Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1484

Search results for: prostate cancer

1484 The Many Faces of Cancer and Knowing When to Say Stop

Authors: Diwei Lin, Amanda Jh. Tan


We present a very rare case of de novo large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (LCNEC) in an 84-year-old male on a background of high-grade, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. While NE tumours account for 1% to 5% of all cases of prostate cancer and scattered NE cells can be found in 10% to 100% of prostate adenocarcinomas, pure LCNEC of the prostate is extremely rare. Most LCNEC of the prostate is thought to originate by clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy and refractory to long-term hormonal treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. De novo LCNEC is only described in case reports and is thought to develop via direct malignant transformation. Limited data in the English literature makes it difficult to accurately predict the prognosis of LCNEC of the prostate. However, current evidence suggesting that increasing NE differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma is associated with a higher stage, high-grade disease, and a worse prognosis.

Keywords: large cell neuroendocrine cancer, prostate cancer, refractory cancer, medical and health sciences

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1483 Histopathological Characterization of Prostate Cancer in Saudi Patients

Authors: Nadeem A. Kizilbash


The study aimed to compare the histopathological characterization of prostate cancer using the conventional and 2005 ISUP modified Gleason system. It employed samples from 40 prostate cancer patients employing resection, biopsies and RP. The majority of cases (95%) comprised adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The results showed that there is migration or upgrading of scores to higher values on using the 2005 ISUP modified Gleason system and an increase in a score of 7 in more than 45% of the cases.

Keywords: prostate cancer, conventional gleason grading, 2005 ISUP modified gleason system, histopathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
1482 Importance of Prostate Volume, Prostate Specific Antigen Density and Free/Total Prostate Specific Antigen Ratio for Prediction of Prostate Cancer

Authors: Aliseydi Bozkurt


Objectives: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign disease, and prostate cancer (PC) is malign disease of the prostate gland. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-bx) is one of the most important diagnostic tools in PC diagnosis. Identifying men at increased risk for having a biopsy detectable prostate cancer should consider prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), f/t PSA Ratio, an estimate of prostate volume. Method: We retrospectively studied 269 patients who had a prostate specific antigen (PSA) score of 4 or who had suspected rectal examination at any PSA level and received TRUS-bx between January 2015 and June 2018 in our clinic. TRUS-bx was received by 12 experienced urologists with 12 quadrants. Prostate volume was calculated prior to biopsy together with TRUS. Patients were classified as malignant and benign at the end of pathology. Age, PSA value, prostate volume in transrectal ultrasonography, corpuscle biopsy, biopsy pathology result, the number of cancer core and Gleason score were evaluated in the study. The success rates of PV, PSAD, and f/tPSA were compared in all patients and those with PSA 2.5-10 ng/mL and 10.1-30 ng/mL tp foresee prostate cancer. Result: In the present study, in patients with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, PV cut-off value was 43,5 mL (n=42 < 43,5 mL and n=102 > 43,5 mL) while in those with PSA 10.1-30 ng/mL prostate volüme (PV) cut-off value was found 61,5 mL (n=31 < 61,5 mL and n=36 > 61,5 mL). Total PSA values in the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml were found lower (6.0 ± 1.3 vs 6.7 ± 1.7) than that with PV < 43,5 mL, this value was nearly significant (p=0,043). In the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL, no significant difference was found (p=0,117) in terms of total PSA values between the group with PV < 61,5 mL and that with PV > 61,5 mL. In the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, in patients with PV < 43,5 mL, f/t PSA value was found significantly lower compared to the group with PV > 43,5 mL (0.21 ± 0.09 vs 0.26 ± 0.09 p < 0.001 ). Similarly, in the group with PSA value of 10.1-30 ng/mL, f/t PSA value was found significantly lower in patients with PV < 61,5 mL (0.16 ± 0.08 vs 0.23 ± 0.10 p=0,003). In the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, PSAD value in patients with PV < 43,5 mL was found significantly higher compared to those with PV > 43,5 mL (0.17 ± 0.06 vs 0.10 ± 0.03 p < 0.001). Similarly, in the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL PSAD value was found significantly higher in patients with PV < 61,5 mL (0.47 ± 0.23 vs 0.17 ± 0.08 p < 0.001 ). The biopsy results suggest that in the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, in 29 of the patients with PV < 43,5 mL (69%) cancer was detected while in 13 patients (31%) no cancer was detected. While in 19 patients with PV > 43,5 mL (18,6%) cancer was found, in 83 patients (81,4%) no cancer was detected (p < 0.001). In the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL, in 21 patients with PV < 61,5 mL (67.7%) cancer was observed while only in10 patients (32.3%) no cancer was seen. In 5 patients with PV > 61,5 mL (13.9%) cancer was found while in 31 patients (86.1%) no cancer was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Identifying men at increased risk for having a biopsy detectable prostate cancer should consider PSA, f/t PSA Ratio, an estimate of prostate volume. Prostate volume in PC was found lower.

Keywords: prostate cancer, prostate volume, prostate specific antigen, free/total PSA ratio

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1481 Using Self Organizing Feature Maps for Automatic Prostate Segmentation in TRUS Images

Authors: Ahad Salimi, Hassan Masoumi


Prostate cancer is one of the most common recognized cancers in men, and, is one of the most important mortality factors of cancer in this group. Determining of prostate’s boundary in TRUS (Transrectal Ultra Sound) images is very necessary for prostate cancer treatments. The weakness edges and speckle noise make the ultrasound images inherently to segment. In this paper a new automatic algorithm for prostate segmentation in TRUS images proposed that include three main stages. At first morphological smoothing and sticks filtering are used for noise removing. In second step, for finding a point in prostate region, SOFM algorithm is enlisted and in the last step, the boundary of prostate extracting accompanying active contour is employed. For validation of proposed method, a number of experiments are conducted. The results obtained by our algorithm show the promise of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: SOFM, preprocessing, GVF contour, segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1480 Clinical Relevance of TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Marker for Prostate Cancer

Authors: Shalu Jain, Anju Bansal, Anup Kumar, Sunita Saxena


Objectives: The novel TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion is a common somatic event in prostate cancer that in some studies is linked with a more aggressive disease phenotype. Thus, this study aims to determine whether clinical variables are associated with the presence of TMPRSS2:ERG-fusion gene transcript in Indian patients of prostate cancer. Methods: We evaluated the clinical variables with presence and absence of TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in prostate cancer and BPH association of clinical patients. Patients referred for prostate biopsy because of abnormal DRE or/and elevated sPSA were enrolled for this prospective clinical study. TMPRSS2:ERG mRNA copies in samples were quantified using a Taqman chemistry by real time PCR assay in prostate biopsy samples (N=42). The T2:ERG assay detects the gene fusion mRNA isoform TMPRSS2 exon1 to ERG exon4. Results: Histopathology report has confirmed 25 cases as prostate cancer adenocarcinoma (PCa) and 17 patients as benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Out of 25 PCa cases, 16 (64%) were T2: ERG fusion positive. All 17 BPH controls were fusion negative. The T2:ERG fusion transcript was exclusively specific for prostate cancer as no case of BPH was detected having T2:ERG fusion, showing 100% specificity. The positive predictive value of fusion marker for prostate cancer is thus 100% and the negative predictive value is 65.3%. The T2:ERG fusion marker is significantly associated with clinical variables like no. of positive cores in prostate biopsy, Gleason score, serum PSA, perineural invasion, perivascular invasion and periprostatic fat involvement. Conclusions: Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease that may be defined by molecular subtypes such as the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. In the present prospective study, the T2:ERG quantitative assay demonstrated high specificity for predicting biopsy outcome; sensitivity was similar to the prevalence of T2:ERG gene fusions in prostate tumors. These data suggest that further improvement in diagnostic accuracy could be achieved using a nomogram that combines T2:ERG with other markers and risk factors for prostate cancer.

Keywords: prostate cancer, genetic rearrangement, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, clinical variables

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1479 Serological Screening of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Sudanese Patients with Leukemia, Breast and Prostate Cancers at Radiation-Isotope Center in Khartoum

Authors: Abuelquasim. M. Hassan, Namarig .S. Mohammed, Samah F. Mohammed, Wafaa. A. Mohammed, Wafaa M. Edriss, Amel A. Ahmed, Elfadil M. Abass


Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common virus, usually causes asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent hosts; however, it may lead to serious complications especially in cancer patients. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among leukemia, breast and prostate cancer patients attending at Radiation Isotope-Center-Khartoum (RICK) from April to August 2016. Material and Methods: A total of 91 subjects were included: 30 leukemic, 22 breast cancer and 29 prostate cancer patients.10 of them were healthy and used as control group, serum samples were collected and tested for CMV IgG & IgM using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Result: Of the control group, 9/10 (9.9%) were seropositive for CMV IgG and 1/10 (1.09%) were sero positive for IgM. Also, all cancer groups demonstrated presence of IgG antibody classes as: The percentage of positive results in prostate, breast cancer and leukemia were 35.8 %, 37.2%, and 35.3% respectively. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between leukemia, breast, prostate and HCMV.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, serodiagnostic, breast cancer, leukemia

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1478 Non-Signaling Chemokine Receptor CCRL1 and Its Active Counterpart CCR7 in Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yiding Qu, Svetlana V. Komarova


Chemokines acting through their cognate chemokine receptors guide the directional migration of the cell along the chemokine gradient. Several chemokine receptors were recently identified as non-signaling (decoy), based on their ability to bind the chemokine but produce no measurable signal in the cell. The function of these decoy receptors is not well understood. We examined the expression of a decoy receptor CCRL1 and a signaling receptor that binds to the same ligands, CCR7, in prostate cancer using publically available microarray data ( The expression of both CCRL1 and CCR7 increased in an approximately half of prostate carcinoma samples and the majority of metastatic cancer samples compared to normal prostate. Moreover, the expression of CCRL1 positively correlated with the expression of CCR7. These data suggest that CCR7 and CCRL1 can be used as clinical markers for the early detection of transformation from carcinoma to metastatic cancer. In addition, these data support our hypothesis that the non-signaling chemokine receptors actively stimulate cell migration.

Keywords: bioinformatics, cell migration, decoy receptor, meta-analysis, prostate cancer

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1477 A Longitudinal Examination of the Impact of Treatment Modality on Relationship Satisfaction and Mental Health Quality of Life Outcomes among Prostate Cancer Survivors

Authors: Gabriela Ilie, Robert D. H. Rutledge


A review of the literature reveals a need for longitudinal studies to properly understand the quality of life of prostate cancer survivors during their prostate cancer journey in order to identify opportunities for patient support and care during prostate cancer survivorship. In this study, mental health and relationship satisfaction were assessed longitudinally and by treatment modality among a population-based sample of Canadian adult men with a history of prostate cancer diagnosis. A total of 98 men, aged 51 or older with a history of prostate cancer completed an on-line 15-minute survey between May 2017 and February 2018, assessing mental health (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale) and relationship satisfaction (Dyadic Adjustment Scale) at baseline and at three months post-treatment with either active or nonactive prostate cancer treatment. Almost 1 in 6 men in this sample screened positive for mental health issues (17.34%, n=17) irrespective of treatment modality and most (n=11) were not currently on medication for depression, anxiety or both. Mental health outcomes were poorer for men with multimorbidity. For every instance of screening positive for mental health issues, 2.021 (95% CI:1.1 to 3.8) times more comorbidities were recorded. Relationship satisfaction and dyadic cohesion were statistically significantly lower from first assessment to 3 months for men who underwent multiple treatment modalities (surgery and radiation with hormonal therapy). Relationship satisfaction was also lower at 3 months for men who underwent radiation therapy. Almost 1 in 2 men in this sample (74%) indicated they did not attend a prostate cancer support group. Results suggest that treatment for mental health is underutilized in men with prostate cancer. Men who undergo multiple forms of active treatment appear more vulnerable to relationship dissatisfaction and feeling disconnected from their partner. Data points to important opportunities for patient education and care support during survivorship.

Keywords: prostate cancer survivorship, mental health, quality of life, relationship satisfaction

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1476 Anti-Prostate Cancer Effect of GV-1001, a Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Ligand

Authors: Ji Won Kim, Moo Yeol Lee, Keon Wook Kang


GV-1001, 16 amino acid fragment of human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT), has been developed as an injectable cancer vaccine for many types of solid tumors showing high-level of telomerase activity. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect of GV-1001 on androgen-receptor-positive prostate cancer. Two signaling pathways, Gs-adenylate cyclase-cAMP and Gq-IP3-Ca2+ pathways play a central role in GnRH receptor (GnRHR)-mediated activities. We found that leuprolide acetate (LA) mainly acted on Gq-mediated Ca2+ signaling, while GV-1001 preferentially acted on cAMP signaling; and both the effects were counteracted by cetrorelix, a GnRHR antagonist. We further tested whether GV-1001 affects tumor growth of human prostate cancer cells in vivo. Prostate tumor xenografts were established using LNCap, androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells, and the nude mice bearing tumors were subcutaneously injected with GV-1001 (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 microg/kg/day) and LA (0.01 microg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. GV-1001 (1 and 10 microg/kg/day) significantly inhibited tumor growth of LNCap xenografts. Interestingly, mRNA expression of MMP2 and MMP9 was significantly suppressed by GV-1001 injection, but not by LA administration. Boyden chamber assay revealed that GV-1001 potently inhibited cell migration of LNCap. Our finding suggests that GV-1001 as a novel GnRHR ligand, has anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects on androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells.

Keywords: GV-1001, GnRH, hTERT, prostate cancer

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1475 The Impact of a Prior Haemophilus influenzae Infection in the Incidence of Prostate Cancer

Authors: Maximiliano Guerra, Lexi Frankel, Amalia D. Ardeljan, Sarah Ghali, Diya Kohli, Omar M. Rashid.


Introduction/Background: Haemophilus influenzae is present as a commensal organism in the nasopharynx of most healthy adults from where it can spread to cause both systemic and respiratory tract infection. Pathogenic properties of this bacterium as well as defects in host defense may result in the spread of these bacteria throughout the body. This can result in a proinflammatory state and colonization particularly in the lungs. Recent studies have failed to determine a link between H. Influenzae colonization and prostate cancer, despite previous research demonstrating the presence of proinflammatory states in preneoplastic and neoplastic prostate lesions. Given these contradictory findings, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between H. Influenzae infection and the incidence of prostate cancer. Methods: To evaluate the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae infection and the development of prostate cancer in the future we used data provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database. We were afforded access to this database by Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for the express purpose of academic research. Standard statistical methods were employed in this study including Pearson’s chi-square tests. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 13, 691 patients in both the control and C. difficile infected groups, respectively. The two groups were matched by age range and CCI score. In the Haemophilus influenzae infected group, the incidence of prostate cancer was 1.46%, while the incidence of the prostate cancer control group was 4.56%. The observed difference in cancer incidence was determined to be a statistically significant p-value (< 2.2x10^-16). This suggests that patients with a history of C. difficile have less risk of developing prostate cancer (OR 0.425, 95% CI: 0.382 - 0.472). Treatment bias was considered, the data was analyzed and resulted in two groups matched groups of 3,208 patients in both the infected with H. Influenzae treated group and the control who used the same medications for a different cause. Patients infected with H. Influenzae and treated had an incidence of prostate cancer of 2.49% whereas the control group incidence of prostate cancer was 4.92% with a p-value (< 2.2x10^-16) OR 0.455 CI 95% (0.526 -0.754), proving that the initial results were not due to the use of medications. Conclusion: The findings of our study reveal a statistically significant correlation between H. Influenzae infection and a decreased incidence of prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that prior infection with H. Influenzae may confer some degree of protection to patients and reduce their risk for developing prostate cancer. Future research is recommended to further characterize the potential role of Haemophilus influenzae in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.

Keywords: Haemophilus Influenzae, incidence, prostate cancer, risk.

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1474 Plasma Selenium Concentration and Polymorphism of Selenoprotein and Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yu-Mei Hsueh, Cheng-Shiuan Tsai, Chao-Yuan Huang


Prostate Cancer (PC) is a malignant tumor originated in prostate and is a second common male’s cancer in the world. Incidence of PC in Asia countries, have still been rising over the past few decades. As an antioxidant, selenium can slow down prostate cancer tumor progression, but the association between plasma selenium levels and risk of aggressive prostate cancer may be modified by different genotype of selenoprotein. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between plasma selenium, polymorphism of selenoprotein, urinaty total arsenic, and prostate cancer. Two hundred ninety five pathologically-confirmed cases of PC and 295 cancer-free controls were individually matched to case subjects by age (± 5 years) were recruited from Department of Urology of National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and Taipei Medical University Hospital. Personal interview and biospeciment of urine and blood collection from participants were conducted by well-trained interviewers after participants’ informed consent was obtained. Plasma selenium was measured by an inductively coupled plasma mass. Urinary arsenic concentration was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphism of SEPP1rs3797310 and SEP15 rs5859 were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The higher plasma selenium was the lower OR of PC with a dose-response relationship. Prostate cancer patients with high plasma selenium had low tumor stage and grade. Participants carried SEPP1rs3797310 CT+TT genotype compared to those with CC genotype had a lower OR of PC in crude model; then this relationship was disappeared after confounder was adjusted. Prostate cancer patients with high urinary total arsenic concentration had high tumor stage and grade. Urinary total arsenic concentration was significantly positively related with plasma selenium and prostate specific antigen concentration. Participants with lower plasma selenium concentration and higher urinary total arsenic concentration compared to those with higher plasma selenium concentration and lower urinary total arsenic concentration had a higher OR of PC with a dose-response relationship.

Keywords: prostate cancer, plasma selenium concentration, urinary arsenic concentration, prostate specific antigen

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1473 Micro-Ribonucleic Acid-21 as High Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker

Authors: Regina R. Gunawan, Indwiani Astuti, H. Raden Danarto


Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer is caused by mutations that alter the function of normal human genes and give rise to cancer genes. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA that regulates the gen through complementary bond towards mRNA target and cause mRNA degradation. miRNA works by either promoting or suppressing cell proliferation. miRNA level expression in cancer may offer another value of miRNA as a biomarker in cancer diagnostic. miRNA-21 is believed to have a role in carcinogenesis by enhancing proliferation, anti-apoptosis, cell cycle progression and invasion of tumor cells. Hsa-miR-21-5p marker has been identified in Prostate Cancer (PCa) and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) patient’s urine. This research planned to explore the diagnostic performance of miR-21 to differentiate PCa and BPH patients. In this study, urine samples were collected from 20 PCa patients and 20 BPH patients. miR-21 relative expression against the reference gene was analyzed and compared between the two. miRNA expression was analyzed using the comparative quantification method to find the fold change. miR-21 validity in identifying PCa patients was performed by quantifying the sensitivity and specificity with the contingency table. miR-21 relative expression against miR-16 in PCa patient and in BPH patient has 12,98 differences in fold change. From a contingency table of Cq expression of miR-21 in identifying PCa patients from BPH patient, Cq miR-21 has 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity. miR-21 relative expression can be used in discriminating PCa from BPH by using a urine sample. Furthermore, the expression of miR-21 has higher sensitivity compared to PSA (Prostate specific antigen), therefore miR-21 has a high potential to be analyzed and developed more.

Keywords: benign prostate hyperplasia, biomarker, miRNA-21, prostate cancer

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1472 Risk of Androgen Deprivation Therapy-Induced Metabolic Syndrome-Related Complications for Prostate Cancer in Taiwan

Authors: Olivia Rachel Hwang, Yu-Hsuan Joni Shao


Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) has been a primary treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects related to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, heart diseases and ischemic strokes. However, complications associated with ADT for prostate cancer in Taiwan is not well documented. The purpose of this study is to utilize the data from NHIRD (National Health Insurance Research Database) to examine the trajectory changes of MetS-related complications in men receiving ADT. The risks of developing complications after the treatment were analyzed with multivariate Cox regression model. Covariates including in the model were the complications before the diagnosis of prostate cancer, the age, and the year at cancer diagnosis. A total number of 17268 patients from 1997-2013 were included in this study. The exclusion criteria were patients with any other types of cancer or with the existing MetS-related complications. Changes in MetS-related complications were observed among two treatment groups: 1) ADT (n=9042), and 2) non-ADT (n=8226). The ADT group appeared to have an increased risk in hypertension (hazard ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.13, P = 0.001) and hyperlipidemia (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.17, P = 0.02) when compared with non-ADT group in the multivariate Cox regression analyses. In the risk of diabetes, heart diseases, and ischemic strokes, ADT group appeared to have an increased but not significant hazard ratio. In conclusion, ADT was associated with an increased risk in hypertension and hyperlipidemia in prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. The risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia should be considered while deciding on ADT, especially those with the known history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

Keywords: androgen deprivation therapy, ADT, complications, metabolic syndrome, MetS, prostate cancer

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1471 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Factors among Patients with Prostate Cancer

Authors: Meral Huri, Sedef Şahin


Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by psychiatric symptoms and triggered by a terrifying experience which may immediately effect cognitive, affective, behavioral and social skills of the individual. One of the most common noncutaneous cancer among men is prostate cancer. The incidence of psychological stress is quite common in men with prostate cancer. The aim of the study was to explore the PTSD frequency among prostate cancer and define the relationship between occupational participation, coping skills and level of perceived social support among patients with prostate cancer. Forty patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were included in the study. After dividing the patients into two groups ( study/ control) according to type of tumor, we recorded their characteristics and evaluations differences. We evaluated the demographic information form, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID- I)- Clinical Version for PTSD, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Styles of Coping Inventory and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) before and after 1 month from surgery. The mean age of the study group (n:18) was 65.85.6 years (range: 61-79 years). The mean age of the control group (n: 22) was a little bit higher than the study group with mean age 71.3±6.9 years (range: 60-85 years). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for age and the other characteristics. According to the results of the study, statistically significant difference was found between the level of PTSD of study and the control group. 22% of study group showed PTSD while 13% of the control group showed PTSD (r: 0.02, p<0.001). The scores of study group and control group showed statistically significant difference in five sub-categories of Styles of Coping Inventory. Patients with prostate cancer showed decreased scores in optimistic, seeking social supports and self-confident approach, while increased scores in helpless and submissive sub-categories than the control group (p<0.001). The scores of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Supports of study group and control group showed statistically significant difference. The total perceived social supports score of the study group was 71.34 ± 0.75 while it was 75.34 ± 0.64 for the control group. Total and the sub-category scores of study group were statistically significant lower than the control group. According to COPM, mean scores of occupational participation of study group for occupational performance were 4.32±2.24 and 7.01±1.52 for the control group, respectively). Mean Satisfaction scores were 3,22±2.31 and 7.45±1.74 for the study and control group, respectively. The patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) did not show any statistically difference in activity performance (r:0.87) while patients with prostate cancer showed statistically lower scores than the patients with BPH in activity satisfaction (r:0.02, p<0.001).Psycho-social occupational therapy interventions might help to decrease the prevalence of PTSD by increasing associated factors such as the social support perception, using coping skills and activity participation of patients with prostate cancer.

Keywords: activity performance, occupational therapy, posttraumatic stress disorder, prostate cancer

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1470 Toxicities associated with EBRT and Brachytherapy for Intermediate and High Risk Prostate Cancer, Correlated with Intra-operative Dosing

Authors: Rebecca Dunne, Cormac Small, Geraldine O'Boyle, Nazir Ibrahim, Anisha


Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. It is estimated that approximately 12% of men will develop prostate cancer during their lifetime. Patients with intermediate, high risk, and very-high risk prostate cancer often undergo a combination of radiation treatments. These treatments include external beam radiotherapy with a low-dose rate or high-dose rate brachytherapy boost, often with concomitant androgen deprivation therapy. The literature on follow-up of patients that receive brachytherapy is scarce, particularly follow-up of patients that undergo high-dose rate brachytherapy. This retrospective study aims to investigate the biochemical failure and toxicities associated with triple therapy and external beam radiotherapy given in combination with brachytherapy. Reported toxicities and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were retrospectively evaluated in eighty patients that previously underwent external beam radiotherapy with a low-dose rate or high dose-rate brachytherapy boost. The severity of toxicities were correlated with intra-operative dosing during brachytherapy on ultrasound and CT scan. The results of this study will provide further information for clinicians and patients when considering treatment options.

Keywords: toxicities, combination, brachytherapy, intra-operative dosing, biochemical failure

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1469 The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials

Authors: Simin Shahvazi, Sepideh Soltani, Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi, Russell J. De Souza, Amin Salehi-Abargouei


Background and Objectives: Vitamin D has received attention for its potential to disrupt cancer processes such as attenuating cell proliferation and exacerbating differentiation and apoptosis. However, whether there exists a role for vitamin D in the treatment of prostate cancer specifically remains controversial. We systematically review the literature to assess whether supplementation with vitamin D influences PSA response and overall survival in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Google scholar from inception through up to 10 September 2017 for both before-and-after and randomized trials that evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the prostate specific antigen (PSA) response rate in participants with prostate cancer. The DerSimonian and Laird, inverse-weighted random-effects model was used to pool effect estimates from the studies. Heterogeneity and potential publication bias were evaluated. Subgroup analyses were also performed. Results: Twenty-two studies (16 before-after and 6 randomized controlled trials) were found and included in meta-analysis. The analysis on controlled clinical trials revealed that PSA change from baseline [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -1.66 ng/ml, 95%CI: -0.69, 0.36, P= 0.543)], PSA response (RR=1.18, 95%CI: 0.97, 1.45, P=0.104) and mortality rate (risk ratio (RR) = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.81-1.36; P=0.713) was not significantly different between vitamin D supplementation and placebo groups. Single arm trials revealed that vitamin D supplementation had had a modest effect on PSA response rate: 19% of those enrolled had at least a 50% reduction in PSA by the end of treatment (95% CI: 7% to 31%; p=0.002). Conclusion: We found that vitamin D modestly increases the PSA response rate in single arm studies. No effect on serum PSA levels, PSA response and mortality was seen in randomized controlled clinical trials. It does not seem patients with prostate cancer benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

Keywords: mortality, prostatic neoplasms, PSA response, vitamin D

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1468 Development of Lectin-Based Biosensor for Glycoprofiling of Clinical Samples: Focus on Prostate Cancer

Authors: Dominika Pihikova, Stefan Belicky, Tomas Bertok, Roman Sokol, Petra Kubanikova, Jan Tkac


Since aberrant glycosylation is frequently accompanied by both physiological and pathological processes in a human body (cancer, AIDS, inflammatory diseases, etc.), the analysis of tumor-associated glycan patterns have a great potential for the development of novel diagnostic approaches. Moreover, altered glycoforms may assist as a suitable tool for the specificity and sensitivity enhancement in early-stage prostate cancer diagnosis. In this paper we discuss the construction and optimization of ultrasensitive sandwich biosensor platform employing lectin as glycan-binding protein. We focus on the immunoassay development, reduction of non-specific interactions and final glycoprofiling of human serum samples including both prostate cancer (PCa) patients and healthy controls. The fabricated biosensor was measured by label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with further lectin microarray verification. Furthermore, we analyzed different biosensor interfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in nanomechanical mapping mode showing a significant differences in the altitude. These preliminary results revealing an elevated content of α-2,3 linked sialic acid in PCa patients comparing with healthy controls. All these experiments are important step towards development of point-of-care devices and discovery of novel glyco-biomarkers applicable in cancer diagnosis.

Keywords: biosensor, glycan, lectin, prostate cancer

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1467 Determination of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Based on Combination of Nanocomposite [email protected]@JB303 and Magnetically Assisted Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (MA-SERS)

Authors: Zuzana Chaloupková, Zdeňka Marková, Václav Ranc, Radek Zbořil


Prostate cancer is now one of the most serious oncological diseases in men with an incidence higher than that of all other solid tumors combined. Diagnosis of prostate cancer usually involves detection of related genes or detection of marker proteins, such as PSA. One of the new potential markers is PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen). PSMA is a unique membrane bound glycoprotein, which is considerably overexpressed on prostate cancer as well as neovasculature of most of the solid tumors. Commonly applied methods for a detection of proteins include techniques based on immunochemical approaches, including ELISA and RIA. Magnetically assisted surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MA-SERS) can be considered as an interesting alternative to generally accepted approaches. This work describes a utilization of MA-SERS in a detection of PSMA in human blood. This analytical platform is based on magnetic nanocomposites [email protected], functionalized by a low-molecular selector labeled as JB303. The system allows isolating the marker from the complex sample using application of magnetic force. Detection of PSMA is than performed by SERS effect given by a presence of silver nanoparticles. This system allowed us to analyze PSMA in clinical samples with limits of detection lower than 1 ng/mL.

Keywords: diagnosis, cancer, PSMA, MA-SERS, Ag nanoparticles

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1466 The Superiority of 18F-Sodium Fluoride PET/CT for Detecting Bone Metastases in Comparison with Other Bone Diagnostic Imaging Modalities

Authors: Mojtaba Mirmontazemi, Habibollah Dadgar


Bone is the most common metastasis site in some advanced malignancies, such as prostate and breast cancer. Bone metastasis generally indicates fewer prognostic factors in these patients. Different radiological and molecular imaging modalities are used for detecting bone lesions. Molecular imaging including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, planar bone scintigraphy, single-photon emission tomography, and positron emission tomography as noninvasive visualization of the biological occurrences has the potential to exact examination, characterization, risk stratification and comprehension of human being diseases. Also, it is potent to straightly visualize targets, specify clearly cellular pathways and provide precision medicine for molecular targeted therapies. These advantages contribute implement personalized treatment for each patient. Currently, NaF PET/CT has significantly replaced standard bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases. On one hand, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT has gained high attention for accurate staging of primary prostate cancer and restaging after biochemical recurrence. On the other hand, FDG PET/CT is not commonly used in osseous metastases of prostate and breast cancer as well as its usage is limited to staging patients with aggressive primary tumors or localizing the site of disease. In this article, we examine current studies about FDG, NaF, and PSMA PET/CT images in bone metastases diagnostic utility and assess response to treatment in patients with breast and prostate cancer.

Keywords: skeletal metastases, fluorodeoxyglucose, sodium fluoride, molecular imaging, precision medicine, prostate cancer (68Ga-PSMA-11)

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1465 The Incidence of Prostate Cancer in Previous Infected E. Coli Population

Authors: Andreea Molnar, Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Marissa Dallara, Brittany Nagel, Omar Rashid


Background: Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae and resides in the intestinal tracts of individuals. E.Coli has numerous strains grouped into serogroups and serotypes based on differences in antigens in their cell walls (somatic, or “O” antigens) and flagella (“H” antigens). More than 700 serotypes of E. coli have been identified. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, a few strains, such as E. coli O157:H7 which produces Shiga toxin, can cause intestinal infection with symptoms of severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. Infection with E. Coli can lead to the development of systemic inflammation as the toxin exerts its effects. Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to cancer development in several organs, including the prostate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between E. Coli and the incidence of prostate cancer. Methods: Data collected in this cohort study was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to evaluate patients infected with E.Coli infection and prostate cancer using the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes). Permission to use the database was granted by Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for the purpose of academic research. Data analysis was conducted through the use of standard statistical methods. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 81, 037 patients after matching in both infected and control groups, respectively. The two groups were matched by Age Range and CCI score. The incidence of prostate cancer was 2.07% and 1,680 patients in the E. Coli group compared to 5.19% and 4,206 patients in the control group. The difference was statistically significant by a p-value p<2.2x10-16 with an Odds Ratio of 0.53 and a 95% CI. Based on the specific treatment for E.Coli, the infected group vs control group were matched again with a result of 31,696 patients in each group. 827 out of 31,696 (2.60%) patients with a prior E.coli infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to 1634 out of 31,696 (5.15%) patients with no history of E.coli infection (control) and received antibiotic treatment. Both populations subsequently developed prostate carcinoma. Results remained statistically significant (p<2.2x10-16), Odds Ratio=0.55 (95% CI 0.51-0.59). Conclusion: This retrospective study shows a statistically significant correlation between E.Coli infection and a decreased incidence of prostate cancer. Further evaluation is needed in order to identify the impact of E.Coli infection and prostate cancer development.

Keywords: E. Coli, prostate cancer, protective, microbiology

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1464 The Association between Gene Polymorphisms of GPX, SEPP1, and SEP15, Plasma Selenium Levels, Urinary Total Arsenic Concentrations, and Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yu-Mei Hsueh, Wei-Jen Chen, Yung-Kai Huang, Cheng-Shiuan Tsai, Kuo-Cheng Yeh


Prostate cancer occurs in men over the age of 50, and rank sixth of the top ten cancers in Taiwan, and the incidence increased gradually over the past decade in Taiwan. Arsenic is confirmed as a carcinogen by International Agency for Research on (IARC). Arsenic induces oxidative stress may be a risk factor for prostate cancer, but the mechanism is not clear. Selenium is an important antioxidant element. Whether the association between plasma selenium levels and risk of prostate cancer are modified by different genotype of selenoprotein is still unknown. Glutathione peroxidase, selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and 15 kDa selenoprotein (SEP 15) are selenoprotein and regulates selenium transport and the oxidation and reduction reaction. However, the association between gene polymorphisms of selenoprotein and prostate cancer is not yet clear. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between plasma selenium, polymorphism of selenoprotein, urinary total arsenic concentration and prostate cancer. This study is a hospital-based case-control study. Three hundred twenty-two cases of prostate cancer and age (±5 years) 1:1 matched 322 control group were recruited from National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei Medical University Hospital, and Wan Fang Hospital. Well-trained personnel carried out standardized personal interviews based on a structured questionnaire. Information collected included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle and disease history. Blood and urine samples were also collected at the same time. The Research Ethics Committee of National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, approved the study. All patients provided informed consent forms before sample and data collection. Buffy coat was to extract DNA, and the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to measure the genotypes of SEPP1 rs3797310, SEP15 rs5859, GPX1 rs1050450, GPX2 rs4902346, GPX3 rs4958872, and GPX4 rs2075710. Plasma concentrations of selenium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Urinary arsenic species concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography links hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometer (HPLC-HG-AAS). Subject with high education level compared to those with low educational level had a lower prostate cancer odds ratio (OR) Mainland Chinese and aboriginal people had a lower OR of prostate cancer compared to Fukien Taiwanese. After adjustment for age, educational level, subjects with GPX1 rs1050450 CT and TT genotype compared to the CC genotype have lower, OR of prostate cancer, the OR and 95% confidence interval (Cl) was 0.53 (0.31-0.90). SEPP1 rs3797310 CT+TT genotype compared to those with CC genotype had a marginally significantly lower OR of PC. The low levels of plasma selenium and the high urinary total arsenic concentrations had the high OR of prostate cancer in a significant dose-response manner, and SEPP1 rs3797310 genotype modified this joint association.

Keywords: prostate cancer, plasma selenium concentration, urinary total arsenic concentrations, glutathione peroxidase, selenoprotein P, selenoprotein 15, gene polymorphism

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1463 ALDH1A1 as a Cancer Stem Cell Marker: Value of Immunohistochemical Expression in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

Authors: H. M. Abdelmoneim, N. A. Babtain, A. S. Barhamain, A. Z. Kufiah, A. S. Malibari, S. F. Munassar, R. S. Rawa


Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in men in developed countries. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) could be responsible for the progression and relapse of cancer. Therefore, CSCs markers could provide a prognostic strategy for human malignancies. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) activity has been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis and proposed to represent a functional marker for tumor initiating cells in various tumor types including prostate cancer. Material & Methods: We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic adenocarcinoma and assessed their significant correlations in 50 TURP sections. They were microscopically interpreted and the results were correlated with histopathological types and tumor grade. Results: In different prostatic histopathological lesions we found that ALDH1A1 expression was low in BPH (13.3%) and PIN (6.7%) and then its expression increased with prostatic adenocarcinoma (40%), and this was statistically highly significant (P value = 0.02). However, in different grades of prostatic adenocarcinoma we found that the higher the Gleason grade the higher the expression for ALDH1A1 and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.02). We compared the expression of ALDH1A1 in PIN and prostatic adenocarcinoma. ALDH1A1 expression was decreased in PIN and highly expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.04). Conclusion: Increasing ALDH1A1 expression is correlated with aggressive behavior of the tumor. Immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 might provide a potential approach to study tumorigenesis and progression of primary prostate carcinoma.

Keywords: ALDH1A1, BPH, PIN, prostatic adenocarcinoma

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1462 Glyco-Biosensing as a Novel Tool for Prostate Cancer Early-Stage Diagnosis

Authors: Pavel Damborsky, Martina Zamorova, Jaroslav Katrlik


Prostate cancer is annually the most common newly diagnosed cancer among men. An extensive number of evidence suggests that traditional serum Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay still suffers from a lack of sufficient specificity and sensitivity resulting in vast over-diagnosis and overtreatment. Thus, the early-stage detection of prostate cancer (PCa) plays undisputedly a critical role for successful treatment and improved quality of life. Over the last decade, particular altered glycans have been described that are associated with a range of chronic diseases, including cancer and inflammation. These glycans differences enable a distinction to be made between physiological and pathological state and suggest a valuable biosensing tool for diagnosis and follow-up purposes. Aberrant glycosylation is one of the major characteristics of disease progression. Consequently, the aim of this study was to develop a more reliable tool for early-stage PCa diagnosis employing lectins as glyco-recognition elements. Biosensor and biochip technology putting to use lectin-based glyco-profiling is one of the most promising strategies aimed at providing fast and efficient analysis of glycoproteins. The proof-of-concept experiments based on sandwich assay employing anti-PSA antibody and an aptamer as a capture molecules followed by lectin glycoprofiling were performed. We present a lectin-based biosensing assay for glycoprofiling of serum biomarker PSA using different biosensor and biochip platforms such as label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and microarray with fluorescent label. The results suggest significant differences in interaction of particular lectins with PSA. The antibody-based assay is frequently associated with the sensitivity, reproducibility, and cross-reactivity issues. Aptamers provide remarkable advantages over antibodies due to the nucleic acid origin, stability and no glycosylation. All these data are further step for construction of highly selective, sensitive and reliable sensors for early-stage diagnosis. The experimental set-up also holds promise for the development of comparable assays with other glycosylated disease biomarkers.

Keywords: biomarker, glycosylation, lectin, prostate cancer

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1461 Determination of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients by Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Gökçe Erdemir, İlhan Yaylım, Serap Erdem-Kuruca, Musa Mutlu Can


It has been determined that the main reason for the death of cancer disease is caused by metastases rather than the primary tumor. The cells that leave the primary tumor and enter the circulation and cause metastasis in the secondary organs are called "circulating tumor cells" (CTCs). The presence and number of circulating tumor cells has been associated with poor prognosis in many major types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. It is thought that knowledge of circulating tumor cells, which are seen as the main cause of cancer-related deaths due to metastasis, plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The fact that tissue biopsies used in cancer diagnosis and follow-up are an invasive method and are insufficient in understanding the risk of metastasis and the progression of the disease have led to new searches. Liquid biopsy tests performed with a small amount of blood sample taken from the patient for the detection of CTCs are easy and reliable, as well as allowing more than one sample to be taken over time to follow the prognosis. However, since these cells are found in very small amounts in the blood, it is very difficult to capture them and specially designed analytical techniques and devices are required. Methods based on the biological and physical properties of the cells are used to capture these cells in the blood. Early diagnosis is very important in following the prognosis of tumors of epithelial origin such as breast, lung, colon and prostate. Molecules such as EpCAM, vimentin, and cytokeratins are expressed on the surface of cells that pass into the circulation from very few primary tumors and reach secondary organs from the circulation, and are used in the diagnosis of cancer in the early stage. For example, increased EpCAM expression in breast and prostate cancer has been associated with prognosis. These molecules can be determined in some blood or body fluids to be taken from patients. However, more sensitive methods are required to be able to determine when they are at a low level according to the course of the disease. The aim is to detect these molecules found in very few cancer cells with the help of sensitive, fast-sensing biosensors, first in breast cancer cells reproduced in vitro and then in blood samples taken from breast cancer patients. In this way, cancer cells can be diagnosed early and easily and effectively treated.

Keywords: electrochemical biosensors, breast cancer, circulating tumor cells, EpCAM, Vimentin, Cytokeratins

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1460 Impact of α-Adrenoceptor Antagonists on Biochemical Relapse in Men Undergoing Radiotherapy for Localised Prostate Cancer

Authors: Briohny H. Spencer, Russ Chess-Williams, Catherine McDermott, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, David Christie


Background: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed in men worldwide and the most prevalent in Australian men. In 2015, it was estimated that approximately 18,000 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed in Australia. Currently, for localised disease, androgen depravation therapy (ADT) and radiotherapy are a major part of the curative management of prostate cancer. ADT acts to reduce the levels of circulating androgens, primarily testosterone and the locally produced androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or by preventing the subsequent activation of the androgen receptor. Thus, the growth of the cancerous cells can be reduced or ceased. Radiation techniques such as brachytherapy (radiation delivered directly to the prostate by transperineal implant) or external beam radiation therapy (exposure to a sufficient dose of radiation aimed at eradicating malignant cells) are also common techniques used in the treatment of this condition. Radiotherapy (RT) has significant limitations, including reduced effectiveness in treating malignant cells present in hypoxic microenvironments leading to radio-resistance and poor clinical outcomes and also the significant side effects for the patients. Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists are used for many prostate cancer patients to control lower urinary tract symptoms, due to the progression of the disease itself or may arise as an adverse effect of the radiotherapy treatment. In Australia, a significant number (not a majority) of patients receive a α1-ADR antagonist and four drugs are available including prazosin, terazosin, alfuzosin and tamsulosin. There is currently limited published data on the effects of α1-ADR antagonists during radiotherapy, but it suggests these medications may improve patient outcomes by enhancing the effect of radiotherapy. Aim: To determine the impact of α1-ADR antagonists treatments on time to biochemical relapse following radiotherapy. Methods: A retrospective study of male patients receiving radiotherapy for biopsy-proven localised prostate cancer was undertaken to compare cancer outcomes for drug-naïve patients and those receiving α1-ADR antagonist treatments. Ethical approval for the collection of data at Genesis CancerCare QLD was obtained and biochemical relapse (defined by a PSA rise of >2ng/mL above the nadir) was recorded in months. Rates of biochemical relapse, prostate specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were also compared. Treatment groups were those receiving α1-ADR antagonists treatment before or concurrent with their radiotherapy. Data was statistically analysed using One-way ANOVA and results expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Major findings: The mean time to biochemical relapse for tamsulosin, prazosin, alfuzosin and controls were 45.3±17.4 (n=36), 41.5±19.6 (n=11), 29.3±6.02 (n=6) and 36.5±17.6 (n=16) months respectively. Tamsulosin, prazosin but not alfuzosin delayed time to biochemical relapse although the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Preliminary data for the prior and/or concurrent use of tamsulosin and prazosin showed a positive trend in delaying time to biochemical relapse although no statistical significance was shown. Larger clinical studies are indicated and with thousands of patient records yet to be analysed, it may determine if there is a significant effect of these drugs on control of prostate cancer.

Keywords: alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, biochemical relapse, prostate cancer, radiotherapy

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1459 Inhibitory Effect of P2Y1R Agonist 1-Indolinoalkyl 2-Phenolic Derivative on Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation via the MAPK Signalling

Authors: Hien Thi Thu Le, Nuno Rafael Candeias, Olli Yli-Harja, Meenakshisundaram Kandhavelu


Purinergic receptor 1 (P2Y1R) is the potential therapeutic target for inducing prostate cancer (PCa) cell death. Recently, 1-indolinoalkyl 2-phenolic derivative, HIC, was identified as a P2Y1R agonist that increases apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation of PCa. However, the biological effects of HIC have not been extensively studied at the molecular level. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer effects of HIC and the molecular mechanisms underlying in PCa cells. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of HIC was measured as 15.98 μM and 15.64 μM for DU145 and PC3 cells, respectively. In addition, we found that HIC inhibited cell growth and metastasis of PC3 and DU145 cells colonies, spheroid areas, and migrated cells. RNA seq analysis revealed significant changes of over 3000 genes (p value < 0.05) upon HIC treatment in PC3 and DU145 cells. Genes involved in DNA damage, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase were modulated by HIC treatment. MAPK and NF-κB protein array revealed the increased expression of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, p53 phosphorylation, and p53 protein. ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 activations are known to increase the stabilization of p53, a tumor suppressor protein, which is required to arrest the cell cycle at G1/S phase and cause cell death of PCa cells. Overall, our results suggest that HIC can serve as a multi-dimensional chemotherapeutic agent possessing strong cytotoxic, anti-cancer, and anti-metastasis against PCa growth.

Keywords: prostate cancer, P2Y1 receptor, apoptosis, metastasis

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1458 Combining an Optimized Closed Principal Curve-Based Method and Evolutionary Neural Network for Ultrasound Prostate Segmentation

Authors: Tao Peng, Jing Zhao, Yanqing Xu, Jing Cai


Due to missing/ambiguous boundaries between the prostate and neighboring structures, the presence of shadow artifacts, as well as the large variability in prostate shapes, ultrasound prostate segmentation is challenging. To handle these issues, this paper develops a hybrid method for ultrasound prostate segmentation by combining an optimized closed principal curve-based method and the evolutionary neural network; the former can fit curves with great curvature and generate a contour composed of line segments connected by sorted vertices, and the latter is used to express an appropriate map function (represented by parameters of evolutionary neural network) for generating the smooth prostate contour to match the ground truth contour. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results showed that our proposed method obtains accurate and robust performances.

Keywords: ultrasound prostate segmentation, optimized closed polygonal segment method, evolutionary neural network, smooth mathematical model, principal curve

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1457 Prognostic Factors and Survival Prostate Cancer in Kurdistan Province-Iran

Authors: Mohammad Aziz Rasouli, Heshmatoolah Sofimajidpour


Background: Population-based survival rate is affected by the quality and effectiveness of health care systems. Overall, the survival of prostate cancer (PC) patients has improved over the past two decades worldwide. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, patients diagnosed as PC were collected through a population-based study from March 20, 2011, to March 19, 2018. The data were collected from Kurdistan's Cancer Registry database. Additional information and missing data were collected in reference to patients’ homes, medical records, and pathology reports. The PC survival was calculated from the date of diagnosis to the date of cancer-specific death or the end of follow-up (cutoff date: September 2019). The proportional-hazard model Cox was also used in order to consider the effects of different factors on survival. Results: A total number of 410 patients affected by PC were assessed, and the results showed that 1, 3, and 5 years survival rate were 93%, 64.1%, and 40.7%, respectively. According to the results of Cox's multivariate analysis, the following factors were significantly related to PC survival: age at diagnosis (≥81-years old) (HR=2.23, 95% CI: 1.23-4.42) and 71-80 years old was (HR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.12-2.31), occupation (employee) (HR=0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87), educational level: academic (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.64–0.91), AJCC stage of disease (HR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.9–3.68), Gleason score ≥ 9 (HR=7.12, 95% CI: 5.35–10.28), and Gleason score= 8 (HR=4.16, 95% CI: 2.50–6.93). Multivariate regression results showed that individuals who received active care, radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, combined treatment, and orchiectomy had a lower mortality rate than those who received no treatment. Conclusions: We found that factors such as age at diagnosis, education, occupation, AJCC stage of disease, Gleason score, and type of treatments were effective factors in the survival of PC patients in Kurdistan province; this, which need more attention.

Keywords: survival, prostate cancer, kurdistan, population based

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1456 The Detection of Implanted Radioactive Seeds on Ultrasound Images Using Convolution Neural Networks

Authors: Edward Holupka, John Rossman, Tye Morancy, Joseph Aronovitz, Irving Kaplan


A common modality for the treatment of early stage prostate cancer is the implantation of radioactive seeds directly into the prostate. The radioactive seeds are positioned inside the prostate to achieve optimal radiation dose coverage to the prostate. These radioactive seeds are positioned inside the prostate using Transrectal ultrasound imaging. Once all of the planned seeds have been implanted, two dimensional transaxial transrectal ultrasound images separated by 2 mm are obtained through out the prostate, beginning at the base of the prostate up to and including the apex. A common deep neural network, called DetectNet was trained to automatically determine the position of the implanted radioactive seeds within the prostate under ultrasound imaging. The results of the training using 950 training ultrasound images and 90 validation ultrasound images. The commonly used metrics for successful training were used to evaluate the efficacy and accuracy of the trained deep neural network and resulted in an loss_bbox (train) = 0.00, loss_coverage (train) = 1.89e-8, loss_bbox (validation) = 11.84, loss_coverage (validation) = 9.70, mAP (validation) = 66.87%, precision (validation) = 81.07%, and a recall (validation) = 82.29%, where train and validation refers to the training image set and validation refers to the validation training set. On the hardware platform used, the training expended 12.8 seconds per epoch. The network was trained for over 10,000 epochs. In addition, the seed locations as determined by the Deep Neural Network were compared to the seed locations as determined by a commercial software based on a one to three months after implant CT. The Deep Learning approach was within \strikeout off\uuline off\uwave off2.29\uuline default\uwave default mm of the seed locations determined by the commercial software. The Deep Learning approach to the determination of radioactive seed locations is robust, accurate, and fast and well within spatial agreement with the gold standard of CT determined seed coordinates.

Keywords: prostate, deep neural network, seed implant, ultrasound

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1455 Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of an Enantiomerically Pure β-Dipeptide Derivative through PI3K/Akt-Dependent and -Independent Pathways in Human Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Cells

Authors: Mei-Ling Chan, Jin-Ming Wu, Konstantin V. Kudryavtsev, Jih-Hwa Guh


Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant disease in men. KUD983 is an enantiomerically pure β-dipeptide derivative, which may have anti-cancer effects. In the present study, KUD983 exhibits powerful activity against hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) PC-3 and DU145 cells. The IC50 values of KUD983 in PC-3 and DU145 cells are 0.56±0.07M and 0.50±0.04 M respectively. KUD983 induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle and subsequent apoptosis associated with the down-regulation of several related proteins including cyclin D1, cyclin E and Cdk4, and the de-phosphorylation of RB. The protein expressions of nuclear and total c-Myc protein, which was able to regulate the expression of both cyclin D1 and cyclin E, were significantly suppressed by KUD983. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important signaling pathway that influences the energy metabolism, cell cycle, proliferation, survival and apoptosis of cells, and is associated with numerous other signaling pathways. The Western Blot data revealed that KUD983 inhibited PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathways. The transient transfection of constitutively active myristylated Akt (myr-Akt) cDNA significantly reversed KUD983-induced caspase activation but did not abolish the suppression of mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling cascade indicating the presence of both Akt-dependent and -independent pathways. Moreover, KUD983-induced effect was collaborated with the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members (e.g., Bcl-2, and Mcl-1) and IAP family members (e.g., survivin). Furthermore, KUD983 induced autophagic cell death using confocal microscopic examination, investigating the level of conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and flow cytometric detection of AVO-positive cells. Taken together, the data suggest that KUD983 is an anticancer β-dipeptide against HRPCs through the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic and autophagic cell death. The suppression of signaling pathways mediated by c-Myc, PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 and the collaboration with down-regulation of Mcl-1 and survivin may indicate the mechanism of KUD983 against HRPC.

Keywords: β-dipeptide, hormone-refractory prostate cancer, mTOR, PI3K/Akt

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