Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 113

Search results for: spirituality

113 Spirituality and Happiness among Youth: A Correlative Study

Authors: Harsh Shah


Spirituality and happiness are two very important aspects of human life. After defining happiness, an attempt has been made in this paper to review research on the relationship between happiness and spirituality, and then to experimentally study their correlation among students aged between 18-24 years. The relation was assessed in 200 students from IIT Kharagpur, who rated their own spirituality, and happiness using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) developed by Underwood, and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) developed by Lyubomirsky and Lepper, respectively. Students who were more spiritual in general, were happier as well, and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient method gave a high positive correlation between happiness and spirituality.

Keywords: happiness, spirituality, youth, correlation, depression, religion

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112 A Comparative Study of Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being among Senior Secondary Male and Female Students

Authors: Farzana Parveen, Shahina Maqbool


Nowadays most of the researchers focused on adolescents that were the most crucial and critical stage of their life’s. In this study, we want to know to what extent does spirituality and psychological well-being plays a vital role in adolescent’s life, and to what extent both were correlated. The first objective of the present study is to examine difference between the mean scores of male and female students on spirituality and Psychological well-being. The second objective of this study is to find out the relationship between Spirituality and Psychological Well-being. The participants of the present study comprised N=100 students who are further divided n=50 male and n=50 female and they were from senior secondary schools and recruited from Metropolitan cities, their age ranged from 13 to 18 years. Data were collected through Spirituality questionnaire and Psychological well-being questionnaire. Results showed that there was insignificant difference between male and female students on spirituality and significant difference between male and female students on psychological well-being. Relationship showed that there was positive correlation between spirituality and psychological well-being. Result was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 software. Insignificant difference was found between males and females students on Spirituality and significant difference showed between males and females students on Psychological well-being. There was positive correlation between Spirituality and psychological well-being.

Keywords: spirituality, psychological well-being, male and female, students

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111 The Relationship Between Spirituality and Quality of Life in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury, Iran

Authors: Khadije Khazaeli, Farzane Saberi


Spinal cord injury is one of the traumatic events which has a great impact on the quality of life. spirituality has been used to improve many disorders and abnormalities in recent years and positive results have been seen; accordingly, the present study investigated the relationship between spirituality and quality of life in these patients. This study is a cross-sectional study of the correlation type was conducted on 100 people with spinal cord injury in Isfahan province in 2016 by the available sample method. Spirituality was assessed through the Spiritual Attitude Questionnaire and quality of life through the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire. Pearson correlation and regression tests were used to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that spirituality has a significant relationship with the quality of life of patients with spinal cord injury. It was also proved that all sub-units of spirituality, including attitude and spiritual ability, can affect all components of quality of life. The findings suggest that spirituality, along with other factors, can lead to a significant improvement in quality of life and, ultimately, general health of patients with SCI.

Keywords: spinal cord injury, quality of life, spirituality, patients

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110 The Implications of Person-Organisation Spirituality Fit on Employees’ Ethical and Spiritual Leadership Behaviours: Insights from Jordan

Authors: Tamer Koburtay, Radi Haloub


Person-Organization fit theory concerns how people flourish in a workplace that is congruence with their values and other traits. This paper seeks to highlight the theoretical relevance that workplace spirituality may add to the existing theory development of the P-O fit. In specific, it aims to empirically test the emerged framework that encompasses how workplace and self-spirituality match may enhance the perceived P-O fit, and how such a fit can enhance both employees’ ethical behaviors (i.e., humanism and honesty) and spiritual leadership behaviors. Drawing on a survey of the private and public sectors in Jordan, the results reveal that increasing the match in workplace and employees’ spirituality positively enhances the perceived P-O fit. Further, ethical and spiritual behaviors were found to be positively linked with a higher P-O fit. The importance of this paper is by generating a concept (i.e., P-O spirituality fit) beyond the already vast literature on P-O fit.

Keywords: ethical behavior, leadership, P-O fit, spirituality, leadership

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109 Transcendence, Spirituality and Well-Being: A Cognitive-Theological Perspective

Authors: Monir Ahmed


This paper aims at discussing transcendence, spirituality, and well-being in light of the psychology of religion and spirituality. The main purpose of this paper is i) to demonstrate the importance of cognitive psychological process (thoughts, faith, and beliefs) and the doctrine of creation (‘creatio ex nihilo’) in transcendence, spirituality, and well-being; ii) to discuss the relationships among transcendence, spirituality, and well-being. Psychological studies of spiritual and religious phenomena have been advanced in the decade, mainly to understand how faith, spiritual and religious rituals influence or contribute to well-being. Psychologists of religion and spirituality have put forward methods, tools, and approaches necessary for promoting well-being. For instance, Kenneth I. Pargament, an American psychologist of religion and spirituality, developed spiritually integrated psychotherapy for clinical practice in dealing with the spiritual and religious issues affecting well-being. However, not much progress has been made in understanding the ability of transcendence and how such ability influences spirituality and religion as well as well-being. A possible reason could be that well-being has only been understood in a spiritual and religious context. It appears that transcendence, the core element of spirituality and religion, has not been explored adequately for well-being. In other words, the approaches that have been used so far for spirituality, religion, and well-being lack an integrated approach combining theology and psychology. The author of this paper proposes that cognitive-theological understanding involving faith and belief about the creation and the creator, the transcendent God is likely to offer a comprehensive understanding of transcendence as well as spirituality, religion, and their relationships with well-being. The importance of transcendence and the integration of psychology and theology can advance our knowledge of transcendence, spirituality, and well-being. It is inevitable that the creation is contingent and that the ultimate origin, source of the contingent physical reality, is a non-contingent being, the divine creator. As such, it is not unreasonable for many individuals to believe that the source of existence of non-contingent being, although undiscoverable in physical reality but transcendentally exists. ‘Creatio ex nihilo’ is the most fundamental doctrine in the Abrahamic faiths, i.e., Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and is widely accepted scriptural and philosophical background about the creation, creator, the divine that God created the universe out of nothing. Therefore, it is crucial to integrate theology, i.e., ‘creatio ex nihilo’ doctrine and psychology for a comprehensive understanding of transcendence, spirituality and their relationships with well-being.

Keywords: transcendence, spirituality, well-being, ‘creatio ex nihilo’ doctrine

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108 A Grounded Theory on Marist Spirituality/Charism from the Perspective of the Lay Marists in the Philippines

Authors: Nino M. Pizarro


To the author’s knowledge, despite the written documents about Marist spirituality/charism, nothing has been done concerning a clear theoretical framework that highlights Marist spirituality/charism from the perspective or lived experience of the lay Marists of St. Marcellin Champagnat. The participants of the study are the lay Marist - educators who are from Marist Schools in the Philippines. Since the study would like to find out the respondents’ own concepts and meanings about Marist spirituality/charism, qualitative methodology is considered the approach to be used in the study. In particular, the study will use the qualitative methods of Barney Glaser. The theory will be generated systematically from data collection, coding and analyzing through memoing, theoretical sampling, sorting and writing and using the constant comparative method. The data collection method that will be employed in this grounded theory research is the in-depth interview that is semi-structured and participant driven. Data collection will be done through snowball sampling that is purposive. The study is considering to come up with a theoretical framework that will help the lay Marists to deepen their understanding of the Marist spirituality/charism and their vocation as lay partners of the Marist Brothers of the Schools.

Keywords: grounded theory, Lay Marists, lived experience, Marist spirituality/charism

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107 Spirituality in Adults with Developmental Disabilities in the Practice of Pastoral Care Ministry

Authors: Olutayo Stephen Shodipo


This paper explores how individuals with disabilities understand and express their spirituality like everyone else can help provide church ministers and religious leaders with new knowledge of human experience and change the way pastoral care ministry is being practiced with this population. Disability literature has revealed studies on various aspects of disability. However, on the spirituality of people with disabilities, there is a gap. This paper offers a brief overview of what has been studied on the spiritual needs of adults with developmental disabilities (ADDs) and the church and the gap that still exists. Along with explaining this gap, it considers the reality of ADDs’ spiritual needs and why the church needs to validate their spirituality and religious expressions and create an inclusive environment where their spiritual experience and expressions can be enhanced and supported. This paper, then, aims to explore the diverse spiritual experiences of ADDs in faith communities, and their theological, moral, and social implications for Pastoral care ministry practices.

Keywords: spirituality, inclusive ministry, pastoral theology, developmental disability, pastoral care

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106 The Impacts of Negative Moral Characters on Health: An Article Review

Authors: Mansoor Aslamzai, Delaqa Del, Sayed Azam Sajid


Introduction: Though moral disorders have a high burden, there is no separate topic regarding this problem in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Along with the modification of WHO ICD-11, spirituality can prevent the rapid progress of such derangement as well. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of bad moral characters on health, as well as carried out the role of spirituality in the improvement of immorality. Method: This narrative article review was accomplished in 2020-2021 and the articles were searched through the Web of Science, PubMed, BMC, and Google scholar. Results: Based on the current review, most experimental and observational studies revealed significant negative effects of unwell moral characters on the overall aspects of health and well-being. Nowadays, a lot of studies established the positive role of spirituality in the improvement of health and moral disorder. The studies concluded, facilities must be available within schools, universities, and communities for everyone to learn the knowledge of spirituality and improve their unwell moral character world. Conclusion: Considering the negative relationship between unwell moral characters and well-being, the current study proposes the addition of moral disorder as a separate topic in the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Based on this literature review, spirituality will improve moral disorder and establish excellent moral traits.

Keywords: bad moral characters, effect, health, spirituality and well-being

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105 Critical Analysis of Ideology of Non-Religious Spirituality (SBNR) Case Study of Sam Harris’ Theory

Authors: Muhammad Samiullah


Religion and spirit always goes side by side. In this era spirit and religion are studied separately with thought of an anti-religious phenomenon is there with its vast impacts. Non-religious mind and religious one have a lot of things that differs, they have spiritual there is theme arises that is in the name of non-religious spirituality(SBNR). The thinking prevailing in west and now in east in reverse of the religious institutional thought and spirituality. Religious disputes created an image to the world that is nontolerant and companionate, rising a question of god existence and self-existence. Thus giving rise in Atheism, nihilism, free thinking. The thinking of spirituality also gone in another side with superstitions and spiritual meditation. Christian religious bodies and scholar criticized the stance with their religious aspect but there should be an Islamic counter narrative should be there. Here in this dissertation the phenomenon is addressed and analyzed in respect with some of the literature presented from 2014 till present year. The phenomenon was not analyzed before in broader sense. There are some introductory and static views presented in this regard. So there is a literature gap to be filled by this effort, the Muslim counter narrative is still not there though Christians do their part.

Keywords: SBNR, non-spirituality, superstitions, Sam Harris

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104 How Does Spirituality Manifest in the Lives of Jordanian Patients in End Stage Renal Failure: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: A. Tamimi, S. Greatrex-White, A. Narayanasamy


Background: Spirituality has been increasingly acknowledged in the nursing literature as an important element of holistic patient care. To date there have been numerous studies investigating the meaning of spirituality in Western cultures. Spirituality in Middle Eastern countries however remains under-researched. We will present a study which aimed to address this gap. Aim: The study aimed to explore how spirituality manifests in the lives of Jordanian End Stage Renal Failure (ESRF) patients. Methodology and Method: A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted informed by the philosophy of Martin Heidegger. Participants (n=27) were recruited from four different dialysis units: in a public hospital, a private hospital, an educational hospital and a refugee’s hospital in Jordan. Data was collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. Data Analysis: Analysis was guided by the tenets of hermeneutic phenomenology namely: gaining immediate sense of what was said both during and after each interview, transcribing data verbatim, translating interviews into the English language, intensive reading and re-reading, seeking meaning units by line to line coding, developing situated structures (how spirituality was manifest in each text), developing a general structure from the individual situated structures (how the phenomenon ‘spirituality’ comes into being). Findings: Three major themes emerged from analysis: Religion, Relationships and Desperation. We will argue that a ‘secular’ concept of spirituality had no meaning for the participants in the study. Spirituality is fundamentally part of religion and vice versa. Discussion: The findings may have consequences for the use of spirituality in multi-cultural settings in Western countries. Additionally, findings highlighted an important emphasis on the practice of spirituality, often underestimated in previous literature for Arab-Muslim Jordanian patients. Conclusion: The study findings contribute to the existing gap in knowledge regarding how Arab-Muslim Jordanian ESRF patients experience spirituality during their illness. It provides valuable insights into the importance of spirituality for this patient group and suggests how nurses, educators and policy makers might help address ESRF patients’ spiritual needs and provide appropriate spiritual care. We suggest the findings may have relevance beyond the Jordanian context in educating nurses’ on the importance of appreciating the religious dimension of spirituality.

Keywords: spirituality, nursing, muslim, Jordan

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103 Students’ View on Sexuality Education

Authors: Hoi Nga Ng, Kam Weng Boey, Chi Wai Kwan, Hing Kwan To


The effectiveness of school-based sexuality education (SBSE) depends largely on adolescents’ attitudes towards sexuality and SBSE. This study examined factors (demographic characteristics, religiosity, and spirituality) associated with students’ sexual attitudes and their views on SBSE. Data were collected via a questionnaire through convenience sampling from three secondary schools. A total of 818 students participated in the study. Male students were generally more permissive in sexual attitudes. Female students were specifically more liberal in attitudes towards abortion, contraception, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, and homosexuality. Higher levels of religiosity and spirituality were negatively associated with permissive sexual attitudes. As in the West, students showed positive attitudes towards SBSE, which provided a fertile ground for SBSE. However, female gender, conservative sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were positively related to attitudes towards SBSE, which were incongruent with what was found in Western studies. Implementation of SBSE needs to consider factors specific to the local cultural setting.

Keywords: religiosity, school-based sexuality education, secondary school, spirituality

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102 Spirituality Enhanced with Cognitive-Behavioural Techniques: An Effective Method for Women with Extramarital Infidelity: A Literature Review

Authors: Setareh Yousife


Introduction: Studies suggest that Extramarital Infidelity (EMI) variants, such as sexual and emotional infidelities are increasing in marriage relationships. To our knowledge, less is known about what therapies and mental-hygiene factors can prevent more effective this behavior and address it. Spiritual and cognitive-behavioural health have proven to reduce marital conflict, Increase marital satisfaction and commitment. Objective: This study aims to discuss the effectiveness of spiritual counseling combined with Cognitive-behavioural techniques in addressing Extramarital Infidelity. Method: Descriptive, analytical, and intervention articles indexed in SID, Noormags, Scopus, Iranmedex, Web of Science and PubMed databases, and Google Scholar were searched. We focused on Studies in which Women with extramarital relationships, including heterosexual married couples-only studies and spirituality/religion and CBT as coping techniques used as EMI therapy. Finally, the full text of all eligible articles was prepared and discussed in this review. Results: 25 publications were identified, and their textual analysis facilitated through four thematic approaches: The nature of EMI in Women, the meaning of spirituality in the context of mental health and human behavior as well as psychotherapy; Spirituality integrated into Cognitive-Behavioral approach, The role of Spirituality as a deterrent to EMI. Conclusions: The integration of the findings discussed herein suggests that the application of cognitive and behavioral skills in addressing these kinds of destructive family-based relationships is inevitable. As treatments based on religion/spirituality or cognition/behavior do not seem adequately effective in dealing with EMI, the combination of these approaches may lead to higher efficacy in fewer sessions and a shorter time.

Keywords: spirituality, religion, cognitive behavioral therapy, extramarital relation, infidelity

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101 A Phenomenological Inquiry on the Spirituality of Young Filipino Gay Men Living with HIV

Authors: Dela Cruz Abraham, Bachoco Janine


Spirituality plays a central role among patients dealing with HIV mostly on the LGBT community in the world today particularly in the Philippines. This study seeks to contribute to the growing body of knowledge in LGBT psychology particularly on gay men living with HIV and their spiritual aspect. In line with this, the researchers aim to describe (1) how young Filipino gay men relate their experiences as an HIV-positive in relations to their self and significant others (partners, family, friends and community); (2) how young Filipino gay men make sense of their experiences as an HIV-positive, in connection to God, this also includes their meaning making and purpose of their life experiences. To recruit participants, the researchers will employ purposive sampling using snowball technique, and conduct a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcriptions of the participant will be analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Keywords: interpretative phenomenological analysis, living with HIV, spirituality, young Filipino gay men

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100 Influence of Spirituality on Health Outcomes and General Well-Being in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

Authors: Ali A Alshraifeen, Josie Evans, Kathleen Stoddart


End-stage renal disease (ESRD) introduces physical, psychological, social, emotional and spiritual challenges into patients’ lives. Spirituality has been found to contribute to improved health outcomes, mainly in the areas of quality of life (QOL) and well-being. No studies exist to explore the influence of spirituality on the health outcomes and general well-being in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis (HD) treatment in Scotland. This study was conducted to explore spirituality in the daily lives of among these patients and how it may influence their QOL and general well-being. The study employed a qualitative method. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with a sample of 21 patients. A thematic approach using Framework Analysis informed the qualitative data analysis. Participants were recruited from 11 dialysis units across four Health Boards in Scotland. The participants were regular patients attending the dialysis units three times per week. Four main themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: ‘Emotional and Psychological Turmoil’, ‘Life is Restricted’, ‘Spirituality’ and ‘Other Coping Strategies’. The findings suggest that patients’ QOL might be affected because of the physical challenges such as unremitting fatigue, disease unpredictability and being tied down to a dialysis machine, or the emotional and psychological challenges imposed by the disease into their lives such as wholesale changes, dialysis as a forced choice and having a sense of indebtedness. The findings also revealed that spirituality was an important coping strategy for the majority of participants who took part in the qualitative component (n=16). Different meanings of spirituality were identified including connection with God or Supernatural Being, connection with the self, others and nature/environment. Spirituality encouraged participants to accept their disease and offered them a sense of protection, instilled hope in them and helped them to maintain a positive attitude to carry on with their daily lives, which may have had a positive influence on their health outcomes and general well-being. The findings also revealed that humor was another coping strategy that helped to diffuse stress and anxiety for some participants and encouraged them to carry on with their lives. The findings from this study provide a significant contribution to a very limited body of work. The study contributes to our understanding of spirituality and how people receiving dialysis treatment use it to manage their daily lives. Spirituality is of particular interest due to its connection with health outcomes in patients with chronic illnesses. The link between spirituality and many chronic illnesses has gained some recognition, yet the identification of its influence on the health outcomes and well-being in patients with ESRD is still evolving. There is a need to understand patients’ experiences and examine the factors that influence their QOL and well-being to ensure that the services available are adequately tailored to them. Hence, further research is required to obtain a better understanding of the influence of spirituality on the health outcomes and general well-being of patients with ESRD.

Keywords: end-stage renal disease, general well-being, quality of life, spirituality

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99 Role of Symbolism in the Journey towards Spirituality: A Case Study of Mosque Architecture in Bahrain

Authors: Ayesha Agha Shah


The purpose of a mosque or a place of worship is to build a spiritual relation with God. If the sense of spirituality is not achieved, then sacred architecture appears to be lacking depth. Form and space play a significant role to enhance the architectural quality to impart a divine feel to a place. To achieve this divine feeling, form and space, and unity of opposites, either abstract or symbolic can be employed. It is challenging to imbue the emptiness of a space with qualitative experience. Mosque architecture mostly entails traditional forms and design typology. This approach for Muslim worship produces distinct landmarks in the urban neighborhoods of Muslim societies, while creating a great sense of spirituality. The universal symbolic characters in the mosque architecture had prototype geometrical forms for a long time in history. However, modern mosques have deviated from this approach to employ different built elements and symbolism, which are often hard to be identified as related to mosques or even as Islamic. This research aims to explore the sense of spirituality in modern mosques and questions whether the modification of geometrical features produce spirituality in the same manner. The research also seeks to investigate the role of ‘geometry’ in the modern mosque architecture. The research employs the analytical study of some modern mosque examples in the Kingdom of Bahrain, reflecting on the geometry and symbolism adopted in the new mosque architecture design. It buttresses the analysis by the engagement of people’s perceptions derived using a survey of opinions. The research expects to see the significance of geometrical architectural elements in the mosque designs. It will find answers to the questions such as; what is the role of the form of the mosque, interior spaces and the effect of the modified symbolic features in the modern mosque design? How can the symbolic geometry, forms and spaces of a mosque invite a believer to leave the worldly environment behind and move towards spirituality?

Keywords: geometry, mosque architecture, spirituality, symbolism

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98 Spirituality and Coping with Breast Cancer among Omani Women

Authors: Huda Al-Awisi, Mohammed Al-Azri, Samira Al-Rasbi, Mansour Al-Moundhri


Cancer diagnosis is invariably a profound and catastrophic life-changing experience for individuals and their families. It has been found that cancer patients and survivors are distressed with the fragility of their life and their mortality. Based on the literature, cancer patients /survivors value their spiritual experience and connecting with unknown power either related to religious belief or not as an important coping mechanism. Health care professionals including nurses are expected to provide spiritual care for cancer patients as holistic care. Yet, nurses face many challenges in providing such care mainly due to lack of clear definition of spirituality. This study aims to explore coping mechanisms of Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer throughout their cancer journey including spirituality using a qualitative approach. A purposive sample of 19 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer at different stages of cancer treatment modalities were interviewed. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The framework approach was used to analyze the data. One main theme related to spirituality was identified and called “The power of faith”. For the majority of participants, faith in God (the will of God) was most important in coping with all stages of their breast cancer experience. Some participants thought that the breast cancer is a test from God which they have to accept. Participants also expressed acceptance of death as the eventual end and reward from God. This belief gives them the strength to cope with cancer and seek medical treatment. In conclusion, women participated in this study believed faith in God imposed spiritual power for them to cope with cancer. They connected spirituality with religious beliefs. Therefore, regardless of nurses’ faith in spirituality, the spiritual care needs to be tailored and provided according to each patient individual need.

Keywords: breast cancer, spiritual, religion, coping, diagnosis, oman, women

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97 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women

Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi


Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.

Keywords: breast cancer, Arab Muslim, Jordan, lived experiences, spirituality, culture

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96 Predicting College Students’ Happiness During COVID-19 Pandemic; Be optimistic and Well in College!

Authors: Michiko Iwasaki, Jane M. Endres, Julia Y. Richards, Andrew Futterman


The present study aimed to examine college students’ happiness during COVID19-pandemic. Using the online survey data from 96 college students in the U.S., a regression analysis was conducted to predict college students’ happiness. The results indicated that a four-predictor model (optimism, college students’ subjective wellbeing, coronavirus stress, and spirituality) explained 57.9% of the variance in student’s subjective happiness, F(4,77)=26.428, p<.001, R2=.579, 95% CI [.41,.66]. The study suggests the importance of learned optimism among college students.

Keywords: COVID-19, optimism, spirituality, well-being

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95 Embodied Spirituality in Gestalt Therapy

Authors: Silvia Alaimo


This lecture brings to our attention the theme of spirituality within Gestalt therapy’s theoretical and clinical perspectives and which is closely connected to the fertile emptiness and creative indifference’ experiences. First of all, the premise that must be done is the overcoming traditional western culture’s philosophical and religious misunderstandings, such as the dicotomy between spirituality and pratical/material daily life, as well as the widespread secular perspective of classic psychology. Even fullness and emptiness have traditionally been associated with the concepts of being and not being. "There is only one way through which we can contact the deepest layers of our existence, rejuvenate our thinking and reach intuition (the harmony of thought and being): inner silence" (Perls) *. Therefore, "fertile void" doesn't mean empty in itself, but rather an useful condition of every creative and responsible act, making room for a deeper dimension close to spirituality. Spirituality concerns questions about the meaning of existence, which lays beyond the concrete and literal dimension, looking for the essence of things, and looking at the value of personal experience. Looking at fundamentals of Gestalt epistemology, phenomenology, aesthetics, and the relationship, we can reach the heart of a therapeutic work that takes spiritual contours and which are based on an embodied (incarnate size), through the relational aesthetic knowledge (Spagnuolo Lobb ), the deep contact with each other, the role of compassion and responsibility, as the patient's recognition criteria (Orange, 2013) rooted in the body. The aesthetic dimension, like the spiritual dimension to which it is often associated, is a subtle dimension: it is the dimension of the essence of things, of their "soul." In clinical practice, it implies that the relationship between therapist and patient is "in the absence of judgment," also called "zero point of creative indifference," expressed by ‘therapeutic mentality’. It consists in following with interest and authentic curiosity where the patient wants to go and support him in his intentionality of contact. It’s a condition of pure and simple awareness, of the full acceptance of "what is," a moment of detachment from one's own life in which one does not take oneself too seriously, a starting point for finding a center of balance and integration that brings to the creative act, to growth, and, as Perls would say, to the excitement and adventure of living.

Keywords: spirituality, bodily, embodied aesthetics, phenomenology, relationship

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94 The Impact of Spirituality on the Voluntary Simplicity Lifestyle Tendency: An Explanatory Study on Turkish Consumers

Authors: Esna B. Buğday, Niray Tunçel


Spirituality has a motivational influence on consumers' psychological states, lifestyles, and behavioral intentions. Spirituality refers to the feeling that there is a divine power greater than ourselves and a connection among oneself, others, nature, and the sacred. In addition, spirituality concerns the human soul and spirit against the material and physical world and consists of three dimensions: self-discovery, relationships, and belief in a higher power. Of them, self-discovery is to explore the meaning and the purpose of life. Relationships refer to the awareness of the connection between human beings and nature as well as respect for them. In addition, higher power represents the transcendent aspect of spirituality, which means to believe in a holy power that creates all the systems in the universe. Furthermore, a voluntary simplicity lifestyle is (1) to adopt a simple lifestyle by minimizing the attachment to and the consumption of material things and possessions, (2) to have an ecological awareness respecting all living creatures, and (3) to express the desire for exploring and developing the inner life. Voluntary simplicity is a multi-dimensional construct that consists of a desire for a voluntarily simple life (e.g., avoiding excessive consumption), cautious attitudes in shopping (e.g., not buying unnecessary products), acceptance of self-sufficiency (e.g., being self-sufficient individual), and rejection of highly developed functions of products (e.g., preference for simple functioned products). One of the main reasons for living simply is to sustain a spiritual life, as voluntary simplicity provides the space for achieving psychological and spiritual growth, cultivating self-reliance since voluntary simplifier frees themselves from the overwhelming externals and takes control of their daily lives. From this point of view, it is expected that people with a strong sense of spirituality will be likely to adopt a simple lifestyle. In this respect, the study aims to examine the impact of spirituality on consumers' voluntary simple lifestyle tendencies. As consumers' consumption attitudes and behaviors depend on their lifestyles, exploring the factors that lead them to embrace voluntary simplicity significantly predicts their purchase behavior. In this respect, this study presents empirical research based on a data set collected from 478 Turkish consumers through an online survey. First, exploratory factor analysis is applied to the data to reveal the dimensions of spirituality and voluntary simplicity scales. Second, confirmatory factor analysis is conducted to assess the measurement model. Last, the hypotheses are analyzed using partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results confirm that spirituality's self-discovery and relationships dimensions positively impact both cautious attitudes in shopping and acceptance of self-sufficiency dimensions of voluntary simplicity. In contrast, belief in a higher power does not significantly influence consumers' voluntary simplicity tendencies. Even though there has been theoretical support drawing a positive relationship between spirituality and voluntary simplicity, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this has not been empirically tested in the literature before. Hence, this study contributes to the current knowledge by analyzing the direct influence of spirituality on consumers' voluntary simplicity tendencies. Additionally, analyzing this impact on the consumers of an emerging market is another contribution to the literature.

Keywords: spirituality, voluntary simplicity, self-sufficiency, conscious shopping, Turkish consumers

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93 Spirituality, Sense of Community and Economic Welfare: A Case of Mawlynnong Village, India

Authors: Ricky A. J. Syngkon, Santi Gopal Maji


Decent work and inclusive economic growth, social development, environmental protection, eradication of poverty and hunger as well as clean water and sanitation are the rudiments of 2030 agenda of sustainable development goals of the United Nations. On the other hand, spirituality is deeply entwined in the fabric of daily lives that helps in shaping attitudes, opinions, and behaviors of common people and ensuring quality of lives and overall sustainable development through protection of environment and natural resources. Mawlynnong, a small village in North-Eastern part of India, is a vivid example of how spirituality influences the development of sense of community leading to upliftment of the economic conditions of the people. Mawlynnong as a small hamlet has been in existence for a couple of centuries and it was acknowledged as the cleanest village of Asia in 2004 by BBC and National Geographic and subsequently endorsed by UNESCO in 2006. Consequently, it has attracted large number of tourists over the years from India and other parts of the world. This paper tries to explore how spirituality leads to a sense of community and the economic benefits for the people. Further, this paper also tries to find out the answer whether such an informal collective effort is sustainable or not for achieving solidarity economy. The study is based on both primary and secondary data collected from the local people and the State Government records. The findings of the study indicate that over the last one and a half decade the tourist footfall has increased to a great extent in Mawlynnong and this has brought about a paradigm shift in the occupational structure of its inhabitants from plantation to service sector particularly tourism and tourism related activities. As a result, from the economic standpoint, it is observed that life is much better off now as compared to before. But from the socio-cultural standpoint, the study finds a drift in terms of the cohesiveness and community bonding which was the hallmark of this village. This drift puts a question mark about the sustainability of such practices and consequently the development of solidarity economy.

Keywords: spirituality, sense of community, economic welfare, solidarity economy, Mawlynnong village

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92 Spiritual Health in View of Islamic Mysticism

Authors: Maryam Bakhtyar-Pegah Akrami


The relationship between spiritual health and spirituality is one of the important is that in recent years, the research about it is expanding and due to the rich heritage of the in this field of study and research in this important field more than before and we will come to spiritual life and healthier than before. In this research, we provide the following and the basics of Islamic Mysticism in the realm of spiritual health thoughts. This research is based on a descriptive method and comparison with analytical-method to data collected. The findings show that human beings due to this pivotal topic of full Islamic slab, and mental and physical education with the sought to reach the human place are complete, we can provide the basics along with new discussions of spiritual health help human beings to spiritual education along with our faiths in the reconstruction of the spiritual foundations of spiritual health are extremely helpful

Keywords: spirituality, health, Islam, mysticism, perfect human

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91 Secular Ethics from the Viewpoint of Mostafa Malekian (Analyze, Review, and Critique)

Authors: Hamideh Rahmani


The subject matter of ethics is being changed in modern life, which had been an issue for a long time and aimed to define its moral boundaries in human's intellectual and everyday life. This has led to the introduction of notions based on the separation of religion from ethics in recent decades. It is in conflict with the traditional view, which introduces ethics as raised from religion and religion as the most crucial credit for ethics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the elements of secular ethics from the perspective of Mostafa Malekian, seeking to achieve his notions. After examining the strengths of secular ethics parameters from the viewpoint of Malekian, this research found his ethics in his interpretation of the ideal life which he treats as ethics, got a very strong link with his secularist project known as rationality and spirituality. We will analyze, review, and critique his ethics in the following.

Keywords: secular ethics, Mostafa Malakian, global ethics, rationality, spirituality

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90 Spiritual Recovery of People with Bipolar Disorder in Malaysia: A Grounded Theory Study

Authors: Mohamad Shariff Nurasikin, Paul Crawford, Nicola Wright


People with any mental disorder can get benefit from the spiritual aspects of life for recovery, particularly in searching for the meaning of life and engaging in meaningful activities. However, little is known about such effects in the population of bipolar disorder. The concepts of spirituality are highly contestable, as they are too broad and removed from the original religious understanding. The concepts are more notable as encompassing multi-dimensional aspects of people’s lives such as social, emotional, and psychological. Viewing that Western or secular worldview dominates most of the literature in spirituality, it is time to explore the concept of spirituality from the Eastern and religious worldview, such as the Malaysian view. Thus, the aim of this study is to provide a conceptual understanding of people with bipolar disorder with a religious affiliation in Malaysia. This study employs a Grounded Theory and explores the narratives from the interviews of 25 participants. The narratives strongly suggest the salient resources or can be referred to as various forms of capital, as in the capital theory, namely, religious, social, psychological, and medicinal. More important is how these capitals are the enablers for recovery in mental health and well-being, where the participants in the sample engage in a more meaningful life and positive adaptations. This study also extends the Bourdieusian spiritual capital, in which the salient resources are termed as the capital bundle. More significant is how the capital bundles are working contiguously in building and accumulating the spiritual capital. This process is conducive to recovery within the social life of people with bipolar disorder or perhaps other mental disorders.

Keywords: bipolar, Bourdeau, recovery, spiritual

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89 The Power of Spirituality: The Experience of the Swiss Bethlehem Mission Society in Taiwan

Authors: Weihsuan Lin


The Swiss Bethlehem Mission Society (BMS) in Taiwan has influenced and made an important contribution to religion and social work in Taidong. This German-speaking Catholic missionary society is located in Taidong, which is the political and economic periphery of Taiwan but is the cultural center of the Chinese and many different Austronesian ethnic groups, including Amis, Paiwan, Puyuma, Yami, Bunun, and Rukai. Through document analysis and fieldwork, this research aims to explore the result of the confrontation, exchange, and innovation between the BMS and other ethnic groups. Further, based upon Michael Foucault’s discussion of two modalities of constructing individuals, namely ‘discipline’ and ‘care of the self,’ this research will analyze the ‘discipline’ and ‘care of the self’ mechanisms of and between BMS Fathers, Brothers, and Church followers at the scale of individuals. At the scale of groups, the ‘autonomy’ and ‘been governed’ of the BMS in relationship to the Catholic Church in Taiwan and the world will also be examined.

Keywords: Bethlehem Mission Society, Religion and Geography, Spirituality, Foucault

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88 Spiritual Quotient, a Significant Predictor of Teaching Effectiveness

Authors: Poonam Khurana, Mikelsh Prasad Yadav


All human beings are virtue by God as they get controlling mind and an attitude towards something with the help of which they can experience spirituality. People have different psychological thoughts and beliefs relating to god. Some people feel the immense pleasure in performing religious activities while some believe in the thought “Ahem Brahmasmi” i.e I am part of the divine and they feel pleasure in activities which motivate them to achieve peace. Religion in psychology is considered as a specific fundamental set of beliefs, thoughts and practices generally agreed and controlled by a number of person. It is the psychology of a person which commands their mind in deciding at which path they can attain the eternal feelings of the universe and accordingly they will develop their behavior towards religion and spirituality. Keeping the same in mind, the present study is based much on literature and a brief analysis of 50 teachers in Delhi and NCR colleges and makes an attempt to study the relationship of spiritual quotient and effective teaching and suggest spiritual quotient as a considerable predictor to make the workplace accessible.

Keywords: effectiveness, quotient, teaching, spiritual

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87 Auroville; Landscapes of Life, Living and Being

Authors: Anandit Sachdev


Auroville, a settlement in Tamil Nadu, India, is based on the principles of ‘human unity’as defined by Indian philosopher Sri Aurobindo. The settlement was conceptualized on these principles by Sri Aurobindo’s spiritual partner Mirra Alfassa, known as ‘The Mother’ to the Aurovillians. In common perception, the settlement is an experiment in achieving ‘human unity’ through sustainable living. Since its inception in late 1960s, the settlement has attracted people from a variety of nationalities, each understanding, seeking, and rendering ‘human unity’ in their own unique way. This multiplicity of inhabitation has created and continues to create complex and layered human and more-than-human geographies, which are collectively understood as Auroville. This essay builds on these multiple narratives of local metaphysical and every inhabitation of spiritual and philosophical ideas of Sri Aurobindo as rendered in materiality by the Mother. The research aims to assess how theseforms of everyday spirituality conflict, interact, and engage with the principles of Auroville. The research further aims to understands how, if at all, the diverse landscapes of social, cultural, and infrastructural conflictssynthesizewhen perceived through the lens of spirituality. The research does so by detailing the different forms of the built environment which evoke the transcendental and its underlying processes. While doing so, it aims to understand how different manifestations of interiority within the Aurovillian landscape tie back to the self and its entanglements. By analysing the settlement through a spiritual lens, the research ultimately ties together questions relating to the built environment and ontology and asks how each facilitates a continuous synthesis with the other. Lastly, the paper enquires if these ongoing processes of synthesis of built space and ontological entanglements are what can be conceptualized as ‘human unity’ as perceived by Sri Aurobindo himself.

Keywords: sacrality, sacred, spirituality, philosophy, Indian philosophy, auroville, India

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86 Attributes of Ethical Leadership and Ethical Guidelines in Malaysian Public Sector

Authors: M. Norazamina, A. Azizah, Y. Najihah Marha, A. Suraya


Malaysian Public Sector departments or agencies are responsible to provide efficient public services with zero corruption. However, corruption continues to occur due to the absence of ethical leadership and well-execution of ethical guidelines. Thus, the objective of this paper is to explore the attributes of ethical leadership and ethical guidelines. This study employs a qualitative research by analyzing data from interviews with key informers of public sector using conceptual content analysis (NVivo11). The study reveals eight attributes of ethical leadership which are role model, attachment, ethical support, knowledgeable, discipline, leaders’ spirituality encouragement, virtue values and shared values. Meanwhile, five attributes (guidelines, communication, check and balance, concern on stakeholders and compliance) of ethical guidelines are identified. These identified attributes should become the ethical identity and ethical direction of Malaysian Public Sector. This could enhance the public trust as well as the international community trust towards the public sector.

Keywords: check and balance, ethical guidelines, ethical leadership, public sector, spirituality encouragement

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85 An Unusual Manifestation of Spirituality: Kamppi Chapel of Helsinki

Authors: Emine Umran Topcu


In both urban design and architecture, the primary goal is considered to be looking for ways in which people feel and think about space and place. Humans, in general, see a place as security and space as freedom and feel attached to place and long for space. Contemporary urban design manifests itself by addressing basic physical and psychological human needs. Not much attention is paid to transcendence. There seems to be a gap in the hierarchy of human needs. Usually, social aspects of public space are addressed through urban design. More personal and intimately scaled needs of an individual are neglected. How does built form contribute to an individual’s growth, contemplation, and exploration? In other words, a greater meaning in the immediate environment. Architects love to talk about meaning, poetics, attachment and other ethereal aspects of space that are not visible attributes of places. This paper aims at describing spirituality through built form with a personal experience of Kamppi Chapel of Helsinki. Experience covers various modes through which a person unfolds or constructs reality. Perception, sensation, emotion, and thought can be counted as for these modes. To experience is to get to know. What can be known is a construct of experience. Feelings and thoughts about space and place are very complex in human beings. They grow out of life experiences. The author had the chance of visiting Kamppi Chapel in April 2017, out of which the experience grew. The Kamppi Chapel is located on the South side of the busy Narinnka Square in central Helsinki. It offers a place to quiet down and compose oneself in a most lively urban space. With its curved wooden facade, the small building looks more like a museum than a chapel. It can be called a museum for contemplation. With its gently shaped interior, it embraces visitors and shields them from the hustle bustle of the city outside. Places of worship in all faiths signify sacred power. The author, having origins in a part of the world where domes and minarets dominate the cityscape, was impressed by the size and the architectural visibility of the Chapel. Anyone born and trained in such a tradition shares the inherent values and psychological mechanisms of spirituality, sacredness and the modest realities of their environment. Spirituality in all cultural traditions has not been analyzed and reinterpreted in new conceptual frameworks. Fundamentalists may reject this positivist attitude, but Kamppi Chapel as it stands does not look like it has a say like “I’m a model to be followed”. It just faces the task of representing a religious facility in an urban setting largely shaped by modern urban planning, which seems to the author as looking for a new definition of individual status. The quest between the established and the new is the demand for modern efficiency versus dogmatic rigidity. The architecture here has played a very promising and rewarding role for spirituality. The designers have been the translators for human desire for better life and aesthetic environment for an optimal satisfaction of local citizens and the visitors alike.

Keywords: architecture, Kamppi Chapel, spirituality, urban

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84 The Impact of Organizational Justice on Organizational Loyalty Considering the Role of Spirituality and Organizational Trust Variable: Case Study of South Pars Gas Complex

Authors: Sima Radmanesh, Nahid Radmanesh, Mohsen Yaghmoor


The presence of large number of active rival gas companies on Persian Gulf border necessitates the adaptation and implementation of effective employee retention strategies as well as implementation of promoting loyalty and belonging strategies of specialized staffs in the South Pars gas company. Hence, this study aims at assessing the amount of organizational loyalty and explaining the effect of institutional justice on organizational justice with regard to the role of mediator variables of spirituality in the work place and organizational trust. Therefore, through reviewing the related literature, the researchers achieve a conceptual model for the effect of these factors on organizational loyalty. To this end, this model was assessed and tested through questionnaires in South Pars gas company. The research method was descriptive and correlation-structural equation modeling. The findings of the study indicated a significant relationship between the concepts addressed in the research and conceptual models were confirmed. Finally, according to the results to improve effectiveness factors affecting organizational loyalty, recommendations are provided.

Keywords: organizational loyalty, organizational trust, organizational justice, organizational spirit, oil and gas company

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