Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 266

Search results for: spiritual

266 The Relationship between Spiritual Well-Being and the Quality of Life among Older Adults Who Live in Aged Institutions

Authors: Li-Fen Wu

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Spiritual well-being is one aspect of quality of life that can significantly improve the quality of life of individuals. However, the reports of older adults’ spiritual well-being that live in aged institutions were few. This study aims to identify the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of life among older adults residing in aged institutions in Taiwan. The correlative study design is used. Data collected by basic personal information, Spiritual Index of Well-being Scale and EuroQol-5D-3L. Case managers help participants complete the questionnaires. This study uses descriptive statistics and correlation test analysis data. The study finds the positive correlation between spiritual well-being and quality of life. According to the correlation between spiritual well-being and quality-of-life score, awareness of the importance of spiritual well-being in caring for these people is recommended.

Keywords: older adult, spiritual well-being, quality of life, aged institution

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265 Spiritual Health in View of Islamic Mysticism

Authors: Maryam Bakhtyar-Pegah Akrami

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The relationship between spiritual health and spirituality is one of the important is that in recent years, the research about it is expanding and due to the rich heritage of the in this field of study and research in this important field more than before and we will come to spiritual life and healthier than before. In this research, we provide the following and the basics of Islamic Mysticism in the realm of spiritual health thoughts. This research is based on a descriptive method and comparison with analytical-method to data collected. The findings show that human beings due to this pivotal topic of full Islamic slab, and mental and physical education with the sought to reach the human place are complete, we can provide the basics along with new discussions of spiritual health help human beings to spiritual education along with our faiths in the reconstruction of the spiritual foundations of spiritual health are extremely helpful

Keywords: spirituality, health, Islam, mysticism, perfect human

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264 The Accuracy of Measures for Screening Adults for Spiritual Suffering in Health Care Settings: A Systematic Review

Authors: Sayna Bahraini, Wendy Gifford, Ian Graham, Liquaa Wazni, Suzettee Bremault-Phillips, Rebekah Hackbusch, Catrine Demers, Mary Egan

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Objective: Guidelines for palliative and spiritual care emphasize the importance of screening patients for spiritual suffering. The aim of this review was to synthesize the research evidence on the accuracy of measures used to screen adults for spiritual suffering. Methods: A systematic review has been conducted. We searched five scientific databases to identify relevant articles. Two independent reviewers screened extracted data and assessed study methodological quality. Results: We identified five articles that yielded information on 24 spiritual screening measures. Among all identified measures, the 2-item Meaning/Joy & Self-Described Struggle has the highest sensitivity (82-87%), and the revised Rush protocol has the highest specificity (81-90%). The methodological quality of all included studies was low. Significance of Results: While most of the identified spiritual screening measures are brief (comprise 1 to 12 number of items), few have sufficient accuracy to effectively screen patients for spiritual suffering. We advise clinicians to use their critical appraisal skills and clinical judgment when selecting and using any of the identified measures to screen for spiritual suffering.

Keywords: screening, suffering, spirituality, diagnostic test accuracy, systematic review

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263 Exploring Spiritual Needs of Taiwanese Inpatients with Advanced Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

Authors: Szu Mei Hsiao

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This study explores the spiritual needs of inpatients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers in one southern regional teaching hospital in Taiwan and elucidates the differences and similarities of spiritual needs between them. Little research reports the different phases of spiritual needs and the potential impact of Chinese cultural values on the spiritual needs. Qualitative inquiry was used. Twenty-one patients with advanced cancer and twenty-two family caregivers were recruited. During hospitalization, all participants identified spiritual needs both the palliative phase and the dying phase: (a) the need to foster faith/confidence and hope for medicine and/or God; (b) to understand the meaning and values of life; (c) to experience more reciprocal human love and forgiveness; and (d) to obey God’s/Heaven will. Furthermore, the differences of spiritual needs between patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers are as follows: (a) family caregivers emphasized the need to inform relatives and say goodbye in order to die peacefully; (b) patients highlighted a need to maintain a certain physical appearance in order to preserve their dignity; nurture one’s willpower; learn about the experiences of cancer survivors; and identify one’s own life experience for understanding the meaning and values of life. Moreover, the dissimilarity of spiritual needs is that the patients pointed out the need to understand God’s will during the palliative treatment phase. However, the family caregivers identified the need to forgive each other, and inform relatives and say goodbye to patients in the dying phase. This research has shown that the needs of meaning/values of life and facing death peacefully are different between two groups. Health professionals will be encouraged to detect and to develop individualized care strategies to meet spiritual needs.

Keywords: advanced cancer, Chinese culture, family caregivers, qualitative research, spiritual needs

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
262 The Role of Spiritual Experience, Gerotranscendence and Social Engagement on Successful Aging among Incarcerated Filipino Elderly: A Structural Equation Model

Authors: Les Paul Valdez, Rowena Manzarate, Joseph Carl Lunizo, Mary Thereze Mabaquiao, Mary Deo Luigi Mabunay

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Background: Across the literature, varying definitions of successful aging can be found. As a result, several determinants have been associated with successful aging. However, there is a paucity of literature exploring the relationship between successful aging and factors such as spiritual experience, gerotranscendence, and social engagement. Objective: Thus, this study purports to ascertain the relationship between and among spiritual experience, gerotranscendence, social engagement and successful aging. Methods: The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES), Social Engagement Scale (SES), Gerotranscendence Scale Revised (GS-R) and Expectations Regarding Aging (ERA) were fielded to 349 incarcerated elderly to measure spiritual experience, social engagement, gerotranscendence and successful aging respectively. Data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling through AMOS 21. The hypothesized model was evaluated using the goodness of fit and parsimony indices. Results: Social engagement (β= .179, p=.128) and spiritual experience (β= .375, p=.262) contribute to successful aging through the mediating effect of gerotranscendence (β= .973, p=.718). Conclusion: Today more than ever, healthcare providers in penal institutions are challenged to ensure that incarcerated elderly are socially and spiritually engaged; and have high levels of gerotranscendence.

Keywords: elderly, Filipino, gerotranscendence, social engagement, spiritual experience, successful aging

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261 The Effects of Religiosity and Spiritual Intelligence on the Performance of Accountants in Ghana

Authors: Wisdom Dordudnu, George M. Y. Owusu, Samuel N. Y. Simpson

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The recent failures of many corporate giants have generated intense research interest in the factors that influence accountants’ job performance. Against the backdrop that these factors also create an enabling environment for success at the work place, this study contributes to literature on job performance of accountants by exploring the impact of two psycho-spiritual factors: religiosity and spiritual intelligence on job performance of accountants in Ghana. The study employs a survey approach using questionnaires as the principal means of data collection to elicit responses from accountants working in the 222 certified firms of Institute of Chartered Accountants Ghana (ICAG). A structural equation modeling-based approach is employed to examine the relationship among the study constructs. Results of this study indicate that there is a positive relationship between these factors and accountants’ performance. It is expected that this study provides strong evidence and highlight the need for specific action from managers to look critically at the non-material aspect of accountants in accounting firms.

Keywords: job performance, psycho-spiritual, religiosity, spiritual intelligence

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260 The Relation between Spiritual Intelligence and Organizational Health and Job Satisfaction among the Female Staff in Islamic Azad University of Marvdasht

Authors: Reza Zarei

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The result of the present study is to determine the relation between spiritual intelligence and organizational health and job satisfaction among the female staff in Islamic Azad University of Marvdasht. The population of the study includes the female staff and the faculty of Islamic Azad University of Marvdasht. The method is correlational and the instrument in the research is three questionnaires namely the spiritual intelligence by (ISIS), Amraam and Dryer, organizational health by Fieldman and Job satisfaction questionnaire. In order to test the hypotheses we used interpretive statistics, Pearson and regression correlation coefficient. The findings show that there is a significant relation between the spiritual intelligence and organizational health among the female staff of this unit. In addition, the organizational health has a significant relation with the elements of self-consciousness and social skills and on the other hand, job satisfaction is in significant relation with the elements of self-consciousness, self-control, self-provocation, sympathy and social skills in the whole sample regardless of the participants' gender. Finally, the results of multiple regression and variance analysis showed that using the variables of the spiritual intelligence of the female staff could predict the organizational health and their job satisfaction.

Keywords: job satisfaction, spiritual intelligence, organizational health, Islamic Azad University

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259 Structure of Consciousness According to Deep Systemic Constellations

Authors: Dmitry Ustinov, Olga Lobareva

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The method of Deep Systemic Constellations is based on a phenomenological approach. Using the phenomenon of substitutive perception it was established that the human consciousness has a hierarchical structure, where deeper levels govern more superficial ones (reactive level, energy or ancestral level, spiritual level, magical level, and deeper levels of consciousness). Every human possesses a depth of consciousness to the spiritual level, however deeper levels of consciousness are not found for every person. It was found that the spiritual level of consciousness is not homogeneous and has its own internal hierarchy of sublevels (the level of formation of spiritual values, the level of the 'inner observer', the level of the 'path', the level of 'God', etc.). The depth of the spiritual level of a person defines the paradigm of all his internal processes and the main motives of the movement through life. At any level of consciousness disturbances can occur. Disturbances at a deeper level cause disturbances at more superficial levels and are manifested in the daily life of a person in feelings, behavioral patterns, psychosomatics, etc. Without removing the deepest source of a disturbance it is impossible to completely correct its manifestation in the actual moment. Thus a destructive pattern of feeling and behavior in the actual moment can exist because of a disturbance, for example, at the spiritual level of a person (although in most cases the source is at the energy level). Psychological work with superficial levels without removing a source of disturbance cannot fully solve the problem. The method of Deep Systemic Constellations allows one to work effectively with the source of the problem located at any depth. The methodology has confirmed its effectiveness in working with more than a thousand people.

Keywords: constellations, spiritual psychology, structure of consciousness, transpersonal psychology

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258 Spirituality in Adults with Developmental Disabilities in the Practice of Pastoral Care Ministry

Authors: Olutayo Stephen Shodipo

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This paper explores how individuals with disabilities understand and express their spirituality like everyone else can help provide church ministers and religious leaders with new knowledge of human experience and change the way pastoral care ministry is being practiced with this population. Disability literature has revealed studies on various aspects of disability. However, on the spirituality of people with disabilities, there is a gap. This paper offers a brief overview of what has been studied on the spiritual needs of adults with developmental disabilities (ADDs) and the church and the gap that still exists. Along with explaining this gap, it considers the reality of ADDs’ spiritual needs and why the church needs to validate their spirituality and religious expressions and create an inclusive environment where their spiritual experience and expressions can be enhanced and supported. This paper, then, aims to explore the diverse spiritual experiences of ADDs in faith communities, and their theological, moral, and social implications for Pastoral care ministry practices.

Keywords: spirituality, inclusive ministry, pastoral theology, developmental disability, pastoral care

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
257 Spiritual Quotient, a Significant Predictor of Teaching Effectiveness

Authors: Poonam Khurana, Mikelsh Prasad Yadav

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All human beings are virtue by God as they get controlling mind and an attitude towards something with the help of which they can experience spirituality. People have different psychological thoughts and beliefs relating to god. Some people feel the immense pleasure in performing religious activities while some believe in the thought “Ahem Brahmasmi” i.e I am part of the divine and they feel pleasure in activities which motivate them to achieve peace. Religion in psychology is considered as a specific fundamental set of beliefs, thoughts and practices generally agreed and controlled by a number of person. It is the psychology of a person which commands their mind in deciding at which path they can attain the eternal feelings of the universe and accordingly they will develop their behavior towards religion and spirituality. Keeping the same in mind, the present study is based much on literature and a brief analysis of 50 teachers in Delhi and NCR colleges and makes an attempt to study the relationship of spiritual quotient and effective teaching and suggest spiritual quotient as a considerable predictor to make the workplace accessible.

Keywords: effectiveness, quotient, teaching, spiritual

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256 Suicide Prevention through Spiritual Practice

Authors: Jayant Balaji Athavale, Sean Clarke

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Background: According to the WHO, every year, more than 700,000 people die by suicide, which is one person around every 45 seconds. Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 15 to 29-year-olds globally. The most common situations or life events that might cause suicidal thoughts are financial problems/unemployment, rejections, relationship breakups, sexual/substance abuse and mental illnesses. Mental/psychological weakness caused due to defects in one’s personality is one of the main reasons why people feel they cannot cope in such situations and contemplate suicide. A WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020 lists a 4-point strategy to enhance mental health by ‘implementing strategies for promotion and prevention in mental health.’ Methodology: With 40 years of spiritual research background, the team at the Maharshi University of Spirituality has studied the spiritual root causes that can significantly affect one’s mental health and the solutions to improve it. Results/Findings: According to spiritual science, the time and nature of death are mostly due to spiritual reasons. A person would mostly contemplate and attempt suicide when he is spiritually most vulnerable. Spiritual practice, as per universal principles, helps in protecting a person spiritually and prevents him from getting such thoughts of self-harm or acting upon them by controlling such impulses. The University has had much success in helping people to overcome the defects in their personalities, including those with suicidal thoughts, through spiritual practices such as chanting the Name of God and the Personality Defect Removal (PDR) process developed by the Author. Conclusion: If such techniques were taught in educational institutions, they could be simple yet effective self-help tools to prevent thoughts of suicide and enhance mental health and well-being.

Keywords: suicide, mental health, abuse, suicide prevention, personality defect removal

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255 Deconstruction of the Term 'Shaman' in the Metaphorical Pair 'Artist as a Shaman'

Authors: Ilona Ivova Anachkova

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The analogy between the artist and the shaman as both being practitioners that more easily recognize and explore spiritual matters, and thus contribute to the society in a unique way has been implied in both Modernity and Postmodernity. The Romantic conception of the shaman as a great artist who helps common men see and understand messages of a higher consciousness has been employed throughout Modernity and is active even now. This paper deconstructs the term ‘shaman’ in the metaphorical analogy ‘artist – shaman’ that was developed more fully in Modernity in different artistic and scientific discourses. The shaman is a figure that to a certain extent adequately reflects the late modern and postmodern holistic views on the world. Such views aim at distancing from traditional religious and overly rationalistic discourses. However, the term ‘shaman’ can be well substituted by other concepts such as the priest, for example. The concept ‘shaman’ is based on modern ethnographic and historical investigations. Its later philosophical, psychological and artistic appropriations designate the role of the artist as a spiritual and cultural leader. However, the artist and the shaman are not fully interchangeable terms. The figure of the shaman in ‘primitive’ societies has performed many social functions that are now delegated to different institutions and positions. The shaman incorporates the functions of a judge, a healer. He is a link to divine entities. He is the creative, aspiring human being that has heightened sensitivity to the world in both its spiritual and material aspects. Building the metaphorical analogy between the shaman and the artist comes in many ways. Both are seen as healers of the society, having propensity towards connection to spiritual entities, or being more inclined to creativity than others. The ‘shaman’ however is a fashionable word for a spiritual person used perhaps because of the anti-traditionalist religious modern and postmodern views. The figure of the priest is associated with a too rational, theoretical and detached attitude towards spiritual matters, while the practices of the shaman and the artist are considered engaged with spirituality on a deeper existential level. The term ‘shaman’ however does not have priority of other words/figures that can explore and deploy spiritual aspects of reality. Having substituted the term ‘shaman’ in the pair ‘artist as a shaman’ with ‘the priest’ or literally ‘anybody,' we witness destruction of spiritual hierarchies and come to the view that everybody is responsible for their own spiritual and creative evolution.

Keywords: artist as a shaman, creativity, extended theory of art, functions of art, priest as an artist

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254 The Spiritual Distress of Women Coping with the End of Life and Death of Their Spouses

Authors: Szu-Mei Hsiao

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Many nurses have concerns about the difficulties of providing spiritual care for ethnic-Chinese patients and family members within their cultural context. This is due to a lack of knowledge and training. Most family caregivers are female. There has been little research exploring the potential impact of Chinese cultural values on the spiritual distress of couple dyadic participants in Taiwan. This study explores the spiritual issues of Taiwanese women coping with their husband’s advanced cancer during palliative care to death. Qualitative multiple case studies were used. Data was collected through participant observation and in-depth face-to-face interviews. Transcribed interview data was analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Three couples were recruited from a community-based rural hospital in Taiwan where the husbands were hospitalized in a medical ward. Four spiritual distress themes emerged from the analysis: (1) A personal conflict in trying to come to terms with love and forgiveness; the inability to forgive their husband’s mistakes; and, lack of their family’s love and support. (2) A feeling of hopelessness due to advanced cancer, such as a feeling of disappointment in their destiny and karma, including expressing doubt on survival. (3) A feeling of uncertainty in facing death peacefully, such as fear of facing the unknown world; and, (4) A feeling of doubt causing them to question the meaning and values in their lives. This research has shown that caregivers needed family support, friends, social welfare, and the help of their religion to meet their spiritual needs in coping within the final stages of life and death. The findings of this study could assist health professionals to detect the spiritual distress of ethnic-Chinese patients and caregivers in the context of their cultural or religious background as early as possible.

Keywords: advanced cancer, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, qualitative research, spiritual distress

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253 The Effectiveness of Group Spiritual Therapy on Increasing the Life Expectancy and Mental Health in Elderlies

Authors: Seyed Reza Mirmahdi, Seyedeh Maryam Hashemi Jabali

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This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of group spiritual therapy on increasing the life expectancy and mental health among the elderlies. This was a quasi-experimental research using a pretest-posttest design with a control group conducted over a population including all the elderly people of Tehran in 2012-13. A randomized sampling method was used to select 30 elderly people living in Parham nursing home that were then randomly assigned into two control and experimental groups of 15 people each. The instruments used were Miller’s life expectancy and mental health test (SCL.90.R) standard questionnaires. Individuals in experimental group received 12 sessions of group spiritual therapy while those in control group did not receive any kind of therapy. The tests were performed again for all the subjects (30 individuals) at the end of the experiment. To test the hypotheses, the data collected by questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive methods through relevant tables and charts and also inferential methods through the analysis of covariance using the SPSS software. Results showed that group spiritual therapy leads to a significant increase in both mental health and life expectancy in the experimental group of elderlies living in Parham nursing home compared to those in the control group.

Keywords: spiritual therapy, life expectancy, mental health, elderlies

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252 Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Spiritual Intelligence

Authors: Meghan E. Murray, Carri R. Tolmie

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This study aims to identify potential factors and widely applicable best practices that can contribute to improving corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate performance for firms by exploring the relationship between transformational leadership, spiritual intelligence, and emotional intelligence. Corporate social responsibility is when companies are cognizant of the impact of their actions on the economy, their communities, the environment, and the world as a whole while executing business practices accordingly. The prevalence of CSR has continuously strengthened over the past few years and is now a common practice in the business world, with such efforts coinciding with what stakeholders and the public now expect from corporations. Because of this, it is extremely important to be able to pinpoint factors and best practices that can improve CSR within corporations. One potential factor that may lead to improved CSR is spiritual intelligence (SQ), or the ability to recognize and live with a purpose larger than oneself. Spiritual intelligence is a measurable skill, just like emotional intelligence (EQ), and can be improved through purposeful and targeted coaching. This research project consists of two studies. Study 1 is a case study comparison of a benefit corporation and a non-benefit corporation. This study will examine the role of SQ and EQ as moderators in the relationship between the transformational leadership of employees within each company and the perception of each firm’s CSR and corporate performance. Project methodology includes creating and administering a survey comprised of multiple pre-established scales on transformational leadership, spiritual intelligence, emotional intelligence, CSR, and corporate performance. Multiple regression analysis will be used to extract significant findings from the collected data. Study 2 will dive deeper into spiritual intelligence itself by analyzing pre-existing data and identifying key relationships that may provide value to companies and their stakeholders. This will be done by performing multiple regression analysis on anonymized data provided by Deep Change, a company that has created an advanced, proprietary system to measure spiritual intelligence. Based on the results of both studies, this research aims to uncover best practices, including the unique contribution of spiritual intelligence, that can be utilized by organizations to help enhance their corporate social responsibility. If it is found that high spiritual and emotional intelligence can positively impact CSR effort, then corporations will have a tangible way to enhance their CSR: providing targeted employees with training and coaching to increase their SQ and EQ.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, CSR, corporate performance, emotional intelligence, EQ, spiritual intelligence, SQ, transformational leadership

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251 Witchcraft Belief and HIV/AIDS in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Health-Care

Authors: Celestina Omoso Isiramen

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The influence of witchcraft belief on disease causation, cure and public health system in Nigeria cannot be underrated. This paper investigated the nexus between witchcraft phenomenon and health-seeking behaviour of HIV sufferers in Edo state, Nigeria. Survey methodology was adopted and stratified random sampling technique was employed in the selection of 600 sample group spread into 200 HIV sufferers, 200 spiritual healers and 200 bio-medics from the three Senatorial districts of the state. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire and in-dept interview and analyzed using simple percentage and frequency. Major findings were: belief in witchcraft significantly influenced the people’s perception of HIV causation and wellness and this impacted adversely on public health-care. Poverty, ignorance and dearth of retroviral drugs enhanced the people’s recourse to spiritual healers. Collaboration between spiritual healing techniques and biomedicine was recommended as panacea for curbing HIV/AIDS related morbidity and mortality. It concluded that socio-economic problems must be addressed while the importance of integrating the values of spiritual healing into biomedicine cannot be overstressed.

Keywords: biomedicine, health care, HIV/AIDS, spirituality, witchcraft

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250 The Implications of Person-Organisation Spirituality Fit on Employees’ Ethical and Spiritual Leadership Behaviours: Insights from Jordan

Authors: Tamer Koburtay, Radi Haloub

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Person-Organization fit theory concerns how people flourish in a workplace that is congruence with their values and other traits. This paper seeks to highlight the theoretical relevance that workplace spirituality may add to the existing theory development of the P-O fit. In specific, it aims to empirically test the emerged framework that encompasses how workplace and self-spirituality match may enhance the perceived P-O fit, and how such a fit can enhance both employees’ ethical behaviors (i.e., humanism and honesty) and spiritual leadership behaviors. Drawing on a survey of the private and public sectors in Jordan, the results reveal that increasing the match in workplace and employees’ spirituality positively enhances the perceived P-O fit. Further, ethical and spiritual behaviors were found to be positively linked with a higher P-O fit. The importance of this paper is by generating a concept (i.e., P-O spirituality fit) beyond the already vast literature on P-O fit.

Keywords: ethical behavior, leadership, P-O fit, spirituality, leadership

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249 Research Insights into Making the Premises Spiritually Pure

Authors: Jayant Athavale, Rendy Ekarantio, Sean Clarke

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The Maharshi University of Spirituality was founded on the base of 30 years of spiritual research. It specializes in conducting research on how the subtle-world and spiritual-vibrations affect the lives of people. One such area of research is how to create spiritually positive vibrations in the premises. By using aura and energy scanners along with the sixth sense, the spiritual research team has identified 3 aspects that are instrumental in enhancing or reducing the spiritual positivity of any premises. Firstly, the characteristics of the land should be considered holistically, that is, from a physical, psychological and spiritual point of view. While procedures for the physical assessment of land are well documented, due to ignorance and disbelief, the spiritual aspects are not considered. For example, if the land was previously a graveyard site, it can have highly detrimental effects on the residents within the premises at the spiritual level. This can further manifest as physical and psychological problems that are faced by the residents. Secondly, the manner of construction and the purpose/use of the building affects the subtle-vibrations in the premises. The manner of construction includes gross aspects such as the materials used, kind of architecture, etc. It also includes the subtle aspects provided in detail in the ancient science of Vastu Shastra and Feng Shui. For example, having the front door of the premises facing the south direction can negatively affect the premises because the southern direction is prone to distressing vibrations. The purpose and use of the premises also plays an important role in determining the type of subtle-vibrations that will be predominantly found within its area. Thirdly, the actions, thoughts, value systems and attitudes of the residents play an important part in determining whether the subtle-vibrations will be positive or negative. Residents with many personality defects emit negative vibrations. If some of the residents are affected with negative energies and are not doing any spiritual practice to overcome it, then it can have a harmful spiritual effect on the rest of the residents and the premises. If these three aspects are appropriately considered and attended to, then the premises will generate higher levels of spiritually positive vibrations. Both living and non-living objects within the premises imbibe this positivity and therefore, it holistically enhances the overall well-being of its residents. The positivity experienced in the premises of the Spiritual Research Centre of the Maharshi University of Spirituality, is a testimony to the success of this research. Due to regular and intense spiritual practice carried out by 10 Saints and over 500 seekers residing in its premises, the positivity in the environment can be felt by people when they enter its premises and even from a distance, and can easily be picked up by aura and energy scanners. Extraordinary and fascinating phenomena are observed and experienced in its premises as both living and non-living objects emit spiritually positive vibrations. This also protects the residents from negative vibrations. Examples of such phenomena and their positive impact are discussed in the paper.

Keywords: negative energies, positive vibrations on the premises, resident’s spiritual practice, science of the premises

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248 Spiritual Recovery of People with Bipolar Disorder in Malaysia: A Grounded Theory Study

Authors: Mohamad Shariff Nurasikin, Paul Crawford, Nicola Wright

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People with any mental disorder can get benefit from the spiritual aspects of life for recovery, particularly in searching for the meaning of life and engaging in meaningful activities. However, little is known about such effects in the population of bipolar disorder. The concepts of spirituality are highly contestable, as they are too broad and removed from the original religious understanding. The concepts are more notable as encompassing multi-dimensional aspects of people’s lives such as social, emotional, and psychological. Viewing that Western or secular worldview dominates most of the literature in spirituality, it is time to explore the concept of spirituality from the Eastern and religious worldview, such as the Malaysian view. Thus, the aim of this study is to provide a conceptual understanding of people with bipolar disorder with a religious affiliation in Malaysia. This study employs a Grounded Theory and explores the narratives from the interviews of 25 participants. The narratives strongly suggest the salient resources or can be referred to as various forms of capital, as in the capital theory, namely, religious, social, psychological, and medicinal. More important is how these capitals are the enablers for recovery in mental health and well-being, where the participants in the sample engage in a more meaningful life and positive adaptations. This study also extends the Bourdieusian spiritual capital, in which the salient resources are termed as the capital bundle. More significant is how the capital bundles are working contiguously in building and accumulating the spiritual capital. This process is conducive to recovery within the social life of people with bipolar disorder or perhaps other mental disorders.

Keywords: bipolar, Bourdeau, recovery, spiritual

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247 Effects on Spiritual Intelligence on Young Adult Muslim Female: Integration of Planned Behaviour Theory in Predicting Consumer Attitude towards Halal Cosmetic

Authors: Azreen Jihan Che Mohd Hashim, Rosidah Musa

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Although 'Spiritual Intelligence' (SI) is hard to measure, it is impossible without a noble value that may affect the attitude in purchasing behavior process, so this paper aims to report on a pilot study analysis results in order to evaluate the degree of SI towards consumers’ attitude in purchasing halal cosmetics and, in turn, to reaffirm intention to purchase by using Theory Planned Behaviour (TPB). It is a descriptive cross-sectional study among the Muslim women as the subjects, working and staying in Klang valley area in Malaysia. The purpose of the study is to develop a new measurement scale to unravel and decompose the underlying dimensions of SI from the perspective of the Muslim deemed imperative. About 200 respondents of users and non-users of halal cosmetics are selected. The structure equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to examine the relationships among god, society and self, which are the dimensions of SI. A finding indicates that, in influencing attitude, those who obligate high spiritual intelligence have a good relationship with god, society and self which may influence them to purchase halal cosmetic product. This study offers important findings and implications for future research as it presents a framework on the importance of SI.

Keywords: spiritual intelligence, god, society, self, young adult Muslim female

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246 Water's Role in Creating a Sense of Belonging

Authors: Narges Nejati

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Nowadays as science hasten toward technology, only quantity of construction noticed and there is a little attention toward quality of construction and there is no usage for element which was prevalent in traditional architecture. This is the cause of this issue that nowadays we see building that most of them just keep you from heat and cold of outside environment and there is no trace of any culture of their country or nation in it. And although we know that man is a creature that adores beauty by his nature, but this spiritual need of him is ignored. And designers by taking an enormous price instead of planning (spiritual designing) to release peace, they attend to planning which make a human soul bothered and ill. The present research is trying to illustrate price of concepts and principles of water usage as one of the elements of nature and also shows the water application in some of the Iranian constructions and the results show the motif of using water in constructions and also some benefits of using it in constructions. And also this matter can causes a reconnection between nature and constructing of a beautiful environment which is consonant and proportional with man’ physical, spiritual and cultural needs. And causes peace and comfort of men. A construction which man feels a friendly atmosphere in them which he has a sense of belonging to them not a construction which arouses feeling of weariness and fatigue.

Keywords: water usage, belonging, sustainable architecture, urban design

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245 Organizational Commitment in Islamic Boarding School: The Implementation of Organizational Behavior Integrative Model

Authors: Siswoyo Haryono

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Purpose – The fundamental goal of this research is to see if the integrative organizational behavior model can be used effectively in Islamic boarding schools. This paper also seeks to assess the effect of Islamic organizational culture, leadership, and spiritual intelligence on teachers' organizational commitment to Islamic Boarding schools. The goal of the mediation analysis is to see if the Islamic work ethic has a more significant effect on the instructors' organizational commitment than the direct effects of Islamic organizational culture, leadership, and Islamic spiritual intelligence. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire survey was used to obtain data from teachers at Islamic Boarding Schools. This study used the AMOS technique for structural equation modeling to evaluate the expected direct effect. To test the hypothesized indirect effect, employed Sobel test. Findings – Islamic organizational culture, Islamic leadership, and Islamic spiritual intelligence significantly affect Islamic work ethic. When it comes to Islamic corporate culture, Islamic leadership, Islamic spiritual intelligence, and Islamic work ethics have a significant impact. The findings of the mediation study reveal that Islamic organizational culture, leadership, and spiritual intelligence influences organizational commitment through Islamic work ethic. The total effect analysis shows that the most effective path to increasing teachers’ organizational commitment is Islamic leadership - Islamic work ethic – organizational commitment. Originality/value – This study evaluates the Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior by Colquitt (2016) applied in Islamic Boarding School. The model consists of contemporary leadership and individual characteristic as the antecedent. The mediating variables of the model consist of individual mechanisms such as trust, justice, and ethic. Individual performance and organizational commitment are the model's outcomes. These variables, on the other hand, do not represent the Islamic viewpoint as a whole. As a result, this study aims to assess the role of Islamic principles in the model. The study employs reliability and validity tests to get reliable and valid measures. The findings revealed that the evaluation model is proven to improve organizational commitment at Islamic Boarding School.

Keywords: Islamic leadership, Islamic spiritual intelligence, Islamic work ethic, organizational commitment, Islamic boarding school

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244 The Relationship between Transcendence and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Scientific Literature Review

Authors: Monir Ahmed

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The main purpose of this literature review was to investigate the existing quantitative clinical studies on the relationship between transcendence and psychological well-being. The primary objective of the literature review is to determine whether the existing studies adequately demonstrate the relationship between transcendence and psychological well-being, including spiritual well-being. A further objective of this literature review is to see if the ‘creatio ex nihilo’ doctrine is necessary to understand transcendence and its relationship with psychological well-being. Systematic literature review methods including studies identified from search engines, extracting data from the studies and assessing their quality for the planned review were used. The outcome of this literature review indicates that self-transcendence (STa), spiritual transcendence (STb) are positively related to psychological well-being. However, such positive relationships present limited scope for understanding transcendence and its relationship with well-being. The findings of this review support the need for further research in the area of transcendence and well-being. This literature review reveals the importance of developing a new transcendence tool for determining an individual’s ability to transcend and the relationship between his/her ability for transcendence and psychological well-being. The author of this paper proposes that the inclusion of the theological doctrine (‘creatio ex nihilo’) in understanding transcendence and psychological well-being is crucial, necessary and unavoidable.

Keywords: transcendence, psychological well-being, self-transcendence, spiritual transcendence, ‘creatio ex nihilo’

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243 Spirituality and Coping with Breast Cancer among Omani Women

Authors: Huda Al-Awisi, Mohammed Al-Azri, Samira Al-Rasbi, Mansour Al-Moundhri

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Cancer diagnosis is invariably a profound and catastrophic life-changing experience for individuals and their families. It has been found that cancer patients and survivors are distressed with the fragility of their life and their mortality. Based on the literature, cancer patients /survivors value their spiritual experience and connecting with unknown power either related to religious belief or not as an important coping mechanism. Health care professionals including nurses are expected to provide spiritual care for cancer patients as holistic care. Yet, nurses face many challenges in providing such care mainly due to lack of clear definition of spirituality. This study aims to explore coping mechanisms of Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer throughout their cancer journey including spirituality using a qualitative approach. A purposive sample of 19 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer at different stages of cancer treatment modalities were interviewed. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The framework approach was used to analyze the data. One main theme related to spirituality was identified and called “The power of faith”. For the majority of participants, faith in God (the will of God) was most important in coping with all stages of their breast cancer experience. Some participants thought that the breast cancer is a test from God which they have to accept. Participants also expressed acceptance of death as the eventual end and reward from God. This belief gives them the strength to cope with cancer and seek medical treatment. In conclusion, women participated in this study believed faith in God imposed spiritual power for them to cope with cancer. They connected spirituality with religious beliefs. Therefore, regardless of nurses’ faith in spirituality, the spiritual care needs to be tailored and provided according to each patient individual need.

Keywords: breast cancer, spiritual, religion, coping, diagnosis, oman, women

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242 Spirituality and Happiness among Youth: A Correlative Study

Authors: Harsh Shah

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Spirituality and happiness are two very important aspects of human life. After defining happiness, an attempt has been made in this paper to review research on the relationship between happiness and spirituality, and then to experimentally study their correlation among students aged between 18-24 years. The relation was assessed in 200 students from IIT Kharagpur, who rated their own spirituality, and happiness using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) developed by Underwood, and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) developed by Lyubomirsky and Lepper, respectively. Students who were more spiritual in general, were happier as well, and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient method gave a high positive correlation between happiness and spirituality.

Keywords: happiness, spirituality, youth, correlation, depression, religion

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241 Combining the Noble Values of Traditional Architecture on Modern Architecture

Authors: Dwi Retno Sri Ambarwati

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Recently, the traditional architecture were getting lost, replaced by modern architecture. The existence of many traditional houses often changing the function and change the values in an effort to adjust to the modern lifestyle, whereas the spiritual background of traditional architectural design is very specific and be the basis for consideration in the construction of the building, both in terms of determining the location of the building, the direction toward building, the spatial pattern and organization of space, zoning, hierarchical space, building form, ornamentation, the selection of building materials, and so on. The changes in function and form will transformed the spiritual values contained in it, because the architecture affects human behavior and reflects the culture. The traditional architecture views the architecture as a concept that has different tendencies in terms of orientation, shape, and attitude toward nature that tends to harmony with the social environment and local culture. The concept of the spirit of place made the architecture looks familiar, not arrogant and give a positive value to the surrounding environment. Every culture has a traditional architecture that full of spiritual values, although in the simplest form. Humans can learn about human values and local wisdom through the positive values that contained in traditional architecture, the desire to balance themselves with nature and the environment, not overbearing, strict adherence to the prevailing norms, openness in public life and intimacy family life that form a harmonious in life. The great and the wise value of traditional architecture should be revived in modern architecture that tends to ignore the spiritual values and more concerned with the functional and aesthetic pleasure, by combining the noble values of traditional architecture into modern architecture.

Keywords: architecture, combining noble values, local wisdom, traditional architecture

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240 Mythical Geography, Collective Imaginary and Spiritual Patrimony in the Romanian Carpathians: A Tourist Image Component

Authors: Cosmin-Gabriel Porumb-Ghiurco, Dumitrana Fiț-Iordache, Szőke Árpád

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The literature incorporating geographical or tourist-geographical themes and explicit references to the Carpathian area is extremely abundant. Through this paper, we attempt to “undermine” the traditional, tourist-geographical approaches of the Carpathian Arch by targeting an aspect often regarded as marginal but which, if examined, even only empirically, takes the form of a vast problem with multidisciplinary vocation. Therefore, we propose a more extravagant yet pro-touristic approach to the Romanian Carpathian geo-space. Consequently, the explicit goal of this approach consists precisely in broadening the multidisciplinary, essentially geographic scope of the research, the vision and mental representation of the Carpathian area by advancing a lever that would symbolize a different kind of unification between geography and tourism on a more intimate, subtle, mythological and archetypal level. The spiritual and mercantile dimensions of the tourism field in general and of the local Carpathian tourism can meld harmoniously together in order to create a common territorial reality of referral and favorable perspectives for the consolidation of their symbiotic relationship.

Keywords: tourist image, mythical geography, collective imaginary, spiritual patrimony, Carpathians

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239 The Significance of Community Life in Promoting Unity in the Light of Acts 2:42

Authors: Takesure Mahohoma

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Community life is an epitome of the African axiom 'I am because we are, since we are therefore I am.' This culminates in the Ubuntu philosophy which is summarized in the Zulu words, 'umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu' (A person is a person through other people). This relationship gives honour to all people. This is the gist of the paper. This paper seeks to demonstrate the impact of community life in promoting unity from an African perspective. Using the proto-community in Acts 2:42, it is argued that community life is a solution to many social problems that divide African society today. The aim is to encourage all Africans and other people to cultivate a sense of belonging and valuing community life in the light of Acts 2:42. Hence we shall trace this theme from Old Testament, New Testament, and Christian history. The other section touches on the essence of community life and obstacles that hinder it. We shall offer spiritual suggestions and an integrative reflection. The nature of the paper is theology in general but spiritual in particular. As a spiritual paper, it is guided by the foundational approach. Thus, it employs the dialogical and integrative reflection method. The expected result is that freedom from all the miseries experienced is brought by living a community life. This is a life that gives greater assurance of enough food, education, health, peace, employment, and increased responsibility that values human dignity. Thus people are neighbours to each other. There is no stranger among them. The basic presumption is that there can be no development in any society without community life.

Keywords: community, seged, koinonia, neighbor

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238 Psychometric Validation of Czech Version of Spiritual Needs Assessment for Patients: The First Part of Research

Authors: Lucie Mrackova, Helena Kisvetrova

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Spirituality is an integral part of human life. In a secular environment, spiritual needs are often overlooked, especially in acute nursing care. Spiritual needs assessment for patients (SNAP), which also exists in the Czech version (SNAP-CZ), can be used for objective evaluation. The aim of this study was to measure the psychometric properties of SNAP-CZ and to find correlations between SNAP-CZ and sociodemographic and clinical variables. A cross-sectional study with tools assessing spiritual needs (SNAP-CZ), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI), depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI), pain (Visual Analogue Scale; VAS), self-sufficiency (Barthel Index; BI); cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Test; MoCa) and selected socio-demographic data was performed. The psychometric properties of SNAP-CZ were tested using factor analysis, reliability and validity tests, and correlations between the questionnaire and sociodemographic data and clinical variables. Internal consistency was established with Cronbach’s alfa for the overall score, respective domains, and individual items. Reliability was assessed by test-retest by Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Data for correlation analysis were processed according to Pearson's correlation coefficient. The study included 172 trauma patients (the mean age = 40.6 ± 12.1 years) who experienced polytrauma or severe monotrauma. There were a total of 106 (61.6%) male subjects, 140 (81.4%) respondents identified themselves as non-believers. The full-scale Cronbach's alpha was 0.907. The test-retest showed the reliability of the individual domains in the range of 0.924 to 0.960 ICC. Factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution (psychosocial needs (alfa = 0.788), spiritual needs (alfa = 0.886) and religious needs (alfa = 0.841)). Correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that the domain of psychosocial needs significantly correlated only with gender (r = 0.178, p = 0.020). Males had a statistically significant lower average value in this domain (mean = 12.5) compared to females (mean = 13.8). The domain of spiritual needs significantly correlated with gender (r = 0.199, p = 0.009), social status (r = 0.156, p = 0.043), faith (r = -0.250, p = 0.001), anxiety (r = 0.194, p = 0.011) and depression (r = 0.155, p = 0.044). The domain of religious needs significantly correlated with age (r = 0,208, p = 0,007), education (r = -0,161, p = 0,035), faith (r = -0,575, p < 0,0001) and depression (r = 0,179, p = 0,019). Overall, the whole SNAP scale significantly correlated with gender (r = 0.219, p = 0.004), social status (r = 0.175, p = 0.023), faith (r = -0.334, p <0.0001), anxiety (r = 0.177, p = 0.022) and depression (r = 0.173, p = 0.025). The results of this study corroborate the reliability of the SNAP-CZ and support its future use in the nursing care of trauma patients in a secular society. Acknowledgment: The study was supported by grant nr. IGA_FZV_2020_003.

Keywords: acute nursing care, assessment of spiritual needs, patient, psychometric validation, spirituality

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237 Ecopsychological Approach to Enhance Space Consciousness Toward Environment

Authors: Tiwi Kamidin

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After years of effort trying to integrate environmental education, studies keep revealing that Malaysian still not reached the certain level of desired commitment toward the environment. Some researchers mentioned that our planet healthy is depending on our mentally health especially our psychological and spiritual is split from the natural. Therefore, this study discussed on ecopcyhological approach in order to enhance space consciousness toward the environment. Space consciousness represents not only freedom from ego but also from dependency on the things of this world, from materialism and materiality. It is the spiritual dimension which alone can give transcendent and true meaning to this world. If pupils can balance this internal awareness will put an individual to respect the environment as part of yourself and your family against only as contributors to the continuance of human’s life. Qualitative findings showed that the informants considered their consciousness toward environment has been changed.

Keywords: ecopsychological approach, space consciousness, environmental education, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 223