Search results for: phenomenology
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 93

Search results for: phenomenology

93 The Event of the World in Martin Heidegger’s Early Hermeneutical Phenomenology

Authors: Guelfo Carbone


The paper focuses on Heidegger’s 1919-1920 early research in order to point out his hermeneutical phenomenology of the life-world, arguing that the concept of world (Welt) is the main philosophical trigger for the phenomenology of factical life. Accordingly, the argument of the paper is twofold: First, the phenomenological hermeneutics of facticity is preceded both chronologically and philosophically by an original phenomenological investigation of the life-world, in which the world is construed as the context of the givenness of life. Second, the phenomenology of life-world anticipates the question of being (Seinsfrage), but it also follows it, once this latter is shattered, the question of world as event remaining at the very core of Heidegger’s last meditations on the dominion of technology and the post-metaphysical abode of human beings on earth.

Keywords: Heidegger, hermeneutics, life-world, phenomenology

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92 Embodied Cognition as a Concept of Educational Neuroscience and Phenomenology

Authors: Elham Shirvani-Ghadikolaei


In this paper, we examine the connection between the human mind and body within the framework of Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology. We study the role of this connection in designing more efficient learning environments, alongside the findings in physical recognition and educational neuroscience. Our research shows the interplay between the mind and the body in the external world and discusses its implications. Based on these observations, we make suggestions as to how the educational system can benefit from taking into account the interaction between the mind and the body in educational affairs.

Keywords: educational neurosciences, embodied cognition, pedagogical neurosciences, phenomenology

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91 A Phenomenological Framework of Unconscious Cognition on Judicial Decision Making

Authors: Mariam Shah


This paper will examine the potential influence and role of unconscious cognition on judicial decision making. The theoretical underpinnings of this paper rest on phenomenological theory grounded predominantly in Schutzian phenomenology. Aspects of Husserlian and Gadamerian phenomenology will be included within the phenomenological framework put forward in this paper, in an attempt to provide a more complete and thorough account of how unconscious cognition can influence judicial decision making. This paper has far reaching implications, as the framework provides a foundation for unconscious cognitive factors which can work to influence decision making more generally.

Keywords: decision making, Gadamer, Gadamerian, Husserl, Husserlian, judicial decision making, phenomenology, Schutz, Schutzian

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90 The Phenomenology in the Music of Debussy through Inspiration of Western and Oriental Culture

Authors: Yu-Shun Elisa Pong


Music aesthetics related to phenomenology is rarely discussed and still in the ascendant while multi-dimensional discourses of philosophy were emerged to be an important trend in the 20th century. In the present study, a basic theory of phenomenology from Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) is revealed and discussed followed by the introduction of intentionality concepts, eidetic reduction, horizon, world, and inter-subjectivity issues. Further, phenomenology of music and general art was brought to attention by the introduction of Roman Ingarden’s The Work of Music and the Problems of its Identity (1933) and Mikel Dufrenne’s The Phenomenology of Aesthetic Experience (1953). Finally, Debussy’s music will be analyzed and discussed from the perspective of phenomenology. Phenomenology is not so much a methodology or analytics rather than a common belief. That is, as much as possible to describe in detail the different human experience, relative to the object of purpose. Such idea has been practiced in various guises for centuries, only till the early 20th century Phenomenology was better refined through the works of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and others. Debussy was born in an age when the Western society began to accept the multi-cultural baptism. With his unusual sensitivity to the oriental culture, Debussy has presented considerable inspiration, absorption, and echo in his music works. In fact, his relationship with nature is far from echoing the idea of Chinese ancient literati and nature. Although he is not the first composer to associate music with human and nature, the unique quality and impact of his works enable him to become a significant figure in music aesthetics. Debussy’s music tried to develop a quality analogous of nature, and more importantly, based on vivid life experience and artistic transformation to achieve the realm of pure art. Such idea that life experience comes before artwork, either clear or vague, simple or complex, was later presented abstractly in his late works is still an interesting subject worth further discussion. Debussy’s music has existed for more than or close to a century. It has received musicology researcher’s attention as much as other important works in the history of Western music. Among the pluralistic discussion about Debussy’s art and ideas, phenomenological aesthetics has enlightened new ideas and view angles to relook his great works and even gave some previous arguments legitimacy. Overall, this article provides a new insight of Debussy’s music from phenomenological exploration and it is believed phenomenology would be an important pathway in the research of the music aesthetics.

Keywords: Debussy's music, music esthetics, oriental culture, phenomenology

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89 The Lived Experience of Caregiving as a Vulnerable Person: Preliminary Findings of an Applied Hermeneutic Phenomenology Study

Authors: Amanda Aliende da Matta


In different fields, there are people who have something that stands out. In the educational world, for example, it is clear when some teachers have something: they are the best teachers, but this is not directly attributed to their disciplines, methodologies, etc. It is that they have something that captivates, inspires, and motivates. But we also find this something in other contexts. In this thesis, the interest is in something that some marginalized people, such as Ab (fictitious name), have. Ab was born in a rural community and saw the lifestyle of his family change drastically as a consequence of structural changes in his village. The community became impoverished, and together with a group of teenagers, he decided to migrate to Spain in search of opportunities. His best friend drowned during the crossing. After arriving, he lived in indecent conditions and felt unsafe. He now suffers from anxiety and frequently faints from it. Yet, he’s linked to Joves x la pau (a Christian project, although he is a Muslim), distributing food for people who live on the streets every Thursday afternoon. When he asked about what happens on cold and rainy days, he explained simply: "if it rains, I distribute the food, and immediately I get home, take a bath, and sleep warm under my roof. That is when we most have to go." This something he has will be called caring. And one of the general objectives of the thesis is to discover what are the meaning structures of this caring what is the lived experience of this caring. In this communication, preliminary results of an Applied Hermeneutic Phenomenology (AHP) study on the lived experience of caring as a vulnerable person are presented. The research means to answer what is the lived experience of caring as a vulnerable person. That is, to describe and explain what it is like to caregive for a vulnerable person, what it is, essentially, to caregive for a vulnerable person, what makes the lived experience of caregiving for a vulnerable person different from any other. In order to investigate the meaning of the phenomenon of caregiving as a vulnerable person, as already stated, the method used will be Applied Hermeneutic Phenomenology (AHP). We base ourselves, initially, on the proposal of Raquel Ayala-Carabajo and Max Van Manen. As Van Manen (1990) explains, AHP is a method that works essentially through fieldwork, with the collection of data on lived experience (experiential material). It is a phenomenology of practice. We here present the provisional themes we found: caregiving as a vulnerable person is seeing yourself in the other, identifying with the care-receiver; Caregiving as a vulnerable person is putting the other’s need before oneself’s; Caregiving as a vulnerable person is temporarily overcoming your weaknesses to make yourself strong for the other; Caregiving as a vulnerable person is going beyond the conventional approach; and Caregiving as a vulnerable person is taking responsibility even if it’s not yours.

Keywords: applied hermeneutic phenomenology, care ethics, hermeneutics, phenomenology

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88 The Meaning Structures of Political Participation of Young Women: Preliminary Findings in a Practical Phenomenology Study

Authors: Amanda Aliende da Matta, Maria del Pilar Fogueiras Bertomeu, Valeria de Ormaechea Otalora, Maria Paz Sandin Esteban, Miriam Comet Donoso


This communication presents the preliminary emerging themes in a research on political participation of young women. The study follows a qualitative methodology; in particular, the applied hermeneutic phenomenological method, and the general objective of the research is to give an account of the experience of political participation as young women. The study participants are women aged 18 to 35 who have experience in political participation. The techniques of data collection are the descriptive story and the phenomenological interview. With respect to the first methodological steps, these have been: 1) collect and select stories of lived experience in political participation, 2) select descriptions of lived experience (DLEs) in political participation of the chosen stories, 3) to prepare phenomenological interviews from the selected DLEs, 4) to conduct phenomenological thematic analysis (PTA) of the DLEs. We have so far initiated the PTA on 5 vignettes. Hermeneutic phenomenology as a research approach is based on phenomenological philosophy and applied hermeneutics. Phenomenology is a descriptive philosophy of pure experience and essences, through which we seek to capture an experience at its origins without categorizing, interpreting or theorizing it. Hermeneutics, on the other hand, may be defined as a philosophical current that can be applied to data analysis. Max Van Manen wrote that hermeneutic phenomenology is a method of abstemious reflection on the basic structures of the lived experience of human existence. In hermeneutic phenomenology we focus, then, on the way we experience “things” in the first person, seeking to capture the world exactly as we experience it, not as we categorize or conceptualize it. In this study, the empirical methods used were: Lived experience description (written) and conversational interview. For these short stories, participants were asked: “What was your lived experience of participation in politics as a young woman? Can you tell me any stories or anecdotes that you think exemplify or typify your experience?”. The questions were accompanied by a list of guidelines for writing descriptive vignettes. And the analytical method was PTA. Among the provisional results, we found preliminary emerging themes, which could in the advance of the investigation result in meaning structures of political participation of young women. They are the following: - Complicity may be inherent/essential in political participation as a young woman; - Feelings may be essential/inherent in political participation as a young woman; - Hope may be essential in authentic political participation as a young woman; - Frustration may be essential in authentic political participation as a young woman; - Satisfaction may be essential in authentic political participation as a young woman; - There may be tension between individual/collective inherent/essential in political participation as a young woman; - Political participation as a young woman may include moments of public demonstration.

Keywords: applied hermeneutic phenomenology, hermeneutics, phenomenology, political participation

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87 Care as a Situated Universal: Defining Care as a Practical Phenomenology Study

Authors: Amanda Aliende da Matta


This communication presents an aspect of phenomenon selection in an applied hermeneutic phenomenology study on care and vulnerability: the need to consider it as a situated universal. For that, we will first present the study and its methodology. Secondly, we will expose the need to understand phenomena as situation-defined, incorporating feminist thought. In an informatics class for 14 year olds, we explained the exercise: students have to make a 5 slide presentation about a topic of their choice. A does it on streetwear, B on Cristiano Ronaldo, C on Marvel, but J did it on Down Syndrome. Introducing it to the class, J explains the physical and cognitive differences caused by trisomy; when asked to explain it further, he says: "they are angels, teacher," and shows us a poster on his cellphone that says: if you laugh at a different child he will laugh with you because his innocence outweighs your ignorance. The anecdote shows, better than any theoretical explanation, something that some vulnerable people have; something beautiful and special but difficult to define. Let's call this something caring. The research has the main objective of accounting for the experience of caregiving in vulnerability, and it will be carried out with Applied Hermeneutic Phenomenology (AHP). The method's objective is to investigate the lived human experience in its pre-reflexive dimension to know its meaning structures. Contrary to other research methods, AHP does not produce theory about a specific context but seeks the meaning of the lived experience, in its characteristic of human experience. However, it is necessary that we understand care as defined in a concrete situation. We cannot start the research with an a priori definitive concept of care, or we would fall into the mistake of closing ourselves to only what we already know, as explained by Levinas. We incorporate, then, the notion of situated universals. Loyal to phenomenology, the definition of the phenomenon should start with an investigation of the word's etymology: the word cura, in its etymological root, means care. And care comes from the Latin word cogitātus/cōgĭto, which means "to pursue something in mind" and "to consider thoroughly." The verb cōgĭto, meanwhile, is composed of co- (altogether) and agitare (to deal with or think committedly about something, to concern oneself with) / ăgĭto (to set in motion, to move). Care, therefore, has in its origin a meditation on something, a concern about something, a verb that has a sense of action and movement. To care is to act out of concern for something/someone. This etymology, though, is not the final definition of the phenomenon, but only its skeleton. It needs to be embodied in the concrete situation to become a possible lived experience. And that means that the lived experience descriptions (LEDs) should be selected by taking into consideration how and if care was engendered in that concrete experience. Defining the phenomenon has to take into consideration situated knowledge.

Keywords: applied hermeneutic phenomenology, care ethics, hermeneutics, phenomenology, situated universalism

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86 Phenomenology of Contemporary Cities: Abandoned Sites as Waiting Places, Bucharest, a Case Study

Authors: Luigi Pintacuda


What characterize the phenomenology of Bucharest is that all operations of modernization have never been completed, creating a city made up of fragments. Understood this fragmented nature, the traces and fractures, the acceptance of their scars must represent the basis for the design of development for Bucharest. From this insight comes a new analysis of this city: a city of two million inhabitants that does not need a project on an urban scale (as all other major projects for the city have failed), but, starting from the study of all these interstitial spaces of public property, it must find its own strategy, a strategy on a large-scale that reflects on the sites on an architectural one. It is a city composed by fragments, not waste, but places for the project: ‘waiting spaces’ for a possible continuation of the process of genesis of a city which is often incomplete.

Keywords: public spaces, traces fractures, urban design, urban development

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85 Stereotypical Perception as an Influential Factor in the Judicial Decision Making Process for Shoplifting Cases Presided over in the UK

Authors: Mariam Shah


Stereotypes are not generally considered to be an acceptable influence upon any decision making process, particularly those involving judicial decision making outcomes. Yet, we are confronted with an uncomfortable truth that stereotypes may be operating to influence judicial outcomes. Variances in sentencing outcomes are not easily explained away by criminological, psychological, or sociological theorem, but may be answered via qualitative research produced within the field of phenomenology. This paper will examine the current literature pertaining to the effect of stereotypes on the criminal justice system within the UK, and will also discuss what the implications are for stereotypical influences upon decision making in the criminal justice system. This paper will give particular focus to shoplifting offences dealt with in UK criminal courts, but this research has long reaching implications for the criminal process more generally.

Keywords: decision making, judicial decision making, phenomenology, shoplifting, stereotypes

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84 My Dress, My Body and My Choice Politics in Kenya

Authors: Emmy Kipsoi


Kenya legalized the Sexual offence bill (2001), after vigorous campaigning and lobbying by feminist both in and out of parliament to ensure that the bill passed with minimal amendments. The sexual offense act provides for a good description on what constitutes sexual offences and the penalties that follow. It is from this context that the paper explores and interrogated the lived experiences of women living and working in Kenyan urban towns, who had experienced some form of sexual harassment. The study employed phenomenology to interpret the experiences of twenty (20) women in an urban town between the ages of 20 to 65 years women who had received at least some formal education and where engaged in some formal form of employment. The findings indicated that various forms of sexual harassment were experienced in the Kenyan town. Secondly, the knowledge about the contents of the bill wanting most of the women interviews were not aware of the protection accorded by law. The number of reported cases of sexual harassment shed light on the isolation, frustration and fear that women live despite a progressive law in print

Keywords: Kenya, phenomenology, sexual harassment, women

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83 Meditation, Mental States, Quantum Mechanics and Enlightenment

Authors: Ven. Bhikkhu Ananda


Mind emerged from the quantum field. The practice of mediation can take one to the state of enlightenment. During meditation, the change in the very behaviour of electrons, protons, and photons and their fields, known to be quantum fields, create mental states. This could well be expressed in the mathematical language of quantum mechanics. This paper qualifies and quantifies mental states created during meditation and is explained by quantum mechanics. In meditation, phenomenology can be seen as the process of enlightenment. In this process, the emptiness shown in Buddhist philosophy and the emptiness of quantum fields is compared. The methodologies used here are mindfulness meditation and metta mediation (compassion meditation ). The research findings suggest not only quantumness and change are consciousness, but well-founded behaviour of an individual in the society, which can amplify the positive behaviour caused by mental states, and that emptiness and impermanence of phenomenon are based on dependent arisings. The presence of quantum coherence indicates that quantum mechanics has a role in the evolution of the pure mind and the phenomenology created thereof in mediation.

Keywords: meditation, mental states, quantum mechanics, enlightenment

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82 Video-Observation: A Phenomenological Research Tool for International Relation?

Authors: Andreas Aagaard Nohr


International Relations is an academic discipline which is rarely in direct contact with its field. However, there has in recent years been a growing interest in the different agents within and beyond the state and their associated practices; yet some of the research tools with which to study them are not widely used. This paper introduces video-observation as a method for the study of IR and argues that it offers a unique way of studying the complexity of the everyday context of actors. The paper is divided into two main parts: First, the philosophical and methodological underpinnings of the kind of data that video-observation produces are discussed; primarily through a discussion of the phenomenology of Husserl, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty. Second, taking simulation of a WTO negotiation round as an example, the paper discusses how the data created can be analysed: in particular with regard to the structure of events, the temporal and spatial organization of activities, rhythm and periodicity, and the concrete role of artefacts and documents. The paper concludes with a discussion of the ontological, epistemological, and practical challenges and limitations that ought to be considered if video-observation is chosen as a method within the field of IR.

Keywords: video-observation, phenomenology, international relations

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81 Gains and Drawbacks in the Delivery of Senior High School Sports Track Program: The Lived Experiences of Physical Education Teachers

Authors: Steffany Anne Poblador, Ruben Jr. Tagare


The Philippine Education System is now undergoing transition as a result of the implementation of Republic Act 10533, commonly referred to as the Enhanced Basic Education Act. Since its implementation in 2013, researchers have been examining the initial impact of this transition; however, investigations into the gains and drawbacks of the Philippine Senior High School Sports Track Program based on teachers’ assessment were scarcely adequate. As a result, this research used a Qualitative Phenomenology Research Design to elicit information on the gains and drawbacks faced by these instructors. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and extensive field observation were conducted with participants from selected schools in Cotabato Province. During the triangulation of the data, five (5) significant themes for gains and six (6) concerns from the research participants emerged. The findings were then used to provide recommendations for a more effective implementation of the Sports Track Program in the Philippine Senior High School program.

Keywords: teachers’ gains and drawbacks, Philippine K to 12 problems, K to 12 transition years, favorable experiences, phenomenology

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80 Unifying Heidegger and Sartre: A Way via Yogācāra Buddhism

Authors: Wing Cheuk Chan


It is well-known that Heidegger was highly critical of Sartre’s existential philosophy. In his famous “Letter on Humanism,” Heidegger not only draw a clear cutline between his thinking of Being and Sartre’s existentialism but also introduced a kind of anti-humanism. Such a hostile attitude towards Sartre’sExistentialism as Humanism seems to have created an unbridgeable gap between these them. Indeed, already in his Being and Nothingness, Sartre complained: Heidegger “has completely avoided any appeal to consciousness in his description of Dasein.”In reality, Sartre was mainly faithful to Husserlianphenomenology, in spite of his rejection of Husserl’s idealism. Thanks to the Japanese Buddhist scholar Yoshifumi Ueda’s work on the Old School of Yogācāra Buddhismas represented by Sthiramati and Paramārtha, we learn that in additional to thethesis of transforming vijñāna (knowing consciousness) into jñāna (wisdom), there is an idea of pṛṣṭa-labdha-jñāna (the subsequently acquired wisdom). According to Ueda, the latter is a “non-discriminative discrimination.” This gives rise to a possibility of synthesizing Heidegger’s thinking of Being and Sartre’s existential phenomenology. Structurally, this paper will firstshow that Heidegger focuses on the side of non-discrimination, whereas Sartre concentrates on the side of discrimination. It will then clarify in what sense thateach of them, in itself, remains incomplete. Finally, it will demonstratehow to synthesize them in term of the notion of “non-discriminative discrimination.”

Keywords: heidegger, sartre, phenomenology, yogācāra buddhism

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79 The Existential in a Practical Phenomenology Research: A Study on the Political Participation of Young Women

Authors: Amanda Aliende da Matta, Maria del Pilar Fogueiras Bertomeu, Valeria de Ormaechea Otalora, Maria Paz Sandin Esteban, Miriam Comet Donoso


This communication presents proposed questions about the existential in research on the political participation of young women. The study follows a qualitative methodology, in particular, the applied hermeneutic phenomenological (AHP) method, and the general objective of the research is to give an account of the experience of political participation as a young woman. The study participants are women aged 18 to 35 who have experience in political participation. The techniques of data collection are the descriptive story and the phenomenological interview. Hermeneutic phenomenology as a research approach is based on phenomenological philosophy and applied hermeneutics. The ultimate objective of HP is to gain access to the meaning structures of lived experience by appropriating them, clarifying them, and reflectively making them explicit. Human experiences are always lived through existential: fundamental themes that are useful in exploring meaningful aspects of our life worlds. Everyone experiences the world through the existential of lived relationships, the lived body, lived space, lived time, and lived things. The phenomenological research, then, also tacitly asks about the existential. Existentials are universal themes useful for exploring significant aspects of our life world and of the particular phenomena under study. Four main existentials prove especially helpful as guides for reflection in the research process: relationship, body, space, and time. For example, in our case, we may ask ourselves how can the existentials of relationship, body, space, and time guide us in exploring the structures of meaning in the lived experience of political participation as a woman and a young person. The study is still not finished, as we are currently conducting phenomenological thematic analysis on the collected stories of lived experience. Yet, we have already identified some fragments of texts that show the existential in their experiences, which we will transcribe below. 1) Relationality - The experienced I-Other. It regards how relationships are experienced in our narratives about political participation as young women. One example would be: “As we had known each other for a long time, we understood each other with our eyes; we were all a little bit on the same page, thinking the same thing.” 2) Corporeality - The lived body. It regards how the lived body is experienced in activities of political participation as a young woman. One example would be: “My blood was boiling, but it was not the time to throw anything in their face, we had to look for solutions.”; “I had a lump in my throat and I wanted to cry.”. 3) Spatiality - The lived space. It regards how one experiences the lived space in political participation activities as a young woman. One example would be: “And the feeling I got when I saw [it] it's like watching everybody going into a mousetrap.” 4) Temporality - Lived time. It regards how one experiences the lived time in political participation activities as a young woman. One example would be: “Then, there were also meetings that went on forever…”

Keywords: applied hermeneutic phenomenology, existentials, hermeneutics, phenomenology, political participation

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78 Good Death as Perceived by the Critically Ill Patients' Family Member

Authors: Wanlapa Kunsongkeit


When a person gets sick, he or she goes to hospital for the treatment. In the case of severe illness, there might be no hope for some patients to recover. In this state, the patients will face anxiety and fear. These feelings make the patients suffer in mind until the time of death or called bad death. These feeling also directly effect to family members who are loved ones and significant persons of the patients. They can help the dying patients to have good death. From literature reviews, many studies focused on good death in patients and nurses. Little is known about good death in family member. Therefore, the qualitative research based on Heideggerian phenomenology aimed to describe good death as perceived by the critically ill patients’ family members. Five informants who were the critically ill patients’ family members at hospital in Chonburi were purposively selected. Data were collected by in-depth interview, observation and critical reflection during January, 2014 to March, 2014 . Cohen, Kahn and Steeves’s (2000) steps guided data analysis. Trustworthiness was maintained throughout the study following Lincoln and Guba’s guidelines. Four themes were emerged, which were no suffering, acceptance of imminent death, preparing for death, and being with the family. This findings provide deep understanding of good death as perceived by the critically ill patients’ family members. It can be basic information for nurses to provide good death nursing care and further explore for development of knowledge regarding good death nursing care.

Keywords: good death, family member, critically ill patient, phenomenology

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77 Evaluating Language Loss Effect on Autobiographical Memory by Examining Memory Phenomenology in Bilingual Speakers

Authors: Anastasia Sorokina


Graduate language loss or attrition has been well documented in individuals who migrate and become emersed in a different language environment. This phenomenon of first language (L1) attrition is an example of non-pathological (not due to trauma) and can manifest itself in frequent pauses, search for words, or grammatical errors. While the widely experienced loss of one’s first language might seem harmless, there is convincing evidence from the disciplines of Developmental Psychology, Bilingual Studies, and even Psychotherapy that language plays a crucial role in the memory of self. In fact, we remember, store, and share personal memories with the help of language. Dual-Coding Theory suggests that language memory code deterioration could lead to forgetting. Yet, no one has investigated a possible connection between language loss and memory. The present study aims to address this research gap by examining a corpus of 1,495 memories of Russian-English bilinguals who are on a continuum of L1 (first language) attrition. Since phenomenological properties capture how well a memory is remembered, the following descriptors were selected - vividness, ease of recall, emotional valence, personal significance, and confidence in the event. A series of linear regression statistical analyses were run to examine the possible negative effects of L1 attrition on autobiographical memory. The results revealed that L1 attrition might compromise perceived vividness and confidence in the event, which is indicative of memory deterioration. These findings suggest the importance of heritage language maintenance in immigrant communities who might be forced to assimilate as language loss might negatively affect the memory of self.

Keywords: L1 attrition, autobiographical memory, language loss, memory phenomenology, dual coding

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76 Reorientation Orphanage in Muhammadiyah as Strength Effort for Islamic-Based Human Services Organization: Phenomenology Study on Muhammadiyah Orphanages in Malang Raya

Authors: Fauzik Lendriyono, Isbandi Rukminto Adi


Muhammadiyah is an Islamic-based organization taking care to human suffering. The existence of Muhammadiyah organization is strong supported by its members. Muhammadiyah as the oldest Islamic organization in Indonesia, since its establishment has had main activities, such as in the fields of education, health, and social services, one of the form is Orphanage. However, at present, Muhammadiyah orphanage was in a dilemma because of differences in orientation and commitment of the caretaker-managers. This research on Muhammadiyah orphanage is very important because it is able to know the problem identification and to find the ideal concept for the better management of an orphanage in Muhammadiyah. This research is a phenomenology study by research subjects: caretaker of the orphanage in Muhammadiyah at Great Malang. The research data was obtained after the observation, in-depth interviews, review of documentation and the discussion focused. Data were analyzed with interpretative phenomenological analysis. Basic problems for causes of differences in orientation and commitment administrators of Muhammadiyah orphanage is the influence of organizational culture and organizational environment factors. Organizational culture factors include the Islamic-based value and organization ideology, so that the Islamic values and the values of Muhammadiyah are used as guidelines in the orphanage. Environmental factors include the demand for its organization sustainability as characterized by economically productive activities organized by Orphanage and a program to produce a cadre of Muhammadiyah. To support the social welfare of Muhammadiyah, the ideal Orphanage concept for Muhammadiyah is a missionary and self-sufficient orphanage.

Keywords: orphanage, Muhammadiyah, misionary, Great Malang

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75 The Experience of Gay Men Using Dating Applications in Their Emerging Adulthood

Authors: Chuang Bing-Kai, Shih Hsiang-Ju


Previous studies showed that emergent adults used dating applications the most since it would satisfy their needs for intimacy. It's also found that those emergent adults were mostly non-heterosexual. What’s more, in this digital era, more and more bisexuals and homosexuals choose to establish connections with others through Internet to seek a sense of belonging. However, studies rarely focused on gay men in their emergent adulthood to explore their experiences of dating applications. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of gay men using dating applications in their emerging adulthood and to understand their self-presentations and the process of it among different relationships while interacting with others upon using dating applications. The semi-structured interview was conducted with those gay men who aged from 18 to 29, felt attracted to people with same gender physically and mentally, considered themselves homosexual from their subjective understanding and had been using dating applications for more than half a year. Research invitations were distributed with the assistance of social media platforms and LGBTQ+ friends in the community. This study adopted a qualitative research approach and applied hermeneutic phenomenology as the method to analyze the transcripts transcribed from the recorded audio, and to explore their using experiences and self-presentations while interacting with others while using dating apps. It’s expected to find out that there are four stages in the self-presentation process including establishing personal identity, self-exploration and experimentation, exploring shared interest and values, developing and maintaining connections. Plus, gay men’s motives to use dating apps play an important role in this process and thus influence how they position the apps in their life. Through this study, professional workers can better understand gay men’s considerations and strategies in their self-presentation process as well as the impact of using motives.

Keywords: dating applications, emerging adulthood, gay men, hermeneutic phenomenology

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74 Self-Determination and Mental Disorders: Phenomenological Approach

Authors: Neringa Bagdonaite


Background: The main focus of this paper is to explore how self-determination interplays in suicidal and addictive context leading one to autonomously choose self-destructive addictive behaviour or suicidal intentions. Methods: Phenomenological descriptions of the experiential structure of self-determination in addiction and suicidal mental life are used. The phenomenological method describes structures of mental life from the first-person-perspective, with a focus on how an experienced object is given in a subject’s conscious experience. Results: A sense of self-determination in the context of suicidal and addictive behaviour is possibly impaired. In the context of suicide, it's proposed that suicide is always experienced at least minimally self-determined, as it's the last freely discovered self-efficient behaviour, in terms of radically changing one's desperate mental state. Suicide can never be experienced as fully self-determined because no future retrospective re-evaluation of behaviour is possible. Understanding self-determination in addiction is challenging because addicts perceive themselves and experience situations differently depending on: (I) their level of intoxication; (II) whether the situation is in the moment or in retrospect; and (III) the goals set out in that situation. Furthermore, within phenomenology addiction is described as an embodied custom, which‘s acquired and established while performing 'psychotropic technique'. The main goal of performing such a technique is to continue 'floating in an indifference state' or being 'comfortably numb'. Conclusions: Based on rich phenomenological descriptions of the studied phenomenon, this paper draws on the premise that to experience self-determination in both suicide and addiction, underlying desperate or negative emotional states are needed. Such underlying desperate or negative mental life experiences are required for one to pre-reflectively evaluate suicide or addictive behaviours as positive, relieving or effective in terms of changing one's emotional states. Such pre-reflective positive evaluations serve as the base for the continuation of behaviour and later are identified reflectively.

Keywords: addiction, phenomenology, self-determination, self-effectivity, suicide

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73 Third Eye: A Hybrid Portrayal of Visuospatial Attention through Eye Tracking Research and Modular Arithmetic

Authors: Shareefa Abdullah Al-Maqtari, Ruzaika Omar Basaree, Rafeah Legino


A pictorial representation of hybrid forms in science-art collaboration has become a crucial issue in the course of exploring a new painting technique development. This is straight related to the reception of an invisible-recognition phenomenology. In hybrid pictorial representation of invisible-recognition phenomenology, the challenging issue is how to depict the pictorial features of indescribable objects from its mental source, modality and transparency. This paper proposes the hybrid technique of painting Demonstrate, Resemble, and Synthesize (DRS) through a combination of the hybrid aspect-recognition representation of understanding picture, demonstrative mod, the number theory, pattern in the modular arithmetic system, and the coherence theory of visual attention in the dynamic scenes representation. Multi-methods digital gaze data analyses, pattern-modular table operation design, and rotation parameter were used for the visualization. In the scientific processes, Eye-trackingvideo-sections based was conducted using Tobii T60 remote eye tracking hardware and TobiiStudioTM analysis software to collect and analyze the eye movements of ten participants when watching the video clip, Alexander Paulikevitch’s performance’s ‘Tajwal’. Results: we found that correlation of fixation count in section one was positively and moderately correlated with section two Person’s (r=.10, p < .05, 2-tailed) as well as in fixation duration Person’s (r=.10, p < .05, 2-tailed). However, a paired-samples t-test indicates that scores were significantly higher for the section one (M = 2.2, SD = .6) than for the section two (M = 1.93, SD = .6) t(9) = 2.44, p < .05, d = 0.87. In the visual process, the exported data of gaze number N was resembled the hybrid forms of visuospatial attention using the table-mod-analyses operation. The explored hybrid guideline was simply applicable, and it could be as alternative approach to the sustainability of contemporary visual arts.

Keywords: science-art collaboration, hybrid forms, pictorial representation, visuospatial attention, modular arithmetic

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72 Experiences of Military Nurse-Manager: Implication to Clinical Leadership

Authors: Maria Monica D. Espinosa


This study aimed to identify and examine the characteristics of an effective leader in a Hospital institution from the perspectives of military nurse-managers. The researcher extracted the different facets of leadership from the stories of six nurse- managers from a military hospital. The stories which are in pre-reflective stage convey an unbiased perspective from which clinical leadership may be defined. Using Phenomenology as a method of Research, the lived experiences of the military nurse-managers served as empirical data which were reflected upon until the formulation of insights. The information from the co-researchers became gallows from which the characteristics of effective leadership in the clinical area were drawn. These insights were synthesized through layers of reflection that resulted to the knowledge about clinical leadership. The reflections are the following, (a) Clinical leaders develop their skills through experiences and hardwork; (b) Clinical leaders are devoted; (c) Clinical leaders are focused; (d) Clinical leaders are good in interpersonal relationship; (e) Clinical leaders are mentors; (f) Clinical leaders seek affirmation and recognition; and (g) Clinical leaders are responsible and dependable. The common themes that emerged from the nurse manager’s stories showed that clinical leadership maybe attained if leaders possessed the following traits, (a) The gift to establish a steadfast and firm management; (b) The proficiency to guide and encourage others towards the achievement of their goals and objectives; (c) The ability to instigate participative and collaborative work among his/her subordinates and (d) The aptitude and skill to address the institutional concerns in their unit. In the future, Clinical leaders should continually adapt an evaluation program on how they can relate socially with their subordinates, the result of which can be used as a basis in developing strategies on relationship enhancement. Moreover, they should empower the nurses by allowing them to voice out their opinions and concerns regarding assignments, role expectations, and workload issues to improve and strengthen the relationships among nurses. Lastly, they can incorporate a collaborative strategy to promote professional socialization attitudes of nurse managers who work with staff nurses to improve the quality of their proficiencies and enhance a positive clinical environment.

Keywords: clinical leadership, experiences, implications, military nurse - managers, phenomenology

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71 Disciplined Care for Disciplined Patients: Results from Daily Experiences of Hospitalized Patients with Blindness

Authors: Mahmood Shamshiri


While visual sensation is the key gate for human-being to understand the world, visual impairment is one of the common cause of disability around the world. There is no doubt about the importance of eye sight in daily life among people, even it is understood the best gift of God to human-beings in many societies. Blind people are admitted to hospital for different health issues. Nurses and other health professionals who provide care for this group of patients need to understand their patients. Understanding the lived experience of blind people helps nurses to expand their knowledge regarding blind patients in order to provide a holistic care and improve the quality of care for blind patients. This phenomenological inquiry aimed to describe the meaning of discipline in daily life of blind people admitted in hospital. An interpretive phenomenology underpinned the philosophical approach of the study. While the interpretive phenomenology played as an umbrella role in the overall point of the study, the six methodical activities which introduced by van Manen helped the researchers to conduct the study. ‘Disciplined care for disciplined patients’ was the main theme emerged from dialogues of blind patients about their daily life in the hospital. Almost all of participants called themselves as disciplined people. The theme ‘disciplined care for disciplined patients’ appeared from four sub-themes including discipline through careful touching and listening, discipline as the ideal way of existence, discipline the preferred way of being independent, desire to take disciplined and detailed care, reactions to the undisciplined caring culture. This phenomenological inquiry to the experiences of patients with blindness in hospital revealed that they commonly are disciplined people and want to be cared in well-organized caring environment. Furthermore, they need to be familiar with the new caring environment. Well-organized and familiar environment help blind patients to increase the level of independency. In addition, blind patients prefer a detail informed and disciplined caring culture. Health professionals have to consider the concept of disciplined care in order to provide a holistic and comprehensive competent care.

Keywords: disciplined people, disciplined care, lived experience, patient with blindness

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70 Embodied Spirituality in Gestalt Therapy

Authors: Silvia Alaimo


This lecture brings to our attention the theme of spirituality within Gestalt therapy’s theoretical and clinical perspectives and which is closely connected to the fertile emptiness and creative indifference’ experiences. First of all, the premise that must be done is the overcoming traditional western culture’s philosophical and religious misunderstandings, such as the dicotomy between spirituality and pratical/material daily life, as well as the widespread secular perspective of classic psychology. Even fullness and emptiness have traditionally been associated with the concepts of being and not being. "There is only one way through which we can contact the deepest layers of our existence, rejuvenate our thinking and reach intuition (the harmony of thought and being): inner silence" (Perls) *. Therefore, "fertile void" doesn't mean empty in itself, but rather an useful condition of every creative and responsible act, making room for a deeper dimension close to spirituality. Spirituality concerns questions about the meaning of existence, which lays beyond the concrete and literal dimension, looking for the essence of things, and looking at the value of personal experience. Looking at fundamentals of Gestalt epistemology, phenomenology, aesthetics, and the relationship, we can reach the heart of a therapeutic work that takes spiritual contours and which are based on an embodied (incarnate size), through the relational aesthetic knowledge (Spagnuolo Lobb ), the deep contact with each other, the role of compassion and responsibility, as the patient's recognition criteria (Orange, 2013) rooted in the body. The aesthetic dimension, like the spiritual dimension to which it is often associated, is a subtle dimension: it is the dimension of the essence of things, of their "soul." In clinical practice, it implies that the relationship between therapist and patient is "in the absence of judgment," also called "zero point of creative indifference," expressed by ‘therapeutic mentality’. It consists in following with interest and authentic curiosity where the patient wants to go and support him in his intentionality of contact. It’s a condition of pure and simple awareness, of the full acceptance of "what is," a moment of detachment from one's own life in which one does not take oneself too seriously, a starting point for finding a center of balance and integration that brings to the creative act, to growth, and, as Perls would say, to the excitement and adventure of living.

Keywords: spirituality, bodily, embodied aesthetics, phenomenology, relationship

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69 The Lexical Eidos as an Invariant of a Polysemantic Word

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak


Phenomenological analysis is not based on natural language, but ideal language which is able to be a carrier of ideal meanings – eidos representing typical structures or essences. For this purpose, it’s necessary to release from the spatio-temporal definiteness of a subject and then state its noetic essence (eidos) by means of free fantasy generation. Herewith, as if a totally new objectness is created - the universal, confirming the thesis that thinking process takes place in generalizations passing by numerous means through the specific to the general and from the general through the specific to the singular.

Keywords: lexical eidos, phenomenology, noema, polysemantic word, semantic core

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68 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor


Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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67 Visualising Charles Bonnet Syndrome: Digital Co-Creation of Pseudohallucinations

Authors: Victoria H. Hamilton


Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is when a person experiences pseudohallucinations that fill in visual information from any type of sight loss. CBS arises from an epiphenomenal process, with the physical actions of sight resulting in the mental formations of images. These pseudohallucinations—referred to as visions by the CBS community—manifest in a wide range of forms, from complex scenes to simple geometric shapes. To share these unique visual experiences, a remote co-creation website was created where CBS participants communicated their lived experiences. This created a reflexive process, and we worked to produce true representations of these interesting and little-known phenomena. Digital reconstruction of the visions is utilised as it echoes the vivid, experiential movie-like nature of what is being perceived. This paper critically analyses co-creation as a method for making digital assets. The implications of the participants' vision impairments and the application of ethical safeguards are examined in this context. Important to note, this research is of a medical syndrome for a non-medical, practice-based design. CBS research to date is primarily conducted by the ophthalmic, neurological, and psychiatric fields and approached with the primary concerns of these specialties. This research contributes a distinct approach incorporating practice-based digital design, autoethnography, and phenomenology. Autoethnography and phenomenology combine as a foundation, with the first bringing understanding and insights, balanced by the second philosophical, bigger picture, and established approach. With further refining, it is anticipated that the research may be applied to other conditions. Conditions where articulating internal experiences proves challenging and the use of digital methods could aid communication. Both the research and CBS communities will benefit from the insights regarding the relationship between cognitive perceptions and the vision process. This research combines the digital visualising of visions with interest in the link between metaphor, embodied cognition, and image. The argument for a link between CBS visions and metaphor may appear evident due to the cross-category mapping of images that is necessary for comprehension. They both are— CBS visions and metaphors—the experience of picturing images, often with lateral connections and imaginative associations.

Keywords: Charles Bonnet Syndrome, digital design, visual hallucinations, visual perception

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66 'The Cultural Sanctuary of Black Kafirs' Cultural and Tourism Promotion of Kalash Culture

Authors: Jamal Ahmad


The Sanctuary of the Kafirs is a sanctified place for the people of Kalash which contain the sacred remains of their culture. The existence of the cultural Sanctuary is not limited up to boundaries of culture but its canopy also contain the spiritual attachments in terms of religion, rituals, introspections, myths, customs and living standards. Culture is the manifestation of the human intellectual achievement in a qualitative phenomenon of a place. The ethnic people of Hindu Kush (Kalash) are an indigenous group that practices Animism. They believe in Animistic Symbology i-e the material universe has high spiritual power. The Animism in their living standard comes from the high spiritualized and sacred sacrifices of animals goats, sheep etc. in their festivals which is the symbol of purity. Similarly certain cultural and religious phenomena make its behavior, its living pattern, its fairy tales, its birth and even its death unique. The scattered and the vanishing fragments of the Kafiristan, demands the phenomenal solution which molds all these factors into preserving standards. It demands a place of belief where, their unique culture, religion, festivals and life style make a sincere base for future existence, and such phenomena of place will consciously or unconsciously molds these ideas into building fabric. The Sanctuary contains ancient vandalized cemetery, the qaliq* the mujnatikeen*, the jastaks*, dewadoor* an amphitheater for dancing and ritual performances, an herbal garden and a profile sanctuary of the blood line of Kalash. The Case-Analysis provokes a new architecture of place, as the Phenomenological Architecture, which requires a place and phenomenon to take place. The Animistic Symbology and Phenomenology both are the part of their life but needs to reveal its hidden meaning and existence i-e (The Balamain, the alpine meadows, the sacred river). The Architectural work is strengthened by the philosophies of Animism and Phenomenology which make it easy to understand. The Scope of work is to reincarnate the ethical boundaries between the neighboring tribes and the Kafirs, by a series of dwellings, cultural and religious communal buildings and spaces, gardens and streets layout under the umbrella of ethical beliefs of Kalash community. So we conclude to build the Sanctuary of the Kafirs, in Bamboret valley of Kalash.

Keywords: Qaliq, Mujnatikeen, Dewadoor, Jastaks

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65 Phenomenology of Child Labour in Estates, Farms and Plantations in Zimbabwe: A Comparative Analysis of Tanganda and Eastern Highlands Tea Estates

Authors: Chupicai Manuel


The global efforts to end child labour have been increasingly challenged by adages of global capitalism, inequalities and poverty affecting the global south. In the face the of rising inequalities whose origin can be explained from historical and political economy analysis between the poor and the rich countries, child labour is also on the rise particularly on the global south. The socio-economic and political context of Zimbabwe has undergone serious transition from colonial times through the post-independence normally referred to as the transition period up to the present day. These transitions have aided companies and entities in the business and agriculture sector to exploit child labour while country provided conditions that enhance child labour due to vulnerability of children and anomic child welfare system that plagued the country. Children from marginalised communities dominated by plantations and farms are affected most. This paper explores the experiences and perceptions of children working in tea estates, plantations and farms, and the adults who formerly worked in these plantations during their childhood to share their experiences and perceptions on child labour in Zimbabwe. Childhood theories that view children as apprentices and a human rights perspectives were employed to interrogate the concept of childhood, child labour and poverty alleviation strategies. Phenomenological research design was adopted to describe the experiences of children working in plantations and interpret the meanings they have on their work and livelihoods. The paper drew form 30 children from two plantations through semi-structured interviews and 15 key informant interviews from civil society organisations, international labour organisation, adults who formerly worked in the plantations and the personnel of the plantations. The findings of the study revealed that children work on the farms as an alternative model for survival against economic challenges while the majority cited that poverty compel them to work and get their fees and food paid for. Civil society organisations were of the view that child rights are violated and the welfare system of the country is malfunctional. The perceptions of the majority of the children interviewed are that the system on the plantations is better and this confirmed the socio-constructivist theory that views children as apprentices. The study recommended child sensitive policies and welfare regime that protects children from exploitation together with policing and legal measures that secure child rights.

Keywords: child labour, child rights, phenomenology, poverty reduction

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64 Exploitation behind the Development of Home Batik Industry in Lawean, Solo, Central Java

Authors: Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Ayla Karina Budita, Cut Rizka Al Usrah, Kanita Khoirun Nisa, Muhammad Alhada Fuadilah Habib, Siti Muslihatul Mukaromah


Batik industry has become one of the leading industries in the economy of Indonesia. Since the recognition of batik as one of cultural wealth and national identity of Indonesia by UNESCO, batik production keeps increasing as a result of increasing demands for batik, whether from domestically or abroad. One of the rapid development batik industries in Indonesia is batik industry in Lawean Village, Solo, Central Java, Indonesia. This batik industry generally uses putting-out system where batik workers work in their own houses. With the implementation of this system, therefore employers don’t have to prepare Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA), social security for workers, overtime payment, space for working, and equipment for working. The implementation of putting-out system causes many problems, starting from environmental pollution, the loss of social rights of workers, and even exploitation of workers by batik entrepreneurs. The data used to describe this reality is the primary data from qualitative research with in-depth interview data collection technique. Informants were determined purposively. The theory used to perform data interpretation is the phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. Both qualitative and phenomenology are used in this study to describe batik workers exploitation in terms of the implementation of putting-out system on home batik industry in Lawean. The research result showed that workers in batik industry sector in Lawean were exploited with the implementation of putting-out system. The workers were strictly employed by the entrepreneurs, so that their job cannot be called 'part-time' job anymore. In terms of labor and time, the workers often work more than 12 hours per day and they often work overtime without receiving any overtime payment. In terms of work safety, the workers often have contact with chemical substances contained in batik making materials without using any protection, such as clothes work, which is worsened by the lack of standard or procedure in work that can cause physical damage, such as burnt and peeled off skin. Moreover, exposure and contamination of chemical materials make the workers and their families vulnerable to various diseases. Meanwhile, batik entrepreneurs did not give any social security (including health cost aid). Besides that, the researchers found that batik industry in home industry sector is not environmentally friendly, even damaging ecosystem because industrial waste disposed without EIA.

Keywords: exploitation, home batik industry, occupational health and safety, putting-out system

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