Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: ergonomics

69 Industrial Ergonomics Improvement at a Refrigerator Manufacturing Company in Iran: An Approach on Interventional Ergonomics

Authors: Hassan S. Naeini

Abstract:

Nowadays a lot of people are working in several sorts of industrial sectors in which there are some risk factors which threaten human being especially in developing countries. One of the main problems which effect on workers’ health refers to Ergonomics. Ergonomics as multidisciplinary science concerns workers’ health and safety in terms of somatic and mental concepts. Surely ergonomics interventions and improvement make a better condition for workers and change the quality of working life to better condition. In this study, one of the factories in Iran which is producing some kinds of small and medium size of refrigerators was chosen as the sample. The preliminary ergonomics observation of the mentioned factory showed that there are some risk factors in terms of ergonomics aspects, so an ergonomic intervention was defined, then some ergonomic assessment methods such as NMQ,OWAS, and Environmental Ergonomic Assessment were used. Also Anthropometric measurement was done. This study shows that there are some workstations and plants which suffer some degrees of ergonomic problems. Considering with the gathered data, illumination, noise control and workstation design in metal workstation are known as the priority actions. Some parts of the mentioned interventions are ongoing actions. it seems that the mentioned intervention and workstations design make a better condition for workers, because ergonomics make a safer and more sustainable environments for human being.

Keywords: anthropometry, ergonomics, health, NMQ, OWAS

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68 Efficacy of Isometric Neck Exercises and Stretching with Ergonomics for Neck Pain in Computer Professionals

Authors: Esther Liyanage, Indrajith Liyanage, Masih Khan

Abstract:

Neck pain has become a common epidemiological problem. One of the reasons for this is a sedentary way of life, connected with using a personal computer during all daily activities. Work place and work duration has not been properly adapted to the personal physical conditions of these employees. During 1990’s the importance of workstation design and work methods, or ergonomics on health was brought to the forefront of public attention. Ergonomics is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects. Ergonomic intervention results in improvement of working posture and a decrease in prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms. Stretching and resistance exercises to the neck are easy to do, when performed 1-2 times daily reduce discomfort and ease neck stiffness. This study is aimed at finding if ergonomics with exercises to the neck prove beneficial to reduce neck pain in Computer Professionals. The outcomes measures used were: Oswestry neck disability index and VAS score for pain. 100 subjects satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Results: Ergonomic intervention along with isometric neck exercises and stretching proved to reduce neck pain and disability among computer professionals.

Keywords: ergonomics, neck pain, neck exercises, physiotherapy for neck pain

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67 Investigating the Effect of VR, Time Study and Ergonomics on the Design of Industrial Workstations

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Poorya Ghafoorpoor Yazdi

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This paper presents the review of the studies on the ergonomics, virtual reality, and work measurement (time study) at the industrial workstations because each of these three individual techniques can be used to improve the design of workstations and task position. The objective of this paper is to give an overall literature review that if there is any relation between these three different techniques. Therefore, it is so important to review the scientific studies to find a better and effective way for improving design of workstations. On the other hand, manufacturers found that instead of using one of the approaches, utilizing the combination of these individual techniques are more effective to reduce the cost and production time.

Keywords: ergonomics, time study, virtual reality, workplace

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66 Proposal of Innovative Risk Assessment of Ergonomic Factors in the Production of Jet Engines Using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process)

Authors: Jose Cristiano Pereira, Gilson Brito Alves Lima

Abstract:

Ergonomics is a key factor affecting the operational safety and quality in the aircraft engine manufacturing industry and evidence shows that the lack of attention to it can increase the risk of accidents. In order to emphasize the importance of ergonomics, this paper systematically reviews the critical processes used in the aircraft engine production industry with focus on the ergonomic factors. about the subject to identify key ergonomic factors. Experts validated the factors and used AHP to rank the factors in order of significance. From the six key risk factors identified, the ones with the highest weight are psychological demand followed by understanding of operational side. These factors suggest that measures must be taken to improve ergonomic factors, quality and safety in the manufacturing of aircraft engines.

Keywords: ergonomics, safety, aviation, aircraft engine production

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65 Application of Industrial Ergonomics in Vehicle Service System Design

Authors: Zhao Yu, Zhi-Nan Zhang

Abstract:

More and more interactive devices are used in the transportation service system. Our mobile phones, on-board computers, and Head-Up Displays (HUDs) can all be used as the tools of the in-car service system. People can access smart systems with different terminals such as mobile phones, computers, pads and even their cars and watches. Different forms of terminals bring the different quality of interaction by the various human-computer Interaction modes. The new interactive devices require good ergonomics design at each stage of the whole design process. According to the theory of human factors and ergonomics, this paper compared three types of interactive devices by four driving tasks. Forty-eight drivers were chosen to experience these three interactive devices (mobile phones, on-board computers, and HUDs) by a simulate driving process. The subjects evaluated ergonomics performance and subjective workload after the process. And subjects were encouraged to support suggestions for improving the interactive device. The result shows that different interactive devices have different advantages in driving tasks, especially in non-driving tasks such as information and entertainment fields. Compared with mobile phones and onboard groups, the HUD groups had shorter response times in most tasks. The tasks of slow-up and the emergency braking are less accurate than the performance of a control group, which may because the haptic feedback of these two tasks is harder to distinguish than the visual information. Simulated driving is also helpful in improving the design of in-vehicle interactive devices. The paper summarizes the ergonomics characteristics of three in-vehicle interactive devices. And the research provides a reference for the future design of in-vehicle interactive devices through an ergonomic approach to ensure a good interaction relationship between the driver and the in-vehicle service system.

Keywords: human factors, industrial ergonomics, transportation system, usability, vehicle user interface

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64 Effects of Ergonomics on Labor Productivity in Office Design

Authors: Abdullah Erden, Filiz Erden

Abstract:

In the present information society era, a change is seen in every field together with changing technology. Along with this change, importance given to information and human who is the producer of information increased. Work life and working conditions included in these changes have also been affected. The most important factors that disturb employees in offices are lighting, ventilation, noise and office furniture. Upon arrangement of these according to ergonomic principles, performance and efficiency of employees will increase. Fatigue and stress resulting from office environment are harmful for employees. Attention and efficiency of employee who feels bad will decrease. It should be noted that office employees are human and affected from environment. It should be allowed them to work in comfortable, healthy and peaceful environment. As a result, efficiency will increase and target will be reached. In this study, it has been focused on basic concepts such as office management and efficiency, effects of ergonomics on office efficiency has been examined. Also, a place is given to the factors affecting operational efficiency and effects of physical environment on employees.

Keywords: ergonomics, efficiency, office design, office

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63 Ergonomics Aspects of Work with Computers

Authors: Leena Korpinen, Rauno Pääkkönen, Fabriziomaria Gobba

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This paper is based on a large questionnaire study. The paper presents how all participants and subgroups (upper- and lower-level white-collar workers) answered the question, “Have you had an ache, pain, or numbness, which you associate with desktop computer use, in the different body parts during the last 12 months?’ 14.6% of participants (19.4% of women and 8.2% of men) reported that they had often or very often physical symptoms in the neck. Even if our results cannot prove a causal relation of symptoms with computer use, show that workers believe that computer use can influence their wellbeing: This is important when devising treatment modalities to decrease these physical symptoms.

Keywords: ergonomics, work, computer, symptoms

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62 Human-factor and Ergonomics in Bottling Lines

Authors: Parameshwaran Nair

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Filling and packaging lines for bottling of beverages into glass, PET or aluminum containers require specialized expertise and a different configuration of equipment like – Filler, Warmer, Labeller, Crater/Recrater, Shrink Packer, Carton Erector, Carton Sealer, Date Coder, Palletizer, etc. Over the period of time, the packaging industry has evolved from manually operated single station machines to highly automized high-speed lines. Human factor and ergonomics have gained significant consideration in this course of transformation. A pre-requisite for such bottling lines, irrespective of the container type and size, is to be suitable for multi-format applications. It should also be able to handle format changeovers with minimal adjustment. It should have variable capacity and speeds, for providing great flexibility of use in managing accumulation times as a function of production characteristics. In terms of layout as well, it should demonstrate flexibility for operator movement and access to machine areas for maintenance. Packaging technology during the past few decades has risen to these challenges by a series of major breakthroughs interspersed with periods of refinement and improvement. The milestones are many and varied and are described briefly in this paper. In order to have a brief understanding of the human factor and ergonomics in the modern packaging lines, this paper, highlights the various technologies, design considerations and statutory requirements in packaging equipment for different types of containers used in India.

Keywords: human-factor, ergonomics, bottling lines, automized high-speed lines

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61 Internet-Of-Things and Ergonomics, Increasing Productivity and Reducing Waste: A Case Study

Authors: V. Jaime Contreras, S. Iliana Nunez, S. Mario Sanchez

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Inside a manufacturing facility, we can find innumerable automatic and manual operations, all of which are relevant to the production process. Some of these processes add more value to the products more than others. Manual operations tend to add value to the product since they can be found in the final assembly area o final operations of the process. In this areas, where a mistake or accident can increase the cost of waste exponentially. To reduce or mitigate these costly mistakes, one approach is to rely on automation to eliminate the operator from the production line - requires a hefty investment and development of specialized machinery. In our approach, the center of the solution is the operator through sufficient and adequate instrumentation, real-time reporting and ergonomics. Efficiency and reduced cycle time can be achieved thorough the integration of Internet-of-Things (IoT) ready technologies into assembly operations to enhance the ergonomics of the workstations. Augmented reality visual aids, RFID triggered personalized workstation dimensions and real-time data transfer and reporting can help achieve these goals. In this case study, a standard work cell will be used for real-life data acquisition and a simulation software to extend the data points beyond the test cycle. Three comparison scenarios will run in the work cell. Each scenario will introduce a dimension of the ergonomics to measure its impact independently. Furthermore, the separate test will determine the limitations of the technology and provide a reference for operating costs and investment required. With the ability, to monitor costs, productivity, cycle time and scrap/waste in real-time the ROI (return on investment) can be determined at the different levels to integration. This case study will help to show that ergonomics in the assembly lines can make significant impact when IoT technologies are introduced. Ergonomics can effectively reduce waste and increase productivity with minimal investment if compared with setting up to custom machine.

Keywords: augmented reality visual aids, ergonomics, real-time data acquisition and reporting, RFID triggered workstation dimensions

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60 Ergonomical Study of Hand-Arm Vibrational Exposure in a Gear Manufacturing Plant in India

Authors: Santosh Kumar, M. Muralidhar

Abstract:

The term ‘ergonomics’ is derived from two Greek words: ‘ergon’, meaning work and ‘nomoi’, meaning natural laws. Ergonomics is the study of how working conditions, machines and equipment can be arranged in order that people can work with them more efficiently. In this research communication an attempt has been made to study the effect of hand-arm vibrational exposure on the workers of a gear manufacturing plant by comparison of potential Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) symptoms and effect of different exposure levels of vibration on occurrence of CTS in actual industrial environment. Chi square test and correlation analysis have been considered for statistical analysis. From Chi square test, it has been found that the potential CTS symptoms occurrence is significantly dependent on the level of vibrational exposure. Data analysis indicates that 40.51% workers having potential CTS symptoms are exposed to vibration. Correlation analysis reveals that potential CTS symptoms are significantly correlated with exposure to level of vibration from handheld tools and to repetitive wrist movements.

Keywords: CTS symptoms, hand-arm vibration, ergonomics, physical tests

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59 Study and Evaluation of Occupational Health and Safety in Power Plant in Pakistan

Authors: Saira Iqbal

Abstract:

Occupational Health and Safety issues nowadays have become an important esteem in the context of Industrial Production. This study is designed to measure the workplace hazards at Kohinoor Energy Limited. Mainly focused hazards were Heat Stress, Noise Level, Light Level and Ergonomics. Measurements for parameters like Wet, Dry, Globe, WBGTi and RH% were taken directly by visiting the Study Area. The temperature in Degrees was recoded at Control Room and Engine Hall. Highest Temperature was recoded in Engine Hall which was about 380C. Efforts were made to record emissions of Noise Levels from the main area of concern like Engines in Engine hall, parking area, and mechanical workshop. Permissible level for measuring Noise is 85 and its Unit of Measurement is dB (A). In Engine Hall Noise was very high which was about 109.6 dB (A) and that level was exceeding the limits. Illumination Level was also recorded at different areas of Power Plant. The light level was though under permissible limits but in some areas like Engine Hall and Boiler Room, level of light was very low especially in Engine Hall where the level was 29 lx. Practices were performed for measuring hazards in context of ergonomics like extended reaching, deviated body postures, mechanical stress, and vibration exposures of the worker at different units of plants by just observing workers during working hours. Since KEL is ISO 8000 and 14000 certified, the researcher found no serious problems in the parameter Ergonomics however it was a common scenario that workers were reluctant to apply PPEs.

Keywords: workplace hazards, heat hazard, noise hazard, illumination, ergonomics

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58 Developing a Modular Architecture of Apparel Product

Authors: Yu Zhao, Mengqin Sun, Yahui Zhang

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Apparel products (or apparel) with the sense of aesthetics, usability (ergonomics) and function are fundamental and varied in people’s daily life. The numerous apparel thus produced by apparel industry, have been triggered many issues, such as the waste of sources and the environmental pollutions. In this study, a hybrid architecture called modular architecture of apparel (MAA) has been proposed to deal with the variety of apparel, and thus to overcome the aforementioned issues. Generally, the establishment of MAA takes advantage of the modular design of a general product that a product is assembled with many modules through their modular interface connector. The development of MAA is to first analyze the structure of apparel in terms of the necessity to form an apparel and the aesthetics, ergonomics, and function of apparel; then to divide apparel into many segments (or module in product design) based on the structure of apparel; to develop modular interfaces and modular interface connectors in terms of the features of apparel’s modules. It is noted that in the general product design, modules of a product are only about the function and ergonomics, but in MAA, the module of aesthetics is developed. Further, an apparel design with employing the MAA is carried out to validate its usefulness and efficiency. There are three contributions out of this study, the first is to overcome the aforementioned issues (i.e. waste of source and environmental pollutions); the second is the improvement of the modular design for product by considering aesthetics; the third is to add the value in realizing the personalized mass production of apparel in the near future.

Keywords: apparel, architecture, modular design, segment

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57 Ergonomics Management and Sustainability: An Exploratory Study Applied to Automaker Industry in South of Brazil

Authors: Giles Balbinotti, Lucas Balbinotti, Paula Hembecker

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The management of the productive process project activities, for the conception of future work and for the financial health of the companies, is an important condition in an organizational model that corroborates the management of the human aspects and their variabilities existing in the work. It is important to seek, at all levels of the organization, understanding and consequent cultural change, and so that factors associated with human aspects are considered and prioritized in the projects. In this scenario, the central question of research for this study is placed from the context of the work, in which the managers and project coordinators are inserted, as follows: How is the top management convinced, in the design stages, to take The ‘Ergonomics’ as strategy for the performance and sustainability of the business? In this perspective, this research has as general objective to analyze how the application of the management of the human aspects in a real project of productive process in the automotive industry, including the activity of the manager and coordinator of the project beyond the strategies of convincing to act in the ergonomics of design. For this, the socio-technical and ergonomic approach is adopted, given its anthropocentric premise in the sense of acting on the social system simultaneously to the technical system, besides the support of the Modapts system that measures the non-value-added times and the correlation with the Critical positions. The methodological approach adopted in this study is based on a review of the literature and the analysis of the activity of the project coordinators of an industry, including the management of human aspects in the context of work variability and the strategies applied in project activities. It was observed in the study that the loss of performance of the serial production lines reaches the important number of the order of 30%, which can make the operation with not value-added, and this loss has as one of the causes, the ergonomic problems present in the professional activity.

Keywords: human aspects in production process project, ergonomics in design, sociotechnical project management, sociotechnical, ergonomic principles, sustainability

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56 Ergonomics and Its Applicability in the Design Process in Egypt Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Mohamed Moheyeldin Mahmoud

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Egypt suffers from a severe shortage of data and charts concerning the physical dimensions, measurements, qualities and consumer behavior. The shortage of needed information and appropriate methods has forced the Egyptian designer to use any other foreign standard when designing a product for the Egyptian consumer which has led to many problems. The urgently needed database concerning the physical specifications, measurements of the Egyptian consumers, as well as the need to support the Ergonomics given courses in many colleges and institutes with the latest technologies, is stated as the research problem. Descriptive analytical method relying on the compiling, comparing and analyzing of information and facts in order to get acceptable perceptions, ideas and considerations is the used methodology by the researcher. The research concludes that: 1. Good interaction relationship between users and products shows the success of that product. 2. An integration linkage between the most prominent fields of science specially Ergonomics, Interaction Design and Ethnography should be encouraged to provide an ultimately updated database concerning the nature, specifications and environment of the Egyptian consumer, in order to achieve a higher benefit for both user and product. 3. Chinese economic policy based on the study of market requirements long before any market activities should be emulated. 4. Using Ethnography supports the design activities creating new products or updating existent ones through measuring the compatibility of products with their environment and user expectations, While contracting a joint cooperation between military colleges, sports education institutes from one side, and design institutes from the other side to provide an ultimately updated (annually updated) database concerning some specifications about students of both sexes applying in those institutes (height, weight, etc.) to provide the Industrial designer with the needed information when creating a new product or updating an existing one concerning that category is recommended by the researcher.

Keywords: adapt, ergonomics, ethnography, interaction design

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55 IMPERTIO: An Efficient Communication Interface for Cerebral Palsy Patients

Authors: M. Zaïgouche, A. Kouvahe, F. Stefanelli

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IMPERTIO is a high technology based project aiming at offering efficient assistance help in communication for persons affected by Cerebral Palsy. The systems currently available are hardly used by these patients who are not satisfied by ergonomics and response time. The project rests upon the concept that, opposite to usual master-slave communication giving power to the entity with larger range of possibilities, providing conversely the mastery to the entity with smaller range of possibilities will allow a better understanding ground for both parties. Entirely customizable, the application developed from this idea gives full freedom to the user. Through pictograms (one button linked to a word or a sentence) and adapted keyboard, noticeable improvements are brought to the response time and ease to use ergonomics.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, master-slave relation, communication interface, virtual keyboard, word construction algorithm

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54 Ergonomics Sallow Recharge Well for Sustainable Ground Water Resources

Authors: Lilik Sudiajeng, Wiraga Wayan, Lanang Parwita I Gusti

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This is the ongoing research started in 2013 with the final aim is to design the recharge wells both for housing and industry for ground water conservation in Bali - Indonesia. The research started in Denpasar Regency, one of the strategic areas in Bali. The research showed that there is some critical area of ground water resources, especially in north and west part of Denpasar Regency. It driven by the rapid increase of the tourism industry which is followed by the high rate of population, change of land use that leads to the decreasing of rain water catchment areas, and less awareness on preserve natural resources, including ground water. Focus Group Discussion concluded that in order to solve the problem of groundwater crisis, requires the contribution of all parties, started from making simple recharge well for housing. Because of the availability of land is limited and expensive, it is necessary to present an ergonomic shallow recharge well in accordance with the ability of the family or community. The ergonomics shallow recharge well is designed based on the data of hydrology and the characteristics of soil. The design is very flexible depending on the availability of land, environmentally friendly, energy efficient, culture-based, and affordable. To meet the recommended standard of ground water quality, then it equipped with a filtration and sedimentation ponds. Before design recharge wells is disseminated to the public, it is necessary to analyze the effectiveness of the wells to harvest and absorb rainwater into the ground.

Keywords: ergonomics, ground water resources, recharge well, sustainable

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53 SENSE-SEAT: Improving Creativity and Productivity through the Redesign of a Multisensory Technological Office Chair

Authors: Fernando Miguel Campos, Carlos Ferreira, João Pestana, Pedro Campos, Nils Ehrenberg, Wojciech Hydzik

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The current trend of organizations offering their workers open-office spaces and co-working offices has been primed for stimulating teamwork and collaboration. However, this is not always valid as these kinds of spaces bring other types of challenges that compromise workers productivity and creativity. We present an approach for improving creativity and productivity at the workspace by redesigning an office chair that incorporates subtle technological elements that help users focus, relax and being more productive and creative. This sheds light on how we can better design interactive furniture for such popular contexts, as we develop this new chair through a multidisciplinary approach using ergonomics, interior design, interaction design, hardware and software engineering and psychology.

Keywords: creativity, co-working, ergonomics, human-computer interaction, interaction, interactive furniture, productivity

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52 Comparison of EMG Normalization Techniques Recommended for Back Muscles Used in Ergonomics Research

Authors: Saif Al-Qaisi, Alif Saba

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Normalization of electromyography (EMG) data in ergonomics research is a prerequisite for interpreting the data. Normalizing accounts for variability in the data due to differences in participants’ physical characteristics, electrode placement protocols, time of day, and other nuisance factors. Typically, normalized data is reported as a percentage of the muscle’s isometric maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC). Various MVC techniques have been recommended in the literature for normalizing EMG activity of back muscles. This research tests and compares the recommended MVC techniques in the literature for three back muscles commonly used in ergonomics research, which are the lumbar erector spinae (LES), latissimus dorsi (LD), and thoracic erector spinae (TES). Six healthy males from a university population participated in this research. Five different MVC exercises were compared for each muscle using the Tringo wireless EMG system (Delsys Inc.). Since the LES and TES share similar functions in controlling trunk movements, their MVC exercises were the same, which included trunk extension at -60°, trunk extension at 0°, trunk extension while standing, hip extension, and the arch test. The MVC exercises identified in the literature for the LD were chest-supported shoulder extension, prone shoulder extension, lat-pull down, internal shoulder rotation, and abducted shoulder flexion. The maximum EMG signal was recorded during each MVC trial, and then the averages were computed across participants. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized to determine the effect of MVC technique on muscle activity. Post-hoc analyses were performed using the Tukey test. The MVC technique effect was statistically significant for each of the muscles (p < 0.05); however, a larger sample of participants was needed to detect significant differences in the Tukey tests. The arch test was associated with the highest EMG average at the LES, and also it resulted in the maximum EMG activity more often than the other techniques (three out of six participants). For the TES, trunk extension at 0° was associated with the largest EMG average, and it resulted in the maximum EMG activity the most often (three out of six participants). For the LD, participants obtained their maximum EMG either from chest-supported shoulder extension (three out of six participants) or prone shoulder extension (three out of six participants). Chest-supported shoulder extension, however, had a larger average than prone shoulder extension (0.263 and 0.240, respectively). Although all the aforementioned techniques were superior in their averages, they did not always result in the maximum EMG activity. If an accurate estimate of the true MVC is desired, more than one technique may have to be performed. This research provides additional MVC techniques for each muscle that may elicit the maximum EMG activity.

Keywords: electromyography, maximum voluntary contraction, normalization, physical ergonomics

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51 Integrating Ergonomics at Design Stage in Development of Continuous Passive Motion Machine

Authors: Mahesh S. Harne, Sunil V. Deshmukh

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A continuous passive motion machine improves and helps the patient to restore range of motion in various physiotherapy activities. The paper presents a concept for portable CPM. The device is used for various joint for upper and lower body extremities. The device is designed so that the active and passive motion is incorporated. During development, the physiotherapist and patient need is integrated with designer aspects. Various tools such as Analytical Higher Hierarchy process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is used to integrate the need at the design stage. With market survey of various commercial CPM the gaps are identified, and efforts are made to fill the gaps with ergonomic need. Indian anthropomorphic dimension is referred. The device is modular to best suit for all the anthropomorphic need of different human. Experimentation is carried under the observation of physiotherapist and doctor on volunteer patient. We reported better results are compare to conventional CPM with comfort and less pain. We concluded that the concept will be helpful to reduces therapy cost and wide utility of device for various joint and physiotherapy exercise.

Keywords: continuous passive motion machine, ergonomics, physiotherapy, quality function deployment

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50 The Digital Microscopy in Organ Transplantation: Ergonomics of the Tele-Pathological Evaluation of Renal, Liver, and Pancreatic Grafts

Authors: Constantinos S. Mammas, Andreas Lazaris, Adamantia S. Mamma-Graham, Georgia Kostopanagiotou, Chryssa Lemonidou, John Mantas, Eustratios Patsouris

Abstract:

The process to build a better safety culture, methods of error analysis, and preventive measures, starts with an understanding of the effects when human factors engineering refer to remote microscopic diagnosis in surgery and specially in organ transplantation for the evaluation of the grafts. Α high percentage of solid organs arrive at the recipient hospitals and are considered as injured or improper for transplantation in the UK. Digital microscopy adds information on a microscopic level about the grafts (G) in Organ Transplant (OT), and may lead to a change in their management. Such a method will reduce the possibility that a diseased G will arrive at the recipient hospital for implantation. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the ergonomics of digital microscopy (DM) based on virtual slides, on telemedicine systems (TS) for tele-pathological evaluation (TPE) of the grafts (G) in organ transplantation (OT). Material and Methods: By experimental simulation, the ergonomics of DM for microscopic TPE of renal graft (RG), liver graft (LG) and pancreatic graft (PG) tissues is analyzed. In fact, this corresponded to the ergonomics of digital microscopy for TPE in OT by applying virtual slide (VS) system for graft tissue image capture, for remote diagnoses of possible microscopic inflammatory and/or neoplastic lesions. Experimentation included the development of an OTE-TS similar experimental telemedicine system (Exp.-TS) for simulating the integrated VS based microscopic TPE of RG, LG and PG Simulation of DM on TS based TPE performed by 2 specialists on a total of 238 human renal graft (RG), 172 liver graft (LG) and 108 pancreatic graft (PG) tissues digital microscopic images for inflammatory and neoplastic lesions on four electronic spaces of the four used TS. Results: Statistical analysis of specialist‘s answers about the ability to accurately diagnose the diseased RG, LG and PG tissues on the electronic space among four TS (A,B,C,D) showed that DM on TS for TPE in OT is elaborated perfectly on the ES of a desktop, followed by the ES of the applied Exp.-TS. Tablet and mobile-phone ES seem significantly risky for the application of DM in OT (p<.001). Conclusion: To make the largest reduction in errors and adverse events referring to the quality of the grafts, it will take application of human factors engineering to procurement, design, audit, and awareness-raising activities. Consequently, it will take an investment in new training, people, and other changes to management activities for DM in OT. The simulating VS based TPE with DM of RG, LG and PG tissues after retrieval, seem feasible and reliable and dependable on the size of the electronic space of the applied TS, for remote prevention of diseased grafts from being retrieved and/or sent to the recipient hospital and for post-grafting and pre-transplant planning.

Keywords: digital microscopy, organ transplantation, tele-pathology, virtual slides

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49 A Literature Review of Ergonomics Sitting Studies to Characterize Safe and Unsafe Sitting Behaviors

Authors: Yoonjin Lee, Dongwook Hwang, Juhee Park, Woojin Park

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As undesirable sitting posture is known to be a major cause of musculoskeletal disorder of office workers, sitting has attracted attention on occupational health. However, there seems to be no consensus on what are safe and unsafe sitting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safe and unsafe behaviors based on scientific findings of sitting behavior. Three objectives were as follows; to identify different sitting behaviors measure used in ergonomics studies on safe sitting, for each measure identified, to find available findings or recommendations on safe and unsafe sitting behaviors along with relevant empirical grounds, and to synthesize the findings or recommendations to provide characterizations of safe and unsafe behaviors. A systematic review of electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science) was conducted for extensive search of sitting behavior. Key terms included awkward sitting position, sedentary sitting, dynamic sitting, sitting posture, sitting posture, and sitting biomechanics, etc. Each article was systemically abstracted to extract a list of studied sitting behaviors, measures used to study the sitting behavior, and presence of empirical evidence of safety of the sitting behaviors. Finally, characterization of safe and unsafe sitting behavior was conducted based on knowledge with empirical evidence. This characterization is expected to provide useful knowledge for evaluation of sitting behavior and about postures to be measured in development of sensing chair.

Keywords: sitting position, sitting biomechanics, sitting behavior, unsafe sitting

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48 An Anthropometric and Postural Risk Assessment of Students in Computer Laboratories of a State University

Authors: Sarah Louise Cruz, Jemille Venturina

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Ergonomics considers the capabilities and limitations of a person as they interact with tools, equipment, facilities and tasks in their work environment. Workplace is one example of physical work environment, be it a workbench or a desk. In school laboratories, sitting is the most common working posture of the students. Students maintain static sitting posture as they perform different computer-aided activities. The College of Engineering and College of Information and Communication Technology of a State University consist of twenty-two computer laboratories. Normally, students aren’t usually aware of the importance of sustaining proper sitting posture while doing their long hour computer laboratory activities. The study evaluates the perceived discomfort and working postures of students as they are exposed on current workplace design of computer laboratories. The current study utilizes Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Body Discomfort Chart using Borg’s CR-10 Scale Rating and Quick Exposure Checklist in order to assess the posture and the current working condition. The result of the study may possibly minimize the body discomfort experienced by the students. The researchers redesign the individual workstations which includes working desk, sitting stool and other workplace design components. Also, the economic variability of each alternative was considered given that the study focused on improvement of facilities of a state university.

Keywords: computer workstation, ergonomics, posture, students, workplace

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47 Assessment of Work Postures and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Diamond Polishers in Botswana: A Case Study

Authors: Oanthata Jester Sealetsa, Richie Moalosi

Abstract:

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) are reported to be amongst the leading contributing factors of low productivity in many industries across the world, and the most affected being New Emerging Economies (NEC) such as Botswana. This is due to lack of expertise and resources to deal with existing ergonomics challenges. This study was aimed to evaluate occupational postures and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among diamond polishers in a diamond company in Botswana. A case study was conducted with about 106 diamond polishers in Gaborone, Botswana. A case study was chosen because it can investigate and explore an issue thoroughly and deeply, and record behaviour over time so changes in behaviour can be identified. The Corlett and Bishop Body Map was used to determine frequency of MSDs symptoms in different body parts of the workers. This was then followed by the use of the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) to evaluate the occupational postural risks of MSDs. Descriptive statistics, chi square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results of the study reveal that workers experienced pain in the upper back, lower back, shoulders, neck, and wrists with the most pain reported in the upper back (44.6%) and lower back (44.2%). However, the mean REBA score of 6.07 suggests that sawing, bruiting and polishing were the most dangerous processes in diamond polishing. The study recommends that a redesign of the diamond polishing workstations is necessary to accommodate the anthropometry characteristic of Batswana (people from Botswana) to prevent the development of MSDs.

Keywords: assessment, Botswana, diamond polishing, ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, occupational postural risks

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46 Development of an Interactive Display-Control Layout Design System for Trains Based on Train Drivers’ Mental Models

Authors: Hyeonkyeong Yang, Minseok Son, Taekbeom Yoo, Woojin Park

Abstract:

Human error is the most salient contributing factor to railway accidents. To reduce the frequency of human errors, many researchers and train designers have adopted ergonomic design principles for designing display-control layout in rail cab. There exist a number of approaches for designing the display control layout based on optimization methods. However, the ergonomically optimized layout design may not be the best design for train drivers, since the drivers have their own mental models based on their experiences. Consequently, the drivers may prefer the existing display-control layout design over the optimal design, and even show better driving performance using the existing design compared to that using the optimal design. Thus, in addition to ergonomic design principles, train drivers’ mental models also need to be considered for designing display-control layout in rail cab. This paper developed an ergonomic assessment system of display-control layout design, and an interactive layout design system that can generate design alternatives and calculate ergonomic assessment score in real-time. The design alternatives generated from the interactive layout design system may not include the optimal design from the ergonomics point of view. However, the system’s strength is that it considers train drivers’ mental models, which can help generate alternatives that are more friendly and easier to use for train drivers. Also, with the developed system, non-experts in ergonomics, such as train drivers, can refine the design alternatives and improve ergonomic assessment score in real-time.

Keywords: display-control layout design, interactive layout design system, mental model, train drivers

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45 Multi-Objective Optimization of Assembly Manufacturing Factory Setups

Authors: Andreas Lind, Aitor Iriondo Pascual, Dan Hogberg, Lars Hanson

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Factory setup lifecycles are most often described and prepared in CAD environments; the preparation is based on experience and inputs from several cross-disciplinary processes. Early in the factory setup preparation, a so-called block layout is created. The intention is to describe a high-level view of the intended factory setup and to claim area reservations and allocations. Factory areas are then blocked, i.e., targeted to be used for specific intended resources and processes, later redefined with detailed factory setup layouts. Each detailed layout is based on the block layout and inputs from cross-disciplinary preparation processes, such as manufacturing sequence, productivity, workers’ workplace requirements, and resource setup preparation. However, this activity is often not carried out with all variables considered simultaneously, which might entail a risk of sub-optimizing the detailed layout based on manual decisions. Therefore, this work aims to realize a digital method for assembly manufacturing layout planning where productivity, area utilization, and ergonomics can be considered simultaneously in a cross-disciplinary manner. The purpose of the digital method is to support engineers in finding optimized designs of detailed layouts for assembly manufacturing factories, thereby facilitating better decisions regarding setups of future factories. Input datasets are company-specific descriptions of required dimensions for specific area reservations, such as defined dimensions of a worker’s workplace, material façades, aisles, and the sequence to realize the product assembly manufacturing process. To test and iteratively develop the digital method, a demonstrator has been developed with an adaptation of existing software that simulates and proposes optimized designs of detailed layouts. Since the method is to consider productivity, ergonomics, area utilization, and constraints from the automatically generated block layout, a multi-objective optimization approach is utilized. In the demonstrator, the input data are sent to the simulation software industrial path solutions (IPS). Based on the input and Lua scripts, the IPS software generates a block layout in compliance with the company’s defined dimensions of area reservations. Communication is then established between the IPS and the software EPP (Ergonomics in Productivity Platform), including intended resource descriptions, assembly manufacturing process, and manikin (digital human) resources. Using multi-objective optimization approaches, the EPP software then calculates layout proposals that are sent iteratively and simulated and rendered in IPS, following the rules and regulations defined in the block layout as well as productivity and ergonomics constraints and objectives. The software demonstrator is promising. The software can handle several parameters to optimize the detailed layout simultaneously and can put forward several proposals. It can optimize multiple parameters or weight the parameters to fine-tune the optimal result of the detailed layout. The intention of the demonstrator is to make the preparation between cross-disciplinary silos transparent and achieve a common preparation of the assembly manufacturing factory setup, thereby facilitating better decisions.

Keywords: factory setup, multi-objective, optimization, simulation

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44 Designing Garments Ergonomically to Improve Life Quality of Elderly People

Authors: Nagda Ibrahim Mady, Shimaa Mohamed Atiha

Abstract:

In light of actual needs of elderly people and the changes that accompany age in eyesight, hearing, dexterity, mobility, and memory which make aged people unable to carry out the simplest living affairs especially clothing demands. These needs are almost neglected in the current clothing market obligate aged peoples to wear the available choices without any consideration to their actual desires and needs. Fashion designer has gained many experiences that can gather between ergonomics and stages of fashion designing process. Fashion designer can determine the actual needs of aged people and reply these needs with designs that can achieve Improvement to the life quality of aged people besides maintaining good appearance. Thus Fashion designer can help elderly people to avoid negative impacts age leaves on them, either it is psychological or kinetic or that of dementia. Ergonomics in clothing is considered the tools and mechanisms that are used to fit aged people satisfactions supporting them to improve their living using the least time and effort. Providing the elderly with comfort besides maintaining good appearance that can make self–confidence besides independence. From this point of view the research is looking forward to improve the life of aged people through addressing functional clothes that can make elderly independent in the wearing process. Providing in these designs comfort, quality, and practicality and economic cost. Suggesting the suitable fabrics and materials and applying it to the designs to help the elderly perform their daily living customs. Reaching the successful designs that can be acceptable to specialists and to consumers whom they confirm: it supplies their clothing needs and provides the atheistic and functional performance and therefore it gives them better life.

Keywords: ergonomic, design garments, elderly people, life quality

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43 Model of MSD Risk Assessment at Workplace

Authors: K. Sekulová, M. Šimon

Abstract:

This article focuses on upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders risk assessment model at workplace. In this model are used risk factors that are responsible for musculoskeletal system damage. Based on statistic calculations the model is able to define what risk of MSD threatens workers who are under risk factors. The model is also able to say how MSD risk would decrease if these risk factors are eliminated.

Keywords: ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, occupational diseases, risk factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
42 Human Factors Integration of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Response: Systems and Technologies

Authors: Graham Hancox, Saydia Razak, Sue Hignett, Jo Barnes, Jyri Silmari, Florian Kading

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In the event of a Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) incident rapidly gaining, situational awareness is of paramount importance and advanced technologies have an important role to play in improving detection, identification, monitoring (DIM) and patient tracking. Understanding how these advanced technologies can fit into current response systems is essential to ensure they are optimally designed, usable and meet end-users’ needs. For this reason, Human Factors (Ergonomics) methods have been used within an EU Horizon 2020 project (TOXI-Triage) to firstly describe (map) the hierarchical structure in a CBRN response with adapted Accident Map (AcciMap) methodology. Secondly, Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) has been used to describe and review the sequence of steps (sub-tasks) in a CBRN scenario response as a task system. HTA methodology was then used to map one advanced technology, ‘Tag and Trace’, which tags an element (people, sample and equipment) with a Near Field Communication (NFC) chip in the Hot Zone to allow tracing of (monitoring), for example casualty progress through the response. This HTA mapping of the Tag and Trace system showed how the provider envisaged the technology being used, allowing for review and fit with the current CBRN response systems. These methodologies have been found to be very effective in promoting and supporting a dialogue between end-users and technology providers. The Human Factors methods have given clear diagrammatic (visual) representations of how providers see their technology being used and how end users would actually use it in the field; allowing for a more user centered approach to the design process. For CBRN events usability is critical as sub-optimum design of technology could add to a responders’ workload in what is already a chaotic, ambiguous and safety critical environment.

Keywords: AcciMap, CBRN, ergonomics, hierarchical task analysis, human factors

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41 UEMSD Risk Identification: Case Study

Authors: K. Sekulová, M. Šimon

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The article demonstrates on a case study how it is possible to identify MSD risk. It is based on a dissertation risk identification model of occupational diseases formation in relation to the work activity that determines what risk can endanger workers who are exposed to the specific risk factors. It is evaluated based on statistical calculations. These risk factors are main cause of upper-extremities musculoskeletal disorders.

Keywords: case study, upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomics, risk identification

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40 Vehicles Analysis, Assessment and Redesign Related to Ergonomics and Human Factors

Authors: Susana Aragoneses Garrido

Abstract:

Every day, the roads are scenery of numerous accidents involving vehicles, producing thousands of deaths and serious injuries all over the world. Investigations have revealed that Human Factors (HF) are one of the main causes of road accidents in modern societies. Distracted driving (including external or internal aspects of the vehicle), which is considered as a human factor, is a serious and emergent risk to road safety. Consequently, a further analysis regarding this issue is essential due to its transcendence on today’s society. The objectives of this investigation are the detection and assessment of the HF in order to provide solutions (including a better vehicle design), which might mitigate road accidents. The methodology of the project is divided in different phases. First, a statistical analysis of public databases is provided between Spain and The UK. Second, data is classified in order to analyse the major causes involved in road accidents. Third, a simulation between different paths and vehicles is presented. The causes related to the HF are assessed by Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Fourth, different car models are evaluated using the Rapid Upper Body Assessment (RULA). Additionally, the JACK SIEMENS PLM tool is used with the intention of evaluating the Human Factor causes and providing the redesign of the vehicles. Finally, improvements in the car design are proposed with the intention of reducing the implication of HF in traffic accidents. The results from the statistical analysis, the simulations and the evaluations confirm that accidents are an important issue in today’s society, especially the accidents caused by HF resembling distractions. The results explore the reduction of external and internal HF through the global analysis risk of vehicle accidents. Moreover, the evaluation of the different car models using RULA method and the JACK SIEMENS PLM prove the importance of having a good regulation of the driver’s seat in order to avoid harmful postures and therefore distractions. For this reason, a car redesign is proposed for the driver to acquire the optimum position and consequently reducing the human factors in road accidents.

Keywords: analysis vehicles, asssesment, ergonomics, car redesign

Procedia PDF Downloads 236