Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1987

Search results for: lung cancer

1987 Spatio- Temporal Gender Based Patterns of Lung Cancer in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, 2008-2012

Authors: Rubab Z. Kahlon, Ibtisam Butt, Isma Younis, Aamer G. Mufti

Abstract:

Worldwide lung cancer 1.61 million cases were seen in both genders. Lung carcinoma is the major cause of both morbidity and mortality in the world. Purpose of the present study was to describe the spatio- temporal trends of lung cancer in both genders. A retrospective study was conducted. Total 1498 patients of lung carcinoma were examined. Only lung cancer patients from all over the Punjab were included in the present study. MS Excel 2010 was used for data tabulation and calculation while the Arc GIS version 9.3 was used for geographical representation of the data. 1498 cases of Lung cancer were found from 2008-2012. The number of male patients was 1236 and female was 262. Majority of the patients were from Lahore districts with 807 patients. Lung cancer was more prevalent in male as compared to female in our region. Increase in the prevalence of lung cancer was prominently seen in the most populated and industrial areas of the Punjab province. Time trend of five years showed fluctuation in the lung cancer incidence during the study period.

Keywords: districts, gender, lung cancer trends, Punjab province of Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
1986 Evaluation of Promoter Hypermethylation in Tissue and Blood of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients and Association with Survival

Authors: Ashraf Ali, Kriti Upadhyay, Puja Sohal, Anant Mohan, Randeep Guleria

Abstract:

Background: Gene silencing by aberrant promoter hypermethylation is common in lung cancer and is an initiating event in its development. Aim: To evaluate the gene promoter hypermethylation frequency in serum and tissue of lung cancer patients. Method: 95 newly diagnosed untreated advance stage lung cancer patients and 50 cancer free matched controls were studied. Bisulfite modification of tissue and serum DNA was done; modified DNA was used as a template for methylation-specific PCR analysis. Survival was assessed for one year. Results: Of 95 patients, 82% were non-small cell lung cancer (34% squamous cell carcinoma, 34% non-small cell lung cancer and 14% adenocarcinoma) and 18% were small cell lung cancer. Biopsy revealed that tissue of 89% and 75% of lung cancer patients and 85% and 52% of controls had promoter hypermethylated for MGMT (p=0.35) and p16(p<0.001) gene, respectively. In serum, 33% and 49% of lung cancer patients and 28% and 43% controls were positive for MGMT and p16 gene. No significant correlation was found between survival and clinico-pathological parameters. Conclusion: High gene promoter methylation frequency of p16 gene in tissue biopsy may be linked with early stages of carcinogenesis. Appropriate follow-up is required for confirmation of this finding.

Keywords: lung cancer, MS- PCR, methylation, molecular biology

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
1985 The Effects of Terrein: A Secondary Metabolite from Aspergillus terreus as Anticancer and Antimetastatic Agent on Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Paiwan Buachan, Maneekarn Namsa-Aid, Suchada Jongrungruangchok, Foengchat Jarintanan, Wanlaya Uthaisang-Tanechpongtamb

Abstract:

Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both of the lungs. These abnormal cells can spread to other organs of the body through lymphatic system or bloodstream which is called metastatic stage that leading cause of cancer death. Terrein (C₈H₁₀O₃; MW= 154.06 kDa) is a secondary bioactive fungal metabolite, which was isolated from the Aspergillus terreus. In this study, we investigated the effects of terrein on the inhibition of human lung cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. The A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line was used as a model. Terrein significantly inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation measuring by a colorimetric MTT assay (IC₅₀ 0.32 mM) and significantly inhibited metastatic processes including migration, invasion, and adhesion that determined by wound healing assay, transwell assay, and adhesion assay, respectively. These findings indicate that terrein could be a potential therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

Keywords: terrein, lung cancer, anticancer, antimetastatic

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1984 Prediction of MicroRNA-Target Gene by Machine Learning Algorithms in Lung Cancer Study

Authors: Nilubon Kurubanjerdjit, Nattakarn Iam-On, Ka-Lok Ng

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA found in many different species. They play crucial roles in cancer such as biological processes of apoptosis and proliferation. The identification of microRNA-target genes can be an essential first step towards to reveal the role of microRNA in various cancer types. In this paper, we predict miRNA-target genes for lung cancer by integrating prediction scores from miRanda and PITA algorithms used as a feature vector of miRNA-target interaction. Then, machine-learning algorithms were implemented for making a final prediction. The approach developed in this study should be of value for future studies into understanding the role of miRNAs in molecular mechanisms enabling lung cancer formation.

Keywords: microRNA, miRNAs, lung cancer, machine learning, Naïve Bayes, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
1983 PathoPy2.0: Application of Fractal Geometry for Early Detection and Histopathological Analysis of Lung Cancer

Authors: Rhea Kapoor

Abstract:

Fractal dimension provides a way to characterize non-geometric shapes like those found in nature. The purpose of this research is to estimate Minkowski fractal dimension of human lung images for early detection of lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among all types of cancer and an early histopathological analysis will help reduce deaths primarily due to late diagnosis. A Python application program, PathoPy2.0, was developed for analyzing medical images in pixelated format and estimating Minkowski fractal dimension using a new box-counting algorithm that allows windowing of images for more accurate calculation in the suspected areas of cancerous growth. Benchmark geometric fractals were used to validate the accuracy of the program and changes in fractal dimension of lung images to indicate the presence of issues in the lung. The accuracy of the program for the benchmark examples was between 93-99% of known values of the fractal dimensions. Fractal dimension values were then calculated for lung images, from National Cancer Institute, taken over time to correctly detect the presence of cancerous growth. For example, as the fractal dimension for a given lung increased from 1.19 to 1.27 due to cancerous growth, it represents a significant change in fractal dimension which lies between 1 and 2 for 2-D images. Based on the results obtained on many lung test cases, it was concluded that fractal dimension of human lungs can be used to diagnose lung cancer early. The ideas behind PathoPy2.0 can also be applied to study patterns in the electrical activity of the human brain and DNA matching.

Keywords: fractals, histopathological analysis, image processing, lung cancer, Minkowski dimension

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
1982 Surgical Outcomes of Lung Cancer Surgery in Tasmania

Authors: Ayeshmanthe Rathnayake, Ashutosh Hardikar

Abstract:

Introduction: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in Australia, with more than 13000 cases per year. Until now, there has been a major deficiency of national comprehensive thoracic surgery data. The thoracic workload for surgeons as well as caseload per unit, is highly variable, with some centres performing less than 15 cases per annum, thus raising concerns about optimal care at low-volume sites. This is an attempt to review the outcomes of lung cancer surgery in Tasmania. Method: The objective of this study is to determine the surgical outcomes of lung cancer surgery at Royal Hobart Hospital (RHH) with the primary outcome of surgical mortality. Four hundred fifty-one cases were analysed retrospectively from 2010 to May 2022. Results: A total of 451 patients underwent thoracic surgery with a primary diagnosis of lung cancer. The primary outcome of 30-day mortality was <0.5%. The mean age was 65.3 years, with male predominance and a 4.2% prevalence of Indigenous Australians. The mean LOS was 7.5 days. The surgical approach was either VATS (50.3%) or Thoracotomy (49.7%), with a trend towards the former in recent years with an increase in the proportion of VATS from 18.2% to 51% (p<0.05) in complex resections since 2019. A corresponding reduction in conversion rate to open was observed (18% vs. 5.5%), and there were no deaths within this subgroup. Lung resections were divided into lobectomy (55.4%), wedge resection (36.8%), segmentectomy (2.9%) and pneumonectomy (4.9%). The RHH demonstrates good surgical outcomes for lung cancer and provides a sustainable service for Tasmania. Conclusion: This retrospective study reports the surgical outcomes of lung cancer surgery at the Royal Hobart Hospital, thereby providing insight into the surgical management of lung cancer in the state thus far. The state has been slow to catch up on the minimally invasive program, but the overall results have been comparable to most peers.

Keywords: lung cancer, thoracic surgery, lung resection, surgical outcomes

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1981 Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with an Interval of 40 Years. Report of an Autopsy Case

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

Abstract:

A 75-year-old woman took thyroidectomy forty years previously. Enlarged masses were seen at autopsy just above and below the left clavicle. We proved the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and lung metastasis by histological examinations. The prognosis of PTC is excellent; the 10-year survival rate ranges between 85 and 99%. Lung metastases may be found in 10% of the patients with PTC. We report an unusual case of recurrence of PTC with metastasis to the lung.

Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer, lung metastasis, autopsy, histopathological findings

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
1980 Hsa-miR-329 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor through Targeting MET in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, Cuili Yang, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Feng Zhang, De-Jia Li

Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as key regulators of multiple cancers. Hsa-miR-329 (miR-329) functions as a tumor suppressor in some malignancies. However, its role on lung cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-329 on the development of lung cancer. The results indicated that miR-329 was decreased in primary lung cancer tissues compared with matched adjacent normal lung tissues and very low levels were found in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-329 in lung cancer cell lines substantially repressed cell growth as evidenced by cell viability assay, colony formation assay and BrdU staining, through inhibiting cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and up-regulatiing p57(Kip2) and p21(WAF1/CIP1). In addition, miR-329 promoted NSCLC cell apoptosis, as indicated by up-regulation of key apoptosis gene cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl2. Moreover, miR-329 inhibited cellular migration and invasiveness through inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene MET was revealed to be a putative target of miR-329, which was inversely correlated with miR-329 expression. Furthermore, down-regulation of MET by siRNA performed similar effects to over-expression of miR-329. Collectively, our results demonstrated that miR-329 played a pivotal role in lung cancer through inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic MET.

Keywords: hsa-miRNA-329(miR-329), MET, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), proliferation, apoptosis

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1979 Hsa-miR-139-5p Acts as a Tumor Suppressor by Targeting C-Met in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Shujun Li, Cuili Yang, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Feng Zhang, Dejia Li

Abstract:

Hsa-miRNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p) has recently been discovered having anticancer efficacy in different organs. However, the role of miR-139-5p on lung cancer is still ambiguous. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-139-5p on development of lung cancer. Results indicated miR-139-5p was significantly down-regulated in primary tumor tissues and very low levels were found in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-139-5p in NSCLC cell lines significantly suppressed cell growth through inhibition of cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p57(Kip2). In addition, miR-139-5p induced apoptosis, as indicated by up-regulation of key apoptosis gene cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl2. Moreover, miR-139-5p inhibited cellular metastasis through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene c-Met was revealed to be a putative target of miR-139-5p, which was inversely correlated with miR-139-5p expression. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-139-5p plays a pivotal role in lung cancer through inhibiting cell proliferation, metastasis, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic c-Met.

Keywords: hsa-miRNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p), c-Met, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), proliferation, apoptosis

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1978 The Role of Cyfra 21-1 in Diagnosing Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

Authors: H. J. T. Kevin Mozes, Dyah Purnamasari

Abstract:

Background: Lung cancer accounted for the fourth most common cancer in Indonesia. 85% of all lung cancer cases are the Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). The indistinct signs and symptoms of NSCLC sometimes lead to misdiagnosis. The gold standard assessment for the diagnosis of NSCLC is the histopathological biopsy, which is invasive. Cyfra 21-1 is a tumor marker, which can be found in the intermediate protein structure in the epitel. The accuracy of Cyfra 21-1 in diagnosing NSCLC is not yet known, so this report is made to seek the answer for the question above. Methods: Literature searching is done using online databases. Proquest and Pubmed are online databases being used in this report. Then, literature selection is done by excluding and including based on inclusion criterias and exclusion criterias. The selected literature is then being appraised using the criteria of validity, importance, and validity. Results: From six journals appraised, five of them are valid. Sensitivity value acquired from all five literature is ranging from 50-84.5 %, meanwhile the specificity is 87.8 %-94.4 %. Likelihood the ratio of all appraised literature is ranging from 5.09 -10.54, which categorized to Intermediate High. Conclusion: Serum Cyfra 21-1 is a sensitive and very specific tumor marker for diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Keywords: cyfra 21-1, diagnosis, nonsmall cell lung cancer, NSCLC, tumor marker

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1977 Evaluation of Anti-Cancer Activities of Formononetin in Lung Cancer by in vitro Methods

Authors: Vishnu Varthan Vaithiyalingam Jagannathan, Lakshmi Karunanidhi Santhanalakshmi, Srividya Ammayappan Rajam

Abstract:

Formononetin is the O-Methoxy Flavonol that has many pharmacological activities, which belongs to the flavonoid family. In the current study, activity of this molecule was evaluated in lung cancer cell lines. In general, flavonoids possess certain anticancer mechanism. Being a flavonoid subfamily, this molecule was subjected to evaluate cytotoxicity assay by MTT ((3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide)) stain, mode of cell death assay stained by acridine orange and ethidium bromide and Evaluation of Apoptosis pathway (extrinsic or intrinsic) by Caspase 3/7 stain and Rhodamine-123 stain. From the results, we could able to confirm that the investigatory molecule formononetin has anticancer activity and in future, the study will propose to evaluate the formononetin action against genetic changes occurs during lung cancer progression.

Keywords: Caspase 3/7, formononetin, lung cancer, Rhodamine-123

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1976 Epidemiology of Primary Bronchopulmonary Cancer in Tunisia

Authors: Melliti Rihab, Zaeid Sonia, Khechine Wiem, Daldoul Amira

Abstract:

Introduction: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Its incidence is increasing, and its prognosis remains pejorative. We present the clinical, pathological, and therapeutic characteristics of bronchopulmonary cancer (BPC) in Tunisia. Methods: Retrospective study including patients followed in the oncology department of the University Hospital of Monastir between April 2014 and December 2021 suffering from lung cancer. Results: These are 117 patients, including 86.3% men and 13.7% women (sex ratio 6.3). The average age was 64 years ± 9 (37-83), with 95.7% being over 50 years old. Patients were smokers in 82% of cases. The clinical signs were dominated by chest pain (27.5%) and dyspnea in 21.1% of cases. In 6 patients, an episode of COVID-19 infection revealed the diagnosis. Half of the patients had a PS between 0 and 1. Small cell lung cancer was present in 18 patients (15.4%). The majority of non small cell lung cancer was of the adenocarcinoma type (68.7%). The diagnosis was late (stage IV) in 62.4% of cases. BPC was metastatic to bone (52%), contralateral lung (25.9%), and brain (27.3%). Patients were oligometastatic in 26% of cases. Surgery and radiotherapy were performed respectively in 14.5% and 23.1% of cases. Three-quarters of the patients had had nutrition (75.2%). The ROS1 mutation was present in 1 patient. PDL-1 expression was >40% in 2 patients. Survival was mean eight months ± 7.4. Conclusion: Lung cancer is diagnosed at a late stage in Tunisia. The lack of molecular study for non-small cell PBC and the lack of marketing authorization for tyrosine kinase inhibitors in Tunisia make the management incomplete.

Keywords: SCLC, NCSLC, ROS1, PDL1

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1975 Comparison between Effects of Free Curcumin and Curcumin Loaded NIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles on Telomerase and Pinx1 Gene Expression in Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Y. Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, F. Badrzadeh, N. Zarghami, S. Jalilzadeh-Tabrizi, R. Zamani

Abstract:

Herbal compounds such as curcumin which decrease telomerase and gene expression have been considered as beneficial tools for lung cancer treatment. In this article, we compared the effects of pure curcumin and curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles on telomerase and PinX1 gene expression in a lung cancer cell line. A tetrazolium-based assay was used for determination of cytotoxic effects of curcumin on the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line and telomerase and pinX1 gene expression was measured with real-time PCR. MTT assay showed that Curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA inhibited the growth of the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line in a time and dose-dependent manner. Our q-PCR results showed that the expression of telomerase gene was effectively reduced as the concentration of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA increased while expression of the PinX1 gene became elevated. The results showed that curcumin loaded NIPAAm-MAA exerted cytotoxic effects on the Calu-6 cell line through down-regulation of telomerase and stimulation of pinX1 gene expression. NIPPAm-MAA could be the good carrier for such kinds of hydrophobic agent.

Keywords: curcumin, NIPAAm-MAA, PinX1, telomerase, lung cancer cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1974 Sensing of Cancer DNA Using Resonance Frequency

Authors: Sungsoo Na, Chanho Park

Abstract:

Lung cancer is one of the most common severe diseases driving to the death of a human. Lung cancer can be divided into two cases of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC), and about 80% of lung cancers belong to the case of NSCLC. From several studies, the correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and NSCLCs has been investigated. Therefore, EGFR inhibitor drugs such as gefitinib and erlotinib have been used as lung cancer treatments. However, the treatments result showed low response (10~20%) in clinical trials due to EGFR mutations that cause the drug resistance. Patients with resistance to EGFR inhibitor drugs usually are positive to KRAS mutation. Therefore, assessment of EGFR and KRAS mutation is essential for target therapies of NSCLC patient. In order to overcome the limitation of conventional therapies, overall EGFR and KRAS mutations have to be monitored. In this work, the only detection of EGFR will be presented. A variety of techniques has been presented for the detection of EGFR mutations. The standard detection method of EGFR mutation in ctDNA relies on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Real-time PCR method provides high sensitive detection performance. However, as the amplification step increases cost effect and complexity increase as well. Other types of technology such as BEAMing, next generation sequencing (NGS), an electrochemical sensor and silicon nanowire field-effect transistor have been presented. However, those technologies have limitations of low sensitivity, high cost and complexity of data analyzation. In this report, we propose a label-free and high-sensitive detection method of lung cancer using quartz crystal microbalance based platform. The proposed platform is able to sense lung cancer mutant DNA with a limit of detection of 1nM.

Keywords: cancer DNA, resonance frequency, quartz crystal microbalance, lung cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1973 Calculation of Lungs Physiological Lung Motion in External Lung Irradiation

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Khalid H. Eltom

Abstract:

This is an experimental study deals with measurement of the periodic physiological organ motion during lung external irradiation in order to reduce the exposure of healthy tissue during radiation treatments. The results showed for left lung displacement reading (4.52+1.99 mm) and right lung is (8.21+3.77 mm) which the radiotherapy physician should take suitable countermeasures in case of significant errors. The motion ranged between 2.13 mm and 12.2 mm (low and high). In conclusion, the calculation of tumour mobility can improve the accuracy of target areas definition in patients undergo Sterostatic RT for stage I, II and III lung cancer (NSCLC). Definition of the target volume based on a high resolution CT scan with a margin of 3-5 mm is appropriate.

Keywords: physiological motion, lung, external irradiation, radiation medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
1972 Public Preferences for Lung Cancer Screening in China: A Discrete Choice Experiment

Authors: Zixuan Zhao, Lingbin Du, Le Wang, Youqing Wang, Yi Yang, Jingjun Chen, Hengjin Dong

Abstract:

Objectives: Few results from public attitudes for lung cancer screening are available both in China and abroad. This study aimed to identify preferred lung cancer screening modalities in a Chinese population and predict uptake rates of different modalities. Materials and Methods: A discrete choice experiment questionnaire was administered to 392 Chinese individuals aged 50–74 years who were at high risk for lung cancer. Each choice set had two lung screening options and an option to opt-out, and respondents were asked to choose the most preferred one. Both mixed logit analysis and stepwise logistic analysis were conducted to explore whether preferences were related to respondent characteristics and identify which kinds of respondents were more likely to opt out of any screening. Results: On mixed logit analysis, attributes that were predictive of choice at 1% level of statistical significance included the screening interval, screening venue, and out-of-pocket costs. The preferred screening modality seemed to be screening by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) + blood test once a year in a general hospital at a cost of RMB 50; this could increase the uptake rate by 0.40 compared to the baseline setting. On stepwise logistic regression, those with no endowment insurance were more likely to opt out; those who were older and housewives/househusbands, and those with a health check habit and with commercial endowment insurance were less likely to opt out from a screening programme. Conclusions: There was considerable variance between real risk and self-perceived risk of lung cancer among respondents, and further research is required in this area. Lung cancer screening uptake can be increased by offering various screening modalities, so as to help policymakers further design the screening modality.

Keywords: lung cancer, screening, China., discrete choice experiment

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1971 Health Belief Model on Smoking Behaviors Causing Lung Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study in Thailand

Authors: Dujrudee Chinwong, Chanida Prompantakorn, Ubonphan Chaichana, Surarong Chinwong

Abstract:

Objective: Understanding the university students’ perceptions on smoking caused lung cancer based on the Health Belief Model should help health care providers in assisting them to quit smoking. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the University students’ health belief in smoking behaviors caused lung cancer, which based on the Health Belief Model. Methods: Data were collected from voluntary participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were students studying at a University in northern Thailand who were current smokers; they were selected using snowball sampling. Results: Of 361 students, 84% were males; 78% smoked not more than 10 cigarettes a day; 68% intended to quit smoking. Our findings, based on the health belief model, showed that 1) perceived susceptibility: participants strongly believed that if they did not stop smoking, they were at high risk of lung cancer (88%); 2) perceived severity: they strongly believed that they had a high chance of death from lung cancer if they continued smoking (84%); 3) perceived benefits: they strongly believed that quitting smoking could reduce the chance of developing lung cancer; 4) perceived barriers of quitting smoking: they strongly believed in the difficulty of quitting smoking because it needed a high effort and strong intention (69%); 5) perceived self-efficacy: however, they strongly believed that they can quit smoking right away if they had a strong intention to quit smoking (70%); 6) cues to action: they strongly believed in the support of parents (85%) and lovers (78%) in helping them to quit smoking. Further, they believed that limitation on smoking area in the University and smoking cessation services provided by the University can assist them to quit smoking. Conclusion: The Health Belief Model helps us to understand students’ smoking behaviors caused lung cancer. This could lead to designing a smoking cessation program to assist students to quit smoking.

Keywords: health belief model, lung cancer, smoking, Thailand

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1970 Role of Imaging in Predicting the Receptor Positivity Status in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Chapter in Radiogenomics

Authors: Sonal Sethi, Mukesh Yadav, Abhimanyu Gupta

Abstract:

The upcoming field of radiogenomics has the potential to upgrade the role of imaging in lung cancer management by noninvasive characterization of tumor histology and genetic microenvironment. Receptor positivity like epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genotyping are critical in lung adenocarcinoma for treatment. As conventional identification of receptor positivity is an invasive procedure, we analyzed the features on non-invasive computed tomography (CT), which predicts the receptor positivity in lung adenocarcinoma. Retrospectively, we did a comprehensive study from 77 proven lung adenocarcinoma patients with CT images, EGFR and ALK receptor genotyping, and clinical information. Total 22/77 patients were receptor-positive (15 had only EGFR mutation, 6 had ALK mutation, and 1 had both EGFR and ALK mutation). Various morphological characteristics and metastatic distribution on CT were analyzed along with the clinical information. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found spiculated margin, lymphangitic spread, air bronchogram, pleural effusion, and distant metastasis had a significant predictive value for receptor mutation status. On univariate analysis, air bronchogram and pleural effusion had significant individual predictive value. Conclusions: Receptor positive lung cancer has characteristic imaging features compared with nonreceptor positive lung adenocarcinoma. Since CT is routinely used in lung cancer diagnosis, we can predict the receptor positivity by a noninvasive technique and would follow a more aggressive algorithm for evaluation of distant metastases as well as for the treatment.

Keywords: lung cancer, multidisciplinary cancer care, oncologic imaging, radiobiology

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1969 The Effects of Supportive Care Interventions with Psychotherapeutic and Exercise Approaches on Depressive Symptoms Among Patients with Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Chia-Chen Hsieh, Fei-Hsiu Hsiao

Abstract:

Objective: To examine the effects of supportive care interventions on depressive symptoms in patients with lung cancer. Methods: The databases of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid EMBASE, PubMed, and Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS) were searched from their inception until September 2015. We included the studies with randomized controlled trial design that compared standard care with supportive care interventions using psychotherapeutic or exercises approach. The standardized mean differences (SMD) (Cohen’s d) were calculated to estimate the treatment effects. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used for quality assessment and subgroup analysis was conducted to identify possible sources of heterogeneity. Results: A total of 1472 patients with lung cancer were identified. Compared with standard care, the overall effects of all supportive care interventions significantly reduced depressive symptoms (SMD = -0.74 with 95% CI = -1.07 to -0.41), and the effect was maintained at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks of follow-up. Either psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation or exercise alone produced significant improvements in depressive symptoms, while psychoeducation alone did not. The greater improvements in depressive symptoms occurred in lung cancer patients with severe depressive symptoms at baseline, total duration of interventions of less than ten weeks, and intervention provided through face-to-face delivery. Conclusions: Psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation can help patients manage the causes of depressive symptoms, including both symptom distress and psychological trauma due to lung cancer. Exercise can target the impaired respiratory function that is a cause of depressive symptoms in lung cancer patients.

Keywords: supportive care intervention, depressive symptoms, lung cancer, meta-analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1968 Iterative Method for Lung Tumor Localization in 4D CT

Authors: Sarah K. Hagi, Majdi Alnowaimi

Abstract:

In the last decade, there were immense advancements in the medical imaging modalities. These advancements can scan a whole volume of the lung organ in high resolution images within a short time. According to this performance, the physicians can clearly identify the complicated anatomical and pathological structures of lung. Therefore, these advancements give large opportunities for more advance of all types of lung cancer treatment available and will increase the survival rate. However, lung cancer is still one of the major causes of death with around 19% of all the cancer patients. Several factors may affect survival rate. One of the serious effects is the breathing process, which can affect the accuracy of diagnosis and lung tumor treatment plan. We have therefore developed a semi automated algorithm to localize the 3D lung tumor positions across all respiratory data during respiratory motion. The algorithm can be divided into two stages. First, a lung tumor segmentation for the first phase of the 4D computed tomography (CT). Lung tumor segmentation is performed using an active contours method. Then, localize the tumor 3D position across all next phases using a 12 degrees of freedom of an affine transformation. Two data set where used in this study, a compute simulate for 4D CT using extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom and 4D CT clinical data sets. The result and error calculation is presented as root mean square error (RMSE). The average error in data sets is 0.94 mm ± 0.36. Finally, evaluation and quantitative comparison of the results with a state-of-the-art registration algorithm was introduced. The results obtained from the proposed localization algorithm show a promising result to localize alung tumor in 4D CT data.

Keywords: automated algorithm , computed tomography, lung tumor, tumor localization

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1967 Effectiveness of Enhancing Positive Emotion Program of Patients with Lung Cancer

Authors: Pei-Fan Mu

Abstract:

Background: Lung cancer is the most common cancer with the highest mortality rate. Patients with lung cancer under chemotherapy treatment experience life-threatening uncertainty. This study was based on the broaden-and-build theory using intentionality reflection of the body and internalization of positive prioritization strategies to enhance positive emotions of patients with lung cancer. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use a quasi-experimental research design to examine the effectiveness of the enhancing positive emotion program. Method: Data were collected from a medical center in Taiwan. Fifty-four participants with lung cancer were recruited. Thirty participants were in the experiential group receiving the two weeks program. The content of the program includes awareness and understanding of the symptom experience, co-existing with illness and establishing self-identity, cognitive-emotion adjustment and establishing a new body schema, and symptom management to reach spiritual well-being. Twenty-four participants were in the control group receiving regular nursing care. Baseline, one month later and two months later, programmed measurements of symptoms of distress, positive emotion, and psychological well-being. Results: These two weeks of enhancing the positive emotion program resulted in a significantly improved positive emotion score for the experimental group compared to the control group. The findings of this study indicated that the positive emotion had significant differences between the two groups. There were no differences in symptom distress between the two groups. Discussion: The findings indicated that the enhancing positive emotion program could help patients enhance their life-threatening facing conditions.

Keywords: positive emotion, lung cancer, experimental design, symptom distress

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1966 The Correlation between Clostridium Difficile Infection and Bronchial Lung Cancer Occurrence

Authors: Molnar Catalina, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Enoch Kim, Marissa Dallara, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Introduction: Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is a toxin-producing bacteria that can cause diarrhea and colitis. U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that C. difficile infection (CDI) has increased from 31 cases per 100,000 persons per year in 1996 to 61 per 100,000 in 2003. Approximately 500,000 cases per year occur in the United States. After exposure, the bacteria colonize the colon, where it adheres to the intestinal epithelium where it produces two toxins: TcdA and TcdB. TcdA affects the intestinal epithelium, causing fluid secretion, inflammation, and tissue necrosis, while TcdB acts as a cytotoxin purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between C diff infection and bronchial lung cancer development. Methods: Using ICD- 9 and ICD-10 codes, the data was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to assess the patients infected with C diff as opposed to the non-infected patients. The Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale, granted access to the database for the purpose of academic research. Patients were matched for age and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Standard statistical methods were used. Results: Bronchial lung cancer occurrence in the population not infected with C diff infection was 4741, as opposed to the population infected with C. diff, where 2039 cases of lung cancer were observed. The difference was statistically significant (p-value < 2.2x10^e-16), which reveals that C diff might be protective against bronchial lung cancer. The data was then matched by treatment to create to minimize the effect of treatment bias. Bronchial cancer incidence was 422 and 861 in infected vs. non-infected (p-value of < 2.2x10^e-16), which once more indicates that C diff infection could be beneficial in diminishing bronchial cancer development. Conclusion: This retrospective study conveys a statistical correlation between C diff infection and decreased incidence of lung bronchial cancer. Further studies are needed to comprehend the protective mechanisms of C. Diff infection on lung cancer.

Keywords: C. diff, lung cancer, protective, microbiology

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
1965 Automatic Segmentation of Lung Pleura Based On Curvature Analysis

Authors: Sasidhar B., Bhaskar Rao N., Ramesh Babu D. R., Ravi Shankar M.

Abstract:

Segmentation of lung pleura is a preprocessing step in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) which helps in reducing false positives in detection of lung cancer. The existing methods fail in extraction of lung regions with the nodules at the pleura of the lungs. In this paper, a new method is proposed which segments lung regions with nodules at the pleura of the lungs based on curvature analysis and morphological operators. The proposed algorithm is tested on 06 patient’s dataset which consists of 60 images of Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and the results are found to be satisfactory with 98.3% average overlap measure (AΩ).

Keywords: curvature analysis, image segmentation, morphological operators, thresholding

Procedia PDF Downloads 521
1964 Caspase-11 and AIM2 Inflammasome are Involved in Smoking-Induced COPD and Lung Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Chiara Colarusso, Michela Terlizzi, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino

Abstract:

Cigarette smoking is the main cause and the most common risk factor for both COPD and lung cancer. In our previous studies, we proved that caspase-11 in mice and its human analogue, caspase-4, are involved in lung carcinogenesis and that AIM2 inflammasome might play a pro-cancerous role in lung cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate potential crosstalk between COPD and lung cancer, focusing on AIM2 and caspase-11-dependent inflammasome signaling pathway. To mimic COPD, we took advantage of an experimental first-hand smoking mouse model and, to confirm what was observed in mice, we used human samples of lung adenocarcinoma patients stratified according to the smoking and COPD status. We demonstrated that smoke exposure led to emphysema-like features, bronchial tone impairment, and release of IL-1-like cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, IL-18) in a caspase-1 independent manner in C57Bl/6N. Rather, a dysfunctional caspase-11 in smoke-exposed 129Sv mice was associated to lower bronchial inflammation, collagen deposition, and IL-1-like inflammation. In addition, for the first time, we found that AIM2 inflammasome is involved in lung inflammation in smoking and COPD, in that its expression was higher in smoke-exposed C57Bl/6N compared to 129Sv smoking mice, who instead did not show any alteration of AIM2 in both macrophages and dendritic cells. Moreover, we found that AIM2 expression in the cancerous tissue, albeit higher than non-cancerous tissue, was not statistically different according to the COPD and smoking status. Instead, the higher expression of AIM2 in non-cancerous tissue of smoker COPD patients than smokers who did not have COPD was correlated to a higher hazard ratio of poor survival rate than patients who presented lower levels of AIM2. In conclusion, our data highlight that caspase-11 in mice is associated to smoke-induced lung latent inflammation which could drive the establishment of lung cancer, and that AIM2 inflammasome plays a role at the crosstalk between smoking/COPD and lung adenocarcinoma in that its higher presence is correlated to lower survival rate of smoker COPD adenocarcinoma.

Keywords: COPD, inflammasome, lung cancer, lung inflammation, smoke

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
1963 Intracellular Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 3 Contributes to Lung Tumor Cell Proliferation

Authors: Michela Terlizzi, Chiara Colarusso, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino

Abstract:

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a membrane-derived bioactive phospholipid exerting a multitude of effects on respiratory cell physiology and pathology through five S1P receptors (S1PR1-5). Higher levels of S1P have been registered in a broad range of respiratory diseases, including inflammatory disorders and cancer, although its exact role is still elusive. Based on our previous study in which we found that S1P/S1PR3 is involved in an inflammatory pattern via the activation of Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9), highly expressed on lung cancer cells, the main goal of the current study was to better understand the involvement of S1P/S1PR3 pathway/signaling during lung carcinogenesis, taking advantage of a mouse model of first-hand smoke exposure and of carcinogen-induced lung cancer. We used human samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), a mouse model of first-hand smoking, and of Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced tumor-bearing mice and A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that the intranuclear, but not the membrane, localization of S1PR3 was associated to the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells, the mechanism that was correlated to human and mouse samples of smoke-exposure and carcinogen-induced lung cancer, which were characterized by higher utilization of S1P. Indeed, the inhibition of the membrane S1PR3 did not alter tumor cell proliferation after TLR9 activation. Instead, according to the nuclear localization of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) II, the enzyme responsible for the catalysis of the S1P last step synthesis, the inhibition of the kinase completely blocked the endogenous S1P-induced tumor cell proliferation. These results prove that the endogenous TLR9-induced S1P can on one side favor pro-inflammatory mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment via the activation of cell surface receptors, but on the other tumor progression via the nuclear S1PR3/SPHK II axis, highlighting a novel molecular mechanism that identifies S1P as one of the crucial mediators for lung carcinogenesis-associated inflammatory processes and that could provide differential therapeutic approaches especially in non-responsive lung cancer patients.

Keywords: sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), S1P Receptor 3 (S1PR3), smoking-mice, lung inflammation, lung cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
1962 An Evidence Map of Cost-Utility Studies in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Cassandra Springate, Alexandra Furber, Jack E. Hines

Abstract:

Objectives: To create an evidence map of the cost-utility studies available with non-small cell lung cancer patients, and identify the geographical settings and interventions used. Methods: Using the Disease, Study Type, and Model Type filters in heoro.com we identified all cost-utility studies published between 1960 and 2017 with patients with non-small cell lung cancer. These papers were then indexed according to pre-specified categories. Results: Heoro.com identified 89 independent publications, published between 1995 and 2017. Of the 89 papers, 74 were published since 2010, 28 were from the USA, and 35 were from Europe, 16 of which were from the UK. Other publications were from China and Japan (13), Canada (9), Australia and New Zealand (4), and other countries (8). Fifty-nine studies included a chemotherapy intervention, of which 23 included erlotinib or gefitinib, 21 included pemetrexed or docetaxel, others included nivolumab (3), pembrolizumab (2), crizotinib (2), denosumab (2), necitumumab (1), and bevacizumab (1). Also, 19 studies modeled screening, staging, or surveillance strategies. Conclusions: The cost-utility studies found for NSCLC most commonly looked at the effectiveness of different chemotherapy treatments, with some also evaluating the addition of screening strategies. Most were also conducted with patient data from the USA and Europe.

Keywords: cancer, cost-utility, economic model, non-small cell lung cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
1961 Comparing Accuracy of Semantic and Radiomics Features in Prognosis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Mahya Naghipoor

Abstract:

Purpose: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer type. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is the main reason which causes NSCLC. Computed tomography (CT) is used for diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancers because of low price and little invasion. Semantic analyses of qualitative CT features are based on visual evaluation by radiologist. However, the naked eye ability may not assess all image features. On the other hand, radiomics provides the opportunity of quantitative analyses for CT images features. The aim of this review study was comparing accuracy of semantic and radiomics features in prognosis of EGFR mutation in NSCLC. Methods: For this purpose, the keywords including: non-small cell lung cancer, epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, semantic, radiomics, feature, receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) and area under curve (AUC) were searched in PubMed and Google Scholar. Totally 29 papers were reviewed and the AUC of ROC analyses for semantic and radiomics features were compared. Results: The results showed that the reported AUC amounts for semantic features (ground glass opacity, shape, margins, lesion density and presence or absence of air bronchogram, emphysema and pleural effusion) were %41-%79. For radiomics features (kurtosis, skewness, entropy, texture, standard deviation (SD) and wavelet) the AUC values were found %50-%86. Conclusions: In conclusion, the accuracy of radiomics analysis is a little higher than semantic in prognosis of EGFR mutation in NSCLC.

Keywords: lung cancer, radiomics, computer tomography, mutation

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1960 Lung Cancer Patients in Eastern Region of Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta

Abstract:

The number of new cancer cases annually is estimated to rise from 10.9 million in 2002 to more than 16 million by 2020, if current trends continue. Much of this increase in absolute numbers derives from the ageing of populations worldwide. The objectives of this study were to find out the demographic characteristics of the admitted cancer patients in BPKIHS. It was hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted reviewing all the records of admitted diagnosed cancer patients in BPKIHS from 15th October 2004 to 14th October 2012. Using total enumerative sampling technique all 1379 diagnosed cancer patients record were reviewed after obtaining the permission from concerned authorities. Using SPSS-15 software package data was analyzed. It was found that majority (71%) of cancer patients were of age more than 40 years and equal of both sexes. Most of the clients were form Sunsari (31.1%), Morang (16.6%) and Jhapa (17%) districts. The mean hospitalization day is 8.32 and very few patients (5.2%) were only cured. The numbers of cancer patients are markedly increases in BPKIHS, especially in advanced stage. It is mandatory to start the cancer information and education programme in eastern region of Nepal and proper management of cancer patients using chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery at BPKIHS for quality patient care.

Keywords: lung, cancer, patients, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1959 Oncogenic Role of MicroRNA-346 in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Regulation of XPC/ERK/Snail/E-Cadherin Pathway

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, De-Jia Li

Abstract:

Determinants of growth and metastasis in cancer remain of great interest to define. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have frequently emerged as tumor metastatic regulator by acting on multiple signaling pathways. Here, we report the definition of miR-346 as an oncogenic microRNA that facilitates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth and metastasis. XPC, an important DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair was defined as a target for down-regulation by miR-346, functioning through direct interaction with the 3'-UTR of XPC mRNA. Blocking miR-346 by an antagomiR was sufficient to inhibit NSCLC cell growth and metastasis, an effect that could be phenol-copied by RNAi-mediated silencing of XPC. In vivo studies established that miR-346 overexpression was sufficient to promote tumor growth by A549 cells in xenografts mice, relative to control cells. Overall, our results defined miR-346 as an oncogenic miRNA in NSCLC, the levels of which contributed to tumor growth and invasive aggressiveness.

Keywords: microRNA-346, miR-346, XPC, non-small cell lung cancer, oncogenesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
1958 Exhaled Breath Condensate in Lung Cancer: A Non-Invasive Sample for Easier Mutations Detection by Next Generation Sequencing

Authors: Omar Youssef, Aija Knuuttila, Paivi Piirilä, Virinder Sarhadi, Sakari Knuutila

Abstract:

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a unique sample that allows studying different genetic changes in lung carcinoma through a non-invasive way. With the aid of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, analysis of genetic mutations has been more efficient with increased sensitivity for detection of genetic variants. In order to investigate the possibility of applying this method for cancer diagnostics, mutations in EBC DNA from lung cancer patients and healthy individuals were studied by using NGS. The key aim is to assess the feasibility of using this approach to detect clinically important mutations in EBC. EBC was collected from 20 healthy individuals and 9 lung cancer patients (four lung adenocarcinomas, four 8 squamous cell carcinoma, and one case of mesothelioma). Mutations in hotpot regions of 22 genes were studied by using Ampliseq Colon and Lung cancer panel and sequenced on Ion PGM. Results demonstrated that all nine patients showed a total of 19 cosmic mutations in APC, BRAF, EGFR, ERBB4, FBXW7, FGFR1, KRAS, MAP2K1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, RET, SMAD4, and TP53. In controls, 15 individuals showed 35 cosmic mutations in BRAF, CTNNB1, DDR2, EGFR, ERBB2, FBXW7, FGFR3, KRAS, MET, NOTCH1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD4, and TP53. Additionally, 45 novel mutations not reported previously were also seen in patients’ samples, and 106 novel mutations were seen in controls’ specimens. KRAS exon 2 mutations G12D was identified in one control specimen with mutant allele fraction of 6.8%, while KRAS G13D mutation seen in one patient sample showed mutant allele fraction of 17%. These findings illustrate that hotspot mutations are present in DNA from EBC of both cancer patients and healthy controls. As some of the cosmic mutations were seen in controls too, no firm conclusion can be drawn on the clinical importance of cosmic mutations in patients. Mutations reported in controls could represent early neoplastic changes or normal homeostatic process of apoptosis occurring in lung tissue to get rid of mutant cells. At the same time, mutations detected in patients might represent a non-invasive easily accessible way for early cancer detection. Follow up of individuals with important cancer mutations is necessary to clarify the significance of these mutations in both healthy individuals and cancer patients.

Keywords: exhaled breath condensate, lung cancer, mutations, next generation sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 103