Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1471

Search results for: colorectal cancer

1471 Association of Selected Polymorphisms of BER Pathway with the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Polish Population

Authors: Jacek Kabzinski, Karolina Przybylowska, Lukasz Dziki, Adam Dziki, Ireneusz Majsterek

Abstract:

The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing from year to year. Despite intensive research CRC etiology remains unknown. Studies suggest that at the basis of the process of carcinogenesis can lie reduced efficiency of DNA repair mechanisms, often caused by polymorphisms in DNA repair genes. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between gene polymorphisms Pro242Arg of PolB gene and Arg780His of Lig3 gene and modulation of the risk of colorectal cancer in the Polish population. Determination of the molecular basis of carcinogenesis process and predicting increased risk will allow qualifying patients to increased risk group and including them in preventive program. We used blood collected from 110 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The control group consisted of equal number of healthy people. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan method. The obtained results indicate that the genotype 780Arg/His of Lig3 gene is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. On the basis of these results, we conclude that Lig3 gene polymorphism Arg780His may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.

Keywords: BER, colorectal cancer, PolB, Lig3, polymorphisms

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1470 The Colorectal Cancer in Patients of Eastern Algeria

Authors: S. Tebibel, C. Mechati, S. Messaoudi

Abstract:

Algeria is currently experiencing the same rate of cancer progression as that registered these last years in the western countries. Colorectal cancer, constituting increasingly a major public health problem, is the most common form of cancer after breast and Neck-womb cancer at the woman and prostate cancer at the man. Our work is based on a retrospective study to determine the cases of colorectal cancer through eastern Algeria. Our goal is to carry out an epidemiological, histological and immune- histochemical study to investigate different techniques for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and their interests and specific in detecting the disease. The study includes 110 patients (aged between 20 to 87 years) with colorectal cancer where the inclusions and exclusions criteria were established. In our study, colorectal cancer, expresses a male predominance, with a sex ratio of 1, 99 and the most affected age group is between 50 and 59 years. We noted that the colon cancer rate is higher than rectal cancer rate, whose frequencies are respectively 60,91 % and 39,09 %. In the series of colon cancer, the ADK lieberkunien is histological the most represented type, or 85,07 % of all cases. In contrast, the proportion of ADK mucinous (colloid mucous) is only 1,49% only. Well-differentiated ADKS, are very significant in our series, they represent 83,58 % of cases. Adenocarcinoma moderately and poorly differentiated, whose proportions are respectively 2,99 % and 0.05 %. For histological varieties of rectal ADK, we see in our workforce that ADK lieberkunien represent the most common histological form, or 76,74%, while the mucosal colloid is 13,95 %. Research of the mutation on the gene encoding K-ras, a major step in the targeted therapy of colorectal cancers, is underway in our study. Colorectal cancer is the subject of much promising research concern: the evaluation of new therapies (antiangiogenic monoclonal antibodies), the search for predictors of sensitivity to chemotherapy and new prognostic markers using techniques of molecular biology and proteomics.

Keywords: adenocarcinoma, age, colorectal cancer, epidemiology, histological section, sex

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1469 The Influence of Polymorphisms of NER System Genes on the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Polish Population

Authors: Ireneusz Majsterek, Karolina Przybylowska, Lukasz Dziki, Adam Dziki, Jacek Kabzinski

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the deadliest cancers. Every year we see an increase in the number of cases, and in spite of intensive research etiology of the disease remains unknown. For many years, researchers are seeking to associate genetic factors with an increased risk of CRC, so far it has proved to be a compelling link between the MMR system of DNA repair and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCC). Currently, research is focused on finding the relationship between the remaining DNA repair systems and an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between gene polymorphisms Ser835Ser of XPF gene and Gly23Ala of XPA gene–elements of NER DNA repair system, and modulation of the risk of colorectal cancer in the Polish population. Determination of the molecular basis of carcinogenesis process and predicting increased risk will allow qualifying patients to increased risk group and including them in preventive program. We used blood collected from 110 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The control group consisted of equal number of healthy people. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan method. The obtained results indicate that the genotype 23Gly/Ala of XPA gene is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, while 23Ala/Ala as well as TCT allele of Ser835Ser of XPF gene may reduce the risk of CRC.

Keywords: NER, colorectal cancer, XPA, XPF, polymorphisms

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1468 miCoRe: Colorectal Cancer miRNAs Database

Authors: Rahul Agarwal, Ashutosh Singh

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) also refers as bowel cancer or colon cancer. It involves the development of abnormal growth of cells in colon or rectum part of the body. This work leads to the development of a miRNA database in colorectal cancer. We named this database- miCoRe. This database comprises of all validated colon-rectal cancer miRNAs information from various published literature with an effectual knowledge based information retrieval system. miRNAs have been collected from various published literature reports. MySQL is used for main-framework of miCoRe while the front-end was developed in PHP script. The aim of developing miCoRe is to create a comprehensive central repository of colorectal carcinoma miRNAs with all germane information of miRNAs and their target genes. The current version of miCoRe consists of 238 miRNAs which are known to be implicated in malignancy of CRC. Alongside with miRNA information, miCoRe also contains the information related to the target genes of these miRNA. miCoRe furnishes the information about the mechanism of incidence and progression of the disease, which would further help the researchers to look for colorectal specific miRNAs therapies and CRC specific targeted drug designing. Moreover, it will also help in development of biomarkers for the better and early detection of CRC and will help in better clinical management of the disease.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, database, miCoRe, miRNAs

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1467 Association of Xeroderma pigmentosum Group D Gene Polymorphism with Colorectal Cancer Risk in Kashmiri Population

Authors: Syed Sameer Aga, Saniya Nissar

Abstract:

The Xeroderma pigmentosum group D gene (XPD) plays a key role in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway of the damaged DNA. Genetic polymorphisms in the coding region of the XPD gene may alter DNA repair capacity of the protein and hence can modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The aim of the study was to determine the genetic association of XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. 120 CRC patients and 160 normal controls were assessed for genotype frequencies of XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism using PCR-RFLP technique. We observed a significant association (p < 0.05) between the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and the risk of developing CRC (p < 0.05). Additionally, Gln/Gln genotype of the XPD gene doubled the risk for the development of CRC [p < 0.05; OR=2.25 95% CI (1.07-4.7)]. Our results suggest that there is a significant association between the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and the risk of CRC.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, polymorphism, RFLP, DNA Repair, NER, XPD

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1466 Diagnostic Evaluation of Micro Rna (miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378) in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ossama Abdelmotaal, Olfat Shaker, Tarek Salman, Lamiaa Nabeel, Mostafa Shabayek

Abstract:

Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is an important worldwide health problem. Colonoscopy is used in detecting CRC suffer from drawbacks where colonoscopy is an invasive method. This study validates easier and less time-consuming techniques to evaluate the usefulness of detecting miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378 in the sera of colorectal cancer patients as new diagnostic tools. This study includes malignant (Colo Rectal Cancer patients, n= 64)) and healthy (n=27) groups. The studied groups were subjected to colonoscopic examination and estimation of miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378 in sera by RT-PCR. miRNA-21 showed the statistically significantly highest median fold change. miRNA-378 showed statistically significantly lower value (Both showed over-expression). miRNA-215 showed the statistically significantly lowest median fold change (It showed down-regulation). Overall the miRNA (21-215 and 378) appear to be promising method of detecting CRC and evaluating its stages.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, miRNA-21, miRNA-215, miRNA-378

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
1465 Role of Mismatch Repair Protein Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Study from North India

Authors: Alka Yadav, Mayank Jain, Rajan Saxena, Niraj Kumari, Narendra Krishnani, Ashok Kumar

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression and its clinicopathological correlation in colorectal cancer patients in North India. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on histologically proven 52 (38 males and 14 females) patients with adenocarcinoma of colorectum. MMR protein loss was determined by using immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and MSH6. Results: 52 patients (38 males and 14 females) underwent resection for colorectal cancer with the median age of 52 years (16-81 years). 35% of the patients (n=18) were younger than 50 years of the age. 3 patients had associated history of malignancy in the family. 29 (56%) patients had right colon cancer, 9 (17%) left colon cancer and 14 (27%) rectal cancer. 2 patients each had synchronous and metachronous cancer. Histology revealed well-differentiated tumour in 16, moderately differentiated in 10 and poorly differentiated tumour in 26 patients. MMR protein loss was seen in 15 (29%) patients. Seven (46%) of these patients were less than 50 years of age. Combined loss of MSH2 and MSH6 was seen most commonly and it was found in 6 patients. 12 (80%) patients with MMR protein loss had tumour located proximal to the splenic flexure compared to 3 (20%) located distal to the splenic flexure. There was no difference in MMR protein loss based on patients' age, gender, degree of tumour differentiation, stage of the disease and tumour histological characteristics. Conclusions: This study revealed that there was less than 30% MMR protein loss in colorectal cancer patients. The loss was most commonly seen in right sided colon cancer than left. A larger study is further required to validate these findings.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, mismatch repair protein, immunohitochemistry, clinicopathological correlation

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1464 Fecal Immunochemical Testing to Deter Colon Cancer

Authors: Valerie A. Conrade

Abstract:

Introduction: A large body of literature suggests patients who complete fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) kits are likely to identify colorectal cancer sooner than those who do not complete FIT kits. Background: Patients who do not participate in preventative measures such as the FIT kit are at a higher risk of colorectal cancer growing unnoticed. The objective was to see if the method the principal investigator (PI) uses to educate clinical staff on the importance of FIT kit administration provides an increased amount of FIT kit dissemination to patients post clinical education. Methodologies: Data collection via manual tallies took place before and after the clinical staff was educated on the importance of FIT kits. Results: The results showed an increase in FIT kit dissemination post clinical staff education. Through enhanced instruction to the clinical staff regarding the importance of FIT kits, expanding their knowledge on preventative measures to detect colorectal cancer positively impacted nurses and, in turn, their patients.

Keywords: colon cancer, education, fecal immunochemical testing, nursing

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1463 Anticancer Activity of Calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb. through Downregulation of Cyclin D1 Protein Level in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

Authors: Jin Boo Jeong

Abstract:

In this study, we elucidated anti-cancer activity and potential molecular mechanism of DKC against human colorectal cancer cells. DKC-E70 suppressed the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29. Although DKC-E70 decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level, decreased level of cyclin D1 protein by DKC-E70 occurred at the earlier time than that of cyclin D1 mRNA, which indicates that DKC-E70-mediated downregulation of cyclin D1 protein may be a consequence of the induction of degradation and transcriptional inhibition of cyclin D1. In cyclin D1 degradation, we found that cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70 was attenuated in presence of MG132. In addition, DKC-E70 phosphorylated threonine-286 (T286) of cyclin D1 and T286A abolished cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70. We also observed that DKC-E70-mediated T286 phosphorylation and subsequent cyclin D1 degradation was blocked in presence of the inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β. In cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition, DKC-E70 inhibited the expression of β-catenin and TCF4, and β–catenin/TCF-dependent luciferase activity. Our results suggest that DKC-E70 may downregulate cyclin D1 as one of the potential anti-cancer targets through cyclin D1 degradation by T286 phosphorylation dependent on ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β, and cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition through Wnt signaling. From these findings, DKC-E70 has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A3B03931713).

Keywords: anticancer, calyx of persimmon, cyclin D1, Diospyros kaki Thunb., human colorectal cancer

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1462 Cytotoxicity of a Short Chain Fatty Acid Histone Deactylase Inhibitor on HCT116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: N. A. Kazemi Sefat, M. M. Mohammadi, J. Hadjati, S. Talebi, M. Ajami, H. Daneshvar

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer metastases result in a significant number of cancer related deaths. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells. Sodium butyrate (SB) is a short chain fatty acid, belongs to HDAC inhibitors which is released in the colonic lumen as a consequence of fiber fermentation. In this study, we are about to assess the effect of sodium butyrate on HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cell line. The viability of cells was measured by microscopic morphologic study and MTT assay. After 48 hours, treatments more than 10 mM lead to cell injury in HCT116 by increasing cell granulation and decreasing cell adhesion (p>0.05). After 72 hours, treatments at 10 mM and more lead to significant cell injury (p<0.05). Our results may suggest that the gene expression which is contributed in cell proliferation and apoptosis has been changed under pressure of HDAC inhibition.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, sodium butyrate, cytotoxicity, MTT

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1461 Discovery of New Inhibitors for Colorectal Cancer Treatment

Authors: Kai-Cheng Hsu, Tzu-Ying Sung, Jinn-Moon Yang

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of cancer death in the world. Although several drugs have been developed to treat colorectal cancer, such as Regorafenib and 5-FU, their efficacy is often limited by the development of drug resistance. Therefore, development of new drugs with new scaffolds is necessary to treat CRC. Here, we used site-moiety maps to identify inhibitors against PIM1, LIMK1, SRC, and mTOR, which are often overexpressed in CRC. A site-moiety map represents physicochemical properties and moiety preferences of a binding site through anchors. An anchor contains three elements: (1) conserved interacting residues of a binding pocket; (2) moiety preference of the binding pocket; and (3) the type (e.g., hydrogen-bonding or van der Waals interactions) of interaction between the moieties and the binding pocket. Then, we performed a structure-based virtual screening of ~260,000 compounds and selected compound candidates with high site-moiety map scores for bioassays. Among these candidates, compound 1 and compound 2 inhibited the growth of CRC cells with IC50 values of <10 μM. The experimental result of enzyme-based assays indicated that compound 1 is a dual inhibitor against PIM1 (IC50 6 μM) and LIMK1(IC50 11 μM). Compound 2 was predicted as a SRC inhibitor and will be further validated. The compounds inhibited different protein targets compared to the current drugs. We believe that the compounds provide a starting point to design new drugs for CRC treatment.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, drug discovery, site-moiety map, virtual screening, PIM1, LIMK1

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
1460 Principle Component Analysis on Colon Cancer Detection

Authors: N. K. Caecar Pratiwi, Yunendah Nur Fuadah, Rita Magdalena, R. D. Atmaja, Sofia Saidah, Ocky Tiaramukti

Abstract:

Colon cancer or colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that attacks the last part of the human digestive system. Lymphoma and carcinoma are types of cancer that attack human’s colon. Colon cancer causes deaths about half a million people every year. In Indonesia, colon cancer is the third largest cancer case for women and second in men. Unhealthy lifestyles such as minimum consumption of fiber, rarely exercising and lack of awareness for early detection are factors that cause high cases of colon cancer. The aim of this project is to produce a system that can detect and classify images into type of colon cancer lymphoma, carcinoma, or normal. The designed system used 198 data colon cancer tissue pathology, consist of 66 images for Lymphoma cancer, 66 images for carcinoma cancer and 66 for normal / healthy colon condition. This system will classify colon cancer starting from image preprocessing, feature extraction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classification using K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) method. Several stages in preprocessing are resize, convert RGB image to grayscale, edge detection and last, histogram equalization. Tests will be done by trying some K-NN input parameter setting. The result of this project is an image processing system that can detect and classify the type of colon cancer with high accuracy and low computation time.

Keywords: carcinoma, colorectal cancer, k-nearest neighbor, lymphoma, principle component analysis

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1459 miR-200c as a Biomarker for 5-FU Chemosensitivity in Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Rezvan Najafi, Korosh Heydari, Massoud Saidijam

Abstract:

5-FU is a chemotherapeutic agent that has been used in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. However, it is usually associated with the acquired resistance, which decreases the therapeutic effects of 5-FU. miR-200c is involved in chemotherapeutic drug resistance, but its mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of inhibition of miR-200c in sensitivity of HCT-116 CRC cells to 5-FU was evaluated. HCT-116 cells were transfected with LNA-anti- miR-200c for 48 h. mRNA expression of miR-200c was evaluated using quantitative real- time PCR. The protein expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and E-cadherin were analyzed by western blotting. Annexin V and propidium iodide staining assay were applied for apoptosis detection. The caspase-3 activation was evaluated by an enzymatic assay. The results showed LNA-anti-miR-200c inhibited the expression of PTEN and E-cadherin protein, apoptosis and activation of caspase 3 compared with control cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that miR-200c as a prognostic marker can overcome to 5-FU chemoresistance in CRC.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, miR-200c, 5-FU resistance, E-cadherin, PTEN

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1458 Facile Synthesis of Novel Substituted Aryl-Thiazole (SAT) Analogs via One-Pot Multicomponent Reaction as Potent Cytotoxic Agents against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Salma Mirza, Syeda Asma Naqvi, Khalid Mohammed Khan, M. Iqbal Choudhary

Abstract:

In this study twenty-five (25) newly synthesized compounds substituted aryl thiazoles (SAT) 1-25 were synthesized, and in vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four cancer cell lines namely, MCF-7 (ER+ve breast), MDA-MB-231 (ER-ve breast), HCT116 (colorectal), and, HeLa (cervical) and compared with the standard anticancer drug doxorubicin with IC50 value of 1.56 ± 0.05 μM. Among them, compounds 1, 4-8 and 19 were found to be active against all four cell lines. Compound 20 was found to be selectively active against MCF7 cells with IC50 value of 40.21 ± 4.15 µM, whereas compound 19 was active against only MCF7 and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 46.72 ± 1.8 and 19.86 ± 0.11 μM, respectively. These results suggest that aryl thiazoles 1 and 4 deserve to be investigated further in vivo as anti-cancer agents.

Keywords: anticancer agents, breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231), colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-116), cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Thiazole derivatives

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1457 Detection of JC Virus DNA and T-Ag Expression in a Subpopulation of Tunisian Colorectal Carcinomas

Authors: Wafa Toumi, Alessandro Ripalti, Luigi Ricciardiello, Dalila Gargouri, Jamel Kharrat, Abderraouf Cherif, Ahmed Bouhafa, Slim Jarboui, Mohamed Zili, Ridha Khelifa

Abstract:

Background & aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies throughout the world. Several risk factors, both genetic and environmental, including viral infections, have been linked to colorectal carcinogenesis. A few studies report the detection of human polyomavirus JC (JCV) DNA and transformation antigen (T-Ag) in a fraction of the colorectal tumors studied and suggest an association of this virus with CRC. In order to investigate whether such an association of JCV with CRC will hold in a different epidemiological setting, we looked for the presence of JCV DNA and T-Ag expression in a group of Tunisian CRC patients. Methods: Fresh colorectal mucosa biopsies were obtained from 17 healthy volunteers and from both colorectal tumors and adjacent normal tissues of 47 CRC patients. DNA was extracted from fresh biopsies or from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections using the Invitrogen Purelink Genomic DNA mini Kit. A simple PCR and a nested PCR were used to amplify a region of the T-Ag gene. The obtained PCR products revealed a 154 bp and a 98 bp bands, respectively. Specificity was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. T-Ag expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining using a mouse monoclonal antibody (clone PAb416) directed against SV40 T-Ag that cross reacts with JCV T-Ag. Results: JCV DNA was found in 12 (25%) and 22 (46%) of the CRC tumors by simple PCR and by nested PCR, respectively. All paired adjacent normal mucosa biopsies were negative for viral DNA. Sequencing of the DNA amplicons obtained confirmed the authenticity of T-Ag sequences. Immunohistochemical staining showed nuclear T-Ag expression in all 22 JCV DNA- positive samples and in 3 additional tumor samples which appeared DNA-negative by PCR. Conclusions: These results suggest an association of JCV with a subpopulation of Tunisian colorectal tumors.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, immunohistochemistry, Polyomavirus JC, PCR

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1456 CD133 and CD44 - Stem Cell Markers for Prediction of Clinically Aggressive Form of Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ognen Kostovski, Svetozar Antovic, Rubens Jovanovic, Irena Kostovska, Nikola Jankulovski

Abstract:

Introduction:Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. The cancer stem cell (CSC) markers are associated with aggressive cancer types and poor prognosis. The aim of study was to determine whether the expression of colorectal cancer stem cell markers CD133 and CD44 could be significant in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Materials and methods: Our study included ninety patients (n=90) with CRC. Patients were divided into two subgroups: with metatstatic CRC and non-metastatic CRC. Tumor samples were analyzed with standard histopathological methods, than was performed immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibodies against CD133 and CD44 stem cell markers. Results: High coexpression of CD133 and CD44 was observed in 71.4% of patients with metastatic disease, compared to 37.9% in patients without metastases. Discordant expression of both markers was found in 8% of the subgroup with metastatic CRC, and in 13.4% of the subgroup without metastatic CRC. Statistical analyses showed a significant association of increased expression of CD133 and CD44 with the disease stage, T - category and N - nodal status. With multiple regression analysis the stage of disease was designate as a factor with the greatest statistically significant influence on expression of CD133 (p <0.0001) and CD44 (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the coexpression of CD133 and CD44 have an important role in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Both stem cell markers can be routinely implemented in standard pathohistological diagnostics and can be useful markers for pre-therapeutic oncology screening.

Keywords: colorectal carcinoma, stem cells, CD133+, CD44+

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1455 Association of miRNA146a rs2910164 Polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Zahra Solgi, Hossein Rassi

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-step disease, and chronic gastric infection with H. pylori could play a role in one or more of the steps in this pathogenic process. Polymorphisms in several miRNAs are considered to increase the risk for the development of CRC by controlling proliferation, apoptosis and H. pylori pathogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate miRNA146a rs2910164 polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori infection in CRC. A total of 65 patients with CRC were divided into 2 groups: 28 patients < 50 years of age and 37 patients ≥ 50 years of age. DNA was extracted from all samples by a standard method and H. pylori cagA and miRNA146a rs2910164 genotypes were determined by PCR method. The results show that there was no significant difference in the frequency of H. pylori cagA gene between the two groups but there was a significant difference in the distribution of rs2910164 genotypes in patients < 50 years of age with the p-value of 0.05 and odds ratio equal to 2.69. On other hand, patients < 50 years of age with genotype CC of miRNA146a showed a significant difference in CRC risk. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between rs2910164 CC genotype with Helicobacter pylori infection in patients < 50 years of age. The present study suggests that the CC genotype of miRNA146a in combination with H. pylori infection can be effective as risk factors and molecular markers for early diagnosis and treatment of CRC.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, Helicobacter pylori, miRNA146a, rs2910164 polymorphism

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1454 Changing Patterns of Colorectal Cancer in Hail Region

Authors: Laila Salah Seada, Ashraf Ibrahim, Fawaz Al Rashid, Ihab Abdo, Hassan Kasim, Waleed Al Mansi, Saud Al Shabli

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Colorectal carcinoma is increasing among both men and women worldwide. It has a multifactorial etiology including genetic factors, environmental factors and inflammatory conditions of the digestive tract. A clinicopathologic assessment of colorectal carcinoma in Hail region is done, considering any changing patterns in two 5-year periods from 2005-2009 (A) and from 2012 to 2017 (B). All data had been retrieved from histopathology files of King Khalid Hospital, Hail. Results: During period (A), 75 cases were diagnosed as colorectal carcinoma. Male patients comprised 56/75 (74.7%) of the study, with a mean age of 58.4 (36-97), while females were 19/75 (25.3%) with a mean age of 50.3(30-85) and the difference was significant (p = 0.05). M:F ratio was 2.9:1. Most common histological type was adenocarcioma in 68/75 (90.7%) patients mostly well differentiated in 44/68 (64.7%). Mucinous neoplasms comprised only 7/75 (9.3%) of cases and tended to have a higher stage (p = 0.04). During period (B), 115 cases were diagnosed with an increase of 53.3% in number of cases than period (A). Male to female ratio also decreased to 1.35:1, females being 44.83% more affected. Adenocarcinoma remained the prevalent type (93.9%), while mucinous type was still rare (5.2%). No distal metastases found at time of presentation. Localization of tumors was rectosigmoid in group (A) in 41.4%, which increased to 56.6% in group (B), with an increase of 15.2%. Iliocecal location also decreased from 8% to 3.5%, being 56.25% less. Other proximal areas of the colon were decreased by 25.75%, from 53.9% in group (A) to 40% in group (B). Conclusion: Colorectal carcinoma in Hail region has increased by 53.3% in the past 5 years, with more females being diagnosed. Localization has also shifted distally by 15.2%. These findings are different from Western world patterns which experienced a decrease in incidence and proximal shift of the colon cancer localization. This might be due to better diagnostic tools, population awareness of the disease, as well as changing of life style and/or food habits in the region.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, Hail Region, changing pattern, distal shift

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1453 Autophagy Suppresses Tumorigenesis through Upregulation of MiR-449a in Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Sheng-Hui Lan, Shan-Ying Wu, Shu-Ching Lin, Wei-Chen Wang, Hsiao-Sheng Liu

Abstract:

Autophagy is an essential mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis through its degradation function, and the autophagy deficiency is related various diseases including tumorigenesis in several cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small none coding RNAs, which regulate gene expression through degradation of mRNA or inhibition of translation. However, the relationship between autophagy deficiency and dysregulated miRNAs is still unclear. We revealed a mechanism that autophagy up-regulates miR-449a expression at the transcriptional level through activation of forkhead transcription factor family member FoxO1 and then suppresses tumorigenesis in CRC. Our data showed that the autophagic activity and miR-449a expression were lower in colorectal cancer (CRC) and has a positive correlation. We further reveal that autophagy degrades p300 expression and then suppresses acetylation of FoxO1. Under autophagic induction conditions, FoxO1 is transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and binds to the miR-449a promoter and then promotes miR-449a expression. In addition, either miR-449a overexpression or amiodarone-induced autophagy inhibits cell cycle progression, proliferation, colony formation migration, invasion, and tumor formation of SW480 cells. Our findings indicate that autophagy inducers may have the potential to be used for prevention and treatment of CRC through upregulation of miR-449a expression.

Keywords: autophagy, MiR-449a, FoxO1, colorectal cancer

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1452 Effect of Leptin Gene Methylation on Colorectal Cancer Chemoresistance

Authors: Wissem Abdaoui, Nizar M. Mhaidat, Ilhem Mokhtari, Adel Gouri

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common tumors all over the world. Obesity, considered a risk factor of CRC, is characterized by a high level of secreted cytokines from adipose tissue. Among these inflammatory molecules, leptin is considered the key mediator for CRC cancer development and progression by activation of mitogenic and anti apoptotic signaling pathways. Gene expression can be significantly modulated by alterations in DNA methylation patterns. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of leptin gene methylation on CRC prognosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy. The study involved 70 CRC tissue samples collected from King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) from which only 53 was analyzed because of bisulfate fragmentation and low yield of DNA extracted from FFPE tissues. A total of 22 blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers and enrolled as a control group. Leptin promoter methylation was analyzed by methylation specific PCR after bisulfate conversion. Results revealed that the incidence of leptin gene methylation was significantly higher in CRC patients in comparison to that of controls (P < 0.05). The correlation between patient’s demographics and leptin gene methylation was not significant (P < 0.05). However, a significant correlation between leptin gene methylation status and early cancer stages (I, II and III) was found in male but not in female (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significant correlation was found between leptin promoter methylation and early tumor localization T1-2 (p < 0.05). The correlation between epigenetic regulation of leptin and chemosensitivity was not significant. Taken together, these results suggest the possibility to use leptin gene methylation as a biomarker for the evaluation of CRC prognosis and metastasis.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, obesity, leptin, DNA methylation, disease prognosis, bisulfate conversion, chemoresistance

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1451 A Study of Interleukin-1β Genetic Polymorphisms in Gastric Carcinoma and Colorectal Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients

Authors: Mariam Khaled, Noha Farag, Ghada Mohamed Abdel Salam, Khaled Abu-Aisha, Mohamed El-Azizi

Abstract:

Gastric and colorectal cancers are among the most frequent causes of cancer-associated mortalities in Africa. They have been considered as a global public health concern, as nearly one million new cases are reported per year. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine-produced by activated macrophages and monocytes- and a member of the IL-1 family. The inactive IL-1β precursor is cleaved and activated by caspase-1 enzyme, which itself is activated by the assembly of intracellular structures defined as NLRP3 (Nod Like receptor P3) inflammasomes. Activated IL-1β stimulates the Interleukin-1 receptor type-1 (IL-1R1), which is responsible for the initiation of a signal transduction pathway leading to cell proliferation. It has been proven that the IL-1β gene is a highly polymorphic gene in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect its expression. It has been previously reported that SNPs including base transitions between C and T at positions, -511 (C-T; dbSNP: rs16944) and -31 (C-T; dbSNP: rs1143627), from the transcriptional start site, contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric and colorectal cancers by affecting IL-1β levels. Altered production of IL-1β due to such polymorphisms is suspected to stimulate an amplified inflammatory response and promote Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition leading to malignancy. Allele frequency distribution of the IL-1β-31 and -511 SNPs, in different populations, and their correlation to the incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers, has been intriguing to researchers worldwide. The current study aims to investigate allele distributions of the IL-1β SNPs among gastric and colorectal cancers Egyptian patients. In order to achieve to that, 89 Biopsy and surgical specimens from the antrum and corpus mucosa of chronic gastritis subjects and gastric and colorectal carcinoma patients was collected for DNA extraction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). The amplified PCR products of IL-1β-31C > T and IL-1β-511T > C were digested by incubation with the restriction endonuclease enzymes ALu1 and Ava1. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the allele frequency distribution in the three studied groups. Also, the effect of the IL-1β -31 and -511 SNPs on nuclear factor binding was analyzed using Fluorescence Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA), preceded by nuclear factor extraction from gastric and colorectal tissue samples and LPS stimulated monocytes. The results of this study showed that a significantly higher percentage of Egyptian gastric cancer patients have a homozygous CC genotype at the IL-1β-31 position and a heterozygous TC genotype at the IL-1β-511 position. Moreover, a significantly higher percentage of the colorectal cancer patients have a homozygous CC genotype at the IL-1β-31 and -511 positions as compared to the control group. In addition, the EMSA results showed that IL-1β-31C/T and IL-1β-511T/C SNPs do not affect nuclear factor binding. Results of this study suggest that the IL-1β-31 C/T and IL-1β-511 T/C may be correlated to the incidence of gastric cancer in Egyptian patients; however, similar findings couldn’t be proven in the colorectal cancer patients group for the IL-1β-511 T/C SNP. This is the first study to investigate IL-1β -31 and -511 SNPs in the Egyptian population.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, Egyptian patients, gastric cancer, interleukin-1β, single nucleotide polymorphisms

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1450 Role of Long Noncoding RNA HULC on Colorectal Carcinoma Progression through Epigenetically Repressing NKD2 Expression

Authors: Shu-Jun Li, Cheng-Cao Sun, De-Jia Li

Abstract:

Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been emerged as crucial regulators of human diseases and prognostic markers in numerous of cancers, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Here, we identified an oncogenetic lncRNA HULC, which may promote colorectal tumorigenesis. HULC has been found to be up-regulated and acts as oncogene in gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma, but its expression pattern, biological function and underlying mechanism in CRC is still undetermined. Here, we reported that HULC expression is also over-expressed in CRC, and its increased level is associated with poor prognosis and shorter survival. Knockdown of HULC impaired CRC cells proliferation, migration and invasion, facilitated cell apoptosis in vitro, and inhibited tumorigenicity of CRC cells in vivo. Mechanistically, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and RNA pull-down experiment demonstrated that HULC could simultaneously interact with EZH2 to repress underlying targets NKD2 transcription. In addition, rescue experiments determined that HULC oncogenic function is partly dependent on repressing NKD2. Taken together, our findings expound how HULC over-expression endows an oncogenic function in CRC.

Keywords: long noncoding RNA, HULC, NKD2, colorectal carcinoma, proliferation, apoptosis

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1449 SIRT1 Gene Polymorphisms and Its Protein Level in Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Olfat Shaker, Miriam Wadie, Reham Ali, Ayman Yosry

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity and accounts for over 9% of cancer incidence worldwide. Silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) gene is located in the nucleus and exert its effects via modulation of histone and non-histone targets. They function in the cell via histone deacetylase (HDAC) and/or adenosine diphosphate ribosyl transferase (ADPRT) enzymatic activity. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between SIRT1 polymorphism and its protein level in colorectal cancer patients in comparison to control cases. This study includes 2 groups: thirty healthy subjects (control group) & one hundred CRC patients. All subjects were subjected to: SIRT-1 serum level was measured by ELISA and gene polymorphisms of rs12778366, rs375891 and rs3740051 were detected by real time PCR. For CRC patients clinical data were collected (size, site of tumor as well as its grading, obesity) CRC patients showed high significant increase in the mean level of serum SIRT-1 compared to control group (P<0.001). Mean serum level of SIRT-1 showed high significant increase in patients with tumor size ≥5 compared to the size < 5 cm (P<0.05). In CRC patients, percentage of T allele of rs12778366 was significantly lower than controls, CC genotype and C allele C of rs 375891 were significantly higher than control group. In CRC patients, the CC genotype of rs12778366, was 75% in rectosigmoid and 25% in cecum & ascending colon. According to tumor size, the percentage of CC genotype was 87.5% in tumor size ≥5 cm. Conclusion: serum level of SIRT-1 and T allele, C allele of rs12778366 and rs 375891 respectively can be used as diagnostic markers for CRC patients.

Keywords: CRC, SIRT1, polymorphisms, ELISA

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1448 Circadian Expression of MicroRNAs in Colon and Its Changes during Colorectal Tumorigenesis

Authors: Katerina Balounova, Jiri Pacha, Peter Ergang, Martin Vodicka, Pavlina Kvapilova

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in a wide range of physiological processes. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs gives the organism a further level of control of the gene-expression program and the disruption of this microRNA regulatory mechanism seems to increase the risk of various pathophysiological conditions including tumorigenesis. To the present day, microRNAs were shown to participate in the mayor signalization pathways leading to tumorigenesis, including proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and metastasis formation. In addition, microRNAs have been found to play important roles in the generation and maintenance of circadian clock. These clocks generate circadian rhythms, which participate in a number of regulatory pathways. Disruption of the circadian signals seems to be associated with the development and the progression of tumours including colorectal cancer. We investigated therefore whether the diurnal profiles of miRNAs linked to tumorigenesis and regulation of circadian clock are changed during tumorigenesis. Based on published data we chose 10 microRNAs linked to tumorigenesis or circadian clock (let-7b-5p, miR 1 3p, miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p, miR 29a 3p, miR 34a 5p and miR 93 5p) and compared their 24-hr expression profiles in healthy and in chemically induces primary colorectal tumours of 52week-old mice. Using RT-qPCR we proved circadian rhythmicity in let-7b-5p, miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p, miR 29a 3p and miR 93 5p in healthy colon but not in tumours. The acrophases of miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p and miR 93 5p were reached around CT 24, the acrophases of let-7b-5p and miR-29a-3p were slightly shifted and reached around CT 21. In summary, our results show that circadian regulation of some colonic microRNAs is greatly affected by neoplastic transformation.

Keywords: circadian rhythm, colon, colorectal cancer, microRNA, tumorigenesis

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1447 Transplant Oncology: An Evolution Field of Treating Cancer by Transplantation

Authors: Maen Abdelrahim, Abdullah Esmail

Abstract:

Transplant oncology is an emerging concept of cancer treatment with a promising prospective outcome. The application of oncology, transplant medicine, and surgery to improve patients’ survival and quality of life is the core of transplant oncology. Hepatobiliary malignancies have been treated by liver transplantation (LT) with significant improved outcome. In addition, as the liver is the most common site of metastasis for colorectal cancer (CRC), patients with CRC who have stable unresectable liver metastases are good candidates for LT, and initial studies have shown improved survival compared to palliative systemic therapy. The indications of LT for hepatobiliary malignancies have been slowly expanded over the years in a stepwise manner; however, they have only been shown to improve patient survival in the setting of limited systemic therapy options. This review illustrates the concept and history of transplant oncology as an evolving field for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic biliary cancer, and liver-only metastasis of non-hepatobiliary carcinoma. The utility of immunotherapy in the transplant setting will be discussed as well as the feasibility of using circulating tumor DNA for surveillance post-transplantation.

Keywords: transplant oncology, liver transplantation, cholangiocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor, liver metastases, hepatocellular carcinoma, circulating tumor DNA, colorectal cancers, immunotherapy

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1446 Adherence to Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-Style Diet and Risk of Mortality from Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

Authors: Roohallah Fallah-Moshkani, Mohammad Ali Mohsenpour, Reza Ghiasvand, Hossein Khosravi-Boroujeni, Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi, Paula Brauer, Amin Salehi-Abargouei

Abstract:

Purpose: Several investigations have proposed the protective association between dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) style diet and risk of cancers; however, they have led to inconsistent results. The present study aimed to systematically review the prospective cohort studies conducted in this regard and, if possible, to quantify the overall effect of using meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for cohort studies published up to December 2017. Relative risks (RRs) which were reported for fully adjusted models and their confidence intervals were extracted for meta-analysis. Random effects model was incorporated to combine the RRs. Results: Sixteen studies were eligible to be included in the systematic review from which 8 reports were conducted on the effect of DASH on the risk of mortality from all cancer types, four on the risk of colorectal cancer, and three on the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Four studies examined the association with other cancers (breast, hepatic, endometrial, and lung cancer). Meta-analysis showed that high concordance with DASH significantly decreases the risk of all cancer types (RR=0.83, 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.80-0.85); furthermore participants who highly adhered to the DASH had lower risk of developing colorectal (RR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.75-0.83), colon (RR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.74-0.87) and rectal (RR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.63-0.98) cancer compared to those with the lowest adherence. Conclusions: DASH-style diet should be suggested as a healthy approach to protect from cancer in the community. Prospective studies exploring the effect on other cancer types and from regions other than the United States are highly recommended.

Keywords: cancer, DASH-style diet, dietary patterns, meta-analysis, systematic review

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1445 Impact of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Colorectal Adenoma-Colorectal Carcinoma Sequence

Authors: Jannis Kountouras, Nikolaos Kapetanakis, Stergios A. Polyzos, Apostolis Papaeftymiou, Panagiotis Katsinelos, Ioannis Venizelos, Christina Nikolaidou, Christos Zavos, Iordanis Romiopoulos, Elena Tsiaousi, Evangelos Kazakos, Michael Doulberis

Abstract:

Background & Aims: Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp-I) has been recognized as a substantial risk agent involved in gastrointestinal (GI) tract oncogenesis by stimulating cancer stem cells (CSCs), oncogenes, immune surveillance processes, and triggering GI microbiota dysbiosis. We aimed to investigate the possible involvement of active Hp-I in the sequence: chronic inflammation–adenoma–colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Methods: Four pillars were investigated: (i) endoscopic and conventional histological examinations of patients with CRC, colorectal adenomas (CRA) versus controls to detect the presence of active Hp-I; (ii) immunohistochemical determination of the presence of Hp; expression of CD44, an indicator of CSCs and/or bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs); expressions of oncogene Ki67 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein; (iii) expression of CD45, indicator of immune surveillance locally (assessing mainly T and B lymphocytes locally); and (iv) correlation of the studied parameters with the presence or absence of Hp-I. Results: Among 50 patients with CRC, 25 with CRA, and 10 controls, a significantly higher presence of Hp-I in the CRA (68%) and CRC group (84%) were found compared with controls (30%). The presence of Hp-I with accompanying immunohistochemical expression of CD44 in biopsy specimens was revealed in a high proportion of patients with CRA associated with moderate/severe dysplasia (88%) and CRC patients with moderate/severe degree of malignancy (91%). Comparable results were also obtained for Ki67, Bcl-2, and CD45 immunohistochemical expressions. Concluding Remarks: Hp-I seems to be involved in the sequence: CRA – dysplasia – CRC, similarly to the upper GI tract oncogenesis, by several pathways such as the following: Beyond Hp-I associated insulin resistance, the major underlying mechanism responsible for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) that increase the risk of colorectal neoplasms, as implied by other Hp-I related MetS pathologies, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and upper GI cancer, the disturbance of the normal GI microbiota (i.e., dysbiosis) and the formation of an irritative biofilm could contribute to a perpetual inflammatory upper GIT and colon mucosal damage, stimulating CSCs or recruiting BMDSCs and affecting oncogenes and immune surveillance processes. Further large-scale relative studies with a pathophysiological perspective are necessary to demonstrate in-depth this relationship.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, colorectal cancer, colorectal adenomas, gastrointestinal oncogenesis

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1444 Depressive-Like Behavior in a Murine Model of Colorectal Cancer Associated with Altered Cytokine Levels in Stress-Related Brain Regions

Authors: D. O. Miranda, L. R. Azevedo, J. F. C. Cordeiro, A. H. Dos Santos, S. F. Lisboa, F. S. Guimarães, G. S. Bisson

Abstract:

Background: The Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the world. The prevalence of psychiatric-disorders among CRC patients, mainly depression, is high, resulting in impaired quality of life and side effects of primary treatment. High levels of proinflammatory cytokines at tumor microenvironment is a feature of CRC and the literature suggests that those mediators could contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the ability of tumor-associated biological processes to affect the central nervous system (CNS) has only recently been explored in the context of symptoms of depression and is still not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that depressive-like behavior in an experimental model of CCR induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was correlated to proinflammatory profile in the periphery and in the brain. Methods: Colorectal carcinogenesis was induced in adult C57BL/6 mice (n=12) by administration of MNNG (5mg/kg, 0.1ml/intrarectal instillation) 2 times a week, for 2 week. Control group (n=12) received saline (0.1ml/intrarectal instillation). Eight weeks after beginning of MNNG administration animals were submitted to the forced swim test (FST) and the sucrose preference test for evaluation, respectively, of depressive- and anhedonia-like behaviors. After behavioral evaluation, the colon was collected and brain regions dissected (cortex-C, striatum-ST and hippocampus-HIP) for posterior evaluation of cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17, and CX3CL1) by ELISA. Results: MNNG induced depressive-like behavior, represented by increased immobility time in the FST (Student t test, p < 0.05) and lower sucrose preference (Student t test, p < 0.05). Moreover, there were increased levels of IL-1β, IL-17 and CX3CL1 in the colonic tissue (Student t test, p < 0.05) and in the brain (IL-1 β in the ST and HIP, Student t test, p < 0.05; IL-17 and CX3CL1 in the C and HIP, p < 0.05). IL-10 levels, in contrast, were decreased in both the colon (p < 0.05) and the brain (C and HIP, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results obtained in the present work support the notion that tumor growth induces neuroinflammation in stress-related brain regions and depressive-like behavior, which could be related to the high incidence of depression in colorectal carcinogenesis. This work have important clinical and research implications, taken into account that cytokine levels may be a marker promissory for the developing depression in CRC patients. New therapeutic strategies to assist in alleviating mental suffering in cancer patients might result from a better understanding of the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of depression in these subjects.

Keywords: cytokines, brain, depression, colorectal cancer

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1443 Pathway and Differential Gene Expression Studies for Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ankita Shukla, Tiratha Raj Singh

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) imposes serious mortality burden worldwide and it has been increasing for past consecutive years. Continuous efforts have been made so far to diagnose the disease condition and to identify the root cause for it. In this study, we performed the pathway level as well as the differential gene expression studies for CRC. We analyzed the gene expression profile GSE24514 from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) along with the gene pathways involved in the CRC. This analysis helps us to understand the behavior of the genes that have shown differential expression through their targeted pathways. Pathway analysis for the targeted genes covers the wider area which therefore decreases the possibility to miss the significant ones. This will prove to be beneficial to expose the ones that have not been given attention so far. Through this analysis, we attempt to understand the various neighboring genes that have close relationship to the targeted one and thus proved to be significantly controlling the CRC. It is anticipated that the identified hub and neighboring genes will provide new directions to look at the pathway level differently and will be crucial for the regulatory processes of the disease.

Keywords: mismatch repair, microsatellite instability, carcinogenesis, morbidity

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1442 Foslip Loaded and CEA-Affimer Functionalised Silica Nanoparticles for Fluorescent Imaging of Colorectal Cancer Cells

Authors: Yazan S. Khaled, Shazana Shamsuddin, Jim Tiernan, Mike McPherson, Thomas Hughes, Paul Millner, David G. Jayne

Abstract:

Introduction: There is a need for real-time imaging of colorectal cancer (CRC) to allow tailored surgery to the disease stage. Fluorescence guided laparoscopic imaging of primary colorectal cancer and the draining lymphatics would potentially bring stratified surgery into clinical practice and realign future CRC management to the needs of patients. Fluorescent nanoparticles can offer many advantages in terms of intra-operative imaging and therapy (theranostic) in comparison with traditional soluble reagents. Nanoparticles can be functionalised with diverse reagents and then targeted to the correct tissue using an antibody or Affimer (artificial binding protein). We aimed to develop and test fluorescent silica nanoparticles and targeted against CRC using an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Affimer (Aff). Methods: Anti-CEA and control Myoglobin Affimer binders were subcloned into the expressing vector pET11 followed by transformation into BL21 Star™ (DE3) E.coli. The expression of Affimer binders was induced using 0.1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Cells were harvested, lysed and purified using nickle chelating affinity chromatography. The photosensitiser Foslip (soluble analogue of 5,10,15,20-Tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin) was incorporated into the core of silica nanoparticles using water-in-oil microemulsion technique. Anti-CEA or control Affs were conjugated to silica nanoparticles surface using sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo SMCC) chemical linker. Binding of CEA-Aff or control nanoparticles to colorectal cancer cells (LoVo, LS174T and HC116) was quantified in vitro using confocal microscopy. Results: The molecular weights of the obtained band of Affimers were ~12.5KDa while the diameter of functionalised silica nanoparticles was ~80nm. CEA-Affimer targeted nanoparticles demonstrated 9.4, 5.8 and 2.5 fold greater fluorescence than control in, LoVo, LS174T and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.002) for the single slice analysis. A similar pattern of successful CEA-targeted fluorescence was observed in the maximum image projection analysis, with CEA-targeted nanoparticles demonstrating 4.1, 2.9 and 2.4 fold greater fluorescence than control particles in LoVo, LS174T, and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.0002). There was no significant difference in fluorescence for CEA-Affimer vs. CEA-Antibody targeted nanoparticles. Conclusion: We are the first to demonstrate that Foslip-doped silica nanoparticles conjugated to anti-CEA Affimers via SMCC allowed tumour cell-specific fluorescent targeting in vitro, and had shown sufficient promise to justify testing in an animal model of colorectal cancer. CEA-Affimer appears to be a suitable targeting molecule to replace CEA-Antibody. Targeted silica nanoparticles loaded with Foslip photosensitiser is now being optimised to drive photodynamic killing, via reactive oxygen generation.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, silica nanoparticles, Affimers, antibodies, imaging

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