Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Search results for: asthma

112 Mobile Asthma Action Plan for Adolescent with Asthma: A Systematic Review

Authors: Reisy Tane

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Asthma is the common health problems in adolescents. Self-management is one way to improve health status in adolescent with asthma. Mobile technology has the potential to improve self-management in adolescents with asthma. Objective: the aim of this study to determine the effectiveness of using the mobile technology Asthma Action Plan to improve self management. Method: this study is Systematic review approach using PRISM template. The literature search started on first September 2017 by using electronic data Pro Quest and Google Scholars with keywords ‘Mobile AAP’ and ‘Adolescent Asthma’. Results and Conclusion: M-AAP is effective to improve adolescent self-management with asthma because it is easy to use and provide information appropriately. The improvement of self-management in teenagers will enhance the quality of life of adolescents with asthma. The recommendation of this study is the addition of parental control content in the application appropriate with Family Centered Care (FCC) philosophy on pediatric nursing. In addition, it is expected the development of applications for other chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and congestive heart failure.

Keywords: asthma, mobile AAP, adolescent, self-management

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111 Parental Perceptions and Practices toward Childhood Asthma

Authors: Amani K. Abu-Shaheen, Abdullah Nofal, Humariya Heena

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Introduction: Parental perceptions and practices are important for improving the asthma outcomes in children; indeed, evidence shows that parents of asthmatic children harbor considerable misperceptions of the disease. Objective: To identify the prevalence of asthma and to investigate the perceptions and practices of parents toward asthma and its management in Saudi children. Methods: A two-stage cross-sectional survey of 2000 parents of children aged 3–15 years from schools located in all five districts of Riyadh province located in central Saudi Arabia, was conducted. Data collection was accomplished using a self-administered questionnaire based on information obtained from the literature. Results: Of 1450 children whose parents participated in the study, 600 had asthma, dyspnea, or chest allergy. The overall number of children with parental reports of ever having been diagnosed with asthma was 478 (32.9%). The majority of parents (321, 53.5%) believed that asthma was a hereditary disease. Of these parents, 361 (60.3%) were concerned about side effects of inhaled steroids, and 192 (32%) about development of dependency on asthma medications. Three hundred sixty seven (61.2%) parents reported that they could treat the asthma attack at home and almost 76% of parents went to pediatric emergency department during asthma attack. Conclusions: In this study, the overall prevalence of children whose parents reported that they were diagnosed with asthma was high (32.9%). Furthermore, parents of children with asthma had misperceptions regarding asthma and exhibited ineffective practices in its management. To improve asthma care and compliance, adequate education should be provided to parents.

Keywords: asthma, management, parents, quality of life

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110 Breastfeeding in Childhood Asthma: A Boon or a Bane

Authors: Harish Peri, Amit Devgan

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on asthma and lung function in childhood asthma. A case-control study comprising 80 cases (children with asthma) and 80 controls(children without asthma) in the age group 6-12 years were included. A diagnosis was made by the treating pediatrician. A parental questionnaire was given and data regarding the name, age, sex of the child, duration of asthma, whether breastfed or not, duration, exclusiveness of breastfeeding and maternal asthmatic status were collected. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate was measured for every child using a Peak Expiratory Flow Meter. Results showed Exclusively Breastfed children were found to better protected against asthma and have improved lung function as compared to Non-exclusively Breastfeed children, irrespective of the mother’s asthmatic status. This study demonstrated that exclusive breastfeeding has a protective action against childhood asthma.

Keywords: asthmatic mothers, childhood asthma, exclusive breastfeeding, non-asthmatic mothers

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109 Anticipating Asthma with Control Environmental Factors and Food

Authors: Destin Kurniawati

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Asthma is one of the deadly diseases in the world. According to the World Health Organization in 2012, 300 million people suffer from asthma of different races and classes. An estimated 250,000 people die because of asthma annually.As well as more than 57% of children and 51% of adults with asthma. There two risk factors for asthma. That risk factors are the host and environmental. One of the environmental factors that can bring asthma is allergens. When an allergen enters the body, the allergen binds to IgE and cause cell granulat- issued several mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, bradykinin or something like that. This will cause localized edema effect on bronchial walls of small, thick mucous secretions in the bronchioles, and bronchial smooth muscle spasm. Then there will be inflammation of the airways. Methodology this research is by literature. Therefore, to anticipate and cope with asthma is to control environmental factors that serve to minimize allergens and controlling one's intake in the form of antioxidant-rich foods. Foods rich in antioxidants serve to improve lung function and decrease symptoms of the disease of the respiratory tract.

Keywords: asthma, deadly disease, allergen, environmental and food control

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
108 Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Increases IgE Receptors in Children with Asthma

Authors: A. Vijayendra Chary, R. Hemalatha

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Background: Vitamin D is a potent modulator of the immune system and is involved in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased severity of asthma in children. Asthma has dramatically increased in past decades, particular in developing countries and affects up to 20% of the population. IgE and its receptors, CD23 (FcεRII) and CD 21, play an essential role in all allergic conditions. Methods: A case control study was conducted on asthma and age and sex matched control children. 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 was quantified by HPLC; CD23; and CD21 expression on B cells were performed by flow cytometry. Total Histamine, total IGE and IL-5 and IFN-γ cytokines were determined by ELISA in blood samples of bronchial asthma (n=45) and control children (n=45). Results: The mean ± SE of vitamin D was significantly (p<0.05) low in asthma children (13.6±0.54 ng/mL) than in controls (17.4 ± 0.37 ng/mL). The mean (%) ± SE of CD23 and CD21 expression on B cells were significantly (p<0.01) high in asthma (1.02±0.09; 1.67± 0.13), when compared to controls (0.24±0.01; 0.94±0.03) respectively. The mean± SE of Serum IgE and blood histamine levels in asthma children (354.52 ± 17.33 IU/mL; 53.27 ± 2.54 nM/mL) were increased (P<0.05) when compared to controls (183.12±17.62 IU/mL 39.34±4.16 nM/mL) respectively and IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine) was lower (P<0.01) (16.37±1.27 pg/mL) than in controls (43.34±6.21 pg/mL). Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that low vitamin D levels are associated with increased IgE receptors CD23 and CD21 on B cells. In addition, there was preferential activation of Th2 (IL-5) and suppression of Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines in children with asthma.

Keywords: bronchial asthma, CD23, IgE, vitamin D

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107 HelpMeBreathe: A Web-Based System for Asthma Management

Authors: Alia Al Rayssi, Mahra Al Marar, Alyazia Alkhaili, Reem Al Dhaheri, Shayma Alkobaisi, Hoda Amer

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We present in this paper a web-based system called “HelpMeBreathe” for managing asthma. The proposed system provides analytical tools, which allow better understanding of environmental triggers of asthma, hence better support of data-driven decision making. The developed system provides warning messages to a specific asthma patient if the weather in his/her area might cause any difficulty in breathing or could trigger an asthma attack. HelpMeBreathe collects, stores, and analyzes individuals’ moving trajectories and health conditions as well as environmental data. It then processes and displays the patients’ data through an analytical tool that leads to an effective decision making by physicians and other decision makers.

Keywords: asthma, environmental triggers, map interface, web-based systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
106 Acute Asthma in Emergency Department, Prevalence of Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Symptoms

Authors: Sherif Refaat, Hassan Aref

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Background: Although asthma is a well-identified presentation to the emergency department, little is known about the frequency and percentage of respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in patients with acute asthma in the emergency department (ED). Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between acute asthma exacerbation and different respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms including chest pain encountered by patients visiting the emergency department. Subjects and methods: Prospective study included 169 (97 females and 72 males) asthmatic patients who were admitted to emergency department of two tertiary care facility hospitals for asthma exacerbation from the period of September 2010 to August 2013, an anonyms questionnaire was used to collect symptoms and analysis of symptoms. Results: Females were 97 (57%) of the patients, mean age was 35.6 years; dyspnea on exertion was the commonest symptom accounting for 161 (95.2%) of patients, followed by dyspnea at rest 155 (91.7%), wheezing in 152 (89.9%), chest pain was present in 82 patients (48.5%), the pain was burning in 36 (43.9%) of the total patients with chest pain. Non-respiratory symptoms were seen frequently in acute asthma in ED. Conclusions: Dyspnea was the commonest chest symptoms encountered in patients with acute asthma followed by wheezing. Chest pain in acute asthma is a common symptom and should be fully studied to exclude misdiagnosis as of cardiac origin; there is a need for a better dissemination of knowledge about this disease association with chest pain. It was also noted that other non-respiratory symptoms are frequently encountered with acute asthma in emergency department.

Keywords: asthma, emergency department, respiratory symptoms, non respiratory system

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105 Antiasthmatic Effect of Kankasava in OVA-Induced Asthma Mouse Model

Authors: Bharti Ahirwar

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The main object of this study was to evaluate the effect of kankasava on OVA-induced asthma in mouse model. Present study has demonstrated that kankasava exhibited an antiasthmatic effect by attenuated AHR and reducing level of IgE, IL-5, and IL-13, in both serum and BALF in OVA induced asthmatic mice. Effect of kankasav on airway responsiveness was obtained by monitoring the enhanced pen value . Kankasava significantly reduced AHR can be explained, in part, by reduction in both IgE overexoression and cytokine levels. Kankasava significantly decreased IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in BALF indicate that it may suppress the excess activity of T-cells and Th2 cytokines, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, and consequently restore the Th1/Th2 imbalance of the immune system. In summary, we hypothesize that kankasava effectively suppressed elevations in IgE and cytokines levels, AHR, and mucus overproduction in mice with OVA-induced asthma suggested kankasava could be effective in immunological and pharmacological modulation of allergic asthma.

Keywords: asthma, ayurveda, kankasava, cytokine

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104 Successful Management of a Boy with Mild Persistent Asthma: A Longitudinal Case

Authors: A. Lubis, L. Setiawati, A. R. Setyoningrum, A. Suryawan, Irwanto

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Asthma is a condition that causing chronic health problems in children. In addition to basic therapy against disease, we must try to reduce the impact of chronic health problems and also optimize their medical aspect of growth and development. A boy with mild asthma attack frequent episode did not showed any improvement with medical treatment and his asthma control test was 11. From radiologic examination he got hyperaerated lung and billateral sinusitis maxillaris; skin test results were house dust, food and pet allergy; an overweight body; bad school grades; psychological and environmental problem. We followed and evaluated this boy in 6 months, treated holistically. Even we could not do much on environmental but no more psychological and school problems, his on a good bodyweight and his asthma control test was 22. A case of a child with mild asthma attack frequent episode was reported. Asthma clinical course show no significant improvement when other predisposing factor is not well-controlled and a child’s growth and development may be affected. Improving condition of the patient can be created with the help of loving and caring way of nurturing from the parents and supportive peer group. Therefore, continuous and consistent monitoring is required because prognosis of asthma is generally good when regularly and properly controlled.

Keywords: asthma, chronic health problems, growth, development

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103 Structure Elucidation of Isolated Active Compounds from Nigella sativa and Calotropis procera and Their Efficacy for Treatment of Asthma

Authors: Intisar S. A. Elzein

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In Saudi Arabia parts of Nigella sativa, and Calotropis procera are commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cough, eczema and other diseases. The purpose of the study is to identify chemical constituents of Nigella sativa seed and Calotropis procera leave isolated by the bioassay guided fractionation process and find out their relevance to the alleged efficacy of the plant in treating asthma. The medicinal properties of both plants for asthma treatment referred to the rich abundance of thymoquinone and phytol compounds isolated from the essential oil of their seed and leave extracts, which they can form a part of molecules of vitamin K.

Keywords: asthma, Calotropis procera, chemical constituents, Nigella sativa, vitamin K

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102 Family, Neighbourhood and Psychosocial Environmental Factors and Their Association with Asthma in Australia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: K. M. Shahunja, Peter D. Sly, Tahmina Begum, Tuhin Biswas, Abdullah Mamun

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Background: Various associations between different environmental exposures and asthma have been reported in different countries and populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between family, neighbourhood, and psychosocial environmental factors and asthma in Australia by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We analysed the primary research studies conducted in Australia across multiple databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus, and published between 2000 and 2020. The reviews and analyses focused on the overall association of different environmental exposures with the development or exacerbation of asthma symptoms or asthma-related hospital visits. Quality-effect meta-analysis was done to estimate the pooled odds ratio for different environmental exposures for asthma symptoms. Findings: Among the 4,799 unique published articles found, 46 were included here for systematic review and 28 for meta-analysis. Our review found that psychosocial factors, including low socioeconomic condition, maternal depression, mental stress, ethnicity, and discrimination, are associated with asthma symptoms. Pooled analysis was conducted on family and neighbourhood environmental factors and revealed that environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) (OR 1·69, 95% CI 1·19–2.38), synthetic bedding (OR 1·91, 95% CI 1·48–2·47) and gas heaters (OR 1·40, 95% CI 1·12–1·76) had significant overall associations with asthma-symptoms in Australia. Conclusion: Although the studies were heterogeneous, both systematic review and meta-analysis found several psychosocial and family environmental exposures to be significantly associated with asthma symptoms. Further study to identify their causal relationship and modification may reduce asthma symptoms in the Australian population.

Keywords: asthma, Australia, environment, systematic review

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101 High Frequency of Chlamydophila Pneumoniae in Children with Asthma Exacerbations

Authors: Katherine Madero Valencia, Carlos Jaramillo, Elida Dueñas, Carlos Torres, María Del Pilar Delgado

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Asthma, described as a chronic inflammatory condition of the airways, courses accompanied by episodes known as exacerbations, characterized by a worsening of symptoms. Among the triggers, some allergen-irritative and infectious agents are found, including Chlamydophila pneumoniae which seems to play an increasingly important role. In this paper a PCR was used to detect C. pneumoniae in order to estimate the frequency of infections caused by this agent in pediatric patients with asthma exacerbations. C. pneumoniae distribution throughout the study period was also evaluated. 175 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children with asthma exacerbations were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. A global prevalence of C. pneumoniae of 53.71% was obtained. This study highlights a high circulation of C. pneumoniae during the study period, in children of all ages and especially in children under 5 years old. Molecular tests applied permit a rapid detection and improved our knowledge about these infections in children with asthma.

Keywords: Chlamydophila pneumoniae, detection, molecular techniques, pediatric asthma

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100 Polyphytopharmaca Improving Asthma Control Test Value, Biomarker (Eosinophils and Malondialdehyde): Quasi Experimental Test in Patients with Asthma

Authors: Andri Andri, Susanthy Djajalaksana, Iin Noor Chozin

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Background: Despite advances in asthma therapies, a proportion of patients with asthma continue to have difficulty in gaining adequate asthma control. Complex immunological mechanisms and oxidative stress affect this condition, including the role of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of inflammation. This research aimed to determine the effect of polyphytopharmaca administration on the value of asthma control test (ACT), blood eosinophils level and markers of MDA serum inflammation in patients with asthma. Method: Quasi experimental approach was conducted toward 15 stable asthma patients who were not fully controlled in outpatient pulmonary clinic, Public Hospital of Dr. Saiful Anwar Malang. Assessments of ACT values, eosinophil levels, and serum MDA levels were carried out before and after administration of polyphytopharmaca which contained a combination of 100 mg Nigella sativa extract, Kleinhovia hospita 100 mg, Curcuma xanthorrhiza 75 mg, and Ophiocephalus striatus 100 mg, three times daily with two capsules for 12 weeks. The ACT value was determined by the researcher by asking the patient directly, blood eosinophil levels were calculated by analyzing blood type counts, and serum MDA levels were detected by the qPCR method. Result: There was a significant enhancement of ACT value (18.07 ± 2.57 to 22.06 ± 1.83, p = 0.001) (from 60% uncontrolled ACT to 93.3% controlled ACT), a significant decrease in blood eosinophils levels (653.15 ± 276.15 pg/mL to 460.66 ± 202.04 pg/mL, p = 0.038), and decreased serum MDA levels (109.64 ± 53.77 ng / ml to 78.68 ± 64.92 ng/ml, p = 0.156). Conclusion: Administration of polyphytopharmaca can increase ACT value, decrease blood eosinophils levels and reduce MDA serum in stable asthma patients who are not fully controlled.

Keywords: asthma control test, eosinophils levels, malondialdehyde, polyphytopharmaca

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99 Association between Dental Caries and Asthma among 12-15 Years Old School Children Studying in Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Wajeeha Zahid, Shafquat Rozi, Farhan Raza, Masood Kadir

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Background: Dental caries affects the overall health and well-being of children. Findings from various international studies regarding the association of dental caries with asthma are inconsistent. With the increasing burden of caries and childhood asthma, it becomes imperative for an underdeveloped country like Pakistan where resources are limited to identify whether there is a relationship between the two. This study aims to identify an association between dental caries and asthma. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 544 children aged 12-15 years recruited from five private schools in Karachi. Information on asthma was collected through the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed questions regarding child’s demographics, physician diagnoses of asthma, type of medication administered, family history of asthma and allergies, dietary habits and oral hygiene behavior. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT Index (Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth) index The data was analyzed using Cox proportional Hazard algorithm and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% CI were reported. Results: This study comprises of 306 (56.3%) boys and 238 (43.8%) girls. The mean age of children was 13.2 ± (0.05) years. The total number of children with carious teeth (DMFT > 0) were 166/544 (30.5%), and the decayed component contributed largely (22.8%) to the DMFT score. The prevalence of physician’s diagnosed asthma was 13%. This study identified almost 7% asthmatic children using the internationally validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) tool and 8 children with childhood asthma were identified by parent interviews. Overall prevalence of asthma was 109/544 (20%). The prevalence of caries in asthmatic children was 28.4% as compared to 31% among non-asthmatic children. The adjusted prevalence ratio of dental caries in asthmatic children was 0.8 (95% CI 0.59-1.29). After adjusting for carious food intake, age, oral hygiene index and dentist visit, the association between asthma and dental caries turned out to be non-significant. Conclusion: There was no association between asthma and dental caries among children who participated in this study.

Keywords: asthma, caries, children, school-based

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98 Management of the Asthma Crisis in the Unit of Intensive Care of the General Hospital of Reference of Kinshasa

Authors: Eddy K. Mukadi

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The aim of this study was to provide contributing elements to improve the management of the asthma crisis in the intensive care unit of the General Reference Hospital of Kinshasa. This was a descriptive study of all patients in the intensive care unit presenting with the asthma attack during the period from February 5, 2013 to February 5, 2014. The main data were obtained from consultation registry and medical records. A total of 35 patients, 21 of whom were male (majority) compared to 14 female. Average age of patients was 46.48 plus or minus 16.98 with extremes ranging from 21-75 years. The clinic was dominated by dyspnea in 100% of cases, followed by rales with 91.4% of cases. In spite of the control of the crisis obtained after the treatment with B2 mimetic by inhalation was introduced A 91.5%; 88% corticosteroids; 80% oxygen, the therapeutic principle recommended for the management of asthma attacks was not respected in the majority of cases. This is why we suggest that improving the quality of care to be administered to patients will yield more adequate results.

Keywords: asthma crisis, intensive care, general hospital, Kinshasa

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97 Serum Cortisol and Osteocalsin in Response to Eight Weeks Aerobic Training in Asthma Men with Mild to Moderate Intensity

Authors: Eizadi Mojtaba

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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training on serum osteocalsin as an osteoblasts hormone and cortisol in adult men with asthma. For this purpose, twenty four non-trained adult men with mild to moderate asthma were participated in study voluntarily and divided into exercise (aerobic training, 8 weeks/3 times per week) and control groups by randomly. Pre and post training of serum osteocalsin and cortisol were measured of two groups. Student’s paired ‘t’ test was applied to compare the pre and post training values. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to all anthropometrical and biochemical markers between the exercise and control groups at baseline ( P > 0.05 ). Exercise training resulted in a significant increase in serum osteocalsin and decrease in cortisol ( P > 0.05 ), but not in control group. Based on these data, we concluded that aerobic training can be improved Processes of bone formation in asthma patients.

Keywords: osteoblasts, asthma, aerobic exercise, sedentary

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96 An Audit of the Diagnosis of Asthma in Children in Primary Care and the Emergency Department

Authors: Abhishek Oswal

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Background: Inconsistencies between the guidelines for childhood asthma can pose a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. NICE guidelines are the most commonly followed guidelines in primary care in the UK; they state that to be diagnosed with asthma, a child must be more than 5 years old and must have objective evidence of the disease. When diagnoses are coded in general practice (GP), these guidelines may be superseded by communications from secondary care. Hence it is imperative that diagnoses are correct, as per up to date guidelines and evidence, as this affects follow up and management both in primary and secondary care. Methods: A snapshot audit at a general practice surgery was undertaken of children (less than 16 years old) with a coded diagnosis of 'asthma', to review the age at diagnosis and whether any objective evidence of asthma was documented at diagnosis. 50 cases of asthma in children presenting to the emergency department (ED) were then audited to review the age at presentation, whether there was evidence of previous asthma diagnosis and whether the patient was discharged from ED. A repeat audit is planned in ED this winter. Results: In a GP surgery, there were 83 coded cases of asthma in children. 51 children (61%) were diagnosed under 5, with 9 children (11%) who had objective evidence of asthma documented at diagnosis. In ED, 50 cases were collected, of which 4 were excluded as they were referred to the other services, or for incorrect coding. Of the 46 remaining, 27 diagnoses confirmed to NICE guidelines (59%). 33 children (72%) were discharged from ED. Discussion: The most likely reason for the apparent low rate of a correct diagnosis is the significant challenge of obtaining objective evidence of asthma in children. There were a number of patients who were diagnosed from secondary care services and then coded as 'asthma' in GP, without having objective documented evidence. The electronic patient record (EPR) system used in our emergency department (ED) did not allow coding of 'suspected diagnosis' or of 'viral induced wheeze'. This may have led to incorrect diagnoses coded in primary care, of children who had no confirmed diagnosis of asthma. We look forward to the re-audit, as the EPR system has been updated to allow suspected diagnoses. In contrast to the NICE guidelines used here, British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines allow for a trial of treatment and subsequent confirmation of diagnosis without objective evidence. It is possible that some of the cases which have been classified as incorrect in this audit may still meet other guidelines. Conclusion: The diagnosis of asthma in children is challenging. Incorrect diagnoses may be related to clinical pressures and the provision of services to allow compliance with NICE guidelines. Consensus statements between the various groups would also aid the decision-making process and diagnostic dilemmas that clinicians face, to allow more consistent care of the patient.

Keywords: asthma, diagnosis, primary care, emergency department, guidelines, audit

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95 Effectiveness of Buteyko Method in Asthma Control and Quality of Life of School-Age Children

Authors: Romella C. Lina, Matthew Daniel V. Leysa, Zarah D. F. Libozada, Maria Francesca I. Lirio, Angelo A. Liwag, Gabriel D. Ramos, Margaret M. Natividad

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This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Buteyko Method in asthma control and quality of life of school-age children wherein a pretest-posttest design was utilized to measure the changes after the administration of Buteyko Method. Fourteen (14) subjects with bronchial asthma, aged 7-11 participated in the study. They were equally divided into two groups: the control group received no intervention while the experimental group was asked to attend sessions of Buteyko Method lecture and demonstration. The experimental group was visited for three (3) consecutive weeks to monitor their progress and compliance. Both groups were asked to answer ACQ pre- and post-intervention and PAQLQ before the start of the intervention phase and every week during the follow-up visits. In comparing the asthma control pre-test and post-test mean scores of the control group, no significant difference was noted (p=0.177) while the experimental group showed a significant difference after the administration of Buteyko Method (p=0.002). Moreover, the quality of life pre-test and post-test mean scores of the control group showed no significant difference in any week within one month of follow-up (p=0.736, 0.604, 0.689) while the experimental group showed a significant difference on the third week (p = 0.035) and fourth week (p=0.002) but no significant difference on the second week (p=0.111). Therefore, the use of Buteyko Method within 3-4 weeks as an adjunct to conventional management of asthma helps in improving asthma control and quality of life of school-age children.

Keywords: Buteyko Method, asthma, school-age children, asthma control, quality of life

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94 Determinants of House Dust, Endotoxin, and β- (1→ 3)-D-Glucan in Homes of Turkish Children

Authors: Afsoun Nikravan, Parisa Babaei, Gulen Gullu

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We aimed to study the association between house dust endotoxin, β-(1→3)-D-glucan, and asthma in a sample representative of the Turkish population. We analyzed data from 240 participants. The house dust was collected from the homes of 110 asthmatics and 130 control (without asthma) school-aged children (6-11 years old). House dust from the living room and from bedroom floors were analyzed for endotoxin and beta-glucan contents. House dust was analyzed for endotoxin content by the kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and for β-(1→3)-D-glucan by the inhibition enzyme immunoassay. The parents answered questions regarding potential determinants. We found geometric means 187.5 mg/m² for dust. According to statistical values, the endotoxin geometric mean was 13.86×103 EU/g for the control group and 6.16×103 EU/g for the asthma group. As a result, the amount of bacterial endotoxin was measured at a higher level in the homes of children without asthma. The geometric mean for beta-glucan was 46.52 µg/g and 44.39 µg/g for asthma and control groups, respectively. No associations between asthma and microbial agents were observed in Turkish children. High correlations (r > 0.75) were found between floor dust and endotoxin loads, while endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations were not correlated. The type of flooring (hard-surface or textile) was the strongest determinant for loads of floor dust and concentrations of endotoxin. Water damage and dampness at home were determinants of β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations. Endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations in Turkish house dust might lower than concentrations seen in other European countries.

Keywords: indoor air quality, asthma, microbial pollutants, case-control

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93 Control of Asthma in Children with Asthma during the Containment Period following the Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Meryam Labyad, Karima Fakiri, Widad Lahmini, Ghizlane Draiss, Mohamed Bouskraoui, Nadia Ouzennou

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Background: Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children, affecting nearly 235 million people worldwide (OMS). In Morocco, asthma is much more common in children than in adults; the prevalence rate in children between 13 and 14 years of age is 20%.1 This pathology is marked by high morbidity, a significant impact on the quality of life and development of children 2 This requires a rigorous management strategy in order to achieve clinical control and reduce any risk to the patient 3 A search for aggravating factors is mandatory if a child has difficulty maintaining good asthma control. The objective of the present study is to describe asthma control during this confinement period in children aged 4 to 11 years followed by a pneumo-paediatric consultation. For children whose asthma is not controlled, a search for associations with promoting factors and adherence to treatment is also among the objectives of the study. Knowing the level of asthma control and influencing factors is a therapeutic priority in order to reduce hospitalizations and emergency care use. Objective: To assess asthma control and determine the factors influencing asthma levels in children with asthma during confinement following the COVID 19 pandemic. Method: Prospective cross-sectional study by questionnaire and structured interview among 66 asthmatic children followed in pediatric pneumology consultation at the CHU MED VI of Marrakech from 13/06/2020 to 13/07/2020, asthma control was assessed by the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT). Results: 66 children and their parents were included (mean age is 7.5 years), asthma was associated with allergic rhinitis (13.5% of cases), conjunctivitis (9% of cases), eczema (12% of cases), occurrence of infection (10.5% of cases). The period of confinement was marked by a decrease in the number of asthma attacks translated by a decrease in the number of emergency room visits (7.5%) of these asthmatic children, control was well controlled in 71% of the children, this control was significantly associated with good adherence to treatment (p<0.001), no infection (p<0.001) and no conjunctivitis (p=002) or rhinitis (p<0.001). This improvement in asthma control during confinement can be explained by the measures taken in the Kingdom to prevent the spread of COVID 19 (school closures, reduction in industrial activity, fewer means of transport, etc.), leading to a decrease in children's exposure to triggers, which justifies the decrease in the number of children having had an infection, allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis during this period. In addition, the close monitoring of parents resulted in better therapeutic adherence (42.4% were fully observant). Confinement was positively perceived by 68% of the parents; this perception is significantly associated with the level of asthma control (p<0.001). Conclusion: Maintaining good control can be achieved through improved therapeutic adherence and avoidance of triggers, both of which were achieved during the containment period following the VIDOC pandemic 19.

Keywords: Asthma, control , COVID-19 , children

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92 Developing Primary Care Datasets for a National Asthma Audit

Authors: Rachael Andrews, Viktoria McMillan, Shuaib Nasser, Christopher M. Roberts

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Background and objective: The National Review of Asthma Deaths (NRAD) found that asthma management and care was inadequate in 26% of cases reviewed. Major shortfalls identified were adherence to national guidelines and standards and, particularly, the organisation of care, including supervision and monitoring in primary care, with 70% of cases reviewed having at least one avoidable factor in this area. 5.4 million people in the UK are diagnosed with and actively treated for asthma, and approximately 60,000 are admitted to hospital with acute exacerbations each year. The majority of people with asthma receive management and treatment solely in primary care. This has therefore created concern that many people within the UK are receiving sub-optimal asthma care resulting in unnecessary morbidity and risk of adverse outcome. NRAD concluded that a national asthma audit programme should be established to measure and improve processes, organisation, and outcomes of asthma care. Objective: To develop a primary care dataset enabling extraction of information from GP practices in Wales and providing robust data by which results and lessons could be drawn and drive service development and improvement. Methods: A multidisciplinary group of experts, including general practitioners, primary care organisation representatives, and asthma patients was formed and used as a source of governance and guidance. A review of asthma literature, guidance, and standards took place and was used to identify areas of asthma care which, if improved, would lead to better patient outcomes. Modified Delphi methodology was used to gain consensus from the expert group on which of the areas identified were to be prioritised, and an asthma patient and carer focus group held to seek views and feedback on areas of asthma care that were important to them. Areas of asthma care identified by both groups were mapped to asthma guidelines and standards to inform and develop primary and secondary care datasets covering both adult and pediatric care. Dataset development consisted of expert review and a targeted consultation process in order to seek broad stakeholder views and feedback. Results: Areas of asthma care identified as requiring prioritisation by the National Asthma Audit were: (i) Prescribing, (ii) Asthma diagnosis (iii) Asthma Reviews (iv) Personalised Asthma Action Plans (PAAPs) (v) Primary care follow-up after discharge from hospital (vi) Methodologies and primary care queries were developed to cover each of the areas of poor and variable asthma care identified and the queries designed to extract information directly from electronic patients’ records. Conclusion: This paper describes the methodological approach followed to develop primary care datasets for a National Asthma Audit. It sets out the principles behind the establishment of a National Asthma Audit programme in response to a national asthma mortality review and describes the development activities undertaken. Key process elements included: (i) mapping identified areas of poor and variable asthma care to national guidelines and standards, (ii) early engagement of experts, including clinicians and patients in the process, and (iii) targeted consultation of the queries to provide further insight into measures that were collectable, reproducible and relevant.

Keywords: asthma, primary care, general practice, dataset development

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91 Low-Dose Chest Computed Tomography Can Help in Differential Diagnosis of Asthma–COPD Overlap Syndrome in Children

Authors: Frantisek Kopriva, Kamila Michalkova, Radim Dudek, Jana Volejnikova

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Rationale: Diagnostic criteria of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) are controversial in pediatrics. Emphysema is characteristic of COPD and usually does not occur in typical asthma; its presence in patients with asthma suggests the concurrence with COPD. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) allows a non-invasive assessment of the lung tissue structure. Here we present CT findings of emphysematous changes in a child with ACOS. Patient and Methods: In a 6-year-old boy, atopy was confirmed by a skin prick test using common allergen extracts (grass and tree pollen, house dust mite, molds, cat, dog; manufacturer Stallergenes Greer, London, UK), where reactions over 3 mm were considered positive. Treatment with corticosteroids was started during the course of severe asthma. At 12 years of age, his spirometric parameters deteriorated despite treatment adjustment (VC 1.76 L=85%, FEV1 1.13 L=67%, TI%VCmax 64%, MEF25 19%, TLC 144%) and the bronchodilator test became negative. Results: Low-dose chest CT displayed irregular regions with increased radiolucency of pulmonary parenchyma (typical for hyperinflation in emphysematous changes) in both lungs. This was in accordance with the results of spirometric examination. Conclusions: ACOS is infrequent in children. However, low-dose chest CT scan can be considered to confirm this diagnosis or eliminate other diagnoses when the clinical condition is deteriorating and treatment response is poor.

Keywords: child, asthma, low-dose chest CT, ACOS

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90 Randomized Trial of Tian Jiu Therapy in San Fu Days for Patients with Chronic Asthma

Authors: Libing Zhu, Waichung Chen, Kwaicing Lo, Lei Li

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Background: Tian Jiu Therapy (a medicinal vesiculation therapy according to traditional Chinese medicine theory) in San Fu Days (the three hottest days in a year is calculated by the Chinese ancient calendar) is widely used by patients with chronic asthma in China although from modern medicine perspective there is insufficient evidence of its effectiveness and safety issues. We investigated the efficacy and safety of Tian Jiu Therapy compared with placebo in patients with chronic asthma. Methods: Patients with chronic asthma were randomly assigned to Tian Jiu treatment group (n=165), placebo control group (n=158). Registered Chinese Medicine practitioners, in Orthopedics-Traumatology, Acupuncture, and Tui-na Clinical Centre for Teaching and Research, School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, administered Tian Jiu Therapy and placebo treatment in 3 times over 2 months. Patients completed questionnaires and lung function test before treatment and after treatment, 3, 6, 9, and 11 months, respectively. The primary outcome was the no of asthma-related sub-healthy symptoms and the percentage of patients with twenty-three symptoms. Results: 451 patients were recruited totally, 111 patients refused or did not participate according the appointment time and 17 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Consequently, 323 of eligible patients were enrolled. There was nothing difference between Tian Jiu Therapy group and placebo control group at the end of all treatments neither primary nor secondary outcomes. While Tian Jiu Therapy as compared with placebo significantly reduced the percentage of participants who are susceptible waken up by asthma symptoms from 27% to 14% at 2nd follow-up (P < 0.05). Similarly, Tian Jiu Therapy significantly reduced the proportion of participants who had the symptom of running nose and sneezing before onset from 18% to 8% at 2nd follow-up (P < 0.05). Additionally, Tian Jiu Therapy significantly reduced the level of asthma, the proportion of participants who don’t need to processed during asthma attack increased from 6% to 15% at 1st follow-up and 0% to 7% at 3rd follow-up (P < 0.05). Improvements also occurred with Tian Jiu Therapy group, it reduced the proportion of participants who were spontaneously sweating at 3rd follow up and diarrhea after intake of oily food at 4th follow-up (P < 0.05). Conclusion: When added to a regimen of foundational therapy for chronic asthma participants, Tian Jiu Therapy further reduced the need for medications to control asthma, improved the quality of participants’ life, and significantly reduced the level of asthma. What is more, this benefit seems to have an accumulative effect over time was in accordance with the TCM theory of 'winter disease is being cured in summer'.

Keywords: asthma, Tian Jiu Therapy, San Fu Days, triaditional Chinese medicine, clinical trial

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89 Omalizumab Therapy Experience for Asthma, at Zayed Military Hospital (ZMH) in United Arab Emirates

Authors: Shanza Akram, Samir Salah, Imran Saleem, Ashraf Alzaabi, Jassim Abdou

Abstract:

Introduction: 300 million people worldwide are affected by asthma .In UAE, prevalence is around 10% (900,000 people).Patients with persistent symptoms despite using high dose ICS plus a second controller +/- OCS are considered to have severe asthma. Omalizumab (Xolaire) an IgE monoclonal antibody is approved as add on therapy for severe allergic asthma. Objective: To determine the efficacy of omalizumab based on clinical outcomes in our cohort of patient pre and post 52 weeks of treatment to assess safety and tolerability of treatment. Methods: Medical records of patients receiving omalizumab therapy for asthma at ZMH ,Abu Dhabi were retrospectively analyzed.Patients fulfilling the criteria of severe allergic asthma as per GINA guidelines were included. Asthma control over 12 months prior to and 12 months after commencement of omalizumab therapy was analysed by taking into account the number of exacerbations and hospitalizations in addition to maintenance of medication dosages, need for rescue reliever therapy and pulmonary function testing. Results: Total cohort of 21 patient (5 females), average age 41 years and av length of therapy 22 months were included. Seven patients (total 11/52%) managed to stop steroids on treatment while four were able to decrease the dosage. Mean exacerbation rate decreased from five/ year pre treatment to 1.36 while on treatment. Number of hospitalizations decreased from mean of two per year to 0.9 per year. Rescue reliever inhaler usage decreased from mean of 40 puffs to 15 puffs per week. 2 patients discontinued therapy, 1 due to lack of benefit (2 doses) and 2nd due to severe persistent side effects including local irritation, severe limb and joint pains after 6 months. Conclusion: Treatment with omalizumab showed effect in terms of reduced number of exacerbations, maintenance therapy and reliever medications. However, no improvement was seen in PFTs.There is room for improved documentation in terms of symptom recording and use of rescue medicationas as well as for better patient education and counselling in order to improve compliance.

Keywords: asthma, omalizumab, severe allergic asthma, UAE

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88 The Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training on Indices of Cardio-Respiratory and Exercise Tolerance in Overweight Women with Chronic Asthma

Authors: Somayeh Negahdari, Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh, Masoud Nikbakht, Heshmatolah Tavakol

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Asthma, obesity and overweight are the main factors causing change within the heart and respiratory airways. Asthma symptoms are normally observed during exercising. Epidemiological studies have indicated asthma symptoms occurring due to certain lifestyle habits; for example, a sedentary lifestyle. In this study, eight weeks of aerobic exercises resulted in a positive effect overall in overweight women experiencing mild chronic asthma. The quasi-experimental applied research has been done based on experimental and control groups. The experimental group (seven patients) and control group (n = 7) were graded before and after the test. According to the Borg dyspnea and fatigue Perception Index, the training intensity has determined. Participants in the study performed a sub-maximal aerobic activity schedule (45% to 80% of maximum heart rate) for two months, while the control group (n = 7) stayed away from aerobic exercise. Data evaluation and analysis of covariance compared both the pre-test and post-test with paired t-test at significance level of P≤ 0.05. After eight weeks of exercise, the results of the experimental group show a significant decrease in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure, minute ventilation, while a significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake and tolerance activity (P ≤ 0.05). In the control group, there was no significant difference in these parameters ((P ≤ 0.05). The results indicate the aerobic activity can strengthen the respiratory muscles, while other physiological factors could result in breathing and heart recovery. Aerobic activity also resulted in favorable changes in cardiovascular parameters, and exercise tolerance of overweight women with chronic asthma.

Keywords: asthma, respiratory cardiac index, exercise tolerance, aerobic, overweight

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87 Application of Artificial Neural Network Technique for Diagnosing Asthma

Authors: Azadeh Bashiri

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Introduction: Lack of proper diagnosis and inadequate treatment of asthma leads to physical and financial complications. This study aimed to use data mining techniques and creating a neural network intelligent system for diagnosis of asthma. Methods: The study population is the patients who had visited one of the Lung Clinics in Tehran. Data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical tool and the chi-square Pearson's coefficient was the basis of decision making for data ranking. The considered neural network is trained using back propagation learning technique. Results: According to the analysis performed by means of SPSS to select the top factors, 13 effective factors were selected, in different performances, data was mixed in various forms, so the different models were made for training the data and testing networks and in all different modes, the network was able to predict correctly 100% of all cases. Conclusion: Using data mining methods before the design structure of system, aimed to reduce the data dimension and the optimum choice of the data, will lead to a more accurate system. Therefore, considering the data mining approaches due to the nature of medical data is necessary.

Keywords: asthma, data mining, Artificial Neural Network, intelligent system

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86 Management of Severe Asthma with Omalizumab in United Arab Emirates

Authors: Shanza Akram, Samir Salah, Imran Saleem, Jassim Abdou, Ashraf Al Zaabi

Abstract:

Estimated prevalence of asthma in UAE is around 10% (900,000 people). Patients with persistent symptoms despite using high dose ICS plus a second controller +/- Oral steroids are considered to have severe asthma. Omalizumab (Xolair) is an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody approved as add-on therapy for severe allergic asthma. The objective of our study was to obtain baseline characteristics of our local cohort, to determine the efficacy of omalizumab based on clinical outcomes pre and post 52 weeks of treatment and to assess safety and tolerability. Medical records of patients receiving omalizumab therapy for asthma at Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi were retrospectively reviewed. Patients fulfilling the criteria for severe allergic asthma as per GINA guidelines were included. Asthma control over 12 months pre and post omalizumab were analyzed by taking into account the number of exacerbations, hospitalizations, maintenance of medication dosages, the need for reliever therapy and PFT’s. 21 patients (5 females) with mean age 41 years were included. The mean duration of therapy was 22 months. 19 (91%) patients had Allergic Rhinitis/Sinusitis. Mean serum total IgE level was 648 IU/ml (65-1859). 11 (52%) patients were on oral maintenance steroids pre-treatment. 7 patients managed to stop steroids on treatment while 4 were able to decrease the dosage. Mean exacerbation rate decreased from 5 per year pre-treatment to 1.36 while on treatment. The number of hospitalizations decreased from a mean of 2 per year to 0.9 per year. Reliever inhaler usage decreased from mean of 40 to 15 puffs per week.2 patients discontinued therapy, 1 due to lack of benefit (2 doses) and 2nd due to severe persistent side effects. Patient compliance was poor in some cases. Treatment with omalizumab reduced the number of exacerbations, hospitalizations, maintenance and reliever medications, and is generally well tolerated. Our results show that there is room for improved documentation in terms of symptom recording and use of rescue medication at our institution. There is also need for better patient education and counseling in order to improve compliance.

Keywords: asthma, exacerbations, omalizumab, IgE

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85 The Relationship between Proximity to Sources of Industrial-Related Outdoor Air Pollution and Children Emergency Department Visits for Asthma in the Census Metropolitan Area of Edmonton, Canada, 2004/2005 to 2009/2010

Authors: Laura A. Rodriguez-Villamizar, Alvaro Osornio-Vargas, Brian H. Rowe, Rhonda J. Rosychuk

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Introduction/Objectives: The Census Metropolitan Area of Edmonton (CMAE) has important industrial emissions to the air from the Industrial Heartland Alberta (IHA) at the Northeast and the coal-fired power plants (CFPP) at the West. The objective of the study was to explore the presence of clusters of children asthma ED visits in the areas around the IHA and the CFPP. Methods: Retrospective data on children asthma ED visits was collected at the dissemination area (DA) level for children between 2 and 14 years of age, living in the CMAE between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2010. We conducted a spatial analysis of disease clusters around putative sources with count (ecological) data using descriptive, hypothesis testing, and multivariable modeling analysis. Results: The mean crude rate of asthma ED visits was 9.3/1,000 children population per year during the study period. Circular spatial scan test for cases and events identified a cluster of children asthma ED visits in the DA where the CFPP are located in the Wabamum area. No clusters were identified around the IHA area. The multivariable models suggest that there is a significant decline in risk for children asthma ED visits as distance increases around the CFPP area this effect is modified at the SE direction with mean angle 125.58 degrees, where the risk increases with distance. In contrast, the regression models for IHA suggest that there is a significant increase in risk for children asthma ED visits as distance increases around the IHA area and this effect is modified at SW direction with mean angle 216.52 degrees, where the risk increases at shorter distances. Conclusions: Different methods for detecting clusters of disease consistently suggested the existence of a cluster of children asthma ED visits around the CFPP but not around the IHA within the CMAE. These results are probably explained by the direction of the air pollutants dispersion caused by the predominant and subdominant wind direction at each point. The use of different approaches to detect clusters of disease is valuable to have a better understanding of the presence, shape, direction and size of clusters of disease around pollution sources.

Keywords: air pollution, asthma, disease cluster, industry

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84 A Natural Killer T Cell Subset That Protects against Airway Hyperreactivity

Authors: Ya-Ting Chuang, Krystle Leung, Ya-Jen Chang, Rosemarie H. DeKruyff, Paul B. Savage, Richard Cruse, Christophe Benoit, Dirk Elewaut, Nicole Baumgarth, Dale T. Umetsu

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We examined characteristics of a Natural Killer T (NKT) cell subpopulation that developed during influenza infection in neonatal mice, and that suppressed the subsequent development of allergic asthma in a mouse model. This NKT cell subset expressed CD38 but not CD4, produced IFN-γ, but not IL-17, IL-4 or IL-13, and inhibited the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) through contact-dependent suppressive activity against helper CD4 T cells. The NKT subset expanded in the lungs of neonatal mice after infection with influenza, but also after treatment of neonatal mice with a Th1-biasing α-GalCer glycolipid analogue, Nu-α-GalCer. These results suggest that early/neonatal exposure to infection or to antigenic challenge can affect subsequent lung immunity by altering the profile of cells residing in the lung and that some subsets of NKT cells can have direct inhibitory activity against CD4+ T cells in allergic asthma. Importantly, our results also suggest a potential therapy for young children that might provide protection against the development of asthma.

Keywords: NKT subset, asthma, airway hyperreactivity, hygiene hypothesis, influenza

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83 Poor Cognitive Flexibility as Suggested Basis for Learning Difficulties among Children with Moderate-INTO-Severe Asthma: Evidence from WCSTPerformance

Authors: Haitham Taha

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The cognitive flexibility of 27 asthmatic children with learning difficulties was tested by using the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and compared to the performances of 30 non-asthmatic children who have persistence learning difficulties also. The results revealed that the asthmatic group had poor performance through all the WCST psychometric parameters and especially the preservative errors one. The results were discussed in light of the postulation that poor executive functions and specifically poor cognitive flexibility are in the basis of the learning difficulties of asthmatic children with learning difficulties. Neurophysiologic framework was suggested for explaining the etiology of poor executive functions and cognitive flexibility among children with moderate into severe asthma.

Keywords: asthma, learning disabilities, executive functions, cognitive flexibility, WCST

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