Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 101

Search results for: Mansour Al-Moundhri

101 Cooperative Learning Mechanism in Intelligent Multi-Agent System

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour, Bilal Hawashin, Mohammed A. Mansour

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a cooperative learning mechanism in a multi-agent intelligent system. The basic idea is that intelligent agents are capable of collaborating with one another by sharing their knowledge. The agents will start collaboration by providing their knowledge rules to the other agents. This will allow the most important and insightful detection rules produced by the most experienced agent to bubble up for the benefit of the entire agent community. The updated rules will lead to improving the agents’ decision performance. To evaluate our approach, we designed a five–agent system and implemented it using JADE and FuzzyJess software packages. The agents will work with each other to make a decision about a suspicious medical case. This system provides quick response rate and the decision is faster than the manual methods. This will save patients life.

Keywords: intelligent, multi-agent system, cooperative, fuzzy, learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
100 Driving in a Short Arm Plaster Cast Steer a Patient off Course: A Randomised, Controlled, Crossover Study

Authors: B. W. Kenny, D.Mansour, K. G. Mansour, J. Attia, B. Meads

Abstract:

There is currently insufficient evidence to make a conclusive statement about safety while immobilized in a short arm cast. There is a paucity of published literature on this topic. The purpose of this study is to specifically evaluate short arm casts and their effect on driving abilities, particularly steering and avoidance of obstacles. The ability to drive safely is extrapolated from this data. In this study, a randomised, controlled, crossover design was used to assess 30 subjects randomised into 2 groups. A Logitech force feedback steering column and simulated driving program with a standardised road course was used. Objective outcome measures were the number of times subjects drove off the track, the number of crashes, time to lap completion and subjective assessment on whether wearing a short arm plaster cast impeded their steering. Recruited subjects had no upper limb pathology. The side of the applied plaster cast was randomised. The mean lap completion time reduced with repetition, the difference being statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean number of times subjects in casts drove off the track (3 with vs. 3.07 without casts), average number of crashes (1.27 vs 0.97). Steering ability was not reduced whilst a subject was immobilised in a short arm Plaster of Paris cast, despite subject’s own impressions that their steering was impeded. This may help guide doctors in their advice to patients regarding driving in these casts.

Keywords: upper limb, arm injury, plaster cast, splint, driving, automobile, bone fracture

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
99 Synthesis of Uio-66 Metal Organic Framework Impregnated Thin-Film Nanocomposite Membrane for the Desalination via Pressure Assisted Osmosis

Authors: Rajesha Kumar Alambi, Mansour Ahmed, Garudachari Bhadrachari, Safiyah Al-Muqahwi, Mansour Al-Rughaib, Jibu P. Thomas

Abstract:

Membrane-based pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) for seawater desalination has the potential to overcome the challenges of forward osmosis technology. PAO technology is gaining interest among the research community to ensure the sustainability of freshwater with a significant reduction in energy. The requirements of PAO membranes differ from the FO membrane; as it needs a slightly higher porous with sufficient mechanical strength to overcome the applied hydraulic pressure. The porous metal-organic framework (MOF) as a filler for the membrane synthesis has demonstrated a great potential to generate new channels for water transport, high selectivity, and reduced fouling propensity. Accordingly, this study is aimed at fabricating the UiO-66 MOF-based thin film nanocomposite membranes with specific characteristics for water desalination by PAO. A PAO test unit manufactured by Trevi System, USA, was used to determine the performance of the synthesized membranes. Further, the synthesized membranes were characterized in terms of morphological features, hydrophilicity, surface roughness, and mechanical properties. The 0.05 UiO-66 loaded membrane produced highest flux of 38L/m2h and with low reverse salt leakage of 2.1g/m²h for the DI water as feed solution and 2.0 M NaCl as draw solutions at the inlet feed pressure of 0.6 MPa. The new membranes showed a good tolerance toward the applied hydraulic pressure attributed to the fabric support used during the membrane synthesis.

Keywords: metal organic framework, composite membrane, desalination, salt rejection, flux

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98 Thermal Processing of Zn-Bi Layered Double Hydroxide ZnO Doped Bismuth for a Photo-Catalytic Efficiency under Light Visible

Authors: Benyamina Imane, Benalioua Bahia, Mansour Meriem, Bentouami Abdelhadi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to use a synthetic route of the layered double hydroxide as a method of zinc oxide by doping a transition metal. The material is heat-treated at different temperatures then tested on the photo-fading of an acid dye indigo carmine under visible radiation compared with ZnO. The photo catalytic efficiency of Bi-ZnO in a visible light of 500 W was tested on photo-bleaching of an indigoid dye in comparison with the commercial ZnO. Indeed, a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg / L was obtained after 40 and 120 minutes of irradiation in the presence of ZnO and ZnO-Bi respectively.

Keywords: LDH, POA, photo-catalysis, Bi-ZnO doping

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
97 People Management, Knowledge Sharing and Intermediary Variables

Authors: Nizar Mansour, Chiha Gaha, Emna Gara

Abstract:

The present research investigates the relationship among HRM practices, knowledge sharing behavior and a certain number of intermediary variables in the context of Tunisian knowledge-intensive firms. Results suggest that five HR practices influence either directly or indirectly the knowledge sharing behavior through enhancing the value of human capital and fostering a learning-oriented organizational climate. Results have strong theoretical implications for both the fields of knowledge management and strategic human resource management. Managerial implications are also derived.

Keywords: human capital, knowledge intensive firms, knowledge sharing, organizational climate, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
96 Carbonylative Cross Coupling of 2-Bromopyridine with Different Boronic Acids under Carbon Monoxide Atmosphere

Authors: N. Touj, M. Sauthier, L. Mansour, N. Hamdi

Abstract:

The palladium NHC complexes are one of the most interesting and widely investigated complexes in different catalytic transformations, especially C–C bond. Thus, the use of N-heterocyclic carbenes associated with palladium has been reported as efficient catalysts for the carbonyl coupling under mild and varied conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxic activities of two new families of benzimidazolium salts. Then we studied the use of this class of benzimidazolium salts as a ligand in the carbonylative cross-coupling of 2-bromopyridine with different boronic acids under CO atmosphere to form unsymmetrical arylpyridine ketones.

Keywords: NHC-Pd(II) catalysts, carbonylative Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, arylboronic acids, 2-bromopyridine, unsymmetrical arylpyridine ketones

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95 EEG Diagnosis Based on Phase Space with Wavelet Transforms for Epilepsy Detection

Authors: Mohmmad A. Obeidat, Amjed Al Fahoum, Ayman M. Mansour

Abstract:

The recognition of an abnormal activity of the brain functionality is a vital issue. To determine the type of the abnormal activity either a brain image or brain signal are usually considered. Imaging localizes the defect within the brain area and relates this area with somebody functionalities. However, some functions may be disturbed without affecting the brain as in epilepsy. In this case, imaging may not provide the symptoms of the problem. A cheaper yet efficient approach that can be utilized to detect abnormal activity is the measurement and analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The main goal of this work is to come up with a new method to facilitate the classification of the abnormal and disorder activities within the brain directly using EEG signal processing, which makes it possible to be applied in an on-line monitoring system.

Keywords: EEG, wavelet, epilepsy, detection

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94 Qualitative Risk Assessment of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Production

Authors: Mohammed E. Mansour, Tamador M. A. Elhassan, Nahid A. Ibrahim, Awatif A. Ahmed, Manal A. Abdalla

Abstract:

Rift valley fever (RVF) is mosquito-borne disease. RVF is transboundary zoonotic disease. It has socioeconomic and public health importance. This paper describes qualitative risk of the RVF vaccine production. RVF is endemic in the Sudan. It has been reported in Sudan due to abundance of Ades Eqytie. Thus, there is huge effort to control it. Vaccination practices had significant role to control and manage RVF. The risk assessment explains the likelihood of a risk as likely. Thus, insecticides and repellents synergize the effort of the vaccination.

Keywords: qualitative analysis, risk assessment, rift valley fever vaccine, quality control

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93 Ground States of Structure of Even ¹⁰⁴-¹⁰⁶ Ru Isotopes

Authors: I. Hossain, Huda H. Kassim, Fadhil I. Sharrad, Said A. Mansour

Abstract:

In this conference, we apply the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1) formula for U(5) symmetry in order to calculate the energy levels and reduced transition probabilities for a few yrast transitions in Ru with neutron N=60, 62. The neutron rich even-even isotopes of Ru are very interesting to investigate using IBM-1, because even 104,106Ru isotopes are great consequence due to excited near the magic number 50. The calculation of ground state band and B(E2) values using IBM-1 for Z=44 are not calculated to describe the valuable information of nuclear structure by U(5) limit. The parameters in the formula are deduced based on the experimental energy level and value of B(E2, 2+->0+). The yrast states and transition strength B(E2) from 1st 4+ to 1st 2+, 1st 6+ to 1st 4+ and 1st 8+ to 1st 6+ states of Ru for even N= 60, 62 were calculated. The quadrupole moments, deformation parameters and U(5) limit were discussed for those nuclei.

Keywords: B(E2), energy level, ¹⁰⁴Ru, ¹⁰⁶Ru

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92 Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and Biological Evaluation of Acetylated Flavonoid Glycosides from Centaurium spicatum

Authors: Abdelaaty A. Shahat, Mansour S. Alsaid

Abstract:

Four Acetylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch (Gentianaceae). Structure elucidation, especially the localization of the acetyl groups, and complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of these biologically active compounds were carried out using one- and two-dimensional NMR methods, including CNMR, DEPT-135 and DEPT-90 and gradient-assisted experiments such as DQF-COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments. The antioxidant activities of the new acetylated flavonoid glycosides using DPPH• assay were determined. The compounds tested showed a good DPPH• activity compared with control, but their activity was lower than that of their corresponding aglycone, quercetin.

Keywords: Centaurium spicatum, flavonoids, biological activity, isolation, glycosides

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91 Real-time Rate and Rhythms Feedback Control System in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

Authors: Mohammad A. Obeidat, Ayman M. Mansour

Abstract:

Capturing the dynamic behavior of the heart to improve control performance, enhance robustness, and support diagnosis is very important in establishing real time models for the heart. Control Techniques and strategies have been utilized to improve system costs, reliability, and estimation accuracy for different types of systems such as biomedical, industrial, and other systems that required tuning input/output relation and/or monitoring. Simulations are performed to illustrate potential applications of the technology. In this research, a new control technology scheme is used to enhance the performance of the Af system and meet the design specifications.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, dynamic behavior, closed loop, signal, filter

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90 The Effect of Coronavirus on Social Adjustment and Depression of Arak University Students

Authors: Mansour Abdi

Abstract:

The aim of this study has been the investigation of coronavirus influence/impact on social adjustment and depression of Arak University students. The samples of study are 100 available female students at Arak University. They were assessed by the Bell Social Adjustment Questionnaire and Beck Depression. They were asked to answer two situations before the corona outbreak and the present. The result of evaluating/assessing the difference between social adjustment before and after coronavirus was not significant but, the averages indicate a decrease in the adjustment of students before and after the coronavirus. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in depression findings but, in the present, the average amount of depression indicated an increase than its amount before the corona.

Keywords: depression, social adjustment student, coronavirus, student

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89 Clustering of Extremes in Financial Returns: A Comparison between Developed and Emerging Markets

Authors: Sara Ali Alokley, Mansour Saleh Albarrak

Abstract:

This paper investigates the dependency or clustering of extremes in the financial returns data by estimating the extremal index value θ∈[0,1]. The smaller the value of θ the more clustering we have. Here we apply the method of Ferro and Segers (2003) to estimate the extremal index for a range of threshold values. We compare the dependency structure of extremes in the developed and emerging markets. We use the financial returns of the stock market index in the developed markets of US, UK, France, Germany and Japan and the emerging markets of Brazil, Russia, India, China and Saudi Arabia. We expect that more clustering occurs in the emerging markets. This study will help to understand the dependency structure of the financial returns data.

Keywords: clustring, extremes, returns, dependency, extermal index

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88 Degradation of Poly -β- Hydroxybutyrate by Trichoderma asperellum

Authors: Nuha Mansour Alhazmi

Abstract:

Replacement of petro-based plastics by a biodegradable plastic are vastly growing process. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable biopolymer, synthesized by some bacterial genera. The objective of the current study is to explore the ability of some fungi to biodegrade PHB. The degradation of (PHB) was detected in Petri dish by the formation of a clear zone around the fungal colonies due to the production of depolymerase enzyme which has an interesting role in the PHB degradation process. Among 10 tested fungi, the most active PHB biodegraded fungi were identified as Trichoderma asperellum using morphological and molecular characters. The highest PHB degradation was at 25°C, pH 7.5 after 7 days of incubation for the tested fungi. Finally, the depolymerase enzyme was isolated, purified using column chromatography and characterized. In conclusion, PHB can be biodegraded in solid and liquid medium using depolymerase enzyme from T. asperellum.

Keywords: degradation, depolymerase enzyme, PHB, Trichoderma asperellum

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87 A Proposed Approach for Emotion Lexicon Enrichment

Authors: Amr Mansour Mohsen, Hesham Ahmed Hassan, Amira M. Idrees

Abstract:

Document Analysis is an important research field that aims to gather the information by analyzing the data in documents. As one of the important targets for many fields is to understand what people actually want, sentimental analysis field has been one of the vital fields that are tightly related to the document analysis. This research focuses on analyzing text documents to classify each document according to its opinion. The aim of this research is to detect the emotions from text documents based on enriching the lexicon with adapting their content based on semantic patterns extraction. The proposed approach has been presented, and different experiments are applied by different perspectives to reveal the positive impact of the proposed approach on the classification results.

Keywords: document analysis, sentimental analysis, emotion detection, WEKA tool, NRC lexicon

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86 Doping ZnO with Bi through Synthesis of Layered Double Hydroxide Application of Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Indigoid Dye in the Visible Light

Authors: I. Benyamina, B. Benalioua, M. Mansour, A. Bentouami

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to use a synthetic of the layered double hydroxide as a method of doping of zinc by transition metal. The choice of dopant metal being bismuth. The material has been heat treated at different temperatures then tested on the Photo discoloration of indigo carmine under visible irradiation. In contrast, the diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of the UV-visible heat treated material exhibits an absorbance in the visible unlike ZnO and TiO2 P25. This property let the photocatalytic activity of Bi-ZnO under visible irradiation. Indeed, the photocatalytic effectiveness of Bi-ZnO in a visible light was proved by the total discoloration of indigo carmine solution with intial concentration of 16 mg/L after 90 minutes, whereas the TiO2 P25 and ZnO their discolorations are obtained after 120 minutes.

Keywords: photo-catalysis, doping, AOP, ZnO

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85 The Use of Webquests in Developing Inquiry Based Learning: Views of Teachers and Students in Qatar

Authors: Abdullah Abu-Tineh, Carol Murphy, Nigel Calder, Nasser Mansour

Abstract:

This paper reports on an aspect of e-learning in developing inquiry-based learning (IBL). We present data on the views of teachers and students in Qatar following a professional development programme intended to help teachers implement IBL in their science and mathematics classrooms. Key to this programme was the use of WebQuests. Views of the teachers and students suggested that WebQuests helped students to develop technical skills, work collaboratively and become independent in their learning. The use of WebQuests also enabled a combination of digital and non-digital tools that helped students connect ideas and enhance their understanding of topics.

Keywords: digital technology, inquiry-based learning, mathematics and science education, professional development

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84 Treatment of Oil Recovery Water Using Direct and Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation

Authors: Tareg Omar Mansour, Khaled Omar Elhaji

Abstract:

Model solutions of pentanol in the salt water of various concentrations were subjected to electrochemical oxidation using a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) and a platinised titanium cathode. The removal of pentanol was analysed over time using gas chromatography (GC) and by monitoring the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the reaction mixture. It was found that the removal of pentanol occurred more efficiently at higher salinities and higher applied electrical current values. When using a salt concentration of 20,000 ppm and an applied current of 100 mA there was a decrease in concentration of pentanol of 15 %. When the salt concentration and applied current were increased to 58,000 ppm and 500 mA respectively, the decrease in concentration was improved to 64 %.

Keywords: dimensionally stable anode (DSA), total organic hydrocarbon (TOC), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS), electrochemical oxidation

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83 A New Floating Point Implementation of Base 2 Logarithm

Authors: Ahmed M. Mansour, Ali M. El-Sawy, Ahmed T. Sayed

Abstract:

Logarithms reduce products to sums and powers to products; they play an important role in signal processing, communication and information theory. They are primarily used for hardware calculations, handling multiplications, divisions, powers, and roots effectively. There are three commonly used bases for logarithms; the logarithm with base-10 is called the common logarithm, the natural logarithm with base-e and the binary logarithm with base-2. This paper demonstrates different methods of calculation for log2 showing the complexity of each and finds out the most accurate and efficient besides giving in- sights to their hardware design. We present a new method called Floor Shift for fast calculation of log2, and then we combine this algorithm with Taylor series to improve the accuracy of the output, we illustrate that by using two examples. We finally compare the algorithms and conclude with our remarks.

Keywords: logarithms, log2, floor, iterative, CORDIC, Taylor series

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82 Laboratory Evaluation of Geogrids Used for Stabilizing Soft Subgrades

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Nehla Mansour

Abstract:

This paper aims to assess the efficiency of using geogrid reinforcement for subgrade stabilization. The literature of applying geogrid reinforcement technique for pavements built on soft subgrades and the previous experiences were reviewed. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil reinforced with geogrids in one or several layers. The soil specimens were compacted in four layers with or without geogrid sheets. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, in soaking condition, was performed on natural soil and soil-geogrid specimens. The test results revealed that the CBR value is much affected by the geogrid sheet location and the number of sheets used in the soil specimen. When a geogrid sheet was placed at the 1st layer of the soil, there was an increment of 26% in the CBR value. Moreover, the CBR value was significantly increased by 62% when geogrid sheets were placed at all four layers. The high CBR value is attributed to interface friction and interlock involved in the geogrid/ soil interactions. It could be concluded that geogrid reinforcement is successful and more economical technique.

Keywords: geogrid, reinforcement, stabilization, subgrade

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81 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres and Their Electrochemical Properties for Glucose Detection

Authors: Ali Akbar Kazemi Asl, Mansour Rahsepar

Abstract:

Mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs) with uniform particle size distribution having an average of 290 nm and large specific surface area (274.4 m²/g) were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method followed by the calcination process and then utilized as an enzyme-free glucose biosensor. Morphology, crystal structure, and porous nature of the synthesized nanospheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, respectively. Also, the electrochemical performance of the [email protected] electrode for the measurement of glucose concentration in alkaline media was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and chronoamperometry (CA). [email protected] electrode shows good sensing performance, including a rapid glucose oxidation response within 3.1 s, a wide linear range of 0.026-12 mM, a sensitivity of 212.34 μA.mM⁻¹.cm⁻², and a detection limit of 25.7 μM with excellent selectivity.

Keywords: biosensor, electrochemical, glucose, mesoporous carbon, non-enzymatic

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
80 Documents Emotions Classification Model Based on TF-IDF Weighting Measure

Authors: Amr Mansour Mohsen, Hesham Ahmed Hassan, Amira M. Idrees

Abstract:

Emotions classification of text documents is applied to reveal if the document expresses a determined emotion from its writer. As different supervised methods are previously used for emotion documents’ classification, in this research we present a novel model that supports the classification algorithms for more accurate results by the support of TF-IDF measure. Different experiments have been applied to reveal the applicability of the proposed model, the model succeeds in raising the accuracy percentage according to the determined metrics (precision, recall, and f-measure) based on applying the refinement of the lexicon, integration of lexicons using different perspectives, and applying the TF-IDF weighting measure over the classifying features. The proposed model has also been compared with other research to prove its competence in raising the results’ accuracy.

Keywords: emotion detection, TF-IDF, WEKA tool, classification algorithms

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79 Scattering Operator and Spectral Clustering for Ultrasound Images: Application on Deep Venous Thrombi

Authors: Thibaud Berthomier, Ali Mansour, Luc Bressollette, Frédéric Le Roy, Dominique Mottier, Léo Fréchier, Barthélémy Hermenault

Abstract:

Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a thrombus is formed within a deep vein (most often in the legs). This disease can be deadly if a part or the whole thrombus reaches the lung and causes a Pulmonary Embolism (PE). This disorder, often asymptomatic, has multifactorial causes: immobilization, surgery, pregnancy, age, cancers, and genetic variations. Our project aims to relate the thrombus epidemiology (origins, patient predispositions, PE) to its structure using ultrasound images. Ultrasonography and elastography were collected using Toshiba Aplio 500 at Brest Hospital. This manuscript compares two classification approaches: spectral clustering and scattering operator. The former is based on the graph and matrix theories while the latter cascades wavelet convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators.

Keywords: deep venous thrombosis, ultrasonography, elastography, scattering operator, wavelet, spectral clustering

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78 A Multi-Agent Intelligent System for Monitoring Health Conditions of Elderly People

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a multi-agent intelligent system that is used for monitoring the health conditions of elderly people. Monitoring the health condition of elderly people is a complex problem that involves different medical units and requires continuous monitoring. Such expert system is highly needed in rural areas because of inadequate number of available specialized physicians or nurses. Such monitoring must have autonomous interactions between these medical units in order to be effective. A multi-agent system is formed by a community of agents that exchange information and proactively help one another to achieve the goal of elderly monitoring. The agents in the developed system are equipped with intelligent decision maker that arms them with the rule-based reasoning capability that can assist the physicians in making decisions regarding the medical condition of elderly people.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, inference system, monitoring system, multi-agent system

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77 Global Direct Search Optimization of a Tuned Liquid Column Damper Subject to Stochastic Load

Authors: Mansour H. Alkmim, Adriano T. Fabro, Marcus V. G. De Morais

Abstract:

In this paper, a global direct search optimization algorithm to reduce vibration of a tuned liquid column damper (TLCD), a class of passive structural control device, is presented. The objective is to find optimized parameters for the TLCD under stochastic load from different wind power spectral density. A verification is made considering the analytical solution of an undamped primary system under white noise excitation. Finally, a numerical example considering a simplified wind turbine model is given to illustrate the efficacy of the TLCD. Results from the random vibration analysis are shown for four types of random excitation wind model where the response PSDs obtained showed good vibration attenuation.

Keywords: generalized pattern search, parameter optimization, random vibration analysis, vibration suppression

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76 Cost Effectiveness and Performance Study of Perpetual Pavement Using ABAQUS

Authors: Mansour Fakhri, Monire Zokaei

Abstract:

Where there are many demolitions on conventional asphalt pavements, heavy costs are paid to repair and reconstruct the pavement roads annually. Recently some research has been done in order to increase the pavement life. Perpetual pavement is regarded as one of them which can improve the pavement life and minimize the maintenance activity and cost. In this research, ABAQUS which is a finite element software is implemented for analyzing and simulation of perpetual pavement. Viscoelastic model of material is used and loading wheel is considered to be dynamic. Effect of different parameters on pavement function has been considered. Because of high primary cost these pavements are not widely used. In this regard, life cost analysis was also carried out to compare perpetual pavement to conventional asphalt concrete pavement. It was concluded that although the initial cost of perpetual pavement is higher than that of conventional asphalt pavement, life cycle cost analysis during 50 years of service life showed that the performance of this pavement is better and the whole life cost of that is less.

Keywords: ABAQUS, lifecycle cost analysis, mechanistic empirical, perpetual pavement

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75 Modelling of Heating and Evaporation of Biodiesel Fuel Droplets

Authors: Mansour Al Qubeissi, Sergei S. Sazhin, Cyril Crua, Morgan R. Heikal

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of the Discrete Component Model for heating and evaporation to multi-component biodiesel fuel droplets in direct injection internal combustion engines. This model takes into account the effects of temperature gradient, recirculation and species diffusion inside droplets. A distinctive feature of the model used in the analysis is that it is based on the analytical solutions to the temperature and species diffusion equations inside the droplets. Nineteen types of biodiesel fuels are considered. It is shown that a simplistic model, based on the approximation of biodiesel fuel by a single component or ignoring the diffusion of components of biodiesel fuel, leads to noticeable errors in predicted droplet evaporation time and time evolution of droplet surface temperature and radius.

Keywords: heat/mass transfer, biodiesel, multi-component fuel, droplet

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74 Wadjda, a Film That Quietly Sets the Stage for a Cultural Revolution in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Anouar El Younssi

Abstract:

This study seeks to shed some light on the political and social ramifications and implications of Haifaa al-Mansour’s 2012 film Wadjda. The film made international headlines following its release, and was touted as the first film ever to be shot in its entirety inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and also the first to be directed by a female (Haifaa al-Mansour). Wadjda revolves around a simple storyline: A teenage Saudi girl living in the capital city Riyadh—named Wadjda—wants to have a bicycle just like her male teenage neighbor and friend Abdullah, but her ultra-conservative Saudi society places so many constraints on its female population—including not allowing girls and women to ride bicycles. Wadjda, who displays a rebellious spirit, takes concrete steps to save money in order to realize her dream of buying a bicycle. For example, she starts making and selling sports bracelets to her school mates, and she decides to participate in a Qur’an competition in hopes of winning a sum of money that comes with the first prize. In the end, Wadjda could not beat the system on her own, but the film reverses course, and the audience gets a happy ending: Wadjda’s mother, whose husband has decided to take a second wife, defies the system and buys her daughter the very bicycle Wadjda has been dreaming of. It is quite significant that the mother takes her daughter’s side on the subject of the bicycle at the end of the film, for this shows that she finally came to the realization that she and her daughter are both oppressed by the cultural norms prevalent in Saudi society. It is no coincidence that this change of heart and action on the part of the mother takes place immediately after the wedding night celebrating her husband’s second marriage. Gender inequality is thus placed front and center in the film. Nevertheless, a major finding of this study is that the film carries out its social critique in a soft and almost covert manner. The female actors in the film never issue a direct criticism of Saudi society or government; the criticism is consistently implied and subtle throughout. It is a criticism that relies more on showing than telling. The film shows us—rather than tells us directly—what is wrong, and lets us, the audience, decide and make a judgment. In fact, showing could arguably be more powerful and impactful than telling. Regarding methodology, this study will focus on and analyze the visuals and a number of key utterances by the main actor Wadjda in order to corroborate the study’s argument about the film’s bent on critiquing patriarchy. This research will attempt to establish a link between the film as an art object and as a social text. Ultimately, Wadjda sends a message of hope, that change is possible and that it is already happening slowly inside the Kingdom. It also sends the message that an insurrectional approach regarding women’s rights in Saudi Arabia is perhaps not the right one, at least at this historical juncture.

Keywords: bicycle, gender inequality, social critique, Wadjda, women’s rights

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73 How to Perform Proper Indexing?

Authors: Watheq Mansour, Waleed Bin Owais, Mohammad Basheer Kotit, Khaled Khan

Abstract:

Efficient query processing is one of the utmost requisites in any business environment to satisfy consumer needs. This paper investigates the various types of indexing models, viz. primary, secondary, and multi-level. The investigation is done under the ambit of various types of queries to which each indexing model performs with efficacy. This study also discusses the inherent advantages and disadvantages of each indexing model and how indexing models can be chosen based on a particular environment. This paper also draws parallels between various indexing models and provides recommendations that would help a Database administrator to zero-in on a particular indexing model attributed to the needs and requirements of the production environment. In addition, to satisfy industry and consumer needs attributed to the colossal data generation nowadays, this study has proposed two novel indexing techniques that can be used to index highly unstructured and structured Big Data with efficacy. The study also briefly discusses some best practices that the industry should follow in order to choose an indexing model that is apposite to their prerequisites and requirements.

Keywords: indexing, hashing, latent semantic indexing, B-tree

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72 Comparison of Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction in Normal Users and Users with Internet Addiction

Authors: Mansour Abdi, Hadi Molaei Yasavoli

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to comparison of self- efficacy and life satisfaction in normal users and users with internet addiction. The present study was descriptive and causal-comparative. Therefore, 304 students were selected random sampling method from students of Semnan University and completed questionnaires of internet addiction (young), Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and Life Satisfaction (SWIS). For data analysis was used the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The results showed that internet addiction users have lower levels of self-efficacy and life satisfaction in comparison with normal users and the difference in p=0/0005 significantly. The findings showed that 78 percent of the variance in the dependent variables of self-efficacy and life satisfaction by grouping variables (internet addiction users and normal) is determined. Finally, considering that the rate of self-efficacy and life satisfaction is effective in the incidence of Internet addiction, it is proposed required measures are taken to enhance self-efficacy and life satisfaction in Internet users.

Keywords: self-efficacy, life satisfaction, users, internet addiction, normal users

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