Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Nirav P. Vaghela

7 Prevalence of the Musculoskeletal Disorder amongst School Teachers

Authors: Nirav Vaghela, Sanket Parekh

Abstract:

Objective: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) represent one of the most common and important occupational health problems in working populations, being responsible for a substantial impact on quality of life and incurring a major economic burden in compensation cost and lost wages. School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of MSD. Design: Three hundred and fourteen teachers were enrolled in this study. Teachers were interview with the Modified Nordic Questionnaire. Result: In current study total 314 participants have been recruited in that minimum age of participants is 22 and maximum age is 59 with mean 40.5± 9.88. Total prevalence of the MSD is 71.95% among the teachers. In that Female were more affected with 72% than the males with 28%. Conclusion: The teachers here in reported a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the shoulder, knee and back.

Keywords: repetitive stress injury, pain, occupational hazards, disability, abneetism, physical health, quality of life

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6 Prevalence of Work Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Surgeons

Authors: Nirav P. Vaghela

Abstract:

Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WMS) are a major health issue in many occupations all over the world. Past research on hospital workers have mainly been focused on nurses [8] and very few studies have examined musculoskeletal symptoms among doctors in various specialties. The work of surgeons can involve high levels of mental concentration and very precise movements that can be categorized as mild-to-moderate physical demands. Design: Forty-three surgeons were enrolled in this study. To investigate musculoskeletal disorder among the surgeons we had used Standardised Nordic Questionnaire, Quick Exposure Check (QEC) and Workstyle Short Form. Result: In the current study, total 43 surgeons participants out of 30 males and 13 females. Their mean age was 42.07 ± 12.35, and the mean working years of the group were 15.14years ±9.017. On the average, they worked a total of about 8.58 h (±1.967) per day. The prevalence of work related musculoskeletal symptoms among the surgeons indicating 83.70% surgeons had atleast one joint affected while 16.30% had no symptoms at all. Conclusion: The present survey study has shown high prevalence rates of neck, back and shoulder musculoskeletal symptoms in surgeons.

Keywords: repetitive stress injury, pain, occupational hazards, disability, abneetism, physical health, quality of life

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5 Relationship between Age, Gender, Anthropometrics Characteristics and Dynamic Balance in Children Age Group between 5 to 12 Years Old at Anand City, Gujarat

Authors: Dhruveshi B. Rana, Nirav P. Vaghela, Jigar N. Mehta

Abstract:

Objective: To assess the relationships among age, gender, anthropometrics and dynamic balance in 5 to 12 years of children in Anand city. Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted. 150 school going children of 5-12 (75-girls, 75-boys) years were recruited from the school of the Anand city-Shivam English Medium school, Veer Vithalbhai Patel school, Adarsh Primary school. Height, weight, arm length, and foot length were measured in 150 children of 5 to 12 years. Dynamic balance was assessed using Time Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test, Pediatric Balance Scale. Results: Positive relationship (r = 0.58 and r= 0.77) were found between increasing age and FRT and PBS scores. A negative relationship (r = - 0.46) was observed between age of boys and TUG test. Significant gender by age group difference was observed in FRT. Arm length and height has the strongest influence on FRT, and age, height, foot length; and arm length has the strongest influence on PBS. Conclusions: Age and arm length have the strongest relationship with the dynamic balance (FRT, PBS). Dynamic balance ability is directly related to the age. It helps the pediatric therapists in selecting dynamic balance test according to the age.

Keywords: age, gender, anthropometric, dynamic balance

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4 Acoustic Partial Discharge Propagation and Perfectly Matched Layer in Acoustic Detection-Transformer

Authors: Nirav J. Patel, Kalpesh K. Dudani

Abstract:

Partial discharge (PD) is the dissipation of energy caused by localized breakdown of insulation. Power transformers are one of the most important components in the electrical energy network. Insulation degradation of transformer is frequently linked to PD. This is why PD detection is used in power system to monitor the health of high voltage transformer. If such problem are not detected and repaired, the strength and frequency of PD may increase and eventually lead to the catastrophic failure of the transformer. This can further cause external equipment damage, fires and loss of revenue due to an unscheduled outage. Hence, reliable online PD detection is a critical need for power companies to improve personnel safety and decrease the probability of loss of service. The PD phenomenon is manifested in a variety of physically observable signals including Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radiation and Acoustic Disturbances, Electrical pulses. Acoustic method is based on sensing the radiated acoustic emission from discharge sites in the insulation. Propagated wave from the PD fault site are captured sensor are consequently pre-amplified, filtered, recorded and analyze.

Keywords: acoustic, partial discharge, perfectly matched layer, sensor

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3 Optimization of Tooth Root Profile and Drive Side Pressure Angle to Minimize Bending Stress at Root of Asymmetric Spur Gear Tooth

Authors: Priyakant Vaghela, Jagdish Prajapati

Abstract:

Bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is the very important criteria in gear design and it should be kept the minimum. Minimization of bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is a recent demand from industry. This paper presents an innovative approach to obtain minimum bending stress at the root of a tooth by optimizing tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle. Circular-filleted at the root of the tooth is widely used in the design. Circular fillet creates discontinuity at the root of the tooth. So, at root stress concentration occurs. In order to minimize stress concentration, an important criterion is a G2 continuity at the blending of the gear tooth. A Bezier curve is used with G2 continuity at the root of asymmetric spur gear tooth. The comparison has been done between normal and modified tooth using ANSYS simulation. Tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle are optimized to minimize bending stress at the root of the tooth of the asymmetric involute spur gear. Von Mises stress of optimized profile is analyzed and compared with normal profile symmetric gear. Von Mises stress is reducing by 31.27% by optimization of drive side pressure angle and root profile. Stress concentration of modified gear was significantly reduced.

Keywords: asymmetric spur gear tooth, G2 continuity, pressure angle, stress concentration at the root of tooth, tooth root stress

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2 Mannosylated Oral Amphotericin B Nanocrystals for Macrophage Targeting: In vitro and Cell Uptake Studies

Authors: Rudra Vaghela, P. K. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The aim of the present research was to develop oral Amphotericin B (AmB) nanocrystals (Nc) grafted with suitable ligand in order to enhance drug transport across the intestinal epithelial barrier and subsequently, active uptake by macrophages. AmB Nc were prepared by liquid anti-solvent precipitation technique (LAS). Poloxamer 188 was used to stabilize the prepared AmB Nc and grafted with mannose for actively targeting M cells in Peyer’s patches. To prevent shedding of the stabilizer and ligand, N,N’-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) was used as a cross-linker. The prepared AmB Nc were characterized for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface morphology using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release and cell uptake studies using caco-2 cells. The particle size of stabilized AmB Nc grafted with WGA was in the range of 287-417 nm with negative zeta potential between -18 to -25 mV. XRD studies revealed crystalline nature of AmB Nc. SEM studies revealed that ungrafted AmB Nc were irregular in shape with rough surface whereas, grafted AmB Nc were found to be rod-shaped with smooth surface. In vitro drug release of AmB Nc was found to be 86% at the end of one hour. Cellular studies revealed higher invasion and uptake of AmB Nc towards caco-2 cell membrane when compared to ungrafted AmB Nc. Our findings emphasize scope on developing oral delivery system for passively targeting M cells in Peyer’s patches.

Keywords: leishmaniasis, amphotericin b nanocrystals, macrophage targeting, LAS technique

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1 Nitrous Oxide Wastage: Putting Strategies “In the Pipeline” to Reduce Carbon Emissions from Nitrous Oxide

Authors: F. Gallop, C. Ward, M. Zaky, M. Vaghela, R. Sabaratnam

Abstract:

Nitrous oxide (N₂O) has been used in anaesthesia for over 150 years owing to advantageous physical and pharmacological properties. However, with a global warming potential of 310, we have an urgent responsibility to reduce its usage and emission. Anecdotal evidence in our hospital trust suggests minimal N₂O usage, yet our theatres receive a staggering supply. This warranted further investigation. We used a data collection tool to prospectively capture quantitative and qualitative data regarding N₂O cases during one week: this recorded demographics, N₂O indications, clinical management, and total N₂O consumption in litres. In addition, N₂O usage in dental sedation suites and paediatric theatres was separately quantified. Pipeline supply data was acquired from British Oxygen Company accounts. We captured 490 cases. 4% (n=19) used N₂O, 63% (n=12) of these in dental theatres. Common N₂0 indications were induction speed (37%) and rapidly increasing anaesthesia depth (32%). In adult cases, N₂O was always used intraoperatively rather than solely at induction. 74% (n=14) of anaesthetists reported environmental concern over using N₂O. The week’s total N₂O usage was 8109 litres, amounting to 421,668 litres annually. However, the annual N₂O pipeline supply is 2,997,000 litres; an enormous 1.8 million Kg of CO₂. Our results supportively demonstrate that the N₂O pipeline supply greatly exceeds its clinical use. Acknowledging clinical areas not audited, the discrepancy between supply and usage suggests approximately 2.5 million litres of yearly wastage. We consequently recommend terminating the N₂O pipeline supply in minimally used areas, eliminating 1.5 million Kg of CO₂ emissions. High usage clinical areas could consider portable N₂O cylinders as an alternative. In Sweden, N₂O destruction technology is routinely used to minimise CO₂ emissions. Our results support National Health System investment in similar infrastructure.

Keywords: anaesthesia, environment, medical gases, nitrous oxide, sustainability

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