Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1821

Search results for: emergency department

1821 Evaluation of Patients' Satisfaction Aspects in Governmental Egyptian Emergency Departments

Authors: N. Rashed, Z. Aysha, M. Fakher

Abstract:

Patient satisfaction is one of the core objectives of health care facilities. It is difficult to evaluate patients response in the emergency setting. The current study aimed to evaluate patients and family aspects of satisfaction in both adult and pediatric emergency departments and their recommendations for improvement. Cross-section survey(Brief Emergency department Patient Satisfaction Scale (BEPSS), was translated and validated, then performed to evaluate patients satisfaction in two governmental hospitals Emergency departments. Three hundred patients and their families were enrolled in the study. The waiting time in the adult Emergency department ranged from (5 minutes to 120 minutes), and most admissions were at the morning shift while at the pediatric hospital the waiting time ranged from 5 minutes to 100 minutes) and most admissions were at the afternoon shift. The results showed that the main domain of satisfaction in BEPSS in the adult emergency department was respecting the patients family while in the pediatric emergency department, the main domain was the nursing care about treatment. The main recommendation of improvement in pediatric Emergency Department was modifying the procedures while in adult Emergency Department was improving the training of physicians.

Keywords: emergency, department-patient, satisfaction-adult-pediatric

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1820 A Survey of Chronic Pain Patients’ Experiences in the Emergency Department

Authors: G. Fitzpatrick, S. O. Chonghaile, D. Harmon

Abstract:

Objective: Chronic pain patients represent a unique challenge in the Emergency Department. Very little literature has been published regarding this group of patients. Our aim was to determine the attitude of patients with chronic pain to the Emergency Department in order to improve and streamline their future visits. Methods: A two-year survey was carried out on Chronic Pain Patients regarding their Emergency Department Attendances. Patients attending the Pain Clinic in Croom Hospital, Co. Limerick were asked to complete a 20-part questionnaire regarding their experiences of visiting the Emergency Department in the preceding year. 46 questionnaires were completed. Results: Unbearable breakthrough pain was the main reason for visiting the Emergency Department. More than half (54%) of those surveyed were not satisfied with the treatment received. Problems indicated included under-treatment of pain (59%), a sense of being under undue suspicion of drug-seeking behaviour (33%) and a perception that the patient themselves understood their condition better than the treating doctor (76%). Paracetamol, NSAIDs, or time off work comprised 72% of the treatments offered – all of which could have been provided by their General Practitioner. Only 4% were offered a nerve block. 67% felt that the creation of personalised Patient Plans, consisting of an agreed plan between the patient, their pain specialist, and the Emergency Department, would expedite their trip through the Emergency Department. Conclusions: Chronic pain patients generally have a negative experience in the ED. Possible future solutions include increasing our empathy and levels of knowledge, provision of nerve blocks in the ED, and use of personalised “Patient Plans” to streamline the treatment pathway for this group of patients.

Keywords: chronic pain, survey, patients, emergency department

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1819 Acute Asthma in Emergency Department, Prevalence of Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Symptoms

Authors: Sherif Refaat, Hassan Aref

Abstract:

Background: Although asthma is a well-identified presentation to the emergency department, little is known about the frequency and percentage of respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in patients with acute asthma in the emergency department (ED). Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between acute asthma exacerbation and different respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms including chest pain encountered by patients visiting the emergency department. Subjects and methods: Prospective study included 169 (97 females and 72 males) asthmatic patients who were admitted to emergency department of two tertiary care facility hospitals for asthma exacerbation from the period of September 2010 to August 2013, an anonyms questionnaire was used to collect symptoms and analysis of symptoms. Results: Females were 97 (57%) of the patients, mean age was 35.6 years; dyspnea on exertion was the commonest symptom accounting for 161 (95.2%) of patients, followed by dyspnea at rest 155 (91.7%), wheezing in 152 (89.9%), chest pain was present in 82 patients (48.5%), the pain was burning in 36 (43.9%) of the total patients with chest pain. Non-respiratory symptoms were seen frequently in acute asthma in ED. Conclusions: Dyspnea was the commonest chest symptoms encountered in patients with acute asthma followed by wheezing. Chest pain in acute asthma is a common symptom and should be fully studied to exclude misdiagnosis as of cardiac origin; there is a need for a better dissemination of knowledge about this disease association with chest pain. It was also noted that other non-respiratory symptoms are frequently encountered with acute asthma in emergency department.

Keywords: asthma, emergency department, respiratory symptoms, non respiratory system

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
1818 The Impact of Inpatient New Boarding Policy on Emergency Department Overcrowding: A Discrete Event Simulation Study

Authors: Wheyming Tina Song, Chi-Hao Hong

Abstract:

In this study, we investigate the effect of a new boarding policy - short stay, on the overcrowding efficiency in emergency department (ED). The decision variables are no. of short stay beds for least acuity ED patients. The performance measurements used are national emergency department overcrowding score (NEDOCS) and ED retention rate (the percentage that patients stay in ED over than 48 hours in one month). Discrete event simulation (DES) is used as an analysis tool to evaluate the strategy. Also, common random number (CRN) technique is applied to enhance the simulation precision. The DES model was based on a census of 6 months' patients who were treated in the ED of the National Taiwan University Hospital Yunlin Branch. Our results show that the new short-stay boarding significantly impacts both the NEDOCS and ED retention rate when the no. of short stay beds is more than three.

Keywords: emergency department (ED), common random number (CRN), national emergency department overcrowding score (NEDOCS), discrete event simulation (DES)

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1817 Exposure of Emergency Department Staff in Jordanian Hospitals to Workplace Violence: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Ibrahim Bashayreh Al-Bashtawy Mohammed, Al-Azzam Manar Ahmad Rawashda, Abdul-Monim Batiha Mohammad Sulaiman

Abstract:

Background: Workplace violence against emergency department staff (EDS) is considered one of the most common and widespread phenomena of violence. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine the incidence rates of workplace violence and the predicting factors of violent behaviors among emergency departments’ staff in Jordanian hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was used to investigate workplace violence towards a convenience sample of 355 emergency staff departments from 8 governmental and 4 private Jordanian hospitals. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire that was developed for the purpose of this study. Results: 72% of workers in emergency departments within Jordanian hospitals are exposed to violent acts, and that patients and their relatives are the main source of workplace violence. The contributing factors as reported by the participants were related to overcrowding, lack of resources, staff shortages, and the absence of effective antiviolence policies. Conclusions/implications for Practice: Policies and legislation regarding violence should be instituted and developed, and emergency department staff should be given training on how to deal with violent incidents, as well as on violence-management policies.

Keywords: Jordan, emergency staff department, workplace violence, community health

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1816 Development of a Nurse Led Tranexamic Acid Administration Protocol for Trauma Patients in Rural South Africa

Authors: Christopher Wearmouth, Jacob Smith

Abstract:

Administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces all-cause mortality in trauma patients when given within 3 hours of injury. Due to geographical distance and lack of emergency medical services patients often present late, following trauma, to our emergency department. Additionally, we found patients that may have benefited from TXA did not receive it, often due to lack of staff awareness, staff shortages out of hours and lack of equipment for delivering infusions. Our objective was to develop a protocol for nurse-led administration of TXA in the emergency department. We developed a protocol using physiological observations along with criteria from the South African Triage Scale to allow nursing staff to identify patients with, or at risk of, significant haemorrhage. We will monitor the use of the protocol to ensure appropriate compliance and for any adverse events reported.

Keywords: emergency department, emergency nursing, rural healthcare, tranexamic acid, trauma, triage

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
1815 Introduction of Electronic Health Records to Improve Data Quality in Emergency Department Operations

Authors: Anuruddha Jagoda, Samiddhi Samarakoon, Anil Jasinghe

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In its simplest form, data quality can be defined as 'fitness for use' and it is a concept with multi-dimensions. Emergency Departments(ED) require information to treat patients and on the other hand it is the primary source of information regarding accidents, injuries, emergencies etc. Also, it is the starting point of various patient registries, databases and surveillance systems. This interventional study was carried out to improve data quality at the ED of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL) by introducing an e health solution to improve data quality. The NHSL is the premier trauma care centre in Sri Lanka. The study consisted of three components. A research study was conducted to assess the quality of data in relation to selected five dimensions of data quality namely accuracy, completeness, timeliness, legibility and reliability. The intervention was to develop and deploy an electronic emergency department information system (eEDIS). Post assessment of the intervention confirmed that all five dimensions of data quality had improved. The most significant improvements are noticed in accuracy and timeliness dimensions.

Keywords: electronic health records, electronic emergency department information system, emergency department, data quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
1814 Waiting Time Reduction in a Government Hospital Emergency Department: A Case Study on AlAdan Hospital, Kuwait

Authors: Bashayer AlRobayaan, Munira Saad, Alaa AlBawab, Fatma AlHamad, Sara AlAwadhi, Sherif Fahmy

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of long waiting times in government hospitals emergency departments (ED). It aims at finding feasible and simple ways of reducing waiting times that do not require a lot of resources and/or expenses. AlAdan Hospital in Kuwait was chosen to be understudy to further understand and capture the problem.

Keywords: healthcare, hospital, Kuwait, waiting times, emergency department

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
1813 Major Incident Tier System in the Emergency Department: An Approach

Authors: Catherine Bernard, Paul Ransom

Abstract:

Recent events have prompted emergency planners to re-evaluate their emergency response to major incidents and mass casualties. At the Royal Sussex County Hospital, we have adopted a tiered system comprised of three levels, anticipating an increasing P1, P2 or P3 load. This will aid planning in the golden period between Major Incident ‘Standby,’ and ‘Declared’. Each tier offers step-by-step instructions on appropriate patient movement within and out of the department, as well as suggestions for overflow areas and additional staffing levels. This system can be adapted to individual hospitals and provides concise instructions to be followed in a potentially overwhelming situation.

Keywords: disaster planning, emergency preparedness, major incident planning, mass casualty event

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
1812 Disparate Use of Chemical and Physical Restraints in the Emergency Department by Race/Ethnicity

Authors: Etta Conteh, Tracy Macintosh

Abstract:

Introduction: Restraints are often used in the Emergency Department when it is necessary for a patient to be restrained in order to decrease their agitation and better treat them. Chemical and physical restraints may be used on these patients at the discretion of the medical provider. Racism and injustice are rampant within our country, and medicine and healthcare are not spared. While racism and racial bias in medicine and healthcare have been studied, information on the differences in the use of restraints by race are scarce. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine if African Americans and Hispanic-American patients are restrained at higher rates compared to their White counterparts. Methods: This study will be carried out through a retrospective analysis utilizing the Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) national Emergency Department (ED) and inpatient database with patient visits from 2016-2019. All patient visits, with patients aged 18 years or older, will be reviewed, looking specifically for the race and the use and type of restraints. Other factors, such a pre-existing psychiatric condition, will be used for sub-analysis. Rationale: The outcome of this project will demonstrate the absence or presence of a racial disparity in the use of restraints in the Emergency Department. These results can be used as a foundation for improving racial equity in healthcare treatment.

Keywords: emergency medicine, public health, racism, restraint use

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
1811 Analysis of Strategies to Reduce Patients’ Disposition Holding Time from Emergency Department to Ward

Authors: Kamonwat Suksumek, Seeronk Prichanont

Abstract:

Access block refers to the situation where Emergency Department (ED) patients requiring hospital admission spend an unreasonable holding time in an ED because their access to a ward is blocked by the full utilization of the ward’s beds. Not only it delays the proper treatments required by the patients, but access block is also the cause of ED’s overcrowding. Clearly, access block is an inter-departmental problem that needs to be brought to management’s attention. This paper focuses on the analysis of strategies to address the access block problem, both in the operational and intermediate levels. These strategies were analyzed through a simulation model with a real data set from a university hospital in Thailand. The paper suggests suitable variable levels for each strategy so that the management will make the final decisions.

Keywords: access block, emergency department, health system analysis, simulation

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1810 Audit Outcome Cardiac Arrest Cases (2019-2020) in Emergency Department RIPAS Hospital, Brunei Darussalam

Authors: Victor Au, Khin Maung Than, Zaw Win Aung, Linawati Jumat

Abstract:

Background & Objectives: Cardiac arrests can occur anywhere or anytime, and most of the cases will be brought to the emergency department except the cases that happened in at in-patient setting. Raja IsteriPangiran Anak Saleha (RIPAS) Hospital is the only tertiary government hospital which located in Brunei Muara district and received all referral from other Brunei districts. Data of cardiac arrests in Brunei Darussalam scattered between Emergency Medical Ambulance Services (EMAS), Emergency Department (ED), general inpatient wards, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU). In this audit, we only focused on cardiac arrest cases which had happened or presented to the emergency department RIPAS Hospital. Theobjectives of this audit were to look at demographic of cardiac arrest cases and the survival to discharge rate of In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (IHCA) and Out-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA). Methodology: This audit retrospective study was conducted on all cardiac arrest cases that underwent Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in ED RIPAS Hospital, Brunei Muara, in the year 2019-2020. All cardiac arrest cases that happened or were brought in to emergency department were included. All the relevant data were retrieved from ED visit registry book and electronic medical record “Bru-HIMS” with keyword diagnosis of “cardiac arrest”. Data were analyzed and tabulated using Excel software. Result: 313 cardiac arrests were recorded in the emergency department in year 2019-2020. 92% cases were categorized as OHCA, and the remaining 8% as IHCA. Majority of the cases were male with age between 50-60 years old. In OHCA subgroup, only 12.4% received bystander CPR, and 0.4% received Automatic External Defibrillator (AED) before emergency medical personnel arrived. Initial shockable rhythm in IHCA group accounted for 12% compare to 4.9% in OHCA group. Outcome of ED resuscitation, 32% of IHCA group achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with a survival to discharge rate was 16%. For OHCA group, 12.35% achieved ROSC, but unfortunately, none of them survive till discharge. Conclusion: Standardized registry for cardiac arrest in the emergency department is required to provide valid baseline data to measure the quality and outcome of cardiac arrest. Zero survival rate for out hospital cardiac arrest is very concerning, and it might represent the significant breach in cardiac arrest chains of survival. Systematic prospective data collection is needed to identify contributing factors and to improve resuscitation outcome.

Keywords: cardiac arrest, OHCA, IHCA, resuscitation, emergency department

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1809 Predicting Factors for Occurrence of Cardiac Arrest in Critical, Emergency and Urgency Patients in an Emergency Department

Authors: Angkrit Phitchayangkoon, Ar-Aishah Dadeh

Abstract:

Background: A key aim of triage is to identify the patients with high risk of cardiac arrest because they require intensive monitoring, resuscitation facilities, and early intervention. We aimed to identify the predicting factors such as initial vital signs, serum pH, serum lactate level, initial capillary blood glucose, and Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) which affect the occurrence of cardiac arrest in an emergency department (ED). Methods: We conducted a retrospective data review of ED patients in an emergency department (ED) from 1 August 2014 to 31 July 2016. Significant variables in univariate analysis were used to create a multivariate analysis. Differentiation of predicting factors between cardiac arrest patient and non-cardiac arrest patients for occurrence of cardiac arrest in an emergency department (ED) was the primary outcome. Results: The data of 527 non-trauma patients with Emergency Severity Index (ESI) 1-3 were collected. The factors found to have a significant association (P < 0.05) in the non-cardiac arrest group versus the cardiac arrest group at the ED were systolic BP (mean [IQR] 135 [114,158] vs 120 [90,140] mmHg), oxygen saturation (mean [IQR] 97 [89,98] vs 82.5 [78,95]%), GCS (mean [IQR] 15 [15,15] vs 11.5 [8.815]), normal sinus rhythm (mean 59.8 vs 30%), sinus tachycardia (mean 46.7 vs 21.7%), pH (mean [IQR] 7.4 [7.3,7.4] vs 7.2 [7,7.3]), serum lactate (mean [IQR] 2 [1.1,4.2] vs 7 [5,10.8]), and MEWS score (mean [IQR] 3 [2,5] vs 5 [3,6]). A multivariate analysis was then performed. After adjusting for multiple factors, ESI level 2 patients were more likely to have cardiac arrest in the ER compared with ESI 1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; P < 0.001). Furthermore, ESI 2 patients were more likely than ESI 1 patients to have cardiovascular disease (OR, 1.89; P = 0.01), heart rate < 55 (OR, 6.83; P = 0.18), SBP < 90 (OR, 3.41; P = 0.006), SpO2 < 94 (OR, 4.76; P = 0.012), sinus tachycardia (OR, 4.32; P = 0.002), lactate > 4 (OR, 10.66; P = < 0.001), and MEWS > 4 (OR, 4.86; P = 0.028). These factors remained predictive of cardiac arrest at the ED. Conclusion: The factors related to cardiac arrest in the ED are ESI 1 patients, ESI 2 patients, patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, SpO2 < 94, lactate > 4, and a MEWS > 4. These factors can be used as markers in the event of simultaneous arrival of many patients and can help as a pre-state for patients who have a tendency to develop cardiac arrest. The hemodynamic status and vital signs of these patients should be closely monitored. Early detection of potentially critical conditions to prevent critical medical intervention is mandatory.

Keywords: cardiac arrest, predicting factor, emergency department, emergency patient

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1808 Outcomes of Using Guidelines for Caring and Referring ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital, Thailand

Authors: Thanom Kaeniam

Abstract:

ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) is a state of sudden death of the heart muscle due to sudden blockage of the artery. STEMI patients are usually in critical condition and with a potential opportunity for sudden death. Therefore, management guidelines for safety in caring and referring STEMI patients are needed. The objective of this developmental research was to assess the effectiveness of using the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital. The subjects of the study were 22 nurses in the emergency room, and doctors on duty in the accident and emergency room selected using purposive sampling with inclusion criteria. The research instruments were the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients, and record forms for the effectiveness of using the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients (a general record form for STEMI patients, a record form for SK administering, a referring record form for PCI, and a record form for dead patient in the accident and emergency room and during referring). The instruments were tested for content validity by three experts, and the reliability was tested using Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR20). The descriptive statistic employed was the percentage. The outcomes of using the guidelines for caring and referring ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients at the Accident and Emergency Department revealed that before using the guidelines in 2009, 2010, and 2011, there were 84, 73, and 138 STEMI patients receiving services at the accident and emergency room, of which, only 9, 32, and 48 patients were referred for PCI/SK medications, or 10.74; 43.84; and 34.78 percent, and the death rates were 10.71; 10.95; and 11.59 percent, respectively. However, after the use of the guidelines in 2012, 2013, and 2014, there were 97, 77, and 57 patients, of which, the increases to 77, 72, and 55 patients were referred for PCI /SK medications or 79.37; 93.51; and 96.49 percent, and the death rates were reduced to 10.30; 6.49; and 1.76 percent, respectively. The results of the study revealed that the use of the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients at the Accident and Emergency Department increased the effectiveness and quality of nursing, especially in terms of SK medication, caring and referring patients for PCI to reduce the death rate.

Keywords: outcomes, guidelines for caring, referring, myocardial infarction, STEMI

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1807 Prediction Factor of Recurrence Supraventricular Tachycardia After Adenosine Treatment in the Emergency Department

Authors: Chaiyaporn Yuksen

Abstract:

Backgroud: Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is an abnormally fast atrial tachycardia characterized by narrow (≤ 120 ms) and constant QRS. Adenosine was the drug of choice; the first dose was 6 mg. It can be repeated with the second and third doses of 12 mg, with greater than 90% success. The study found that patients observed at 4 hours after normal sinus rhythm was no recurrence within 24 hours. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the recurrence of SVT after adenosine in the emergency department (ED). Method: The study was conducted retrospectively exploratory model, prognostic study at the Emergency Department (ED) in Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, a university-affiliated super tertiary care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. The study was conducted for ten years period between 2010 and 2020. The inclusion criteria were age > 15 years, visiting the ED with SVT, and treating with adenosine. Those patients were recorded with the recurrence SVT in ED. The multivariable logistic regression model developed the predictive model and prediction score for recurrence PSVT. Result: 264 patients met the study criteria. Of those, 24 patients (10%) had recurrence PSVT. Five independent factors were predictive of recurrence PSVT. There was age>65 years, heart rate (after adenosine) > 100 per min, structural heart disease, and dose of adenosine. The clinical risk score to predict recurrence PSVT is developed accuracy 74.41%. The score of >6 had the likelihood ratio of recurrence PSVT by 5.71 times Conclusion: The clinical predictive score of > 6 was associated with recurrence PSVT in ED.

Keywords: clinical prediction score, SVT, recurrence, emergency department

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1806 Prediction Factor of Recurrence Supraventricular Tachycardia After Adenosine Treatment in the Emergency Department

Authors: Welawat Tienpratarn, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Rungrawin Promkul, Chetsadakon Jenpanitpong, Pajit Bunta, Suthap Jaiboon

Abstract:

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is an abnormally fast atrial tachycardia characterized by narrow (≤ 120 ms) and constant QRS. Adenosine was the drug of choice; the first dose was 6 mg. It can be repeated with the second and third doses of 12 mg, with greater than 90% success. The study found that patients observed at 4 hours after normal sinus rhythm was no recurrence within 24 hours. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the recurrence of SVT after adenosine in the emergency department (ED). The study was conducted retrospectively exploratory model, prognostic study at the Emergency Department (ED) in Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, a university-affiliated super tertiary care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. The study was conducted for ten years period between 2010 and 2020. The inclusion criteria were age > 15 years, visiting the ED with SVT, and treating with adenosine. Those patients were recorded with the recurrence SVT in ED. The multivariable logistic regression model developed the predictive model and prediction score for recurrence PSVT. 264 patients met the study criteria. Of those, 24 patients (10%) had recurrence PSVT. Five independent factors were predictive of recurrence PSVT. There was age>65 years, heart rate (after adenosine) > 100 per min, structural heart disease, and dose of adenosine. The clinical risk score to predict recurrence PSVT is developed accuracy 74.41%. The score of >6 had the likelihood ratio of recurrence PSVT by 5.71 times. The clinical predictive score of > 6 was associated with recurrence PSVT in ED.

Keywords: supraventricular tachycardia, recurrance, emergency department, adenosine

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1805 Comparison of the Chest X-Ray and Computerized Tomography Scans Requested from the Emergency Department

Authors: Sahabettin Mete, Abdullah C. Hocagil, Hilal Hocagil, Volkan Ulker, Hasan C. Taskin

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Objectives and Goals: An emergency department is a place where people can come for a multitude of reasons 24 hours a day. As it is an easy, accessible place, thanks to self-sacrificing people who work in emergency departments. But the workload and overcrowding of emergency departments are increasing day by day. Under these circumstances, it is important to choose a quick, easily accessible and effective test for diagnosis. This results in laboratory and imaging tests being more than 40% of all emergency department costs. Despite all of the technological advances in imaging methods and available computerized tomography (CT), chest X-ray, the older imaging method, has not lost its appeal and effectiveness for nearly all emergency physicians. Progress in imaging methods are very convenient, but physicians should consider the radiation dose, cost, and effectiveness, as well as imaging methods to be carefully selected and used. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of chest X-ray in immediate diagnosis against the advancing technology by comparing chest X-ray and chest CT scan results of the patients in the emergency department. Methods: Patients who applied to Bulent Ecevit University Faculty of Medicine’s emergency department were investigated retrospectively in between 1 September 2014 and 28 February 2015. Data were obtained via MIAMED (Clear Canvas Image Server v6.2, Toronto, Canada), information management system which patients’ files are saved electronically in the clinic, and were retrospectively scanned. The study included 199 patients who were 18 or older, had both chest X-ray and chest CT imaging. Chest X-ray images were evaluated by the emergency medicine senior assistant in the emergency department, and the findings were saved to the study form. CT findings were obtained from already reported data by radiology department in the clinic. Chest X-ray was evaluated with seven questions in terms of technique and dose adequacy. Patients’ age, gender, application complaints, comorbid diseases, vital signs, physical examination findings, diagnosis, chest X-ray findings and chest CT findings were evaluated. Data saved and statistical analyses have made via using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. And the value of p < 0.05 were accepted statistically significant. Results: 199 patients were included in the study. In 38,2% (n=76) of all patients were diagnosed with pneumonia and it was the most common diagnosis. The chest X-ray imaging technique was appropriate in patients with the rate of 31% (n=62) of all patients. There was not any statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between both imaging methods (chest X-ray and chest CT) in terms of determining the rates of displacement of the trachea, pneumothorax, parenchymal consolidation, increased cardiothoracic ratio, lymphadenopathy, diaphragmatic hernia, free air levels in the abdomen (in sections including the image), pleural thickening, parenchymal cyst, parenchymal mass, parenchymal cavity, parenchymal atelectasis and bone fractures. Conclusions: When imaging findings, showing cases that needed to be quickly diagnosed, were investigated, chest X-ray and chest CT findings were matched at a high rate in patients with an appropriate imaging technique. However, chest X-rays, evaluated in the emergency department, were frequently taken with an inappropriate technique.

Keywords: chest x-ray, chest computerized tomography, chest imaging, emergency department

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1804 The Use of Regional Blocks Versus IV Opioid Analgesics for Acute Traumatic Pain Management in the Emergency Department

Authors: Lajeesh Jabbar, Shibu T. Varghese

Abstract:

Being under pain is a very distressing factor that it prolongs the healing of any kind of trauma and add to the post traumatic stressful state. Alleviating the pain from acute traumatic conditions like fracture, degloving injury etc will help in faster recovery and also decrease the incidence of post traumatic stress disorder. Most of the emergency departments in INDIA are using IV opioid analgesics to relieve the patient from pain in cases of acute traumatic injuries. None of the Emergency Departments practice regional blocks in the country. In this study, we are comparing the efficacy of Regional Blocks in relieving the pain in lower limb fractures versus the use of IV analgesics for the same in the emergency department. The site of study is Malabar Institute Of Medical Sciences in Calicut in Kerala in India and is a place which receives approximately 10-20 traumatic fracture cases per day. The fracture sites used for the study purpose are femur fracture and phalangeal fractures.

Keywords: regional blocks, IV analgesia, acute traumatic pain, femur fractures, phalanx fractures

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
1803 Requirement Analysis for Emergency Management Software

Authors: Tomáš Ludík, Jiří Barta, Sabina Chytilová, Josef Navrátil

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Emergency management is a discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks. Appropriate emergency management software allows better management of these risks and has a direct influence on reducing potential negative impacts. Although there are several emergency management software products in the Czech Republic, they cover user requirements from the emergency management field only partially. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issues of requirement analysis within development of emergency management software. Analysis of the current state describes the basic features and properties of user requirements for software development as well as basic methods and approaches for gathering these requirements. Then, the paper presents more specific mechanisms for requirement analysis based on chosen software development approach: structured, object-oriented or agile. Based on these experiences it is designed new methodology for requirement analysis. Methodology describes how to map user requirements comprehensively in the field of emergency management and thus reduce misunderstanding between software analyst and emergency manager. Proposed methodology was consulted with department of fire brigade and also has been applied in the requirements analysis for their current emergency management software. The proposed methodology has general character and can be used also in other specific areas during requirement analysis.

Keywords: emergency software, methodology, requirement analysis, stakeholders, use case diagram, user stories

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
1802 Determination of the Knowledge Level of Healthcare Professional's Working at the Emergency Services in Turkey about Their Approaches to Common Forensic Cases

Authors: E. Tuğba Topçu, Ebru E. Kazan, Erhan Büken

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Emergency nurses are the first health care professional to generally observe the patients, communicate patients’ family or relatives, touch the properties of patients and contact to laboratory sample of patients. Also, they are the encounter incidents related crime, people who engage in violence or suspicious injuries frequently. So, documentation of patients’ condition came to the hospital and conservation of evidence are important in the inquiry of forensic medicine. The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge level of healthcare professional working at the emergency services regarding their approaches to common forensic cases. The study was comprised of 404 healthcare professional working (nurse, emergency medicine technician, health officer) at the emergency services of 6 state hospitals, 6 training and 6 research hospitals and 3 university hospitals in Ankara. Data was collected using questionnaire form which was developed by researches in the direction of literature. Questionnaire form is comprised of two sections. The first section includes 17 questions related demographic information about health care professional and 4 questions related Turkish laws. The second section includes 43 questions to the determination of knowledge level of health care professional’s working in the emergency department, about approaches to frequently encountered forensic cases. For the data evaluation of the study; Mann Whitney U test, Bonferroni correction Kruskal Wallis H test and Chi Square tests have been used. According to study, it’s said that there is no forensic medicine expert in the foundation by 73.4% of health care professionals. Two third (66%) of participants’ in emergency department reported daily average 7 or above forensic cases applied to the emergency department and 52.1% of participants did not evaluate incidents came to the emergency department as a forensic case. Most of the participants informed 'duty of preservation of evidence' is health care professionals duty related forensic cases. In result, we determinated that knowledge level of health care professional working in the emergency department, about approaches to frequently encountered forensic cases, is not the expected level. Because we found that most of them haven't received education about forensic nursing.Postgraduates participants, educated health professional about forensic nursing, staff who applied to sources about forensic nursing and staff who evaluated emergency department cases as forensic cases have significantly higher level of knowledge. Moreover, it’s found that forensic cases diagnosis score is the highest in health officer and university graduated. Health care professional’s deficiency in knowledge about forensic cases can cause defects in operation of the forensic process because of mistakes in collecting and conserving of evidence. It is obvious that training about the approach to forensic nursing should be arranged.

Keywords: emergency nurses, forensic case, forensic nursing, level of knowledge

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1801 Investigation of Chronic Drug Use Due to Chronic Diseases in Patients Admitted to Emergency Department

Authors: Behcet Al, Şener Cindoruk, Suat Zengin, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Mehmet Mustafa Sunar, Hatice Eroglu, Cuma Yildirim

Abstract:

Objective: In present study we aimed to investigate the chronic drug use due to chronic diseases in patients admitted to emergency department. Materials-Methods: 144 patients who applied to emergency department (ED) of medicine school of Gaziantep University between June 2013 and September 2013 with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs were included. Information about drugs used by patients were recorded. Results: Of patients, half were male, half were female, and the mean age was 58 years. The first three common diseases were diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary artery diseases. Of patients, %79.2 knew their illness. Fifty patients began to use drug within three months, 36 patient began to use within the last one year. While 42 patients brought all of their drugs with themselves, 17 patients brought along a portion of drugs. While three patients stopped their medication completely, 125 patients received medication on a regular basis. Fifty-two patient described the drugs with names, 13 patients described with their colors, 3 patients described by grammes, 45 patients described with the size of the tablet and 13 patients could not describe the drugs. Ninety-two patients explained which kind of drugs were used for each diseases, 17 patient explained partly, and 35 patients had no idea. Hundred patients received medication by themselves, 44 patients medications were giving by their relatives and med carers. Of medications, 140 were written by doctors directly, three medication were given by pharmacist; and one patient bought the drug by himself. For 11 patients the drugs were not harmonious to their diseases. Fifty-one patients admitted to the ED two times within last week, and 73 admitted two times within last month. Conclusion: The majority of patients with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs know their diseases and use the drugs in order, but do not have enough information about their medication.

Keywords: chronic disease, drug use, emergency department, medication

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1800 Air Conditioner Refrigerant and Burn: A Case Report

Authors: Okan Cakir, Ibrahim Arziman, Derya Can, Mete Erkencigil, Murat Durusu, S. Mehmet Yasar

Abstract:

Introduction: Burn injuries from different types and ways commonly seen in emergency departments, approach and treatment varies from outpatient treatment to critical care unit. We wanted to mention a rare burn injury cause of air conditioner refrigerant. Case report: A 22-year-old case admitted to emergency department with a complaint of left hand burn injury and pain. In his history, he said that an accident was occurred before 30 minutes from admission while he had been trying to repair the air conditioner. Air conditioner refrigerant suddenly had erupted from its tank and burned his hand. In physical examination of extremities, second-degree burn bullae on the left hand on second and third proximal phalanx, between first and second phalanx palmar side and on hypothenar region and on third and fourth proximal phalanx and also hyperemia from hand to wrist were seen. There was no motor and sensorial deficiency. As a treatment, local silver sulfadiazine applied to the burn area and analgesic prescribed. The case called for the clinical follow-up to the plastic surgery department. Conclusion: The clinician should take a comprehensive and careful anamnesis for suitable and right management and treatment as in this case in which as well as rare and occurs different way.

Keywords: air conditioner refrigerant, burn, emergency department, rare

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1799 Drowning: An Emergency Department Guideline

Authors: Thomas P. Jones

Abstract:

Overview: Drowning is an important cause of accidental death, particularly in children and young people. Although many survive drowning incidents, it is a relatively rare presenting complaint in Emergency Departments. When cases do present, they can be complex and unpredictable. For patients to receive the best care, it is important that their management is standardized and evidence based, however this can be difficult in a topic area with limited studies and inconsistencies in case reporting. Objectives: To review recent cases to assess the performance of Manchester Royal Infirmary Emergency Department in the management of near drowning. To produce evidence based guideline on the management of drowning victims in the ED. Methods: Emergency department records were searched for patients with the diagnosis of ‘fatal drowning’ or ‘nearly drowning’ and two relevant case notes reviewed. To produce the guideline a literature review was conducted and a series of structured short cut systematic reviews known as Best BETs carried out. This information was used to produce a clear treatment pathway. Results: The case studies emphasized the variety in presentation of drowning victims whilst highlighting inconsistencies in management and documentation. An evidence-based guideline is presented as a flowchart, which illustrates the relevant investigations and treatment that victims of a drowning incident should receive, based on the best available evidence. Conclusion: It is hoped that when put into practice, the guideline will improve and standardize patient care in cases of near drowning. An audit is recommended to assess its effectiveness.

Keywords: drowning, near drowning, non fatal drowning, fatal drowning

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1798 Structure of the Working Time of Nurses in Emergency Departments in Polish Hospitals

Authors: Jadwiga Klukow, Anna Ksykiewicz-Dorota

Abstract:

An analysis of the distribution of nurses’ working time constitutes vital information for the management in planning employment. The objective of the study was to analyze the distribution of nurses’ working time in an emergency department. The study was conducted in an emergency department of a teaching hospital in Lublin, in Southeast Poland. The catalogue of activities performed by nurses was compiled by means of continuous observation. Identified activities were classified into four groups: Direct care, indirect care, coordination of work in the department and personal activities. Distribution of nurses’ working time was determined by work sampling observation (Tippett) at random intervals. The research project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee by the Medical University of Lublin (Protocol 0254/113/2010). On average, nurses spent 31% of their working time on direct care, 47% on indirect care, 12% on coordinating work in the department and 10% on personal activities. The most frequently performed direct care tasks were diagnostic activities – 29.23% and treatment-related activities – 27.69%. The study has provided information on the complexity of performed activities and utilization of nurses’ working time. Enhancing the effectiveness of nursing actions requires working out a strategy for improved management of the time nurses spent at work. Increasing the involvement of auxiliary staff and optimizing communication processes within the team may lead to reduction of the time devoted to indirect care for the benefit of direct care.

Keywords: emergency nurses, nursing care, workload, work sampling

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1797 Infection Control Drill: To Assess the Readiness and Preparedness of Staffs in Managing Suspected Ebola Patients in Tan Tock Seng Hospital Emergency Department

Authors: Le Jiang, Chua Jinxing

Abstract:

Introduction: The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in the west Africa has drawn global concern. With a high fatality rate and direct human-to-human transmission, it has spread between countries and caused great damages for patients and family who are affected. Being the designated hospital to manage epidemic outbreak in Singapore, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) is facing great challenges in preparation and managing of potential outbreak of emerging infectious disease such as Ebola virus disease. Aim: We conducted an infection control drill in TTSH emergency department to assess the readiness of healthcare and allied health workers in managing suspected Ebola patients. It also helps to review current Ebola clinical protocol and work instruction to ensure more smooth and safe practice in managing Ebola patients in TTSH emergency department. Result: General preparedness level of staffs involved in managing Ebola virus disease in TTSH emergency department is not adequate. Knowledge deficits of staffs on Ebola personal protective equipment gowning and degowning process increase the risk of potential cross contamination in patient care. Loopholes are also found in current clinical protocol, such as unclear instructions and inaccurate information, which need to be revised to promote better staff performance in patient management. Logistic issues such as equipment dysfunction and inadequate supplies can lead to ineffective communication among teams and causing harm to patients in emergency situation. Conclusion: The infection control drill identified the need for more well-structured and clear clinical protocols to be in place to promote participants performance. In addition to quality protocols and guidelines, systemic training and annual refresher for all staffs in the emergency department are essential to prepare staffs for the outbreak of Ebola virus disease. Collaboration and communication with allied health staffs are also crucial for smooth delivery of patient care and minimising the potential human suffering, properties loss or injuries caused by disease. Therefore, more clinical drills with collaboration among various departments involved are recommended to be conducted in the future to monitor and assess readiness of TTSH emergency department in managing Ebola virus disease.

Keywords: ebola, emergency department, infection control drill, Tan Tock Seng Hospital

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1796 Patient Service Improvement in Public Emergency Department Using Discrete Event Simulation

Authors: Dana Mohammed, Fatemah Abdullah, Hawraa Ali, Najat Al-Shaer, Rawan Al-Awadhi, , Magdy Helal

Abstract:

We study the patient service performance at the emergency department of a major Kuwaiti public hospital, using discrete simulation and lean concepts. In addition to the common problems in such health care systems (over crowdedness, facilities planning and usage, scheduling and staffing, capacity planning) the emergency department suffered from several cultural and patient behavioural issues. Those contributed significantly to the system problems and constituted major obstacles in maintaining the performance in control. This led to overly long waiting times and the potential of delaying providing help to critical cases. We utilized the visual management tools to mitigate the impact of the patients’ behaviours and attitudes and improve the logistics inside the system. In addition a proposal is made to automate the date collection and communication within the department using RFID-based barcoding system. Discrete event simulation models were developed as decision support systems; to study the operational problems and assess achieved improvements. The simulation analysis resulted in cutting the patient delays to about 35% of their current values by reallocating and rescheduling the medical staff. Combined with the application of the visual management concepts, this provided the basis to improving patient service without any major investments.

Keywords: simulation, visual management, health care system, patient

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1795 The Evaluation of Children Who Had Chest Pain on Pediatric Emergency Department

Authors: Sabiha Sahin

Abstract:

Background: Chest pain is a common complaint in children visiting the emergency department (ED). True organic problems like cardiac disease are rare. We assess the etiology of chest pain among children visiting a Pediatric ED in Eskisehir Osmangazi University. Method: We prospectively evaluated of children with chest pain who visited our Pediatric ED between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014. Any case of trauma-associated chest pain was excluded from this study. Results: A total of 100 patients (54 boys, 46 girls), mean age: 11,86±3,51 (age range, 6–17 years) were enrolled into this study; 100 patients had chest radiograms (100 %). Pneumonia was identified in 15 patients. All patients had electrocardiogram study (100 %) and 16 of them showed abnormalities. Additional diagnostic tests were performed on all patients including complete blood count analysis, cardiac markers (CK-MB, Troponin I) and lactate (blood gas analysis). Echocardiograms were performed on all patients and 16 of them showed abnormality (five of majör abnormality). Panendoscopy was done in 20 patients, and gastroesophageal reflux was found in 12 (%12). Overall, idiopathic chest pain and myalgia was the most common diagnosis (32 %). Other associated disorders were asthma (12 %), panic attack (13 %). Conclusion: The most common cause of chest pain prompting a child to visit the ED is idiopathic chest pain. Careful physical examination can reveal important clues and save many unnecessary examinations.

Keywords: child, chest pain, pediatric emergency department, evaluation

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1794 Prescription of Maintenance Fluids in the Emergency Department

Authors: Adrian Craig, Jonathan Easaw, Rose Jordan, Ben Hall

Abstract:

The prescription of intravenous fluids is a fundamental component of inpatient management, but it is one which usually lacks thought. Fluids are a drug, which like any other can cause harm when prescribed inappropriately or wrongly. However, it is well recognised that it is poorly done, especially in the acute portals. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 1mmol/kg of potassium, sodium, and chloride per day. With various options of fluids, clinicians tend to face difficulty in choosing the most appropriate maintenance fluid, and there is a reluctance to prescribe potassium as part of an intravenous maintenance fluid regime. The aim was to prospectively audit the prescription of the first bag of intravenous maintenance fluids, the use of urea and electrolytes results to guide the choice of fluid and the use of fluid prescription charts, in a busy emergency department of a major trauma centre in Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. This was undertaken over a week in early November 2016. Of those prescribed maintenance fluid only 8.9% were prescribed a fluid which was most appropriate for their daily electrolyte requirements. This audit has helped to highlight further the issues that are faced in busy Emergency Departments within hospitals that are stretched and lack capacity for prompt transfer to a ward. It has supported the findings of NICE, that emergency admission portals such as Emergency Departments poorly prescribed intravenous fluid therapy. The findings have enabled simple steps to be taken to educate clinicians about their fluid of choice. This has included: posters to remind clinicians to consider the urea and electrolyte values before prescription, suggesting the inclusion of a suggested intravenous fluid of choice in the prescription chart of the trust and the inclusion of a session within the introduction programme revising intravenous fluid therapy and daily electrolyte requirements. Moving forward, once the interventions have been implemented then, the data will be reaudited in six months to note any improvement in maintenance fluid choice. Alongside this, an audit of the rate of intravenous maintenance fluid therapy would be proposed to further increase patient safety by avoiding unintentional fluid overload which may cause unnecessary harm to patients within the hospital. In conclusion, prescription of maintenance fluid therapy was poor within the Emergency Department, and there is a great deal of opportunity for improvement. Therefore, the measures listed above will be implemented and the data reaudited.

Keywords: chloride, electrolyte, emergency department, emergency medicine, fluid, fluid therapy, intravenous, maintenance, major trauma, potassium, sodium, trauma

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1793 Characterization of Chest Pain in Patients Consulting to the Emergency Department of a Health Institution High Level of Complexity during 2014-2015, Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Jorge Iván Bañol-Betancur, Lina María Martínez-Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez-Gázquez, Estefanía Bahamonde-Olaya, Ana María Gutiérrez-Tamayo, Laura Isabel Jaramillo-Jaramillo, Camilo Ruiz-Mejía, Natalia Morales-Quintero

Abstract:

Acute chest pain is a distressing sensation between the diaphragm and the base of the neck and it represents a diagnostic challenge for any physician in the emergency department. Objective: To establish the main clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients who present with chest pain to the emergency department in a private clinic from the city of Medellin, during 2014-2015. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective observational study. Population and sample were patients who consulted for chest pain in the emergency department who met the eligibility criteria. The information was analyzed in SPSS program vr.21; qualitative variables were described through relative frequencies, and the quantitative through mean and standard deviation ‬or medians according to their distribution in the study population. Results: A total of 231 patients were evaluated, the mean age was 49.5 ± 19.9 years, 56.7% were females. The most frequent pathological antecedents were hypertension 35.5%, diabetes 10,8%, dyslipidemia 10.4% and coronary disease 5.2%. Regarding pain features, in 40.3% of the patients the pain began abruptly, in 38.2% it had a precordial location, for 20% of the cases physical activity acted as a trigger, and 60.6% was oppressive. Costochondritis was the most common cause of chest pain among patients with an established etiologic diagnosis, representing the 18.2%. Conclusions: Although the clinical features of pain reported coincide with the clinical presentation of an acute coronary syndrome, the most common cause of chest pain in study population was costochondritis instead, indicating that it is a differential diagnostic in the approach of patients with pain acute chest.

Keywords: acute coronary syndrome, chest pain, epidemiology, osteochondritis

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
1792 Impact of Emergency Medicine Department Crowding on Mortality

Authors: Morteza Gharibi, Abdolghader Pakniat, Somayeh Bahrampouri

Abstract:

Introduction: Emergency department (E.R.) crowding is a serious widespread problem in hospitals that leads to irregularities, a slower rate of delivery of services to patients, and a long-term stay. In addition, the long-term stay in the E.D. reduces the possibility of providing services with appropriate quality to other patients who are undergoing medical emergencies, which leads to dissatisfaction among patients. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ED-crowding and the mortality rate of the patients referred to the E.D. In a retrospective cohort study, all patients who expired in first 24 hours of admission were enrolled in the study. Crowding index at the moment of admission was calculated using Edwin Score. The data including history and physical examination, time of arrival in the E.D., diagnosis (using ICD 10 code), time of death, cause of death, demographic information was recoded based on triage forms on admission and patients’ medical files. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistics and chi square test, ANOVA tests using SPSS ver. 19. The time of arrival in E.D. to death in crowded E.D. conditions, with an average of five hours and 25 minutes, was significantly higher than the average admission Time of arrival in E.D. to death in active and crowded E.D. conditions. More physicians and nurses can be employed during crowded times to reduce staff fatigue and improve their performance during these hours.

Keywords: mortality, emergency, department, crowding

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