Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 210

Search results for: autism

210 Thai Primary School Teachers’ Attitude and Preparedness to Teach Students with Autism in the General Education Classroom

Authors: Sunanta Klibthong

Abstract:

Inclusive education services for students with Autism remains in its early developmental stages in Thailand. Despite many more children with autism are attending schools since the Thai government introduced the Education Provision for People with Disabilities Act in 2008, the services students with autism and their families receive are generally lacking. This quantitative study used Attitude and Preparedness to Teach Students with Autism Scale (APTSAS) to investigate 110 primary school teachers’ attitude and preparedness to teach students with autism in the general education classroom. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data found that student behaviour was the most significant factor in building teachers’ negative attitudes students with autism. The majority of teachers also indicated that their pre-service education did not prepare them to meet the learning needs of children with autism in particular, those who are non-verbal. The study is significant and provides direction for enhancing teacher education for inclusivity in Thailand.

Keywords: attitude, autism, teachers, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
209 Sports for the Children with Autism

Authors: Mohamed A. Abdelnaby

Abstract:

Relevance of the research: A few people known about Autism and also about Sports for Autism. Children with Autism have difficult experience with sport that makes many problems during the sports activities. There are several areas of motor skills development essential for participating daily life and several sports activities. The object of the research is describe the program for the sports activities for children with Autism, and the aim is to improving their movement skills, motor skills and social skills. Research methods and organization: Twenty-five children with Autism perceived barriers to sports activities participation, and functioning. All the program inside the Pegasus Dreamland Sports Club and all the facilities available for the research. Results and discussion: Standard, children were reported to meet or exceeded general PA occurrence guidelines, belonged to active participated in a variety of sports activities. We identified several barriers to optimal sports activities for their children. Conclusions: Children with Autism can achieve optimal sports activities. Exposure to a variety of sports activities opportunities and experiences aids in identifying the model activity for each individual child.

Keywords: autism, sports activates, movement skills, motor skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
208 The Use of Music Therapy to Improve Non-Verbal Communication Skills for Children with Autism

Authors: Maria Vinca Novenia

Abstract:

The number of school-aged children with autism in Indonesia has been increasing each year. Autism is a developmental disorder which can be diagnosed in childhood. One of the symptoms is the lack of communication skills. Music therapy is known as an effective treatment for children with autism. Music elements and structures create a good space for children with autism to express their feelings and communicate their thoughts. School-aged children are expected to be able to communicate non-verbally very well, but children with autism experience the difficulties of communicating non-verbally. The aim of this research is to analyze the significance of music therapy treatment to improve non-verbal communication tools for children with autism. This research informs teachers and parents on how music can be used as a media to communicate with children with autism. The qualitative method is used to analyze this research, while the result is described with the microanalysis technique. The result is measured specifically from the whole experiment, hours of every week, minutes of every session, and second of every moment. The samples taken are four school-aged children with autism in the age range of six to 11 years old. This research is conducted within four months started with observation, interview, literature research, and direct experiment. The result demonstrates that music therapy could be effectively used as a non-verbal communication tool for children with autism, such as changes of body gesture, eye contact, and facial expression.

Keywords: autism, improvisation, microanalysis, music therapy, nonverbal communication, school-aged

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
207 Role of Environmental Risk Factors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Dost Muhammad Halepoto, Laila AL-Ayadhi

Abstract:

Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism can cause lifelong disability. Genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute to the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but relatively few studies have considered potential environmental risks. Several industrial chemicals and other environmental exposures are recognized causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. The toxic effects of such chemicals in the developing human brain are not known. This review highlights the role of environmental risk factors including drugs, toxic chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides, vaccines, and other suspected neurotoxicants including persistent organic pollutants for ASD. It also provides information about the environmental toxins to yield new insights into factors that affect autism risk as well as an opportunity to investigate the relation between autism and environmental exposure.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD, environmental factors, neurodevelopmental disorder

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
206 Management of Nutritional Strategies in Prevention of Autism Before and During Pregnancy

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Kimia Moiniafshari

Abstract:

Objectives: Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder that has negative effects on verbal, mental and behavioral development. Studies have shown the role of a maternal dietary pattern before and during pregnancy. The relation of exerting of nutritional management programs in prevention of Autism has been approved. This review article has been made to investigate the role of nutritional management strategies before and during pregnancy in the prevention of Autism. Methods: This review study was accomplished by using the keywords related to the topic, 67 articles were found (2000-2015) and finally 20 article with criteria such as including maternal lifestyle, nutritional deficiencies and Autism prevention were selected. Results: Maternal dietary pattern and health before and during pregnancy have important roles in the incidence of Autism. Studies have suggested that high dietary fat intake and obesity can increase the risk of Autism in offspring. Maternal metabolic condition specially gestational diabetes (GDM) (p-value < 0.04) and folate deficiency (p-value = 0.04) is associated with risk of Autism. Studies have shown that folate intake in mothers with autistic children is less than mothers who have typically developing children (TYP) (p-value<0.01). As folate is an essential micronutrient for fetus mental development, consumption of average 600 mcg/day especially in P1 phase of pregnancy results in significant reduction in incidence of Autism (OR:1.53, 95%CI=0.42-0.92, p-value = 0.02). furthermore, essential fatty acid deficiency especially omega-3 fatty acid increases the rate of Autism and consumption of supplements and food sources of omega-3 can decrease the risk of Autism up to 34% (RR=1.53, 95%CI=1-2.32). Conclusion: regards to nutritional deficiency and maternal metabolic condition before and during pregnancy in prevalence of Autism, carrying out the appropriate nutritional strategies such as well-timed folate supplementation before pregnancy and healthy lifestyle adherence for prevention of metabolic syndrome (GDM) seems to help Autism prevention.

Keywords: autism, autism prevention, dietary inadequacy, maternal lifestyle

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
205 A Survey on Early Screen Exposure during Infancy and Autism

Authors: I. Mahmood

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This survey was conducted to explore the hypothesis that excessive screen exposure combined with a subsequent decrease in parent-child interaction during infancy might be associated with autism. The main questions being asked are: Were children with autism exposed to long hours of screen time during the first 2 years of life? And what was the reason(s) for exposure at such an early age? Other variables were also addressed in this survey. An Arabic questionnaire was administered online (June 2019) via a Facebook page, relatively well-known in Arab countries. 1725 parents of children diagnosed with autism participated in this survey. Results show that 80.9% of children surveyed who were diagnosed with autism had been exposed to screens for long periods of time during the first 2 years of life. It can be inferred from the results of this survey that over-exposure to screens disrupt the parent-child interaction which is shown to be associated with ASD. The results of this survey highlight the harmful effects of screen exposure during infancy and the importance of parent-child interaction during the critical period of brain development. This paper attempts to further explore the connection between parent-child interaction and ASD, as well as serve as a call for further research and investigation of the relation between screens and parent-child interactions during infancy and Autism.

Keywords: attachment disorder, autism, screen exposure, virtual autism

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204 Insight into the Visual Attentional Correlates Underpinning Autistic-Like Traits in Fragile X and Down Syndrome

Authors: Jennifer M. Glennon, Hana D'Souza, Luke Mason, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Michael S. C. Thomas

Abstract:

Genetic syndrome groups that feature high rates of autism comorbidity, like Down syndrome (DS) and fragile X syndrome (FXS), have been presented as useful models for understanding risk and protective factors involved in the emergence of autistic traits. Yet despite reaching clinical thresholds, these ‘syndromic’ forms of autism appear to differ in important ways from the idiopathic or ‘non-syndromic’ autism phenotype. To uncover the true nature of these comorbidities, it is necessary to extend definitions of autism to include the cognitive characteristics of the disorder and to then apply this broadened conceptualisation to the study of syndromic autism profiles. The current study employs a variety of well-established eye-tracking paradigms to assess visual attentional performance in children with DS and FXS who reach thresholds for autism on the Social Communication Questionnaire. It investigates whether autism profiles in these children are accompanied by visual orienting difficulties (‘sticky attention’), decreased social attention, and enhanced visual search performance, all of which are characteristic of the idiopathic autism phenotype. Data is collected from children with DS and FXS aged between 6 and 10 years, in addition to two control groups matched on age and intellectual ability (i.e., children with idiopathic autism and neurotypical controls). Cross-sectional developmental trajectory analyses are conducted to enable visuo-attentional profile comparisons. Significant differences in the visuo-attentional processes underpinning autism presentations in children with FXS and DS are hypothesised, supporting notions of syndrome specificity. The study provides insight into the complex heterogeneity associated with syndromic autism presentations and autism per se, with clinical implications for the utility of autism intervention programmes in DS and FXS populations.

Keywords: autism, down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, eye tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
203 Cognitive Stereotype Behaviors and Their Imprinting on the Individuals with Autism

Authors: Li-Ju Chen, Hsiang-Lin Chan, Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng, Hui-Ju Chen

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Stereotype behavior is one of the maladaptive syndromes of the individuals with autism. Most of the previous researches focused on the stereotype behavior with stimulating type, while less on the stereotype behavior about cognition (This research names it cognitive stereotype behavior; CSB). This research explored CSB and the rationality to explain CSB with imprinting phenomenon. After excluding the samples without CSB described, the data that came from 271 individuals with autism were recruited and analyzed with quantitative and qualitative analyses. This research discovers that : (1) Most of the individuals with autism originally came out CSB at 3 years old and more than a half of them appeared before 4 years old; The average age which firstly came out CSB was 6.10 years old, the average time insisting or ossifying CSB was 31.71 minutes each time and the average longest time which they last was 358.35 minutes (5.97 hours). (2) CSB demonstrates various aspects, this research classified them into 4 fields with 26 categories. They were categorized into sudden CSB or habitual CSB by imprinting performance. (3) Most of the autism commented that their CSBs were not necessary but they could not control them well. One-third of them appeared CSB suddenly and the first occurrence accompanied a strong emotional or behavioral response. (4) Whether respondent is the person with autism himself/herself or not was the critical element: on the awareness of the severity degree, disturbance degree, and the emotional /behavioral intensity at the first-time CSB happened. This study concludes imprinting could reasonably explain the phenomenon CSB forms. There are implications leading the individuals with autism and their family to develop coping strategies to promote individuals with autism having a better learning accomplishment and life quality in their future.

Keywords: autism, cognitive stereotype behavior, constructivism, imprinting, stereotype

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202 Dealing the Disruptive Behaviour amongst Students with Autism through Circus

Authors: K. A. Razhiyah

Abstract:

Disruptive behavior is a problem that is usually associated with those with autism. There is a need to overcome this behavioral problem because the negative impact of this problem does not only effect the social relation of the students but also can cause uneasiness to those around them. This condition will be worse if the techniques used failed to motivate students to change the behaviour. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the circus games technique on the disruptive behavior amongst students with autism. The positive results of the intervention that was carried out for three months show the reduction in disruptive behaviour, and also improvement in the turn-taking and focusing ability aspect. Positive changes shown by the students had an encouraging effect and in a way are helping them in the teaching and learning process.

Keywords: autism, desruptive behaviour, circus, effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
201 Teachers’ Perceptions of the Efficacy of Social Stories in the Development of Social Skills for Students with Autism in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Faihan Alotaibi

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This study explores Saudi teachers’ perceptions of the efficacy of social stories in the development of social skills in students with autism in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in two phases. Data were collected in sequential quantitative and qualitative phases. Participants in this study were 100 teachers in the quantitative phase and 15 teachers were interviewed. In this poster, the researcher will present the data result in the qualitative second phase in which an understanding of teachers’ experiences was deepened by conducting semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of fifteen teachers of diverse experience, covering six initial themes: the social story concept, sources of social stories, the effectiveness of social stories in improving social skills in students with autism, barriers to using social stories for students with autism, cultural consideration and context of social stories, and factors which contribute to the best use of social stories to developing of social skills for students with autism.

Keywords: autism, social storyteachers’ perceptions, intervention, social skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
200 The Miller Umwelt Assessment Scale: A Tool for Planning Interventions for Children on the Autism Spectrum

Authors: Sonia Mastrangelo

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The Miller Umwelt Assessment Scale is a useful tool for obtaining information about the developmental capacities of children on the autism spectrum. The assessment, made up of 19 tasks in the areas of: body organization, contact with surroundings, expressive and receptive communication, representation, and social-emotional development, has been used with much success over the past 40 years. While many assessments are difficult to administer to children on the autism spectrum, the simplicity of the MUAS reveals key strengths and challenges for both low and high functioning children on the spectrum. The results guide parents and clinicians in providing a curriculum and/or home program that moves children up the developmental ladder.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, assessment, reading intervention, Miller method

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
199 The Experience of Grandparenthood among Grandparents of Children with Autism in the Arab–Bedouin Society

Authors: Binoun Chaki Hagar

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Studies have investigated grandparents' perceptions relating to their grandchildren with disabilities. Literature on grandparenthood focuses on the Western grandparents. Autism within the Arab populations has also being investigated. Moreover, the Bedouin population can also be seen in various studies related to different experiences and different perceptions about disabilities in general and among children in particular. However, as far as we know, no studies were found on grand parenting a child with autism in Bedouin society. This study combines three areas of knowledge, to create another knowledge domain. The aim of this study was to learn about the experience of grand parenting an autistic child in the Bedouin Arab society, to examine how it affects the grandparents' relationships, feelings, and functioning within the family, and as individuals, as well as to examine their coping mechanisms and their social support networks. This study is significant and as it examines autism and grandparents among the Bedouin Arab population in Israel, a population that has unique socio-demographic, cultural and traditional characteristics. The study revealed three themes concerning the meaning of grandparenthood to be associated with family continuity, how autism is perceived, and the importance of religion. It also suggests another category – the status of the elderly in the Arab-Bedouin family. It is recognized that the role of the elderly is held in high esteem, and can be affected by the grandchild’s’ autism.

Keywords: Arab–Bedouin family, autism, grandparents, family relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
198 Neuro-Connectivity Analysis Using Abide Data in Autism Study

Authors: Dulal Bhaumik, Fei Jie, Runa Bhaumik, Bikas Sinha

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Human brain is an amazingly complex network. Aberrant activities in this network can lead to various neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and autism. fMRI has emerged as an important tool to delineate the neural networks affected by such diseases, particularly autism. In this paper, we propose mixed-effects models together with an appropriate procedure for controlling false discoveries to detect disrupted connectivities in whole brain studies. Results are illustrated with a large data set known as Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange or ABIDE which includes 361 subjects from 8 medical centers. We believe that our findings have addressed adequately the small sample inference problem, and thus are more reliable for therapeutic target for intervention. In addition, our result can be used for early detection of subjects who are at high risk of developing neurological disorders.

Keywords: ABIDE, autism spectrum disorder, fMRI, mixed-effects model

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197 Impact of Motor Behaviour Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana Zeina

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Cognitive and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASDs and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and motor behavior aspects. Based on these findings we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future research should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, and ritual and routine adherence and use different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: cognitive ability, CANTAB test, behaviour motor aspects, autism spectrum disorders

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196 Introduction of a Multimodal Intervention for People with Autism: 'ReAttach'

Authors: P. Weerkamp Bartholomeus

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Autism treatment evaluation is crucial for monitoring the development of an intervention at an early stage. ‘ReAttach’ is a new intervention based on the principles of attachment and social cognitive training. Practical research suggests promising results on a variety of developmental areas. Five years after the first ReAttach sessions these findings can be extended with qualitative research by means of follow-up interviews. The potential impact of this treatment on daily life functioning and well-being of autistic persons becomes clear.

Keywords: autism, innovation, treatment, social cognitive training

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
195 Challenges That People with Autism and Caregivers Face in Public Environments

Authors: Andrei Pomana, Graham Brewer

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Autism is a lifelong developmental disorder that affects verbal and non-verbal communication, behaviour and sensory processing. As a result, people on the autism spectrum have a difficult time when confronted with environments that have high levels of sensory stimulation. This is often compounded by the inability to properly communicate their wants and needs to caregivers. The capacity for people with autism to integrate depends on their ability to at least tolerate highly stimulating public environments for short periods of time. The overall challenges that people on the spectrum and their caregivers face need to be established in order to properly create and assess methods to mitigate the effects of high stimulus public spaces. The paper aims to identify the challenges that people on the autism spectrum and their caregivers face in typical public environments. Nine experienced autism therapists have participated in a semi-structured interview regarding the challenges that people with autism and their caregivers face in public environments. The qualitative data shows that the unpredictability of events and the high sensory stimulation present in public environments, especially auditory, are the two biggest contributors to the difficulties that people on the spectrum face. If the stimuli are not removed in a short period of time, uncontrollable behaviours or 'meltdowns' can occur, which leave the person incapacitated and unable to respond to any outside input. Possible solutions to increase integration in public spaces for people with autism revolve around removing unwanted sensory stimulus, creating personalized barriers for certain stimuli, equipping people with autism with better tools to communicate their needs or to orient themselves to a safe location and providing a predictable pattern of events that would prepare individuals for tasks ahead of time.

Keywords: autism, built environment, meltdown, public environment, sensory processing disorders

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194 Management Directions towards Social Responsibility in Special Population Groups by Airport Enterprises: The Case of Autism

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki, Simoni K. Lintzerakou

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Air transport links markets and individuals, promoting social and economic development. The review of management direction towards social responsibility and especially for the enhancement of passengers with autism is the key objective of this paper. According to a top-down approach, the key dimensions that affect the basic principles and directions of airport enterprises management towards social responsibility for the case of passengers with autism are presented. Conventional wisdom is to present actions undertaken in improving accessibility for special population groups and highlight the social dimension in the management of transport hubs. The target is to focus on transport hubs serving special groups of passengers such as passengers with autism and highlight good practices and motivate transport infrastructure management authorities and decision makers to promote the social footprint of transport. The highlights and key findings are essential for managers and decision makers to support actions and plans towards management of airport enterprises towards social responsibility, focusing on the case of passengers traveling with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Keywords: social responsibility, special groups, airport enterprises, AUTISM

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193 Zebrafish Larvae Model: A High Throughput Screening Tool to Study Autism

Authors: Shubham Dwivedi, Raghavender Medishetti, Rita Rani, Aarti Sevilimedu, Pushkar Kulkarni, Yogeeswari Perumal

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder of early onset, characterized by impaired sociability, cognitive function and stereotypies. There is a significant urge to develop and establish new animal models with ASD-like characteristics for better understanding of underlying mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to develop a cost and time effective zebrafish model with quantifiable parameters to facilitate mechanistic studies as well as high-throughput screening of new molecules for autism. Zebrafish embryos were treated with valproic acid and a battery of behavioral tests (anxiety, inattentive behavior, irritability and social impairment) was performed on larvae at 7th day post fertilization, followed by study of molecular markers of autism. This model shows a significant behavioural impairment in valproic acid treated larvae in comparison to control which was again supported by alteration in few marker genes and proteins of autism. The model also shows a rescue of behavioural despair with positive control drugs. The model shows robust parameters to study behavior, molecular mechanism and drug screening approach in a single frame. Thus we postulate that our 7 days zebrafish larval model for autism can help in high throughput screening of new molecules on autism.

Keywords: autism, zebrafish, valproic acid, neurodevelopment, behavioral assay

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192 Challenging the Theory of Mind: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Construction, and Biochemical Explanation

Authors: Caroline Kim

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The designation autism spectrum disorder (ASD) groups complex disorders in the development of the brain. Autism is defined essentially as a condition in which an individual lacks a theory of mind. The theory of mind, in this sense, explains the ability of an individual to attribute feelings, emotions, or thoughts to another person. An autistic patient is characteristically unable to determine what an interlocutor is feeling, or to understand the beliefs of others. However, it is possible that autism cannot plausibly characterized as the lack of theory of mind in an individual. Genes, the bran, and its interplay with environmental factors may also cause autism. A mutation in a gene may be hereditary, or instigated by diseases such as mumps. Though an autistic patient may experience abnormalities in the cerebellum and the cortical regions, these are in fact only possible theories as to a biochemical explanation behind the disability. The prevailing theory identifying autism with lacking the theory of mind is supported by behavioral observation, but this form of observation is itself determined by socially constructed standards, limiting the possibility for empirical verification. The theory of mind infers that the beliefs and emotions of people are causally based on their behavior. This paper demonstrates the fallacy of this inference, critiquing its basis in socially constructed values, and arguing instead for a biochemical approach free from the conceptual apparatus of language and social expectation.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, sociology of psychology, social construction, the theory of mind

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191 Mothers' Perspective on Services for Children with Autism in Indonesia

Authors: Wike Wike

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The aim of this study is to investigate the experience of mothers of autistic children in Indonesia in raising the children and obtaining services for them through the adequate of information. The study seeks to contribute to the knowledge emerging from the women as a mother of children with autism on health and disability area. There is silence in the Indonesian literature on this perspective, especially about the parents and/or mothers of autistic children that is the focus of this analysis. Therefore, in order to capture the points of view emerging from the mothers, a qualitative study design has been applied. The main data for this qualitative study was collected from interviews (semi-structured interview and focus group discussion) with the mothers of children with autism who are member of parenting group in autistic schools and rehabilitation centers in one of Indonesian regional cities. This study reveals that the mothers’ experience in raising a child who is diagnosed with autism is rooted in limited knowledge on autism, limited knowledge on availability of services and limited knowledge on service options. Compounding this is limited availability and accessibility of the services that are important to their child's development. An important contribution of this study is to show how tapping into the experience of mothers can provide much needed information to policy making and service planners and implementers that can improve the services for children with autism and their families.

Keywords: mothers, children with autism, disability services and policy, services

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
190 Management of Nutritional Strategies in Controlling of Autism in Children

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Kimia Moiniafshari

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Objectives: The prevalence of Autism in the world has taken on a growing trend. Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder that is identified at the age of three. Studies have been shown that nutritional management can control nutritional deficiencies in Autism. This review study aimed to assess the role of nutritional management strategies for Autism in children has been made. Methods: This review study was accomplished by using the keywords related to the topic, 68 articles were found (2000-2015) and finally 15 articles with criteria such as including dietary pattern, nutritional deficiencies and Autism controlling were selected. Results: The studies showed that intake of vitamins D, E, and calcium because of restricted diet (casein and gluten free) in autistic children is less than typically developing children (TYP) (p value ≤ 0.001) and as a result of restrictions on the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, vitamin C and magnesium intake is less than TYP children (p value ≤ 0.001). Autistic children also get omega-3 less than TYP children. Studies have shown that food sources rich in omega-3 can improve behavioral indicators, especially in reducing hyperactivity (95% CI = -2.2 - 5.2). Zinc deficiency in these children leads to a high serum level of mercury, lead and cadmium. As a result of the repetitive dietary pattern, Sodium intake in autistic children is more than TYP children (p value < 0.001).Because of low food variety in autistic children, healthy eating index (HEI) is less than TYP children (p value = 0.008).Food selectivity in Autism due to repetitive and restricted dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion: Because of restricted (casein and gluten free) and repetitive dietary pattern, the intake of some micronutrients are denied in autistic children. The nutritional strategy programs appear to help controlling of Autism.

Keywords: autism, food selectivity, nutrient intake, nutritional strategies

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189 Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder as an In-Class Observation Tool for Teachers

Authors: Werona Król-Gierat

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The majority of Special Educational Needs checklists are intended for preliminary screening in the special education disability process. The aim of the present paper is to present their potential usefulness as in-class observation tools for teachers working with students who have already been diagnosed with a disorder. A checklist may complement and organize information about a given child, which is indispensable to improve his or her condition. The case of a Polish boy with autism will serve as an example. Last but not the least, alternative uses of checklists are suggested in the article.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, case study, checklist, observation tool

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188 Language and Communication of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Highlights on Both the Issues around Requesting-Information Skills and the Procedures for Teaching These Skills

Authors: Amaal Almigal

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Neurotypical children learn to ask questions from natural exposure and this skill is fundamental for their academic success. However, children with autism spectrum disorder may not learn to ask in the same way due to earlier communication impairments, and some may need to use Augmentative and Alternative Communication systems (AAC) to ask questions. This paper aims to highlight issues related to questioning skills in children with autism giving a specific attention to asking questions within preverbal or minimally verbal children. Different procedures have been employed to teach these children, including AAC users, to ask questions. Therefore, these procedures will also be discussed to administrate how they were used and what they were aimed to teach. This paper also provides a suggested procedure to assist preverbal or minimally verbal children to ask questions using an iPad application for communication (Proloquo2Go) as AAC. This suggested procedure was used with 3 children with autism. Initial results will be discussed to clarify ways in which this procedure was used with each child based on his skills and which questioning skills each child has acquired using this procedure.

Keywords: AAC, autism, communication, information, iPad, requesting

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
187 Architecture and Students with Autism: Exploring Strategies for Their Inclusion in Society Mainstream

Authors: Safaa Mahmoud Issa

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Architecture, as an art and science of designing, has always been the medium to create environments that fulfill their users’ needs. It could create an inclusive environment that would not isolate any individual regardless of his /her disabilities. It could help, hopefully, in setting the strategies that provide a supportive, educational environment that would allow the inclusion of students with autism. Architects could help in the battle against this neuro-developmental disorder by providing the accommodating environment, at home and at school, in order to prevent institutionalizing these children. Through a theoretical approach and a review of literature, this study will explore and analyze best practices in autism-friendly, supportive, teaching environments. Additionally, it would provide the range of measures, and set the strategies to deal with the students with autism sensory peculiarities, and that, in order to allow them to concentrate in the school environment, and be able to succeed, and to be integrated as an important addition to society and the social mainstream. Architects should take into consideration the general guidelines for an autism-friendly built environment, and apply them to specific buildings systems. And that, as certain design elements have great effect on children’s behavior, by appropriating architecture to provide inclusive accommodating environments, the basis for equalization of opportunities is set allowing these individuals a better, normal, non-institutional life, as the discussion presented in this study would reveal.

Keywords: architecture, inclusion, students with autism, society mainstream

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
186 Childhood Apraxia of Speech and Autism: Interaction Influences and Treatment

Authors: Elad Vashdi

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It is common to find speech deficit among children diagnosed with Autism. It can be found in the clinical field and recently in research. One of the DSM-V criteria suggests a speech delay (Delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language), but doesn't explain the cause of it. A common perception among professionals and families is that the inability to talk results from the autism. Autism is a name for a syndrome which just describes a phenomenon and is defined behaviorally. Since it is not based yet on a physiological gold standard, one can not conclude the nature of a deficit based on the name of the syndrome. A wide retrospective research (n=270) which included children with motor speech difficulties was conducted in Israel. The study analyzed entry evaluations in a private clinic during the years 2006-2013. The data was extracted from the reports. High percentage of children diagnosed with Autism (60%) was found. This result demonstrates the high relationship between Autism and motor speech problem. It also supports recent findings in research of Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) occurrence among children with ASD. Only small percentage of the participants in this research (10%) were diagnosed with CAS even though their verbal deficits well fitted the guidelines for CAS diagnosis set by ASHA in 2007. This fact raises questions regarding the diagnostic procedure in Israel. The understanding that CAS might highly exist within Autism and can have a remarkable influence on the course of early development should be a guiding tool within the diagnosis procedure. CAS can explain the nature of the speech problem among some of the autistic children and guide the treatment in a more accurate way. Calculating the prevalence of CAS which includes the comorbidity with ASD reveals new numbers and suggests treating differently the CAS population.

Keywords: childhood apraxia of speech, Autism, treatment, speech

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
185 Analyzing Initial Efficacy of Animal Assisted Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case Study

Authors: Georgitta Joseph Valiyamattam

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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a growing phenomenon in India with over 10 million cases being recorded. Children with various levels and forms of ASD can be a major challenge both within the context of regular or special schooling. According to statistics by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one in every 88 children today is born with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) against a ratio of one in 110 few years back. The growing number of children with autism spectrum disorders places greater demands on health services and necessitates the roping in of non-traditional modes of treatment to complement or even substitute traditional health care methods when possible. Research evidence, particularly from Western countries, as also some parts of Asia, suggests that animal-assisted therapy, or zootherapy, may be used as an effective individual or complementary therapeutic tool for increasing overall wellbeing and quality of life among children with Autism spectrum disorders. The paper through a case-study format seeks to evaluate the efficacy (initial stage) of animal assisted therapy (canine-therapy with visiting dog: breed-Golden retriever), as a non-conventional treatment modality for improving cognitive functioning and managing the behavioral and psychological symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. As a pilot study forming the basis for subsequent larger application of AAT, it analyses areas of efficacy as also the challenges faced, both with regard to the mode of therapy, as also particular to the Indian setting.

Keywords: animal assisted therapy, autism, canine therapy, analyzing initial efficacy

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184 Control Strategies for a Robot for Interaction with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Vinicius Binotte, Guilherme Baldo, Christiane Goulart, Carlos Valadão, Eliete Caldeira, Teodiano Bastos

Abstract:

Socially assistive robotic has become increasingly active and it is present in therapies of people affected for several neurobehavioral conditions, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In fact, robots have played a significant role for positive interaction with children with ASD, by stimulating their social and cognitive skills. This work introduces a mobile socially-assistive robot, which was built for interaction with children with ASD, using non-linear control techniques for this interaction.

Keywords: socially assistive robotics, mobile robot, autonomous control, autism

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183 Autism Screening Questionnaire for Daycare Attendees

Authors: David Alejandro Torres-Lopez , Lilia Albores-Gallo, Ronald Soto-Calderon, Roberto Lagunes-Cordoba

Abstract:

Autism Screening Questionnaire for Daycare Attendees (ASQ-DAT) is a screening instrument that assesses the risk of autism in children between 12 and 47 months, being the first free observational instrument created according to the criteria of the DSM-5 that can be applied by teachers in nurseries. The people in charge of answering the questionnaires are the daycare assistants. Its application presents a series of previous activities with which daycare assistants are familiar (dance, games, oral narration and breakfast), which are executed with the children and then answer a questionnaire with dichotomous questions "Yes/No" in approximately 3 minutes per child. The instrument was developed with the participation of nurseries according to the protocols of the creation of psychometric instruments of the Classical Test Theory having as a gold standard ADOS-2 Modules T and 1. The results of the investigation show that the use of ASQ-DAT combined with the application of M-CHAT / RF provides more information about the risk of ASD in young children, which allows improvements in the screening.

Keywords: diagnosis, screening, autism, daycare

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182 The Joint Attention Training as Early Occupational Therapy Intervention in Children with Autism

Authors: Sumeyye Belhan, Sema Gul Turk, Esma Ozkan, Mahmut Yaran

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of joint attention training on communication skills and visual perception skills in autistic children. Eight children between 4 and six years of age participated in the study. Sociodemographic information form, Social Communication Questionnaire, Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Motor-Free Visual Perception Test 4 (MVPT-4) were applied to the participants before intervention and after the intervention. Joint attention training was given three times a week for six weeks in total 18 sessions. Four of the children with autism who participate in the study (50%) were male, four (50%) were female and the mean age was 5,25±0,70. The Social Communication Scale score for children with autism was 13.62 ± 3.73 before the joint attention training and 11.37 ± 4.10 after the training. It was observed that social communication skills improved, but this improvement was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Pre-education autistic children's Autism Behavioral Control score was 55,37 ± 9,94, whereas it was 40,12 ± 15,57 after training. There was a statistically significant improvement in sensory, relationship building, body and object use, language skills, social and self-care skills of autistic children in the autistic behavior checklist subscale after joint attention training (p < 0.05). MVPT 4 score before intervention in children with autism was 14.62 ± 6.65; and 19,50 ± 5,18 after the intervention. There was a statistically significant increase in visual perceptual skills without a motor in children with autism after the intervention (p < 0.05). This abstract is the pilot study of the joint attention training involving planned long-term (12 weeks) and more autistic children. A greater number of autistic children for longer period suggest that joint attention training will also lead to statistically significant improvements in social communication skills. It is thought that the joint attention training that is applied for a longer period in early childhood occupational therapy in children with autism will be beneficial for social communication, self-care skills and visual perception skills of autistic children.

Keywords: autism, joint attention, social communication, visual perception

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181 Android Based Game Intervention for Enhancing the Face Reputation Abilities in Youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Anurag Sharma, Arun Khosla, Mamta Khosla, Yogeswara Rao M.

Abstract:

Multimedia devices have received repute in the special desires community. The wide display screen makes it appealing and easy to use, specifically for the ones who've susceptible pleasant motor skill. This paper highlights how an Android-based game named as 'KIDDY' can be used to enhance confront face perceiving capacities in adults with autism and aid the children to develop social interaction capabilities. This game improved concentration and imagination via repetitive movement and visual commentary. Four students with autism, diverse in the historic period, social behavior and communiqué ability had been enrolled in the program and provided an opportunity to recognize new faces thrilling way. This paper offers resultant role based on 'Social Skills Rating System' that shows how cellular generation used as an academician intervention to decorate studying and communiqué among children with autism and additionally proven the tremendous behavior toward cell primarily based game.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, screen-based technology, mobile phone-based intercession

Procedia PDF Downloads 77