit Kaur

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The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter and ghee samples collected from six different districts of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both SIM and Scan mode. Results indicated the presence of HCH and pp DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee even after their ban/restriction on usage in India. Residues of HCH were detected in 25.5 and 23.2 % samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of pp DDE were recorded in 29.3 and 25.0 % butter and ghee samples, respectively. More importantly, the presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos was observed in few butter and ghee samples indicating the serious concerns. The spatial variation of pesticide residues occurrence indicated the cotton belt of Punjab as most affected.

Keywords: butter, ghee, pesticides residues, Punjab

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
104 Transcriptomic Response of Calmodulin Encoding Gene (CaM) in Pesticide Utilizing Talaromyces Fungal Strains

Authors: M. D. Asemoloye, S. G. Jonathan, A. Rafiq, O. J. Olawuyi, D. O. Adejoye

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Calmodulin is one of the intracellular calcium proteins that regulates large spectrum of enzymes and cellular functions including metabolism of cyclic nucleotides and glycogen. The potentials of calmodulin gene in fungi necessitates their genetic response and their strong cassette of enzyme secretions for pesticide degradation. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the ‘Transcriptomic’ response of calmodulin encoding genes in Talaromyces fungi in response to 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP or Dichlorvos) an organophosphate pesticide and γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) an organochlorine pesticide. Fungi strains isolated from rhizosphere from grasses rhizosphere in pesticide polluted sites were subjected to percentage incidence test. Two most frequent fungi were further characterized using ITS gene amplification (ITS1 and ITS4 combinations), they were thereafter subjected to In-vitro DDVP and lindane tolerance tests at different concentrations. They were also screened for presence and expression of calmodulin gene (caM) using RT-PCR technique. The two Talaromyces strains had the highest incidence of 50-72% in pesticide polluted site, they were both identified as Talaromyces astroroseus asemoG and Talaromyces purpurogenum asemoN submitted in NCBI gene-bank with accession numbers KY488464 and KY488468 respectively. T. astroroseus KY488464 tolerated DDVP (1.23±0.023 cm) and lindane (1.11±0.018 cm) at 25 % concentration while T. purpurogenum KY488468 tolerated DDVP (1.33±0.061 cm) and lindane (1.54±0.077 cm) at this concentration. Calmodulin gene was detected in both strains, but RT-PCR expression of caM gene revealed at 900-1000 bp showed an under-expression of caM in T. astrorosues KY488464 but overexpressed in T. purpurogenum KY488464. Thus, the calmodulin gene response of these fungal strains to both pesticides could be considered in monitoring the potentials of fungal strains to pesticide tolerance and bioremediation of pesticide in polluted soil.

Keywords: Calmodulin gene, pesticide, RT-PCR, talaromyces, tolerance

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
103 Self-reported Acute Pesticide Intoxication in Ethiopia

Authors: Amare Nigatu, Mågne Bratveit, Bente E. Moen

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Background: Pesticide exposure is an important public health concern in Ethiopia, but there is limited information on pesticide intoxications. Residents may have an increased risk of pesticide exposure through proximity of their homes to farms using pesticides. Also the pesticide exposure might be related to employment at these farms. This study investigated the prevalence of acute pesticide intoxications (API) by residence proximity to a nearby flower farm and assessed if intoxications are related to working there or not. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 516 persons was conducted. Participants were grouped according to their residence proximity from a large flower farm; living within 5 kilometers and 5-12 kilometers away, respectively. In a structured interview, participants were asked if they had health symptoms within 48 hours of pesticide exposure in the past year. Those, who had experienced this and reported two or more typical pesticide intoxication symptoms, were considered as having had API. Chi-square and independent t-tests were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Confounding variables were adjusted by using binomial regression model. Results: The prevalence of API in the past year among the residents in the study area was 26%, and it was higher in the population living close to the flower farm (42%) compared to those living far away (11%), prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.2, 95% CI: 2.2-4.8, adjusted for age, gender & education. A subgroup living close to the farm & working there had significantly more API (56%) than those living close & did not work there (16%), adjusted PR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8-4.9. Flower farm workers reported more API (56%) than those not working there (13%,), adjusted PR = 4.0, 95% CI: 2.9-5.6. Conclusion: The residents living closer than 5 kilometers to the flower farm reported significantly higher prevalence of API than those living 5-12 kilometers away. This increased risk of API was associated with work at the flower farm.

Keywords: acute pesticide intoxications, self-reported symptoms, flower farm workers, living proximity

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
102 Adsorption Mechanism of Heavy Metals and Organic Pesticide on Industrial Construction and Demolition Waste and Its Runoff Behaviors

Authors: Sheng Huang, Xin Zhao, Xiaofeng Gao, Tao Zhou, Shijin Dai, Youcai Zhao

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Adsorption of heavy metal pollutants (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu) and organic pesticide (phorate, dithiophosphate diethyl, triethyl phosphorothioate), along with their multi-contamination on the surface of industrial construction & demolition waste (C&D waste) was investigated. Brick powder was selected as the appropriate waste while its maximum equilibrium adsorption amount of heavy metal under single controlled contamination matrix reached 5.41, 0.81, 0.45, 1.13 and 0.97 mg/g, respectively. Effects of pH and spiking dose of ICDW was also investigated. Equilibrium adsorption amount of organic pesticide varied from 0.02 to 0.97 mg/g, which was negatively correlated to the size distribution and hydrophilism. Existence of organic pesticide on surface of ICDW caused various effects on the heavy metal adsorption, mainly due to combination of metal ions and the floccule formation along with wrapping behaviors by pesticide pollutants. Adsorption of Zn was sharply decreased from 7.1 to 0.15 mg/g compared with clean ICDW and phorate contaminated ICDW, while that of Pb, Cr and Cd experienced an increase- then decrease procedure. On the other hand, runoff of pesticide contaminants was investigated under 25 mm/h simulated rainfall. Results showed that the cumulative runoff amount fitted well with curve obtained from a power function, of which r2=0.95 and 0.91 for 1DAA (1 day between contamination and runoff) and 7DAA, respectively. This study helps provide evaluation of industrial construction and demolition waste contamination into aquatic systems.

Keywords: adsorption mechanism, industrial construction waste, metals, pesticide, runoff

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
101 Consumer’ Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior on Food Safety Issues Related to Pesticide Residues in Cabbage

Authors: Dekie Rawung, Abdul L. Abadi, Toto Himawan, Siegfried Berhimpon

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A case study on consumer' knowledge, attitude, and behavior on food safety issue related to pesticide residues in cabbage was conducted in the area of Manado and Tomohon city, North Sulawesi. A sample of 150 consumers were selected randomly on location (open market and supermarket) while they were purchasing vegetables. The data on consumers’ perception, knowledge, attitude and behavior on food safety issue regarding pesticide residues were collected using a 5-point, two-section Likert-Scale questionnaire, and the relationship of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on food safety issues were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). It was found that, among many food safety issues, the illegal, non-food chemical preservatives were considered the most important one (by more than 35% respondents), followed by high cholesterol content and textile coloring chemical (> 27% respondents). The pesticide residues issue was only in the 4th place. The same results were seen on the issue of quality factors that determine the product selection during purchasing. The pesticide-free and organic products labels were considered much less important quality factors as compared with freshness and nutrition value which were considered the most and the second most important quality factors (almost 65% of respondents). SEM analysis showed that only knowledge and attitude on food safety that had the significant relation (coefficient value of 0.38), whereas those with behaviors were not significant.

Keywords: cabbage, consumer, food safety, pesticide residues

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
100 Investigation of Operational Conditions for Treatment of Industrial Wastewater Contaminated with Pesticides Using Electro-Fenton Process

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm

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This study aims to investigate various operating conditions that affect the performance of the electro-Fenton process for degradation of pesticides. Stainless steel electrodes were utilized in the electro-Fenton cell due to their relatively low cost. The favored conditions of current intensity, pH, iron loading, and pesticide concentration were deeply discussed. Complete removal of pesticide was attained at the optimum conditions. The degradation kinetics were described by pseudo- first-order pattern. In addition, a response surface model was developed to describe the performance of electro-Fenton process under different operational conditions. The model indicated that the coefficient of determination was (R² = 0.995).

Keywords: electro-Fenton, stainless steel, pesticide, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
99 Refinery Sulfur as an Alternative Agent to Decrease Pesticide Exposure in Pistachio Orchards and Common Pistachio Psylla’s Control

Authors: Mehdi Basirat, Mohammad Rouhani, Shahla Borzouei, Majid Zarangi, Asma Abolghasemi, Mohammad Fazel Soltani, Mohammad Gorji, Mohammad Amin Samih

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The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), as one of the most detrimental pests in all pistachio producing regions, causes great economic damages to pistachio trees. Nowadays, various pesticides are used to control the common pistachio psylla and robust pesticide exposure has occurred in orchards. In this study, field experiments were conducted during 2018–2021 to assess the effects of sulfur on A. pistaciae. This study compared sulfur with asafoetida extract and pesticide (acetamiprid) on A. pistaciae based on complete randomized blocks with three replications. The analysis results of variance showed that the effect of treatments on egg (F2,24 = 17.61, P = 0.00) and nymphs (F2,24 = 18.29, P = 0.00) had a significant difference at a 1% level. The results demonstrated that sulfur had the highest measure of control on eggs and nymphs significantly compared to the plant extract and pesticide (negative control). These results provide support to the potential use of sulfur as an alternative pest management tool against A. pistaciae. The results clearly indicated that sulfur could control the common pistachio psylla population for six weeks at least.

Keywords: Agonoscena pistaciae, pesticide exposure, pistachio, sulfur

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
98 Farmers Perception in Pesticide Usage in Curry Leaf (Murraya koeinigii (L.))

Authors: Swarupa Shashi Senivarapu Vemuri

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Curry leaf (Murraya koeinigii (L.)) exported from India had insecticide residues above maximum residue limits, which are hazardous to consumer health and caused rejection of the commodity at the point of entry in Europe and middle east resulting in a check on export of curry leaf. Hence to study current pesticide usage patterns in major curry leaf growing areas, a survey on pesticide use pattern was carried out in curry leaf growing areas in Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh during 2014-15, by interviewing farmers growing curry leaf utilizing the questionnaire to assess their knowledge and practices on crop cultivation, general awareness on pesticide recommendations and use. Education levels of farmers are less, where 13.96 per cent were only high school educated, and 13.96% were illiterates. 18.60% farmers were found cultivating curry leaf crop in less than 1 acre of land, 32.56% in 2-5 acres, 20.93% in 5-10 acres and 27.91% of the farmers in more than 10 acres of land. Majority of the curry leaf farmers (93.03%) used pesticide mixtures rather than applying single pesticide at a time, basically to save time, labour, money and to combat two or more pests with single spray. About 53.48% of farmers applied pesticides at 2 days interval followed by 34.89% of the farmers at 4 days interval, and about 11.63% of the farmers sprayed at weekly intervals. Only 27.91% of farmers thought that the quantity of pesticides used at their farm is adequate, 90.69% of farmers had perception that pesticides are helpful in getting good returns. 83.72% of farmers felt that crop change is the only way to control sucking pests which damages whole crop. About 4.65% of the curry leaf farmers opined that integrated pest management practices are alternative to pesticides and only 11.63% of farmers felt natural control as an alternative to pesticides. About 65.12% of farmers had perception that high pesticide dose will give higher yields. However, in general, Curry leaf farmers preferred to contact pesticide dealers (100%) and were not interested in contacting either agricultural officer or a scientist. Farmers were aware of endosulfan ban 93.04%), in contrast, only 65.12, per cent of farmers knew about the ban of monocrotophos on vegetables. Very few farmers knew about pesticide residues and decontamination by washing. Extension educational interventions are necessary to produce fresh curry leaf free from pesticide residues.

Keywords: Curry leaf, decontamination, endosulfan, leaf roller, psyllids, tetranychid mite

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
97 Efficacy of Some Plant Extract against Larvae and Pupae of American Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) including the Effect on Peritropme Membrane

Authors: Deepali Lal, Sudha Summerwar, Jyoutsna Pandey

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The resistance of pesticide by the pest is an important matter of concern.The pesticide of plant origin having nontoxic biodegradable and environmentally friendly qualities. The frequent spraying of toxic chemicals is developing resistance to the pesticide. Leaf powder of the plants like Argimone mexicana and Calotropis procera is prepared, Different doses of these plant extracts are given to the Fourth in star stages of Helicoverpa armigera through feeding methods, to find their efficacy the experimental findings will be put under analysis using various parameters. The effect on paritrophic membrane is also studied.

Keywords: distillation plant, acetone, alcohol, pipette, castor leaves, grams pods, larvae of helicoverpa armigera, plant extract, vails, jars, cotton

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
96 Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Fish Samples from Lake Chad, Baga, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: J. C. Akan, F. I. Abdulrahman, Z. M. Chellube

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The aim of this study was to determine the levels of some organochlorine (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDT, α-BHC, γ-BHC, lindane, Endosulfan sulphate, dieldrin and aldrin and organophosphorus (Dichlorvos, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and Fenitrothion) pesticide residues in the gills, liver, stomach, kidney and flesh of four fish species (Tilapia zilli, Clarias anguillaris Hetrotis niloticus and Oreochronmis niloticus) between the periods of September 2010 to October, 2011. Samples were collected from Kwantan turare in Lake Chad, Baga, Borno State, Nigeria. Extraction of the fish samples and de-fattening of the fish sample extracts were performed using standard procedures. Analysis of the fish samples for pesticide residues were carried out using Shimadzu GC/MS (GC – 17A), equipped with fluorescence detector. Large differences in the levels of pesticide residues were observed between tissues within each fish. The concentrations of all the organophosphorus pesticides were higher in the organs of Oreochronmis niloticus, while Hetrotis niloticus shows the lowest. For organochlorine pesticides, the organs of Tilapia zilli showed the highest concentrations, while Hetrotis niloticus shows the lowest. The highest pesticide concentrations were observed in gills and liver tissues of all the species of fish study, while the lowest concentrations were observed in flesh. Based on the above results, it can therefore be concluded that the concentrations of pesticide in the four fish species study did exceed the permissible limits set by FAO and FEPA.

Keywords: organochlorine, organophosphorus, pesticides, accumulation, fish, lake chad

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95 Hepatological Alterations in Market Gardeners Occupationally Exposed to Pesticides in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

Authors: M. G. Tanga, P. B. Telefo, D. N. Tarla

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Even though the WHO, the EPA and other regulatory bodies have recognized the effects of acute pesticide poisoning little data exists on health effects after long-term low-dose exposures especially in Africa and Cameroon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pesticides on the hepatic functions of market gardeners in the Western Region of Cameroon by studying some biochemical parameters. Sixty six male market gardeners in Foumbot, Massangam, and Bantoum were interviewed on their health status, habits and pesticide use in agriculture, including the spray frequency, application method, and pesticide dosage. Thirty men with no history of pesticide exposure were recruited as control group. Thereafter, their blood samples were collected for assessment of hepatic function biomarkers (ALT, AST, and albumin). The results showed that 56 pesticides containing 25 active ingredients were currently used by market gardeners enrolled in our study and most of their symptoms (headache, fatigue, skin rashes, eye irritation, and nausea) were related to the use of these chemicals. Compared to the control subjects market gardeners’ ALT levels (32.9 ± 7.19 UL-1 vs. 82.11 ± 35.40 UL-1; P < 0.001) and, AST levels (40.63 ± 6.52 UL-1 vs. 112.11 UL-1 ± 47.15 UL-1; P < 0.001) were significantly increased. These results suggest that liver function tests can be used as biomarkers to indicate toxicity before overt clinical signs occur. The market gardeners’ chronic exposure to pesticides due to poor application measures could lead to hepatic function impairment. Further research on larger scale is needed to confirm these findings and to establish a mechanism of toxicity.

Keywords: biomarkers, liver, pesticides, occupational exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
94 Analysis of Veterinary Drug Residues and Pesticide Residues in Beehive Products

Authors: Alba Luna Jimenez, Maria Dolores Hernando

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The administration of veterinary treatments at higher doses than the recommended Varroa mite control in beehive matrices has the potential to generate residues in the honeybee colony and in the derived products for consumption. Honeybee colonies can also be indirectly exposed to residues of plant protection products when foraging in crops, wildflowers near the crops, or in urban gardens just after spraying. The study evaluates the presence of both types of residues, veterinary treatments, and pesticides in beeswax, bee bread, and honey. The study was carried out in apiaries located in agricultural zones and forest areas in Andalusia, Spain. Up to nineteen residues were identified above LOQ using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS/MS). Samples were extracted by a modified QuEChERs method. Chlorfenvinphos was detected in beeswax and bee bread despite its use is not authorized for Varroa mite control. Residues of fluvalinate-tau, authorized as veterinary treatment, were detected in most of the samples of beeswax and bee bread, presumably due to overdose or also to its potential for accumulation associated with its marked liposolubility. Residues of plant protection products were also detected in samples of beeswax and bee bread. Pesticide residues were detected above the LOQ that was established at 5 µg.kg⁻¹, which is the minimum concentration that can be quantified with acceptable accuracy and precision, as described in the European guidelines for pesticide residue analysis SANTE/11945/2015. No residues of phytosanitary treatments used in agriculture were detected in honey.

Keywords: honeybee colony, mass spectrometry analysis, pesticide residues, Varroa destructor, veterinary treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
93 Pesticides Regulations: An Urgent Need for Legal Reform in India

Authors: D. Pranav

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Pesticides are a class of Biocide, whose use in agriculture has led to a momentous increase in the yield of crops, fruits and vegetables all over the word and its effective use has also been the pillars of success for the Green Revolution. However, the incessant use of pesticides has now reached alarming levels. In 2007 alone, the world used an estimated 2.4 million tons of pesticides. Despite its tremendous benefits for agriculture, pesticide has been one of the major reasons for degradation of the natural environment and undesirable effects on human beings. It has not only caused damage to human health, but has also threatened the survival of few birds and animal species. In India, the sale and usage of banned pesticide, increased usage of pesticides and its inadequate labeling has caused Bio magnification, which is causing deleterious effects on child development, resulting in stunted mental and physical growth. This paper aims to bring to shed light on major loopholes in the current pesticide regulations such as the Insecticide Act of 1968. It further discusses loopholes in the yet to be tabled Pesticides Management Bill of 2008. It discusses and arrives at potential amendments to the laws and regulations concerning pesticides; that cannot only be applied to the Indian subcontinent but other developing countries as well.

Keywords: pesticides, India, human health, environment, regulations, reform

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
92 A Review on the Mechanism Removal of Pesticides and Heavy Metal from Agricultural Runoff in Treatment Train

Authors: N. A. Ahmad Zubairi, H. Takaijudin, K. W. Yusof

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Pesticides have been used widely over the world in agriculture to protect from pests and reduce crop losses. However, it affects the environment with toxic chemicals. Exceed of toxic constituents in the ecosystem will result in bad side effects. The hydrological cycle is related to the existence of pesticides and heavy metal which it can penetrate through varieties of sources into the soil or water bodies, especially runoff. Therefore, proper mechanisms of pesticide and heavy metal removal should be studied to improve the quality of ecosystem free or reduce from unwanted substances. This paper reviews the use of treatment train and its mechanisms to minimize pesticides and heavy metal from agricultural runoff. Organochlorine (OCL) is a common pesticide that was found in the agricultural runoff. OCL is one of the toxic chemicals that can disturb the ecosystem such as inhibiting plants' growth and harm human health by having symptoms as asthma, active cancer cell, vomit, diarrhea, etc. Thus, this unwanted contaminant gives disadvantages to the environment and needs treatment system. Hence, treatment train by bioretention system is suitable because removal efficiency achieves until 90% of pesticide removal with selected vegetated plant and additive.

Keywords: pesticides, heavy metal, agricultural runoff, bioretention, mechanism removal, treatment train

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
91 Carbendazim Toxicity and Ameliorative Effect of Vitamin E in African Giant Rats

Authors: A. O. Omonona, T. A. Jarikre

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Increase specialization in agriculture and use of pesticides may inadvertently cause ecosystem degradation and eventually loss of biodiversity. The populations of numerous wildlife species have undergone a precipitous decline. Many of these problems have been attributed directly to habitat loss and over exploitation resulting from unregulated pesticide uses. Carbendazim a broad spectrum benzimidazole fungicide and a metabolite of benomyl, is used to control plant disease in cereals and fruit. The effect of carbendazim exposure and the ameliorative effect of tocopherol (vitamin E) were assessed on African giant rat AGR. Hematological, biochemical and histological changes were used to determine the health condition of the animals exposed to pesticide. Sixteen AGR were stabilized, weighed and then divided into four experimental groups (A to D). Two groups were pretreated with vitamin. Group A was exposed to carbendazim only, B- carbendazim + vitamin, C- vitamin only, and D- blank (control). Packed cell volume PCV was estimated by the microhematocrit method, Leucocyte and Platelet counts were determined using the hemocytometric method. Cholinesterase (AchE) and markers of oxidative stress were quantified, and tissue changes examined microscopically. There were no behavioral changes observed in the animals, but there was a decrease in body weight and abortion after 23 days of exposure to carbendazim. There was significant differences in the packed cell volume, the hemoglobin concentration and the red blood cell counts (p < 0.05). The increases in malonyl aldehyde MDA was significant (p < 0.05) in the pesticide intoxicated rats compared to control. Vitamin E supplementation reduced MDA level significantly (p < 0.05). There was a sharp remarkable decrease in acetylcholinesterase levels in the pesticide intoxicated rats (p < 0.05). Vitamin E supplementation normalise the AchE levels comparable to that in control. Grossly, the vital organs appeared normal in the pesticide exposed and control groups except moderate pulmonary congestion. Microscopically, there was severe diffuse hepatocellular swelling in carbendazim exposed group. The severity of hepatocellular injury was reduced in the rats with vitamin E. This study ascertained the toxic effect of carbendazim and antioxidative properties of vitamins in the Africa giant rat.

Keywords: African giant rat, antioxidant, carbendazim, pesticides, toxicity

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90 Determination of Pesticides Residues in Tissue of Two Freshwater Fish Species by Modified QuEChERS Method

Authors: Iwona Cieślik, Władysław Migdał, Kinga Topolska, Ewa Cieślik

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The consumption of fish is recommended as a means of preventing serious diseases, especially cardiovascular problems. Fish is known to be a valuable source of protein (rich in essential amino acids), unsaturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, macro- and microelements. However, it can also contain several contaminants (e.g. pesticides, heavy metals) that may pose considerable risks for humans. Among others, pesticide are of special concern. Their widespread use has resulted in the contamination of environmental compartments, including water. The occurrence of pesticides in the environment is a serious problem, due to their potential toxicity. Therefore, a systematic monitoring is needed. The aim of the study was to determine the organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues in fish muscle tissues of the pike (Esox lucius, L.) and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykkis, Walbaum) by a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, using Gas Chromatography Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/Q-MS), working in selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The analysis of α-HCH, β-HCH, lindane, diazinon, disulfoton, δ-HCH, methyl parathion, heptachlor, malathion, aldrin, parathion, heptachlor epoxide, γ-chlordane, endosulfan, α-chlordane, o,p'-DDE, dieldrin, endrin, 4,4'-DDD, ethion, endrin aldehyde, endosulfan sulfate, 4,4'-DDT, and metoxychlor was performed in the samples collected in the Carp Valley (Malopolska region, Poland). The age of the pike (n=6) was 3 years and its weight was 2-3 kg, while the age of the rainbow trout (n=6) was 0.5 year and its weight was 0.5-1.0 kg. Detectable pesticide (HCH isomers, endosulfan isomers, DDT and its metabolites as well as metoxychlor) residues were present in fish samples. However, all these compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ). The other examined pesticide residues were below the limit of detection (LOD). Therefore, the levels of contamination were - in all cases - below the default Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs), established by Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The monitoring of pesticide residues content in fish is required to minimize potential adverse effects on the environment and human exposure to these contaminants.

Keywords: contaminants, fish, pesticides residues, QuEChERS method

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89 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar

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A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology

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88 UV Light-Activated Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of Imidacloprid in Synthetic Wastewater

Authors: Yi-An Liao, Lu-Wei Kuo, Yu-Jen Shih, Yao-Hui Huang

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Abstract—Imidacloprid (IMI, a widely used pesticide, iImidacloprid (IMI), a widely used pesticide, is known to affect the bee populations. A sulfate radical-based oxidation method was utilized to remove the commercial pesticide consisted of IMI, dimethylacetamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and methanol (TOC0 = 497 ppm). The experimental results evidenced that sulfate radicals created by UV activation (254nm, 6.4 mW/cm2) of S2O82- could remove 97% of total organic carbon (TOC) from the synthetic wastewater in 4 h using 120 mM of oxidant dosage. The dose of oxidant, temperature and the light flux were the key factors to further improve the mineralization efficiency, while the ferrous ions decreased the efficacy of UV/S2O82- reaction due to the competition of UV-adsorption by complex formation of FeSO4+.s known to affect the bee populations. A sulfate radical-based oxidation method was utilized to remove the commercial pesticide consisted of IMI, dimethylacetamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and methanol (TOC0 = 497 ppm). The experimental results evidenced that sulfate radicals created by UV activation (254nm, 6.4 mW/cm2) of S2O82- could remove 97% of total organic carbon (TOC) from the synthetic wastewater in 4 h using 120 mM of oxidant dosage. The dose of oxidant, temperature and the light flux were the key factors to further improve the mineralization efficiency, while the ferrous ions decreased the efficacy of UV/S2O82- reaction due to the competition of UV-adsorption by complex formation of FeSO4+.

Keywords: organic nitrogen, photochemical oxidation, imidacloprid, UV-persulfate, mineralization

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87 A Comparative Analysis of the Private and Social Benefit-Cost Ratios of Organic and Inorganic Rice Farming: Case Study of Smallholder Farmers in the Aveyime Community, Ghana

Authors: Jerome E. Abiemo, Takeshi Mizunoya

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The Aveyime community in the Volta region of Ghana is one of the major hubs for rice production. In the past, rice farmers applied organic pesticides to control pests, and compost as a soil amendment to improve fertility and productivity. However, the introduction of chemical pesticides and fertilizers have led many farmers to convert to inorganic system of rice production, without considering the social costs (e.g. groundwater contamination and health costs) related to the use of pesticides. The study estimates and compares the private and social BCRs of organic and inorganic systems of rice production. Both stratified and simple random sampling techniques were employed to select 300 organic and inorganic rice farmers and 50 pesticide applicators. The respondents were interviewed with pre-tested questionnaires. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) which elucidates organic farmers` Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) was employed to estimate the cost of groundwater contamination. The Cost of Illness (COI) analysis was used to estimate the health cost of pesticide-induced poisoning of applicators. The data collated, was analyzed with the aid of Microsoft excel. The study found that high private benefit (e.g. increase in farm yield and income) was the most influential factor for the rapid adoption of pesticides among rice farmers. The study also shows that the social costs of inorganic rice production were high. As such the social BCR of inorganic farming (0.2) was low as compared to organic farming (0.7). Based on the results, it was recommended that government should impose pesticide environmental tax, review current agricultural policies to favour organic farming and promote extension education to farmers on pesticide risk, to ensure agricultural and environmental sustainability.

Keywords: benefit-cost-ratio (BCR), inorganic farming, pesticides, social cost

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86 Determination of Some Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Vegetable and Soil Samples from Alau Dam and Gongulong Agricultural Sites, Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Joseph Clement Akan, Lami Jafiya, Zaynab Muhammad Chellube, Zakari Mohammed, Fanna Inna Abdulrahman

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Five vegetables (spinach, lettuce, cabbage, tomato, and onion) were freshly harvested from the Alau Dam and Gongulong agricultural areas for the determination of some organochlorine pesticide residues (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, α-BHC, γ-BHC, metoxichlor, lindane, endosulfan dieldrin, and aldrin.) Soil samples were also collected at different depths for the determination of the above pesticides. Samples collection and preparation were conducted using standard procedures. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil and vegetable samples were determined using GC/MS SHIMADZU (GC-17A) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The highest concentration was that of p,p’-DDD (132.4±13.45µg/g) which was observed in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (2.34µg/g) was observed in the root of spinach. Similar trends were observed at the Gongulong agricultural area, with p,p’-DDD having the highest concentration of 153.23µg/g in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (12.45µg/g) which was observed in the root of spinach. α-BHC, γ-BHC, Methoxychlor, and lindane were detected in all the vegetable samples studied. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil samples were observed to be higher at a depth of 21-30cm, while the lowest concentrations were observed at a depth of 0-10cm. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the vegetables and soil samples from the two agricultural sites were observed to be at alarming levels, much higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and acceptable daily intake values (ADIs) .The levels of the pesticides observed in the vegetables and soil samples investigated, are of such a magnitude that calls for special attention and laws to regulate the use and circulation of such chemicals. Routine monitoring of pesticide residues in these study areas is necessary for the prevention, control and reduction of environmental pollution, so as to minimize health risks.

Keywords: Alau Dam, gongulong, organochlorine, pesticide residues, soil, vegetables

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
85 Currently Use Pesticides: Fate, Availability, and Effects in Soils

Authors: Lucie Bielská, Lucia Škulcová, Martina Hvězdová, Jakub Hofman, Zdeněk Šimek

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The currently used pesticides represent a broad group of chemicals with various physicochemical and environmental properties which input has reached 2×106 tons/year and is expected to even increases. From that amount, only 1% directly interacts with the target organism while the rest represents a potential risk to the environment and human health. Despite being authorized and approved for field applications, the effects of pesticides in the environment can differ from the model scenarios due to the various pesticide-soil interactions and resulting modified fate and behavior. As such, a direct monitoring of pesticide residues and evaluation of their impact on soil biota, aquatic environment, food contamination, and human health should be performed to prevent environmental and economic damages. The present project focuses on fluvisols as they are intensively used in the agriculture but face to several environmental stressors. Fluvisols develop in the vicinity of rivers by the periodic settling of alluvial sediments and periodic interruptions to pedogenesis by flooding. As a result, fluvisols exhibit very high yields per area unit, are intensively used and loaded by pesticides. Regarding the floods, their regular contacts with surface water arise from serious concerns about the surface water contamination. In order to monitor pesticide residues and assess their environmental and biological impact within this project, 70 fluvisols were sampled over the Czech Republic and analyzed for the total and bioaccessible amounts of 40 various pesticides. For that purpose, methodologies for the pesticide extraction and analysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique were developed and optimized. To assess the biological risks, both the earthworm bioaccumulation tests and various types of passive sampling techniques (XAD resin, Chemcatcher, and silicon rubber) were optimized and applied. These data on chemical analysis and bioavailability were combined with the results of soil analysis, including the measurement of basic physicochemical soil properties as well detailed characterization of soil organic matter with the advanced method of diffuse reflectance infrared spectrometry. The results provide unique data on the residual levels of pesticides in the Czech Republic and on the factors responsible for increased pesticide residue levels that should be included in the modeling of pesticide fate and effects.

Keywords: currently used pesticides, fluvisoils, bioavailability, Quechers, liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry, soil properties, DRIFT analysis, pesticides

Procedia PDF Downloads 405