Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 133

Search results for: epidemiology

133 Epidemiology and Jeopardy Aspect of Febrile Neutropenia Patients by Means of Infectious Maladies

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

Conclusions of the sort and setting of observational treatment for immunocompromised patients with fever are confused by the qualities of the hidden disease and the impacts of medications previously got, just as by changing microbiological examples and patterns in sedate obstruction at national and institutional levels. A few frameworks have been proposed to recognize patients who could profit by outpatient anti-infection treatment from patients who require hospitalization. Useful contemplations may choose whether the fundamental checking during the time of neutropenia can be accomplished.

Keywords: microbiology, infectious, neutropenia, epidemiology

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
132 Analysis of Non-Coding Genome in Streptococcus pneumoniae for Molecular Epidemiology Typing

Authors: Martynova Alina, Lyubov Buzoleva

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Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative agent of pneumonias and meningitids throught all the world. Having high genetic diversity, this microorganism can cause different clinical forms of pneumococcal infections and microbiologically it is really difficult diagnosed by routine methods. Also, epidemiological surveillance requires more developed methods of molecular typing because the recent method of serotyping doesn't allow to distinguish invasive and non-invasive isolates properly. Non-coding genome of bacteria seems to be the interesting source for seeking of highly distinguishable markers to discriminate the subspecies of such a variable bacteria as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Technically, we proposed scheme of discrimination of S.pneumoniae strains with amplification of non-coding region (SP_1932) with the following restriction with 2 types of enzymes of Alu1 and Mn1. Aim: This research aimed to compare different methods of typing and their application for molecular epidemiology purposes. Methods: we analyzed population of 100 strains of S.pneumoniae isolated from different patients by different molecular epidemiology methods such as pulse-field gel electophoresis (PFGE), restriction polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and multilolocus sequence typing (MLST), and all of them were compared with classic typing method as serotyping. The discriminative power was estimated with Simpson Index (SI). Results: We revealed that the most discriminative typing method is RFLP (SI=0,97, there were distinguished 42 genotypes).PFGE was slightly less discriminative (SI=0,95, we identified 35 genotypes). MLST is still the best reference method (SI=1.0). Classic method of serotyping showed quite weak discriminative power (SI=0,93, 24 genotypes). In addition, sensivity of RFLP was 100%, specificity was 97,09%. Conclusion: the most appropriate method for routine epidemiology surveillance is RFLP with non-coding region of Streptococcsu pneumoniae, then PFGE, though in some cases these results should be obligatory confirmed by MLST.

Keywords: molecular epidemiology typing, non-coding genome, Streptococcus pneumoniae, MLST

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131 Survey of Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Badminton Injury Using Medical Check-Up and Questionnaire of School Age Badminton Players

Authors: Xiao Zhou, Kazuhiro Imai, Xiaoxuan Liu

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Badminton is one type of racket sports that requires repetitive overhead motion, with the shoulder in abduction/external rotation and requires players to perform jumps, lunges, and quick directional changes. These characteristics could be stressful for body regions that may cause badminton injuries. Regarding racket players including badminton players, there have not been any studies that have utilized medical check-up to evaluate epidemiology and mechanism of injuries. In addition, epidemiology of badminton injury in school age badminton players is unknown. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the badminton injuries, physical fitness parameters, and intensity of shoulder pain using medical check-up so that the mechanisms of shoulder injuries might be revealed. The second purpose of this study was to survey the distribution of badminton injuries in elementary school age players so that injury prevention can be implemented as early as possible. The results of this study revealed that shoulder pain occurred in all players, and present shoulder pain players had smaller weight, greater shoulder external rotation (ER) gain, significantly thinner circumference of upper limbs and greater trunk extension. Identifying players with specific of these factors may enhance the prevention of badminton injury. This study also shows that there are high incidences of knee, ankle, plantar, and shoulder injury or pain in elementary school age badminton players. Injury prevention program might be implemented for elementary school age players.

Keywords: badminton injury, epidemiology, medical check-up, school age players

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130 Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Leishmaniasis in Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Layegheh Daliri

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Introduction: Leishmaniasis occurs in infectious diseases of Leishmania protozoa in Afghanistan, anthroponotic leishmaniasis and common cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL). Anthroponotic skin leishmania tropica may cause urban diseases and transmitted by Phlebotomus Sergenti. In different parts of Afghanistan, different species of Leishmania are observed. We report the epidemiological characteristics of prevention and treatment in this study. Methods: This study examines the epidemiology and prevention of religious diseases in Afghanistan. Knowledge gaps were analyzed and collected with our own data. Results: In Afghanistan, most of the Lishmania Tropic seekers are Four species of Leishmania in northern Afghanistan, including Leishmania Tropica, L. Major and L. Donovani, cause skin lesions, but L. Donovani and L. infantum are visible. Even combined prevention can significantly reduce the amount of infection. Conclusion: Skinny, as well as visceral leishmaniasis, can occur among the returnees from Afghanistan. Unusual and poor skin lesions can be created by L. Donovani. In most pathogenic areas, the transmission of common diseases between humans and animals. Home dogs are the main reservoir, transferring in some areas such as India and Sudan.

Keywords: leishmania donovani, leishmania tropica, treatment, disease, epidemiology

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129 History and Epidemiology of Foot and Mouth Disease in Afghanistan: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Arash Osmani, Ian Robertson, Ihab Habib, Ahmad Aslami

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Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is endemic in Afghanistan. A retrospective study of data collected through passive surveillance of outbreaks of FMD from 1995 to 2016 was undertaken. A total of 1471 outbreaks were reported between 1995 and 2008. Of 7776 samples originating from 34 provinces tested between 2009 and 2016 4845 (62.3%) tested positive. The prevalence varied significantly between years (2009 and 2016) (P < 0.001); however, the number of outbreaks did not differ significantly (P = 0.24) between 1995 and 2008. During this period, there was a strong correlation between the number of outbreaks reported and the number of districts with infected animals (r = 0.74, P = 0.002). Serotype O was the predominant serotype detected, although serotypes A and Asia1 were also detected. Cattle were involved in all outbreaks reported. Herat province in the north-west (bordering Iran), Nangarhar province in the east (bordering Pakistan) and Kabul province in the centre of the country had infections detected in all years of the study. The findings from this study provide valuable direction for further research to understand the epidemiology of FMD in Afghanistan.

Keywords: foot and mouth disease, retrospective, epidemiology, Afghanistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
128 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Molecular Epidemiology: An Overview

Authors: Asho Ali

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Tuberculosis is a disease of grave concern which infects one-third of the global population. The high incidence of tuberculosis is further compounded by the increasing emergence of drug resistant strains including multi drug resistant (MDR). Global incidence MDR-TB is ~4%. Molecular epidemiological studies, based on the assumption that patients infected with clustered strains are epidemiologically linked, have helped understand the transmission dynamics of disease. It has also helped to investigate the basis of variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains, differences in transmission, and severity of disease or drug resistance mechanisms from across the globe. This has helped in developing strategies for the treatment and prevention of the disease including MDR.

Keywords: Mycobcaterium tuberculosis, molecular epidemiology, drug resistance, disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
127 Hospital Acquired Bloodstream Infections Among Patients With Hematological and Solid Malignancies: Epidemiology, Causative Pathogens and Mortality

Authors: Marah El-Beeli, Abdullah Balkhair, Zakaryia Al Muharmi, Samir Al Adawi, Mansoor Al-Jabri, Abdullah Al Rawahi, Hazaa Al Yahyae, Eman Al Balushi, Yahya M. Al-Farsi

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The health care service and the anticancer chemotherapeutics has changed the natural history of cancer into manageable chronic disease and improve the cancer patient’s lifestyle and increase the survival time. Despite that, still, infection is the major dilemma opposing the cancer patient either because of the clinical presentation of the cancer type and impaired immune system or as a consequence of anticancer therapy. This study has been conducted to1) track changes in the epidemiology of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections among patients with malignancies in the last five years. 2) To explore the causative pathogens and 3) the outcome of HA-BSIs in patients with a different types of malignancies. An ampi-directional study (retrospective and prospective follow up) of patients with malignancies admitted at Sultan Qaboos University hospital (570-bed tertiary hospital) during the study period (from January 2015 to December 2019). The cumulative frequency and prevalence rates of HA-BSIs by patients and isolates were calculated. In addition, the cumulative frequency of participants with single versus mixed infections and types of causative micro-organisms of HA-BSIs were obtained. A total of 1246 event of HA-BSIs has occurred during the study period. Nearly the third (30.25%) of the HA-BSI events was identified among 288 patients with malignancies. About 20% of cases were mixed infections (more than one isolate). Staphylococcus spp were the predominant isolated pathogen (24.7%), followed by Klebsiella spp (15.8%), Escherichia spp (13%), and Pseudomonas spp (9.3%). About half (51%) of cases died in the same year, and (64%) of the deaths occur within two weeks after the infection. According to the observations, no changes in the trends of epidemiology, causative pathogens, morbidity, and mortality rates in the last five years.

Keywords: epidemiology, haematological malignancies, hospital acquired bloodstream infections, solid malignancies

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126 Zoonotic Dirofilaria Repens: Geographic Spread and New Avenues for Control

Authors: Francesco La Torre, Angela Di Cesare, Donato Traversa

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The mosquito-transmitted nematode Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of subcutaneous filariosis in dogs, other animals and humans. Adults and circulating microfilariae may cause different forms of skin conditions, and various allergic reactions. The infection is distributed in several countries and spreading in several areas of Europe. The control of D. repens is pivotal to reduce the transmission in dogs and to minimize the risk of infection in humans, but only few information is available for the chemoprevention of subcutaneous filariosis of dogs. A recent clinical field study showed the efficacy and safety of a monthly administration of an oral formulation containing milbemycin oxime (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of D. repens infection in dogs. Most recent and focused insights into epidemiology and control of zoonotic canine subcutaneous filariosis are here discussed.

Keywords: Dirofilaria repens, epidemiology, zoonosis, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 636
125 Molecular Epidemiologic Distribution of HDV Genotypes among Different Ethnic Groups in Iran: A Systematic Review

Authors: Khabat Barkhordari

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Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a RNA virus that needs the function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its propagation and assembly. Infection by HDV can occur spontaneously with HBV infection and cause acute hepatitis or develop as secondary infection in HBV suffering patients. Based on genome sequence analysis, HDV has several genotypes which show broad geographic and diverse clinical features. The aim of current study is determine the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis delta virus genotype in patients with positive HBsAg among different ethnic groups of Iran. This systematic review study reviews the results of different studies which examined 2000 Iranian patients with HBV infection from 2010 to 2015. Among 2000 patients in this study, 16.75 % were containing anti-HDV antibody and HDV RNA was found in just 1.75% cases. All of positive cases also have genotype I.

Keywords: HDV, genotype, epidemiology, distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
124 Epidemiology of Bladder Malignancy in Patients Treated with Urethral Resection in Kurdistan Province

Authors: Heshmatollah Sofimajidpour, Mohammad Aziz Rasouli

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Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world and the fourth most common cancer in men in Iran, and the second most common genitourinary cancer after prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of bladder malignancy in patients treated with transurethral resection in Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj. In this cross-sectional study, data was extracted from321 medical records of patients with bladder malignancy treated by urethral resection. Patients 'information, including age, sex, place of residence, occupation, smoking history, histopathology, disease stage, and type of treatment, were extracted from patients' medical records from 2012-2017. The frequency and percentage of each variable were calculated using Stata software Ver. 14 and analyzed. The results of this study showed that the mean ± standard deviation of the age of the subjects was 65.6 ± 14 years. 264 people (82.2%) were men, and 247 people (76.9%) lived in the city. In terms of smoking and family history, 172 patients (53.6%) and 20 patients (6.2%) were reported, respectively. Most people were diagnosed with Transitional Cell carcinoma, and 210 patients (65.4%) were diagnosed with stage 1, and 8 patients (2.5%) were diagnosed with stage 4 of the disease. Regarding the type of treatment, TURBT was reported in 207 patients (64.5%), and TURBT and BCG in the bladder were reported in 74 patients (23%). The incidence of bladder cancer is increasing, although this increase may be due to improved cancer registration systems, as well as the use of new diagnostic methods and increased patient awareness, the risk of bladder cancer is increasing due to lifestyle changes, job encounters, and other risk factors. Therefore planning and identifying the causes of this cancer can be helpful in preventing it.

Keywords: epidemiology, bladder malignancy, transurethral resection, urinary tract, kurdistan, iran

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123 Clostridium Difficile in Western Australian Native Animals: Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiology

Authors: Karla Cautivo, Thomas Riley, Daniel Knight

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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalised humans. C. difficile colonises the gastrointestinal tract, causes disease in a variety of animal species and can persist as a spore in diverse environments. Genetic overlap between C. difficile strains from human, animal and environmental sources suggests CDI has a zoonotic or foodborne aetiology. In Australia, C. difficile PCR ribotype RT014 (MLST clade 1) and several ST11 (MLST clade 5) RTs are found commonly in livestock. The high prevalence and diversity of ST11 strains in Australian production animals indicates Australia might be the ancestral home for this lineage. This project describes for the first time the ecology of C. difficile in Australian native animals, providing insights into the prevalence, molecular epidemiology and evolution of C. difficile in this unique environment and a possible role in CDI in humans and animals in Australia. Faecal samples were collected from wild/captive reptiles (n=37), mammals (n=104) and birds (n=102) in Western Australia in 2020/21. Anaerobic enrichment culture was performed, and C. difficile isolates were characterised by PCR ribotyping and toxin gene profiling. Seventy isolates of C. difficile were recovered (prevalence of C. difficile in faecal samples 28%, n=68/243); 27 unique RTs were identified, 5 were novel. The prevalence of C. difficile was similar for reptiles and mammals, 46% (n=17/37) and 43%(n=45/104), respectively, but significantly lower in birds (7.8%, n=8/102; p<0.00001 for both reptiles and mammals). Of the 57 isolates available for typing, RT237 (clade 5) and RT002 (clade 2) were the most prevalent, 15.8% (n=9/57) and 14% (n=8/57), respectively. The high prevalence of C. difficile in reptiles and mammals, particularly clade 5 strains, supported by previous studies of C. difficile in Australian soils, suggest that Australia might be the ancestral home of MLST clade 5.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile, zoonosis, molecular epidemiology, ecology and evolution

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122 Molecular Epidemiology of Circulating Adenovirus Types in Acute Conjunctivitis Cases in Chandigarh, North India

Authors: Mini P. Singh, Jagat Ram, Archit Kumar, Tripti Rungta, Jasmine Khurana, Amit Gupta, R. K. Ratho

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Introduction: Human adenovirus is the most common agent involved in viral conjunctivitis. The clinical manifestations vary with different serotypes. The identification of the circulating strains followed by phylogenetic analysis can be helpful in understanding the origin and transmission of the disease. The present study aimed to carry out molecular epidemiology of the adenovirus types in the patients with conjunctivitis presenting to the eye centre of a tertiary care hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: The conjunctival swabs were collected from 23 suspected adenoviral conjunctivitis patients between April-August, 2014 and transported in viral transport media. The samples were subjected to nested PCR targeting hexon gene of human adenovirus. The band size of 956bp was eluted and 8 representative positive samples were subjected to sequencing. The sequences were analyzed by using CLUSTALX2.1 and MEGA 5.1 software. Results: The male: female ratio was found to be 3.6:1. The mean age of presenting patients was 43.95 years (+17.2). Approximately 52.1% (12/23) of patients presented with bilateral involvement while 47.8% (11/23) with unilateral involvement of the eye. Human adenovirus DNA could be detected in 65.2% (15/23) of the patients. The phylogenetic analysis revealed presence of serotype 8 in 7 patients and serotype 4 in one patient. The serotype 8 sequences showed 99-100% identity with Tunisian, Indian and Japanese strains. The adenovirus serotype 4 strains had 100% identity with strains from Tunisia, China and USA. Conclusion: Human adenovirus was found be an important etiological agent for conjunctivitis in our set up. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the predominant circulating strains in our epidemic keratoconjunctivitis were serotypes 8 and 4.

Keywords: conjunctivitis, human adenovirus, molecular epidemiology, phylogenetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
121 Metagenomics-Based Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases

Authors: Vyacheslav Furtak, Merja Roivainen, Olga Mirochnichenko, Majid Laassri, Bella Bidzhieva, Tatiana Zagorodnyaya, Vladimir Chizhikov, Konstantin Chumakov

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Molecular epidemiology and environmental surveillance are parts of a rational strategy to control infectious diseases. They have been widely used in the worldwide campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, which otherwise would be complicated by the inability to rapidly respond to outbreaks and determine sources of the infection. The conventional scheme involves isolation of viruses from patients and the environment, followed by their identification by nucleotide sequences analysis to determine phylogenetic relationships. This is a tedious and time-consuming process that yields definitive results when it may be too late to implement countermeasures. Because of the difficulty of high-throughput full-genome sequencing, most such studies are conducted by sequencing only capsid genes or their parts. Therefore the important information about the contribution of other parts of the genome and inter- and intra-species recombination to viral evolution is not captured. Here we propose a new approach based on the rapid concentration of sewage samples with tangential flow filtration followed by deep sequencing and reconstruction of nucleotide sequences of viruses present in the samples. The entire nucleic acids content of each sample is sequenced, thus preserving in digital format the complete spectrum of viruses. A set of rapid algorithms was developed to separate deep sequence reads into discrete populations corresponding to each virus and assemble them into full-length consensus contigs, as well as to generate a complete profile of sequence heterogeneities in each of them. This provides an effective approach to study molecular epidemiology and evolution of natural viral populations.

Keywords: poliovirus, eradication, environmental surveillance, laboratory diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
120 A Five–Year Review Study of Epidemiology of Ocular and Adnexal Injuries Requiring Surgical Intervention in a Middle Eastern Area: Al Ain, UAE

Authors: Tahra AlMahmoud, Sameeha Mohamed Al Hadhrami, Mohamed Elhanan, Hanan Naser Alshamsi, Fikri Abu-Zidan

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Background: To the best of the author(s)’ knowledge there are no epidemiological studies for traumatic eye injuries in UAE, neither data on groups at risk or mechanisms for ocular trauma. Purpose: To report the epidemiology of eye injuries that required hospital admission and surgery at a referral center at the eastern part of Abu Dhabi. Method: Retrospective charts review of all patients who had suffered an eye injury that required surgical intervention between 2012 and 2017 at Al Ain Hospital. Demographic data, place of occurrence, the cause of injury, visual acuity (VA) before and after treatment, number of admission days and follow up were extracted. Data were tabulated and presented as number (%), mean (SD), or median (range) as appropriate. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for VA outcome. Results: One hundred forty-one patients were identified, 96 eyes with open-globe and 48 other types of injuries. The mean age of the patients was 26±15.5 years, and 89% were male. Majority of injuries occurred at the workplace (50.4%) followed by home (31.2%). Trauma with a sharp object (24.1%), blunt object (16.3%), nail (11.3%), and hammer on metal (7.8%) were the most common etiologies of injury. Corneas injuries (48.2%) was the most frequent cause for visual acuity limitation followed by lens/cataract (23.4%). Among the traumatized eyes, 30 eyes (21.3%) retained intraocular foreign body, Mean admission days was 3.16± 2.81days (1-16) and a number of follow up visit was 3.17± 4.11times (0-26). Conclusion: Ocular trauma requiring surgical intervention is an area of concern in particular for occupations involving work with metals. This work may give insight into the value and necessity of implementing preventive measures.

Keywords: epidemiology, Middle Eastern area, occupational injury, ocular traumas

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119 Investigating the Epidemiological Prevalence of Diabetes in Afghanistan from 2015 to 2019

Authors: Pouriya Darabiyan, Kourosh Zarea, Saeed Ghanbari, Aseya Temori, Shokreya Ehsani

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Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders and is one of the top 10 leading causes of death in adults. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological prevalence of diabetes in Afghanistan between 2015 and 2019. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using the information of diabetics registered in the system related to the Ministry of Health of Afghanistan from 2015 to 2019. Eventually, people's information, including age, gender, and place of residence, was entered into STATA software version 12 and analyzed using descriptive statistics tests. Results: The study, which was performed on 49,339 people with diabetes in 34 provinces and 8 regions of Afghanistan, found that most of the women studied were 55.2% (272,311) women and had the highest and lowest prevalence in the region. The order is related to South East and South. The average prevalence of diabetes per 10,000 people is about 62.13. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes in Afghanistan over a five-year period in men and women is on the rise, requiring more attention from relevant authorities to improve public health and prevent, control and treat chronic diseases such as diabetes. Keywords: Diabetes, Prevalence, Afghanistan, Epidemiology

Keywords: diabetes, prevalence, Afghanistan, epidemiology

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118 A Comparative, Epidemiological Study of Acute Renal Colic Presentations to Major Academic Emergency Departments in Doha, Qatar and Melbourne, Australia

Authors: Sameer A. Pathan, Biswadev Mitra, Zain A. Bhutta, Isma Qureshi, Elle Spencer, Asmaa A. Hameed, Sana Nadeem, Ramsha Tahir, Shahzad Anjum, Peter A. Cameron

Abstract:

Background: This study aimed to compare epidemiology, clinical presentations, management and outcomes of renal colic presentations in two major academic centers and discuss potential implications of these results for the applicability of current evidence in the management of renal colic. Methods: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients with renal colic who presented to the Hamad General Hospital Emergency Department (HGH-ED), Qatar, and The Alfred ED, Melbourne, Australia, during a period of one year from August 1, 2012, to July 3, 2013. Cases were identified using ICD-9-CM codes, and an electronic template was used to record the data on predefined clinical variables. Results: A total of 12,223 from the HGH-ED and 384 from The Alfred ED were identified as renal colic presentations during the study period. The rate of renal colic presentations at the HGH-ED was 27.9 per 1000 ED visits compared to 6.7 per 1000 ED visits at The Alfred ED. Patients presenting to the HGH-ED were significantly younger [34.9 years (29.0- 43.4) than The Alfred ED [48 years (37-60); P < 0.001]. The median stone size was larger in the HGH-ED group [6 (4-8) mm] versus The Alfred ED group [4 (3-6) mm, P < 0.001]. The intervention rate in the stone-positive population was significantly higher in the HGH-ED group as opposed to The Alfred ED group (38.7% versus 11.9%, p<0.001). At the time of discharge, The Alfred ED group received less analgesic prescriptions (55.8% versus 83.5%, P < 0.001) and more tamsulosin prescriptions (25.3% versus 11.7%, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Renal colic presentations to the HGH-ED, Qatar, were younger, with larger stone size, compared to The Alfred ED, whereas, medical expulsion therapy use was higher at the Alfred ED. Differences in epidemiology should be considered while tailoring strategies for effective management of patients with renal colic in the given setting.

Keywords: kidney stones, urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, renal colic, epidemiology

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
117 Epidemiology, Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among Patients of Stroke

Authors: Vijay nandmer, Ajay Nandmer

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Stigmatized psycho-social perception poses a serious challenge and source of discrimination which impedes stroke patients from attaining a satisfactory quality of life. The present study was aimed to obtain information on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of stroke patients in the institute. We included 1000 people in our random sampling survey. Demographic details and responses to a questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices were recorded. Although the majority of the patients belonged to low socioeconomic strata, the literacy rate was reasonably high (96.3%). A large majority (91.3%) of people had heard about stroke and (85.2%) knew that stroke can be treated with modern drugs. However, a negative attitude was reflected in the belief that stroke happens due to supernatural powers (hawa lagne se) (50.6%). Analysis of the data revealed regional differences in KAP which could be attributed to local Factors, such as literacy, awareness about stroke, and practice of different systems of medicine. Some of the differences can also be attributed to a category of study population whether it included patients or non-stroke individuals since the former are likely to have less negative attitudes than the public. There is a need to create awareness about stroke on a nation-wide basis to dispel the misconceptions and stigma through effective and robust programs with the aim to lessen the disease burden.

Keywords: epidemiology, sroke, literacy, stroke

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116 Epidemiology of Gestational Choriocarcinoma: A Systematic Review

Authors: Farah Amalina Mohamed Affandi, Redhwan Ahmad Al-Naggar, Seok Mui Wang, Thanikasalam Kathiresan

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Gestational choriocarcinoma is a condition in which there is an abnormal growth or a tumor inside the women’s uterus after conception. It is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease which is relatively rare and malignant. The current epidemiological data of this disease are inadequate. The purposes of this study are to examine the epidemiology of choriocarcinoma and their risk factors based on all available population-based and hospital-based data of the disease. In this study, we searched The MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases using the keywords ‘choriocarcinoma’, ‘gestational’, ‘gestational choriocarcinoma’ and ‘epidemiology’. We included only human studies published in English between 1995 and 2015 to ensure up to date evidence. Case studies, case reports, animal studies, letters to the editor, news, and review articles were excluded. Retrieved articles were screened in three phases. In the first phase, any articles that did not match the inclusion criteria based solely on titles were excluded. In the second phase, the abstracts of remaining articles were screened thoroughly; any articles that did not meet our inclusion criteria were excluded. In the final phase, full texts of the remaining articles were read and assessed to exclude articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria or any articles that fulfilled the exclusion criteria. Duplicates articles were also removed. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis were excluded. Extracted data were summarized in table and figures descriptively. The reference lists of included studies were thoroughly reviewed in search for other relevant studies. A total of ten studies met all the selection criteria. Nine were retrospective studies and one was cohort study. Total numbers of 4563 cases of choriocarcinoma were reviewed from several countries which are Korea, Japan, South Africa, USA, New Mexico, Finland, Turkey, China, Brazil and The Netherlands. Different studies included different range of age with their mean age of 28.5 to 30.0 years. All studies investigated on the disease’s incidence rate, only two studies examined on the risk factors or associations of the disease. Approximately 20% of the studies showed a reduction in the incidence of choriocarcinoma while the other 80% showed inconsistencies in rate. Associations of age, fertility age, occupations and socio-demographic with the status remains unclear. There is limited information on the epidemiological aspects of gestational choriocarcinoma. The observed results indicated there was a decrease in the incidence rate of gestational choriocarcinoma globally. These could be due to the reduction in the incidence of molar pregnancy and the efficacy of the treatment, mainly by chemotherapy.

Keywords: epidemiology, gestational choriocarcinoma, incidence, prevalence, risk factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
115 Descriptive Epidemiology of Mortality in Certain Species of Captive Deer in Pakistan

Authors: Musadiq Idris, Sajjad Ali, Syed A. Khaliq, Umer Farooq

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Postmortem record of 217 captive ungulates including Black-buck (n=31), Chinkara (n=20), Hog deer (n=116), Spotted deer (n=35), Red Deer n=(04), and Rusa deer (n=11) submitted to the Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan was analyzed to determine the primary cause of mortality in these animals. The submissions included temporal distribution from Government wildlife captive farms, zoo, and private ownerships, over a three year period (2007-2009). The most common cause of death was found to be trauma (20.27%), followed by parasitic diseases (15.67%), bacterial diseases (11.98%), stillbirths (9.21%), snakebites (2.76%), gut affections (2.30%), neoplasia (1.38%) and starvation (0.92%). The exact cause of death could not be determined in 77 of 217 animals. Pneumonia (8.29%) and tuberculosis (3.69%) were the most common bacterial diseases. Analyses for parasitic infestation revealed tapeworms to be highest (11.05%), followed by roundworms (8.29%) and hemoparasitism (5.07%) (babesiosis and theileriosis). The mortality rate in young ungulates was lower as compared to adults (32.26% and 67.74%). Gender wise data presented higher mortality in females (55.30%) compared to males (44.70%). In conclusion, highest mortality factor in captive ungulates was trauma, followed by parasitic and bacterial infestations/infections of tapeworms and pneumonia, respectively. Furthermore, necropsies provided substantial information on etiology of death and other related epidemiological aspects.

Keywords: age, epidemiology, gender, mortality, ungulates

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114 A Mathematical Analysis of Behavioural Epidemiology: Drugs Users Transmission Dynamics Based on Level Education for Susceptible Population

Authors: Firman Riyudha, Endrik Mifta Shaiful

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The spread of drug users is one kind of behavioral epidemiology that becomes a threat to every country in the world. This problem caused various crisis simultaneously, including financial or economic crisis, social, health, until human crisis. Most drug users are teenagers at school age. A new deterministic model would be constructed to determine the dynamics of the spread of drug users by considering level of education in a susceptible population. Based on the analytical model, two equilibria points were obtained; there were E₀ (zero user) and E₁ (endemic equilibrium). Existence of equilibrium and local stability of equilibria depended on the Basic Reproduction Ratio (R₀). This parameter was defined as the expected rate of secondary prevalence and primary prevalence in virgin population along spreading primary prevalence. The zero-victim equilibrium would be locally asymptotically stable if R₀ < 1 while if R₀ > 1 the endemic equilibrium would be locally asymptotically stable. The result showed that R₀ was proportional to the rate of interaction of each susceptible population based on educational level with the users' population. It is concluded that there was a need to be given a control in interaction, so that drug users population could be minimized. Numerical simulations were also provided to support analytical results.

Keywords: drugs users, level education, mathematical model, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
113 Evaluation of Symptoms, Laboratory Findings, and Natural History of IgE Mediated Wheat Allergy

Authors: Soudeh Tabashi, Soudabeh Fazeli Dehkordy, Masood Movahedi, Nasrin Behniafard

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Introduction: Food allergy has increased in three last decades. Since wheat is one of the major constituents of daily meal in many regions throughout the world, wheat allergy is one of the most important allergies ranking among the 8 most common types of food allergies. Our information about epidemiology and etiology of food allergies are limited. Therefore, in this study we sought to evaluate the symptoms and laboratory findings in children with wheat allergy. Materials and methods: There were 23 patients aged up to 18 with the diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy that were included enrolled in this study. Using a questionnaire .we collected their information and organized them into 4 groups categories of: demographic data identification, signs and symptoms, comorbidities, and laboratory data. Then patients were followed up for 6 month and their lab data were compared together. Results: Most of the patients (82%) presented the symptoms of wheat allergy in the first year of their life. The skin and the respiratory system were the most commonly involved organs with an incidence of 86% and 78% respectively. Most of the patients with wheat allergy were also sensitive to the other type of foods and their sensitivity to egg were most common type (47%). in 57% of patients, IgE levels were decreased during the 6 month follow-up period. Conclusion: We do not have enough information about data on epidemiology and response to therapy of wheat allergy and to best of our knowledge no study has addressed this issue in Iran so far. This study is the first source of information about IgE mediated wheat allergy in Iran and It can provide an opening for future studies about wheat allergy and its treatments.

Keywords: wheat allergy, food allergy, IgE, food allergy

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112 Epidemiological Survey of Feline Leukemia Virus in Domestic Cats on Tsushima Island, Japan: Tsushima Leopard Cats Are at Risk

Authors: Isaac Makundi, Kazuo Nishigaki

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The Tsushima leopard cat (TLC) Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, designated a National Natural Monument of Japan, inhabits Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. TLC is considered a subspecies of P. bengalensis, and lives only on Tsushima Island. TLCs are threatened by various infectious diseases. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a serious infectious disease with a poor prognosis in cats. Therefore, the transmission of FeLV from Tsushima domestic cats (TDCs) to TLCs may threaten the TLC population. We investigated the FeLV infection status of both TDCs and TLCs on Tsushima Island by screening blood samples for FeLV p27 antigen and using PCR to amplify the full-length FeLV env gene. The prevalence of FeLV was 6.4% in TDCs and 0% in TLCs. We also demonstrated that the virus can replicate in the cells of TLCs, suggesting its potential cross-species transmission. The viruses in TDCs were classified as genotype I/clade 3, which is prevalent on a nearby island, based on previous studies of FeLV genotypes and FeLV epidemiology. The FeLV viruses identified on Tsushima Island can be further divided into two lineages within genotype I/clade 3, which are geographically separated in Kamijima and Shimojima, indicating that FeLV may have been transmitted to Tsushima Island at least twice. Monitoring FeLV infection in the TDC and TLC populations is highly recommended as part of the TLC surveillance and management strategy.

Keywords: epidemiology, Feline leukemia virus, Tsushima Island, wildlife management

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111 Personalized Infectious Disease Risk Prediction System: A Knowledge Model

Authors: Retno A. Vinarti, Lucy M. Hederman

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This research describes a knowledge model for a system which give personalized alert to users about infectious disease risks in the context of weather, location and time. The knowledge model is based on established epidemiological concepts augmented by information gleaned from infection-related data repositories. The existing disease risk prediction research has more focuses on utilizing raw historical data and yield seasonal patterns of infectious disease risk emergence. This research incorporates both data and epidemiological concepts gathered from Atlas of Human Infectious Disease (AHID) and Centre of Disease Control (CDC) as basic reasoning of infectious disease risk prediction. Using CommonKADS methodology, the disease risk prediction task is an assignment synthetic task, starting from knowledge identification through specification, refinement to implementation. First, knowledge is gathered from AHID primarily from the epidemiology and risk group chapters for each infectious disease. The result of this stage is five major elements (Person, Infectious Disease, Weather, Location and Time) and their properties. At the knowledge specification stage, the initial tree model of each element and detailed relationships are produced. This research also includes a validation step as part of knowledge refinement: on the basis that the best model is formed using the most common features, Frequency-based Selection (FBS) is applied. The portion of the Infectious Disease risk model relating to Person comes out strongest, with Location next, and Weather weaker. For Person attribute, Age is the strongest, Activity and Habits are moderate, and Blood type is weakest. At the Location attribute, General category (e.g. continents, region, country, and island) results much stronger than Specific category (i.e. terrain feature). For Weather attribute, Less Precise category (i.e. season) comes out stronger than Precise category (i.e. exact temperature or humidity interval). However, given that some infectious diseases are significantly more serious than others, a frequency based metric may not be appropriate. Future work will incorporate epidemiological measurements of disease seriousness (e.g. odds ratio, hazard ratio and fatality rate) into the validation metrics. This research is limited to modelling existing knowledge about epidemiology and chain of infection concepts. Further step, verification in knowledge refinement stage, might cause some minor changes on the shape of tree.

Keywords: epidemiology, knowledge modelling, infectious disease, prediction, risk

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110 Conflicts and Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS: Gender Dimension in Rain Forest Zone of Nigeria

Authors: K. K. Bolarinwa, A. F. O. Ayinde, B. B. Abiona, O. Oyekunle

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Conflict and HIV/AIDS infection have had a profound impact on the Sub-Saharan African societies, individually and collectively. Nigeria has been experiencing several violent conflicts in many communities across the geographical spread of the country. These conflicts which often lead to loss of lives, properties and loss of livelihoods are mainly felt by women in terms of increased responsibility towards affected family members with attendant decrease in livelihood options. Despite these, conflict issues have not really received enough focal attention by Nigerian academics. It is against this backdrop that this study was undertaken to describe the respondents, the most prevalent conflict repercussions and most prevalent STDs, in conflict areas. Data were collected using interview schedule to elicit a response from 122 respondents in Southwest Nigeria, through a multi-stage sampling technique involving stratification of respondents into violent conflict areas (VCA) and non-violent conflict areas (NVCA). The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. Results revealed that majority (86.5% and 70.5 %) of the respondents were in the age bracket of 10-39 years in both the VCA and NVCA respectively; 35.5% and 40.2% of the respondents were literate in VCA and NVCA, respectively while 76.5% and 55.8% of the respondents were in the lower income groups in VCA and NVCA, respectively. HIV/AIDS and gonorrhoea were the more predominant (75.2% and 55.6% respectively) STDs in the VCA as against 33.2% and 38.3% respectively in the NVCA. Further, significant (p<0.05) correlation existed between conflict incidence and spread of HIV/AIDS, rape and torture, maltreatment of women as well as sexual harassment; in both VCA and NVCA among others. The study concluded that conflict situations in the study area aggravated incidence of HIV/AIDS and made the women more vulnerable to inhuman treatments such as rape, torture and harassment with attendant reduction in sources of livelihoods. The study recommended among others that sensitisation on control and preventive measures of HIV/AID and other sexually transmitted diseases should be included in programme designed to mitigate against conflicts in the study areas.

Keywords: conflict, gender dimension, HIV/AIDS epidemiology, Nigeria

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109 Epidemiology of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in Pakistan: Incidence, Clinical Subtypes, Tumor Stage and Localization

Authors: Warda Jabeen, Romaisa Shamim Khan, Osama Shakeel, Ahmed Faraz Bhatti, Raza Hussain

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Background: The worldwide incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has been on the rise over the past few decades. Primary prevention and early treatment remain the focus of management to reduce the burden of disease. This entails identification of risk factors to prompt early diagnosis. In Pakistan, there is a scarcity of clinico-pathological data relating to cutaneous malignant melanoma. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients presenting with cutaneous malignant melanoma in Pakistan, and to compare the results with other studies. Method: Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre is currently the only dedicated cancer hospital in the country, accepting patients from all over Pakistan. Majority of the patients, however, belong to the northern half of the country. From the recorded data of the hospital, all cutaneous melanoma cases were identified and evaluated. Results: Between 1997 and 2017, a total of 169 cutaneous melanoma patients were registered at Shaukat Khanum. Mean age was 47.5 years. The highest incidence of melanoma was seen in the age group 40-59 years (n=69, 40.8%). Most commonly reported clinical subtype was unspecified melanoma (n=154, 91%). Amongst those in which T stage was reported, the most frequently observed T-stage at presentation was T4 (n=23, 13.6%). With regards to body distribution, in our study CM was seen most commonly in the lower limb including the hip. The yearly incidence of melanoma has increased/remained stable from 2007 to 2017. Conclusion: cutaneous malignant melanoma is a fairly common disease in Pakistan. Patients tend to present at a more advanced stage as compared to patients in developed countries. Identification of risk factors and tumor characteristics is therefore of paramount importance to deal with these patients.

Keywords: epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma, cutaneous malignant melanoma, Pakistan, skin cancer

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108 Challenges in the Management of Her2 Neu Positive Breast Cancer Patients: Real World Data from India

Authors: Praveen Adusumilli, Meher Lakshmi Konatam, Sadashivudu Gundeti, Stalin Bala

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The invention of trastuzumab has changed the treatment of breast cancer and lives of many patients all over the world. Despite many patients getting benefitted from the drug, it is out of reach for most of the patients. There is very limited real world data regarding the epidemiology and clinical outcome of Her2neu positive breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of breast cancer patients presenting to a tertiary care cancer centre in Southern India from 2007 to2013. All early and locally advanced breast cancer patients, who were Her2neu 3+ on IHC are included in the study and evaluated in terms of epidemiology, 3-year disease free survival (DFS)and 5-year overall survival(OS). Chemotherapy regimens used were-FAC 6 cycles or AC 4 cycles followed by 12 cycles of weekly paclitaxel . Trastuzumab was given after 6 cycles of FAC or weekly with paclitaxel followed by 3weekly maintenance until 1 year. Results: Over the period of this study there were 885 newly diagnosed cases of carcinoma breast, of which 242 (27%) were Her2neu positive, 360(40%) were hormone receptor positive, and 212(24%) were triple negative. A total of 71(8%) were Her2neu equivocal of which only 10 patients got FISH test done. Of the 212 newly diagnosed patients, only 74 (29%) opted to have standard of care therapy with trastuzumab at our centre, out of which 52(24%), 8(3%), received under insurance, paying basis respectively. 14(9%) patients received the care as part of clinical trial program (ALTTO trial). 7 (9.72%) patients developed decrease of ejection fraction by greater than 10%, requiring stoppage of trastuzumab out of which 5 were restarted in 2 months. Patients receiving trastuzumab along with chemotherapy had longer 3year DFS 92% vs. 60% (p value<0.0001) when compared to chemotherapy alone. 5 year OS was 87% vs 44% (p-value <0.0001) compared to chemotherapy alone. Conclusion: Trastuzumab with chemotherapy improves the DFS and OS in Her2neu positive patients. The biggest constraint is the cost of the treatment and absence of universal health security net to treat all patients with this diagnosis.

Keywords: breast cancer, Her 2 neu positive, real world data, Trastuzumab

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107 Molecular Characterization, Host Plant Resistance and Epidemiology of Bean Common Mosaic Virus Infecting Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

Authors: N. Manjunatha, K. T. Rangswamy, N. Nagaraju, H. A. Prameela, P. Rudraswamy, M. Krishnareddy

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The identification of virus in cowpea especially potyviruses is confusing. Even though there are several studies on viruses causing diseases in cowpea, difficult to distinguish based on symptoms and serological detection. The differentiation of potyviruses considering as a constraint, the present study is initiated for molecular characterization, host plant resistance and epidemiology of the BCMV infecting cowpea. The etiological agent causing cowpea mosaic was identified as Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) on the basis of RT-PCR and electron microscopy. An approximately 750bp PCR product corresponding to coat protein (CP) region of the virus and the presence of long flexuous filamentous particles measuring about 952 nm in size typical to genus potyvirus were observed under electron microscope. The characterized virus isolate genome had 10054 nucleotides, excluding the 3’ terminal poly (A) tail. Comparison of polyprotein of the virus with other potyviruses showed similar genome organization with 9 cleavage sites resulted in 10 functional proteins. The pairwise sequence comparison of individual genes, P1 showed most divergent, but CP gene was less divergent at nucleotide and amino acid level. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on multiple sequence alignments of the polyprotein nucleotide and amino acid sequences of cowpea BCMV and potyviruses showed virus is closely related to BCMV-HB. Whereas, Soybean variant of china (KJ807806) and NL1 isolate (AY112735) showed 93.8 % (5’UTR) and 94.9 % (3’UTR) homology respectively with other BCMV isolates. This virus transmitted to different leguminous plant species and produced systemic symptoms under greenhouse conditions. Out of 100 cowpea genotypes screened, three genotypes viz., IC 8966, V 5 and IC 202806 showed immune reaction in both field and greenhouse conditions. Single marker analysis (SMA) was revealed out of 4 SSR markers linked to BCMV resistance, M135 marker explains 28.2 % of phenotypic variation (R2) and Polymorphic information content (PIC) value of these markers was ranged from 0.23 to 0.37. The correlation and regression analysis showed rainfall, and minimum temperature had significant negative impact and strong relationship with aphid population, whereas weak correlation was observed with disease incidence. Path coefficient analysis revealed most of the weather parameters exerted their indirect contributions to the aphid population and disease incidence except minimum temperature. This study helps to identify specific gaps in knowledge for researchers who may wish to further analyse the science behind complex interactions between vector-virus and host in relation to the environment. The resistant genotypes identified are could be effectively used in resistance breeding programme.

Keywords: cowpea, epidemiology, genotypes, virus

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106 A Dynamical Study of Fractional Order Obesity Model by a Combined Legendre Wavelet Method

Authors: Hakiki Kheira, Belhamiti Omar

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In this paper, we propose a new compartmental fractional order model for the simulation of epidemic obesity dynamics. Using the Legendre wavelet method combined with the decoupling and quasi-linearization technique, we demonstrate the validity and applicability of our model. We also present some fractional differential illustrative examples to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the method. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense.

Keywords: Caputo derivative, epidemiology, Legendre wavelet method, obesity

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105 Common Soccer Injuries and Its Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

Authors: C. Brandt, R. Christopher, N. Damons

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Background: Soccer is one of the most common sports in the world. It is associated with a significant chance of injury either during training or during the course of an actual match. Studies on the epidemiology of soccer injuries have been widely conducted, but methodological appraisal is lacking to make evidence-based decisions. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of common injuries in soccer and their risk factors. Methods: A systematic review was performed based on the Joanna Briggs Institute procedure for conducting systematic reviews. Databases such as SPORT Discus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct, PubMed, and grey literature were searched. The quality of selected studies was rated, and data extracted and tabulated. Plot data analysis was done, and incidence rates and odds ratios were calculated, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. I² statistic was used to determine the proportion of variation across studies. Results: The search yielded 62 studies, of which 21 were screened for inclusion. A total of 16 studies were included for the analysis, ten for qualitative and six for quantitative analysis. The included studies had, on average, a low risk of bias and good methodological quality. The heterogeneity amongst the pooled studies was, however, statistically significant (χ²-p value < 0.001). The pooled results indicated a high incidence of soccer injuries at an incidence rate of 6.83 per 1000 hours of play. The pooled results also showed significant evidence of risk factors and the likelihood of injury occurrence in relation to these risk factors (OR=1.12 95% CI 1.07; 1.17). Conclusion: Although multiple studies are available on the epidemiology of soccer injuries and risk factors, only a limited number of studies were of sound methodology to be included in a review. There was also significant heterogeneity amongst the studies. The incidence rate of common soccer injuries was found to be 6.83 per 1000 hours of play. This incidence rate is lower than the values reported by the majority of previous studies on the occurrence of common soccer injuries. The types of common soccer injuries found by this review support the soccer injuries pattern reported in existing literature as muscle strain and ligament sprain of varying severity, especially in the lower limbs. The risk factors that emerged from this systematic review are predominantly intrinsic risk factors. The risk factors increase the risk of traumatic and overuse injuries of the lower extremities such as hamstrings and groin strains, knee and ankle sprains, and contusion.

Keywords: incidence, prevalence, risk factors, soccer injuries

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104 A Mathematical Model for Hepatitis B Virus Infection and the Impact of Vaccination on Its Dynamics

Authors: T. G. Kassem, A. K. Adunchezor, J. P. Chollom

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This paper describes a mathematical model developed to predict the dynamics of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and to evaluate the potential impact of vaccination and treatment on its dynamics. We used a compartmental model expressed by a set of differential equations based on the characteristic of HBV transmission. With these, we find the threshold quantity R0, then find the local asymptotic stability of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease free and endemic equilibrium.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, epidemiology, vaccination, mathematical model

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