Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Foucault

35 Healing to Be a Man or Living in the Truth: Comparison on the Concept of Healing between Foucault and Chan

Authors: Jing Li Hong

Abstract:

This study compared Michel Foucault’s thoughts and the Chan School’s thoughts on the idea of healing. Healing is not an unfamiliar idea in Buddhist thoughts. The paired concepts of illness and medicine are often used as a metaphor to describe the relationship between people and truth. Foucault investigated the topic of care of self in his later studies and dedicated a large portion of his final semester course at the Collège de France in 1984 to discuss the meaning of Socrates’s offering of a sacrifice to the god of medicine in Phaedo. Foucault indicated a key preposition in ancient philosophy, namely healing. His idea of healing also addressed the relationship between subject and truth. From this relationship, Foucault unraveled his novel study on truth, namely the technologies of the self, with an emphasis on the care of self. Whereas numerous philosophers ask obvious questions such as ‘what is truth’ and ‘how to learn about truth,’ Foucault proposed distinct questions such as ‘what is our relationship to truth’ and ‘how does our relationship with truth turn us into who we are now?’ Thus, healing in both Buddhist and Foucault’s thoughts is related to the relationship between being and truth. This study first reviews Buddhist and Foucault’s ideas of healing to explicate what is illness and what is medicine. Because Buddhist thoughts cover an extensive scope, this study focuses on the thoughts of the Chan School. The second part is a discussion on medicine (treatment), specifically what is used as the medicine for the illness in both thoughts, and how can this medicine treat the illness. This part includes a description and comparison of the use of concepts of negation in these two thought groups. Finally, the subjects that practice the technologies of the self in both groups are compared from the idea of care of self; in other words, the differences between the subjects formed by the different relationships between being and truth are analyzed.

Keywords: Chan, heterogeneous, living style, language of paradox, Michel Foucault, negation, parrhesia, the care of self

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34 Hacking's 'Between Goffman and Foucault': A Theoretical Frame for Criminology

Authors: Tomás Speziale

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This paper aims to analyse how Ian Hacking states the theoretical basis of his research on the classification of people. Although all his early philosophical education had been based in Foucault, it is also true that Erving Goffman’s perspective provided him with epistemological and methodological tools for understanding face-to-face relationships. Hence, all his works must be thought of as social science texts that combine the research on how the individuals are constituted ‘top-down’ (as in Foucault), with the inquiry into how people renegotiate ‘bottom-up’ the classifications about them. Thus, Hacking´s proposal constitutes a middle ground between the French Philosopher and the American Sociologist. Placing himself between both authors allows Hacking to build a frame that is expected to adjust to Social Sciences’ main particularity: the fact that they study interactive kinds. These are kinds of people, which imply that those who are classified can change in certain ways that prompt the need for changing previous classifications themselves. It is all about the interaction between the labelling of people and the people who are classified. Consequently, understanding the way in which Hacking uses Foucault’s and Goffman’s theories is essential to fully comprehend the social dynamic between individuals and concepts, what Bert Hansen had called dialectical realism. His theoretical proposal, therefore, is not only valuable because it combines diverse perspectives, but also because it constitutes an utterly original and relevant framework for Sociological theory and particularly for Criminology.

Keywords: classification of people, Foucault's archaeology, Goffman's interpersonal sociology, interactive kinds

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33 Biopolitics and Race in the Age of a Global Pandemic: Interactions and Transformations

Authors: Aistis ZekevicIus

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Biopolitical theory, which was first developed by Michel Foucault, takes into consideration the administration of life by implying a style of government based on the regulation of populations as its subject. The intensification of the #BlackLivesMatter movement and popular outcries against racial discrimination in the US health system have prompted us to reconsider the relationship between biopolitics and race in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on works by Foucault, Achille Mbembe and Nicholas Mirzoeff that transcend the boundaries of poststructuralism, critical theory and postcolonial studies, the paper suggests that the global pandemic has highlighted new aspects of the interplay between biopower and race by encouraging the search for scapegoats, deepening the structural racial inequality, and thus producing necropolitical regimes of exclusion.

Keywords: biopolitics, biopower, necropolitics, pandemic, race

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32 Under the Veneer of Words Lies Power: Foucauldian Analysis of Oleanna

Authors: Diba Arjmandi

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The notion of power and gender domination is one of the inseparable aspects of themes in postmodern literature. The reason of its importance has been discussed frequently since the rise of Michel Foucault and his vantage point toward the circulation of power and the transgression of forces. The language and society act as the basic grounds for the study, as all human beings are bound to the set of rules and norms which shape them in the acceptable way in the macrocosm. How different genders in different positions behave and show reactions to the provocation of social forces and superiority of one another, is of great interest to writers and literary critics. Mamet’s works are noticeable for their controversial but timely themes which illustrate the human conflict with the community and greed for power. Many critics like Christopher Bigsby and Harold Bloom have been discussing Mamet and his ideas during recent years. This paper is the study of Oleanna, Mamet’s masterpiece about teacher-student relationship and the circulation of power between a man and woman. He shows the very breakable boundaries in domination of a gender and the downfall of speech as the consequence of transgression and freedom. The failure of the language the teacher uses and the abuses of his own words by a student who seeks superiority and knowledge are the main subjects of discussion. Supported by the ideas of Foucault, the language Mamet uses to represent his characters becomes the fundamental element of this survey. As a result, language becomes both the means of achievement and also downfall.

Keywords: domination, foucault, language, mamet, oleanna, power, transgression

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31 The Foucaultian Relationship between Power and Knowledge: Genealogy as a Method for Epistemic Resistance

Authors: Jana Soler Libran

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The primary aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between power and knowledge suggested in Michel Foucault's theory. Taking into consideration the role of power in knowledge production, the goal is to evaluate to what extent genealogy can be presented as a practical method for epistemic resistance. To do so, the methodology used consists of a revision of Foucault’s literature concerning the topic discussed. In this sense, conceptual analysis is applied in order to understand the effect of the double dimension of power on knowledge production. In its negative dimension, power is conceived as an organ of repression, vetoing certain instances of knowledge considered deceitful. In opposition, in its positive dimension, power works as an organ of the production of truth by means of institutionalized discourses. This double declination of power leads to the first main findings of the present analysis: no truth or knowledge can lie outside power’s action, and power is constituted through accepted forms of knowledge. To second these statements, Foucaultian discourse formations are evaluated, presenting external exclusion procedures as paradigmatic practices to demonstrate how power creates and shapes the validity of certain epistemes. Thus, taking into consideration power’s mechanisms to produce and reproduce institutionalized truths, this paper accounts for the Foucaultian praxis of genealogy as a method to reveal power’s intention, instruments, and effects in the production of knowledge. In this sense, it is suggested to consider genealogy as a practice which, firstly, reveals what instances of knowledge are subjugated to power and, secondly, promotes aforementioned peripherical discourses as a form of epistemic resistance. In order to counterbalance these main theses, objections to Foucault’s work from Nancy Fraser, Linda Nicholson, Charles Taylor, Richard Rorty, Alvin Goldman, or Karen Barad are discussed. In essence, the understanding of the Foucaultian relationship between power and knowledge is essential to analyze how contemporary discourses are produced by both traditional institutions and new forms of institutionalized power, such as mass media or social networks. Therefore, Michel Foucault's practice of genealogy is relevant, not only for its philosophical contribution as a method to uncover the effects of power in knowledge production but also because it constitutes a valuable theoretical framework for political theory and sociological studies concerning the formation of societies and individuals in the contemporary world.

Keywords: epistemic resistance, Foucault’s genealogy, knowledge, power, truth

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30 The Power of Spirituality: The Experience of the Swiss Bethlehem Mission Society in Taiwan

Authors: Weihsuan Lin

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The Swiss Bethlehem Mission Society (BMS) in Taiwan has influenced and made an important contribution to religion and social work in Taidong. This German-speaking Catholic missionary society is located in Taidong, which is the political and economic periphery of Taiwan but is the cultural center of the Chinese and many different Austronesian ethnic groups, including Amis, Paiwan, Puyuma, Yami, Bunun, and Rukai. Through document analysis and fieldwork, this research aims to explore the result of the confrontation, exchange, and innovation between the BMS and other ethnic groups. Further, based upon Michael Foucault’s discussion of two modalities of constructing individuals, namely ‘discipline’ and ‘care of the self,’ this research will analyze the ‘discipline’ and ‘care of the self’ mechanisms of and between BMS Fathers, Brothers, and Church followers at the scale of individuals. At the scale of groups, the ‘autonomy’ and ‘been governed’ of the BMS in relationship to the Catholic Church in Taiwan and the world will also be examined.

Keywords: Bethlehem Mission Society, Religion and Geography, Spirituality, Foucault

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29 Madness in Susanna Kaysen’s Girl, Interrupted: A Focouldian Reading

Authors: Somaye Sabetnia

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This paper is accomplished to probe Susanna Kaysen’s memoir Girl, Interrupted in the light of Michel Foucault’s theory of madness comprehensively set forth in his History of Madness (1961). It is an endeavor to analysis this novel based on Foucault’s idea of madness. In his archeological study of madness, Foucault introduces a way to perceive madness and its association with dominant discourses. He argues that the concept of madness is constructed within the social context, and different institutions affect its definition. Furthermore, he takes into consideration how each era treats madness, and affirms that in modern times, people considered mad are exiled out of cities, confined in madhouses, and later in clinics where they are treated with drugs. Set after World War II, the novel under observation highlights women’s conditions in which they were becoming a housewife or following their own desires; in fact, choosing the second one results in labeling mad. The protagonist of novel is labeled 'mad,' and is hence impelled to go to asylums where so-called patients are under the vigilant surveillance of the authorities to go through the process of 'normalization.' To discern how she is considered 'mad,' this article probes the dominant discourse of the time when the stories take place to provide a better understanding of madness under the impact of social, cultural, and political conditions. It examines how a so-called mad considered 'Other' and treated after being confined by the disciplinary system of the asylum in a panoptic world. In addition to, it describes the aim of treatment is to punish and control a patient not to cure. This article aims to indicate that Susanna Kaysen tries to picture what is defined as women’s madness is the result of the patriarchal society of the post-war America as well as the mental illness has nothing to do with blood; it is rather the result of the social inequality of the age.

Keywords: clinical treatment, disciplining and punishment, dominant discourse, normalization, other, panoptic world, reason vs. unreason

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28 Creativity in the Dark: A Qualitative Study of Cult’s Members Battle between True and False Self in Heterotopia

Authors: Shirly Bar-Lev, Michal Morag

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Cults are usually thought of as suppressive organizations, where creativity is systematically stifled. Except for few scholars, creativity in cults remains an uncharted terrain (Boeri and Pressley, 2010). This paperfocuses on how cult members sought real and imaginary spaces to express themselves and even used their bodies as canvases on which to assert their individuality, resistance, devotion, pain, and anguish. We contend that cult members’ creativity paves their way out of the cult. This paper is part of a larger study into the experiences of former members of cults and cult-like NewReligiousMmovements (NRM). The research is based on in-depth interviews conducted with thirtyIsraeli men and women, aged 24 to 50, who either joined an NRM or were born into one. Their stories reveal that creativity is both emplaced and embedded in power relations. That is why Foucault’s idea of Heterotopia and Winnicott’s idea of the battle between True and False self canbenefit our understanding of how cult members creatively assert their autonomy over their bodies and thoughts while in the cult. Cults’ operate on a complex tension between submission and autonomy. On the one hand, they act as heterotopias byallowing for a ‘simultaneousmythic and real contestation of the space in which we live. Ascounter-hegemonic sites, they serve as‘the greatest reserve of theimagination’, to use Foucault’s words. Cults definitely possesselements of mystery, danger, and transgression where an alternative social ordering can emerge. On the other hand, cults are set up to format alternative identities. Often, the individuals who inhibit these spaces look for spiritual growth, self-reflection, and self-actualization. They might willingly relinquish autonomy over vast aspects of their lives in pursuit of self-improvement. In any case, cultsclaim the totality of their members’ identities and absolute commitment and compliance with the cult’s regimes. It, therefore, begs the question how the paradox between autonomy and submissioncan spur instances of creativity. How can cult members escape processes of performative regulation to assert their creative self? Both Foucault and Winnicott recognize the possibility of an authentic self – one that is spontaneous and creative. Both recognize that only the true self can feel real andmust never comply. Both note the disciplinary regimes that push the true self into hiding, as well as the social and psychological mechanisms that individuals develop to protect their true self. But while Foucault spoke of the power of critic as a way of salvaging the true self, Winnicott spoke of recognition and empathy - feeling known by others. Invitinga dialogue between the two theorists can yield a productive discussion on how cult members assert their ‘true self’ to cultivate a creative self within the confines of the cult.

Keywords: cults, creativity, heterotopia, true and false self

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27 Foucault and Governmentality: International Organizations and State Power

Authors: Sara Dragisic

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Using the theoretical analysis of the birth of biopolitics that Foucault performed through the history of liberalism and neoliberalism, in this paper we will try to show how, precisely through problematizing the role of international institutions, the model of governance differs from previous ways of objectifying body and life. Are the state and its mechanisms still a Leviathan to fight against, or can it be even the driver of resistance against the proponents of modern governance and the biopolitical power? Do paradigmatic examples of biopolitics still appear through sovereignty and (international) law, or is it precisely this sphere that shows a significant dose of incompetence and powerlessness in relation to, not only the economic sphere (Foucault’s critique of neoliberalism) but also the new politics of freedom? Have the struggle for freedom and human rights, as well as the war on terrorism, opened a new spectrum of biopolitical processes, which are manifested precisely through new international institutions and humanitarian discourse? We will try to answer these questions, in the following way. On the one hand, we will show that the views of authors such as Agamben and Hardt and Negri, in whom the state and sovereignty are seen as enemies to be defeated or overcome, fail to see how such attempts could translate into the politicization of life like it is done in many examples through the doctrine of liberal interventionism and humanitarianism. On the other hand, we will point out that it is precisely the humanitarian discourse and the defense of the right to intervention that can be the incentive and basis for the politicization of the category of life and lead to the selective application of human rights. Zizek example of the killing of United Nations workers and doctors in a village during the Vietnam War, who were targeted even before police or soldiers, because they were precisely seen as a powerful instrument of American imperialism (as they were sincerely trying to help the population), will be focus of this part of the analysis. We’ll ask the question whether such interpretation is a kind of liquidation of the extreme left of the political (Laclau) or on this basis can be explained at least in part the need to review the functioning of international organizations, ranging from those dealing with humanitarian aid (and humanitarian military interventions) to those dealing with protection and the security of the population, primarily from growing terrorism. Based on the above examples, we will also explain how the discourse of terrorism itself plays a dual role: it can appear as a tool of liberal biopolitics, although, more superficially, it mostly appears as an enemy that wants to destroy the liberal system and its values. This brings us to the basic problem that this paper will tackle: do the mechanisms of institutional struggle for human rights and freedoms, which is often seen as opposed to the security mechanisms of the state, serve the governance of citizens in such a way that the latter themselves participate in producing biopolitical governmental practices? Is the freedom today "nothing but the correlative development of apparatuses of security" (Foucault)? Or, we can continue this line of Foucault’s argumentation and enhance the interpretation with the important question of what precisely today reflects the change in the rationality of governance in which society is transformed from a passive object into a subject of its own production. Finally, in order to understand the skills of biopolitical governance in modern civil society, it is necessary to pay attention to the status of international organizations, which seem to have become a significant place for the implementation of global governance. In this sense, the power of sovereignty can turn out to be an insufficiently strong power of security policy, which can go hand in hand with freedom policies, through neoliberal governmental techniques.

Keywords: neoliberalism, Foucault, sovereignty, biopolitics, international organizations, NGOs, Agamben, Hardt&Negri, Zizek, security, state power

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26 Speaking of Genocide: Lithuanian 'Occupation’ Museums and Foucault's Discursive Formation

Authors: Craig Wight

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Tourism visits to sites associated to varying degrees with death and dying have for some time inspired academic debate and research into what has come to be popularly described as ‘dark tourism’. Research to date has been based on the mobilisation of various social scientific methodologies to understand issues such as the motivations of visitors to consume dark tourism experiences and visitor interpretations of the various narratives that are part of the consumption experience. This thesis offers an alternative conceptual perspective for carrying out research into dark tourism by presenting a discourse analysis of Lithuanian occupation-themed museums using Foucault’s concept of ‘discursive formation’ from ‘Archaeology of Knowledge’. A constructivist methodology is therefore applied to locate the rhetorical representations of Lithuanian and Jewish subject positions and to identify the objects of discourse that are produced in five museums that interpret a historical era defined by occupation, the persecution of people and genocide. The discourses and consequent cultural function of these museums are examined, and the key finding of the research proposes that they authorise a particular Lithuanian individualism which marginalises the Jewish subject position and its related objects of discourse into abstraction. The thesis suggests that these museums create the possibility to undermine the ontological stability of Holocaust and the Jewish-Lithuanian subject which is produced as an anomalous, ‘non-Lithuanian’ cultural reference point. As with any Foucauldian archaeological research, it cannot be offered as something that is ‘complete’ since it captures only a partial field, or snapshot of knowledge, bound to a specific temporal and spatial context. The discourses that have been identified are perhaps part of a more elusive ‘positivity’ which is salient across a number of cultural and political surfaces which are ripe for a similar analytical approach in future. It is hoped that the study will motivate others to follow a discourse-analytical approach to research in order to further understand the critical role of museums in public culture when it comes to shaping knowledge about ‘inconvenient’ pasts.

Keywords: genocide heritage, foucault, Lithuanian tourism, discursive formatoin

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25 Identity Crisis and Class Difference in Charles Dickens' 'Great Expectations'

Authors: Ramin Barati, Atefeh Salemi

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In Victorian era, the society had been surrounded by extreme class ranking in order to identify the people of the classes and to intensify power relationships due to the growth of industry in Charles Dickens's (1812-1870) Great Expectations (2003) in which he illustrates the clash and dichotomy in the 19th century London. The classes in Victorian period have socially divided the population into two parts, the lower and the upper class of the community. In such a panopticon society, the major character Pip was the best example of the working class who was under the domination of violence, malice, and abuse of Miss Havisham as a member of the ruling class in order to take revenge on her failures. The conflict and disunity represented in vindictiveness and the sense of revenge applied by Miss Havisham against his victim Pip, made him experience alienation and eventually suffer from identity crisis. This paper considers New Historicism based on the theories of the French critic Michel Foucault (1926-1984). The social concept, panopticism, was called after the panopticon society, basically elaborated by Foucault in his book Discipline and Punish (1975) and he considers the panopticon as a sign of punitive community of surveillance. This paper evaluates the problems of a dual society to show that the people of the lower class are under the domination of capitalist society.

Keywords: class, identity crisis, violence, panoptic society, domination

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24 Competing Discourses of Masculinity and Seeking Mental Health Assistance among Male Police Officers in Canada

Authors: Maria T. Cruz, Scott N. Thompson

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In recent years, Canadian federal and provincial law enforcement organizations have implemented numerous mental health strategies in an attempt to address officers’ mental health and wellness needs. Despite these reforms, however, mental illness continues to persist in these populations. Whereas workplace stressors continue to be factored into the development of mental health initiatives, it is proposed that aspects of masculine culture have been overlooked as contributing to the prevalence of mental illness among Canadian officers. By drawing on Michel Foucault’s theory of discourse, this study was conducted to determine if elements of masculine discourse exist as a socio-cultural barrier for officers seeking mental health assistance. This research supported the above hypothesis, and furthermore, identified how masculine discourse works in competition with mental health-related help-seeking discourses. To answer the research question, semi-structured phone interviews with active and retired male officers from Western provincial and municipal policing organizations, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police were employed. Through thematic analysis of the transcripts, the data revealed three themes: i) masculinity in law enforcement is a determinant of workplace competency; ii) the dominance of masculine culture in law enforcement is problematic for mental health, and iii) improved help-seeking policies complicate how masculinity is expressed in law enforcement organizations. These findings suggest that within the reviewed Canadian law enforcement organizations, aspects of masculinity act as a socio-cultural barrier to officers seeking mental health services, and that the two conflicting discourses of masculinity and mental health-related help-seeking appear to be in competition with each other.

Keywords: competing discourses, dominant discourses, Foucault’s theory of discourse, law enforcement, masculinity, mental health, police officers

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23 Representation of Agamben's Concept of 'Homo Sacer': Interpretative Analysis in Turkish TV Series Based on Turkey's 1980 Military Coup

Authors: Oyku Yenen

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The notion of biopolitics, as studied by such intellectuals as Foucault, Agamben, and Negri, is an important guide for comprehending the current understanding of politics. While Foucault evaluates biopolitics as a survival policy, Giorgio Agamben, German legist, identifies the theory with death. Agamben claims the fact we can all considered to be homo sacer who are abandoned by the law, left in the field of exception, and whose killing does not require punishment. Agamben defines the person who is tried by the public for committing a crime but is not allowed to be sacrificed and whose killing is not considered a crime, as 'homo sacer'. This study analyzes how the concept of 'homo sacer' is made visible in TV series such as Çemberimde Gül Oya (Cagan Irmak, 2005-2005), Hatırla Sevgili (Ummu Burhan, 2006-2008), Bu Kalp Seni Unutur Mu? (Aydin Bulut, 2009-1010) all of which portray the period Turkey's 1980 military coup, within the framework of Agamben's thoughts and notions about biopolitics. When the main plots of these abovementioned TV series, which constitute the universe of this study, are scrutinized closely, they lay out the understanding of politics that has existed throughout history and prevails today. Although there is a large number of TV series on the coup of 1980, these three series are the only main productions that specifically focused on the event itself. Our final analysis will reveal that the concepts of homo sacer, bare life, exception, camp have been embodied in different ways in these three series. In these three series, which all deal with similar subjects using differing perspectives, the dominant understanding of politics is clearly conveyed to the audience. In all three series, the reigning power always decides on the exceptions, those who will live, those who will die, and those who will be ignored by law. Such characters as Mehmet, Sinan, Yıldız, Deniz, Defne, all of which we come across in these series, are on trial as a criminals of thought and are subjected to various forms of torture while isolated in an area where they are virtually deprived of law. Their citizenship rights are revoked. All of them are left alone with their bare lives (zoe).

Keywords: bare life, biopolitics, homo sacer, sovereign power, state of exception

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22 An Examination of the Effects of Implantable Technologies on the Practices of Governmentality

Authors: Benn Van Den Ende

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Over the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in developments in implantable technologies such as the cardiac pacemaker, bionic prosthesis, and implantable chips. The effect of these technologies has been well researched in many areas. However, there is a lack of critical research in security studies. This paper will provide preliminary findings to an ongoing research project which aims to examine how implantable technologies effect the practices of governmentality in the context of security. It will do this by looking at the practices and techniques of governmentality along with different implantable technologies which increase, change or otherwise affect governmental practices. The preliminary research demonstrates that implantable technologies have a profound effect on the practices of governmentality, while also paving the way for further research into a potential ‘new’ form of governmentality in relation to these implantable technologies.

Keywords: critical security studies, governmentality, security theory, political theory, Foucault

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21 Strategic Orientation of Islamic Banks: A Review of Strategy Language

Authors: Imam Uddin, Imtiaz Ahmed Memon

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This paper analyzes the ideological contextuality of market oriented strategy language used by Industry leaders to envision the future of Islamic financial Institutions (IFIs) in the light of Wittgenstein language-games and Foucault’s power-discourse framework. The analysis infers that the explicit market orientation of strategy language and modern knowledge of finance now defines various concepts related of Islamic finance, let alone Islamic finance theory itself. Theorizing and practicing Islamic finance therefore under the dominant influence of modern strategy discourse and modern knowledge of finance has significant implications for developing an ethical and spiritual orientation of Islamic banks. The concerned academia and scholarship therefore need to review such trends and work around the possible degradation to the public image of IFIs and resulting disappointments of religiously inspired customers.

Keywords: Islamic finance discourse, strategy discourse, language games, strategic intent, productive misunderstanding

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20 Motherhood in the Poetry of Rosario Castellanos: Other Face of Womanhood

Authors: Dovile Kuzminskaite

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Rosario Castellanos is one of the most important Mexican writers; in her poetry and essays, she demythologizes social stereotypes about womanhood that were deeply present in Mexican society of the XXth century. In her extent poetic work, Rosario Castellanos demythologizes such concepts as romance, marriage, and motherhood, showing them in a way which did not agree with the norms of the catholic based society of her times. The aim of this research is to analyze the poetry of Rosario Castellanos working on sematic and structural levels and to investigate closely how she represents motherhood, what is the role of mother and the relationship of mother and child in her poems. Also, it is of interest to observe what are the elements used in the process of creating a different concept of motherhood. In order to reflect on this subject, this research will be based on semiotics, queer studies, and the philosophy of Michel Foucault, who introduces the concept of power when reflecting on gender and society. Rosario Castellanos turned into an example of disobedience and otherness for a generation of intellectuals in Spanish speaking countries, and because of this reason, it is of great importance to understand the politic and social statements that are represented by her poetry.

Keywords: motherhood, women, poetry, Mexico

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19 Reproduction of New Media Art Village around NTUT: Heterotopia of Visual Culture Art Education

Authors: Yu Cheng-Yu

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‘Heterotopia’, ‘Visual Cultural Art Education’ and ‘New Media’ of these three subjects seemingly are irrelevant. In fact, there are synchronicity and intertextuality inside. In addition to visual culture, art education inspires students the ability to reflect on popular culture image through visual culture teaching strategies in school. We should get involved in the community to construct the learning environment that conveys visual culture art. This thesis attempts to probe the heterogeneity of space and value from Michel Foucault and to research sustainable development strategy in ‘New Media Art Village’ heterogeneity from Jean Baudrillard, Marshall McLuhan's media culture theory and social construction ideology. It is possible to find a new media group that can convey ‘Visual Culture Art Education’ around the National Taipei University of Technology in this commercial district that combines intelligent technology, fashion, media, entertainment, art education, and marketing network. Let the imagination and innovation of ‘New Media Art Village’ become ‘implementable’ and new media Heterotopia of inter-subjectivity with the engagement of big data and digital media. Visual culture art education will also bring aesthetics into the community by New Media Art Village.

Keywords: social construction, heterogeneity, new media, big data, visual culture art education

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18 Security Practices of the European Union on Migration: An Analysis of the Frontex Within the Framework of Biopolitics

Authors: Gizem Ertürk, Nursena Dinç

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The Aegean area has always been an important transit point for migration; however, the establishment of the European Union gave further impetus to the migration phenomenon and increased the significance of the area within this context. The migration waves have been more visible in the area in recent decades, and particularly after the “2015 Migration Crisis,” this issue has been subject to further securitization in the EU. In this conjuncture, the Frontex, which is an agency set up by the EU in 2005 for the purpose of managing and coordinating the border control efforts, has become more functional in the relevant area, but at the same time, have some questionable actions within the context of human rights. This paper problematizes the rationality behind the existence and practices of such a structure and attempts to make a political and legal analysis of the security practices of the European Union against migration within a framework based on the biopolitics approaches of Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben. The dataset of this paper, which focuses on the agency in question by taking it as a case, is formed by making use of the existing literature on the EU’s security policies, the relevant official texts of the Union and Frontex reports on migration practices in and around the Aegean Sea.

Keywords: migration, biopolitics, Frontex, security, European union, securitization

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17 The Construction of Healthy Bodies in U.S. and China: A Comparative Analysis of Women's Health and Trends Health

Authors: Yang L. Frances

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Women's health and wellness has been becoming an increasingly important issue in mass media in the age of globalization. In this context, the current research focuses on comparing the construction of healthy bodies in women's health magazines of China and U.S. Trends Health in China and Women's Health in U.S are chosen. Textual analysis and in depth interviews are combined to examine how the healthy bodies are constructed in two magazines through discursive strategies. The interviews with the Deputy Editorial Director, Creative Director and Senior Visual Design of two magazines are undertaken to make the further comparisons. In both Trends Health and Women's Health, women's subjectivity is realized in the construction of ideal healthy body; nevertheless in the process of constructing healthy body, the disciplinary practices imposed on women's bodies are different in two magazines. This paper argues that women's health magazines in both China and America provide an alternative discourse to speak their voices on the one hand, but on the other hand, Women's Health and Trends Health construct the healthy body through disparate disciplinary practices because of the different socio-cultural contexts in two societies.

Keywords: healthy body, women's health magazines, Foucault, textual analysis

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16 A Desire for Solitude or an Escape from Solitude: A Sociological Study of One Hundred Years of Solitude with the Principles of Emile Durkheim’s Suicide through the Theme Solitude

Authors: Omur Sercan Oral

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In this paper, the individual and social conflicts are examined with a sociological perspective during the social process of Macondo described in the post-modern book of Gabriel Garcia Marquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude. More specifically, the theme of the solitude of individuals who choose to be isolated and who are isolated is studied within the context of the suicide of Emile Durkheim. As a self-reflective product of individuals in the result-based process, both economically and socially founded in the text, solitude reflects the ultimate process of separation from society. In this sense, the various and multiplying layers of the collective codes of Macondo as microcosm and their interactions with the individuals are examined in this paper under the roof of suicide in the sociological concept. The attempts to explain the reasons, shift, and its reflections on individuals are carried out to cross the lines of one discipline. In doing that, the ideas of Durkheim, Foucault, Weber, and Clausewitz, to some extent, are planted explicitly and implicitly throughout the paper.

Keywords: Durkheim’s concept of suicide, solitude theme in Marquez, collective consciousness, isolation from society, subjectivity

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15 Communicating Safety: Warnings, Appeals for Compliance and Visual Resources of Meaning

Authors: Sean McGovern

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Discourses, in Foucault's sense of the term, exist as alternate knowledges about some aspect of reality. Discourses act as cognitive frameworks for how social matters are understood and legitimated. Alternate social discourses can stand competing and in conflict or be effectively interwoven. Discourses of public safety, for instance, can alternately be formulated in terms of physical risk; as a matter of social responsibility; or in terms of penalties and litigation. This research study investigates discourses of safety used in public transportation and consumer products in the Japanese cultural context. Employing a social semiotic analytic approach, it examines how posters, consumer manuals and other forms of visual (written and pictorial) warnings have been designed to influence behavioral compliance. The presentation identifies specific ways in which Japanese cultural sensibilities and social needs inform cultural design principles that operate in the visual domain. It makes the case that societies are not uniform in the way that objects and actions are represented and that visual forms of meaning are culturally shaped in ways consistent with social understandings and values.

Keywords: communication design, culture, discourse, public safety

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14 'Violence Is Bad, but It's Just a Game': The Glorification of Violence from Roman Antiquity to Popular Culture

Authors: M. C. Steyn

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Violence and entertainment are not mutually exclusive subjects in the Ancient Roman world, in reality they are closely knit together. Their world is permeated by repeated and continuous episodes of violence in its many manifestations, both sanctioned and spontaneous, most of which is considered as some form of entertainment, from plays and writings through the spectrum to the gladiatorial arena. In the 21st century this socio-psychological dynamic is manifested through the stage provided by the screen and what we watch in terms of TV, movies and games. This glorification of violence in a modern world is not out of place as seen in contemporary post apocalyptical/ dystopian literature, film and computer games where the act of violence, frowned upon by social norms and values, becomes sanctioned by the (un)real nature of the game: ‘I am not a violent person, violence is bad, this is just a game’. This paper will examine how violence is framed in the Ancient World and subsequently how it is received by popular culture to represent a world in which the maintenance of stability can only be achieved through officially sanctioned violence, whether sanctioned by the State or the gaming community. This argument will examine both ancient and modern critics of violence such as Senecca, Coleman and Foucault and framed by Baudrillard’s commentary on the post-modern conceptualization of reality.

Keywords: entertainment, violence, gladiatorial games, gaming

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13 A Foucauldian Analysis of Postcolonial Hybridity in a Kuwaiti Novel

Authors: Annette Louise Dupont

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Background and Introduction: Broadly defined, hybridity is a condition of racial and cultural ‘cross-pollination’ which arises as a result of contact between colonized and colonizer. It remains a highly contested concept in postcolonial studies as it is implicitly underpinned by colonial notions of ‘racial purity.’ While some postcolonial scholars argue that individuals exercise significant agency in the construction of their hybrid subjectivities, others underscore associated experiences of exclusion, marginalization, and alienation. Kuwait and the Philippines are among the most disparate of contemporary postcolonial states. While oil resources transformed the former British Mandate of Kuwait into one of the world’s richest countries, enduring poverty in the former US colony of the Philippines drives a global diaspora which produces multiple Filipino hybridities. Although more Filipinos work in the Arabian Gulf than in any other region of the world, scholarly and literary accounts of their experiences of hybridization in this region are relatively scarce when compared to those set in North America, Australia, Asia, and Europe. Study Aims and Significance: This paper aims to address this existing lacuna by investigating hybridity and other postcolonial themes in a novel by a Kuwaiti author which vividly portrays the lives of immigrants and citizens in Kuwait and which gives a rare voice and insight into the struggles of an Arab-Filipino and European-Filipina. Specifically, this paper explores the relationships between colonial discourses of ‘black’ and ‘white’ and postcolonial discourses pertaining to ‘brown’ Filipinos and ‘brown’ Arabs, in order to assess their impacts on the protagonists’ hybrid subjectivities. Methodology: Foucault’s notions of discourse not only provide a conceptual basis for analyzing the colonial ideology of Orientalism, but his theories related to the social exclusion of the ‘mad’ also elucidate the mechanisms by which power can operate to marginalize, alienate and subjectify the Other, therefore a Foucauldian lens is applied to the analysis of postcolonial themes and hybrid subjectivities portrayed in the novel. Findings: The study finds that Kuwaiti and Filipino discursive practices mirror those of former white colonialists and colonized black laborers and that these discursive practices combine with a former British colonial system of foreign labor sponsorship to create a form of governmentality in Kuwait which is based on exclusion and control. The novel’s rich social description and the reflections of the key protagonist and narrator suggest that such fiction has a significant role to play in highlighting the historical and cultural specificities of experiences of postcolonial hybridity in under-researched geographic, economic, social, and political settings. Whereas hybridity can appear abstract in scholarly accounts, the significance of literary accounts in which the lived experiences of hybrid protagonists are anchored to specific historical periods, places and discourses, is that contextual particularities are neither obscured nor dehistoricized. Conclusions: The application of Foucauldian theorizations of discourse, disciplinary, and biopower to the analysis of this Kuwaiti literary text serves to extend an understanding of the effects of contextually-specific discourses on hybrid Filipino subjectivities, as well as a knowledge of prevailing social dynamics in a little-researched postcolonial Arabian Gulf state.

Keywords: Filipino, Foucault, hybridity, Kuwait

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12 Child Rights in the Context of Psychiatric Power

Authors: Dmytro D. Buiadzhy

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The modern psychiatric discourse proves the existence of the direct ties between the children's mental health and their success in life as adults. The unresolved mental health problems in childhood are likely to lead individuals to poverty, isolation, and social exclusion as stated by Marcus Richards. Such an approach justifies the involvement of children in the view of supervision and control of power. The discourse, related to the mental health of children, provides a tight impact of family, educational institutions and medical authorities on the child through any manifestations of his psychic, having signs of "abnormality.” Throughout the adult life, the individual continues to feel the pressure of power through legal, political, and economic institutions that also appeal to the mental health regulation. The juvenile law declares the equality of a child and an adult, but in fact simply delegates the powers of parents to impersonal social institutions of the guardianship, education, and social protection. The psychiatric power in this study is considered in accordance with the Michel Foucault’s concept of power as a manifestation of "positive" technologies of power, which include various manifestations of subjectivity, in particular children’s one, in a view of supervision and control of the state power. The main issue disclosed in this paper is how weakening of the parental authority, in the context of legislative ratification of the child rights, strengthens the other forms of power over children, especially the psychiatric power, which justifies and affects the children mancipation.

Keywords: child rights, psychiatric power, discourse, parental authority

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11 A Pink Pill Daily: On the Lust Enhancing Pill for Women and the Medicalization of Sexual Desire

Authors: Maaike Maria Augustina Hommes

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This paper reviews the emergence of the recently approved lust enhancing pill for women (sold under the brand name of Addyi) and its status as ‘medicine’ from a cultural studies perspective to understand the way in which the usage of the pill can be seen as a medicalization of sexual desire. It asks where this medicalization can be localized to understand the current placement of and notions on female sexuality. Via a close reading of a woman’s narration of her usage of the pill that appeared in Shape Magazine, this paper critically reviews the pill’s relation to the concept of ‘cure’ and assesses the way this Pink Pill functions as a cure to the DSM-IV based disorder called Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. As such it finds that in the diagnosis with HSDD meant a huge relief. Now this woman was not just ‘bad at life and bad at marriage’ but ‘just had this health issue’. In order to get to an understanding of the different structures that conjoin in this expression of relief this paper reviews the emergence of the sexual desire disorder within psychology and the way that the loss of desire becomes localized in the brain. This localization will be related to two ways of looking at the human body; the medical gaze as described by Michel Foucault, and the neuromolecular gaze, as introduced by Nikolas Rose and Joelle M.Abi-Rached. Both these penetrating gazes bring about a certain reductionism in which the human body is either viewed as an objectified ‘sick body’ or as a set of chemical reactions. By referring to these modes of looking as reductionist one assumes that something is lost, or forgotten in the act of reducing. It is both what is gained in the formulation of the disorder, as what is lost in reduction of the disorder in medical knowledge that is at the central inquiry of this paper. As such, this paper brings forward the way in which medicine and cultural narrative are deeply intertwined. It is this way in which different forces of subject formation come together that is addressed via an interdisciplinary and object-centered focus on the pink pill.

Keywords: disorder and cure, female sexual desire, medical gaze, neuromolecular gaze

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10 Discourse Analysis and Semiotic Researches: Using Michael Halliday's Sociosemiotic Theory

Authors: Deyu Yuan

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Discourse analysis as an interdisciplinary approach has more than 60-years-history since it was first named by Zellig Harris in 'Discourse Analysis' on Language in 1952. Ferdinand de Saussure differentiated the 'parole' from the 'langue' that established the principle of focusing on language but not speech. So the rising of discourse analysis can be seen as a discursive turn for the entire language research that closely related to the theory of Speech act. Critical discourse analysis becomes the mainstream of contemporary language research through drawing upon M. A. K. Halliday's socio-semiotic theory and Foucault, Barthes, Bourdieu's views on the sign, discourse, and ideology. So in contrast to general semiotics, social semiotics mainly focuses on parole and the application of semiotic theories to some applicable fields. The article attempts to discuss this applicable sociosemiotics and show the features of it that differ from the Saussurian and Peircian semiotics in four aspects: 1) the sign system is about meaning-generation resource in the social context; 2) the sign system conforms to social and cultural changes with the form of metaphor and connotation; 3) sociosemiotics concerns about five applicable principles including the personal authority principle, non-personal authority principle, consistency principle, model demonstration principle, the expertise principle to deepen specific communication; 4) the study of symbolic functions is targeted to the characteristics of ideational, interpersonal and interactional function in social communication process. Then the paper describes six features which characterize this sociosemiotics as applicable semiotics: social, systematic, usable interdisciplinary, dynamic, and multi-modal characteristics. Thirdly, the paper explores the multi-modal choices of sociosemiotics in the respects of genre, discourse, and style. Finally, the paper discusses the relationship between theory and practice in social semiotics and proposes a relatively comprehensive theoretical framework for social semiotics as applicable semiotics.

Keywords: discourse analysis, sociosemiotics, pragmatics, ideology

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9 Students with Severe Learning Disabilities in Mainstream Classes: A Study of Comprehensions amongst School Staff and Parents Built on Observations and Interviews in a Phenomenological Framework

Authors: Inger Eriksson, Lisbeth Ohlsson, Jeremias Rosenqvist

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Ingress: Focus in the study is directed towards phenomena and concepts of segregation, integration, and inclusion of students attending a special school form in Sweden, namely compulsory school for pupils with learning disabilities (in Swedish 'särskola') as an alternative to mainstream compulsory school. Aim: The aim of the study is to examine the school situation for students attending särskola from a historical perspective focussing the 1980s, 1990s and the 21st century, from an integration perspective, and from a perspective of power. Procedure: Five sub-studies are reported, where integration and inclusion are looked into by observation studies and interviews with school leaders, teachers, special and remedial teachers, psychologists, coordinators, and parents in the special schools/särskola. In brief, the study about special school students attending mainstream classes from 1998 takes its point of departure in the idea that all knowledge development takes place in a social context. A special interest is taken in the school’s role for integration generally, and the role of special education particularly and on whose conditions the integration is taking place – the special school students' or the other students,' or may be equally, in the class. Pedagogical and social conditions for so called individually integrated special school students in elementary school classes were studied in eleven classes. Results: The findings are interpreted in a power perspective supported by Foucault and relationally by Vygotsky. The main part of the data consists of extensive descriptions of the eleven cases, here called integration situations. Conclusions: In summary, this study suggests that the possibilities for a special school student to get into the class community and fellowship and thereby be integrated with the class are to a high degree dependant on to what extent the student can take part in the pedagogical processes. The pedagogical situation for the special school student is affected not only by the class teacher and the support and measures undertaken but also by the other students in the class as they, in turn, are affected by how the special school student is acting. This mutual impact, which constitutes the integration process in itself, might result in a true integration if the special school student attains the status of being accepted on his/her own terms not only being cared for or cherished by some classmates. A special school student who is not accepted even on the terms of the class will often experience severe problems in the contacts with classmates and the school situation might thus be a mere placement.

Keywords: integration/inclusion, mainstream school, power, special school students

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8 Between the House and the City: An Investigation of the Structure of the Family/Society and the Role of the Public Housing in Tokyo and Berlin

Authors: Abudjana Babiker

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The middle of twenty century witnessed an explosion in public housing. After the great depression, some of the capitalists and communist countries have launched policies and programs to produce public housing in the urban areas. Concurrently, modernity was the leading architecture style at the time excessively supported the production, and principally was the instrument for the success of the public housing program due to the modernism manifesto for manufactured architecture as an international style that serves the society and parallelly connect it to the other design industries which allowed for the production of the architecture elements. After the second world war, public housing flourished, especially in communist’s countries. The idea of public housing was conceived as living spaces at the time, while the Workplaces performed as the place for production and labor. Michel Foucault - At the end of the twenty century- the introduction of biopolitics has had highlighted the alteration in the production and labor inter-function. The house does not precisely perform as the sanctuary, from the production, for the family, it opens the house to be -part of the city as- a space for production, not only to produce objects but to reproduce the family as a total part of the production mechanism in the city. While the public housing kept altering from one country to another after the failure of the modernist’s public housing in the late 1970s, the society continued changing parallelly with the socio-economic condition in each political-economical system, and the public housing thus followed. The family structure in the major cities has been dramatically changing, single parenting and the long working hours, for instance, have been escalating the loneliness in the major cities such as London, Berlin, and Tokyo and the public housing for the families is no longer suits the single lifestyle for the individuals. This Paper investigates the performance of both the single/individual lifestyle and the family/society structure in Tokyo and Berlin in a relation to the utilization of public housing under economical policies and the socio-political environment that produced the individuals and the collective. The study is carried through the study of the undercurrent individual/society and case studies to examine the performance of the utilization of the housing. The major finding is that the individual/collective are revolving around the city; the city identified and acts as a system that magnetized and blurred the line between production and reproduction lifestyle. The mass public housing for families is shifting to be a combination between neo-liberalism and socialism housing.

Keywords: loneliness, production reproduction, work live, publichousing

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7 The Gaze; Objectification of the Surrogate Mother in Cross-Border Surrogacy: An Empirical Study Applied to Surrogacy Facilitators

Authors: Yingyi Luo

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Cross-border surrogacy is seen by many as a market in which women are bought and sold commodities at risk of trafficking. A surrogate can be framed as either a fully acknowledged subject, with whom intended parents engage in cross-border surrogacy—or as a tool utilized by intended parents and surrogacy facilitators in the furtherance of their own objectives. In order to identify which frame prevails, this paper applies subjectivity theory to an empirical study of cross-border surrogacy facilitated by facilitators in Australia analysing interviews with surrogate agents, counsellors and lawyers, and observations at trade show. The aim of the paper is to advance understanding of the dynamics of the relationship between intended parents, surrogates, and surrogacy facilitators by collecting new data and applying unique framework. As dominant players, surrogacy facilitators have a significant impact on determining the nature of cross-border surrogacy. However, little is known concerning the manner in which facilitators influence the inter-subjectivity between surrogate mothers and intended parents. Thus, this paper intends to identify how facilitators depict surrogate mothers, the degree to which their perspectives bear upon both the subjectivity of the surrogate mother and the relationship of intended parents with surrogate mothers. For the purpose of introducing and developing this framework in the context of cross-border surrogacy, this paper borrows from the work of theorists not often mentioned in bioethics, including Jacques Lacan, Marco Cavallaro, Michel Foucault, and others. It also applies the concept of 'the gaze' along with the dynamic of 'self' and 'other' to the cross-border surrogacy arrangement. Applying the concept of the gaze can provide a new way to interpret the power dynamic that plays out among surrogacy facilitators, intended parents, and surrogates within the commercial surrogacy arrangement and how the subjectivity is produced through the power. Viewing the relationships between the players in cross-border surrogacy through the lens of gaze theory, this paper finds that, in cross-border surrogacy, due to the structural power imbalance, affluent intended parents and surrogacy facilitators are possessors of the gaze, while surrogate mothers are under the thrall of the gaze. Specifically, facilitators frame surrogate mothers' reproductive abilities as commodities that intended parents can purchase to fulfil their urgent need to have children and experience full subjectivity, and they take a cut of the money that paid by intended parents. Therefore, commodification of the body results in degrading a surrogate mother (the object), reifying her as no more than a walking womb (the other), a process which is highly detrimental to the self of surrogate mothers. This relationship, formalized through contractual means, allows intended parents and facilitators to take advantage of surrogate mothers in the furtherance of their own objectives. This argument is enriched by new data from interviews and observations that provide nuance to this understanding of inter-subjectivity.

Keywords: cross-border surrogacy, facilitators, self, surrogate mothers

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6 The Significance of Urban Space in Death Trilogy of Alejandro González Iñárritu

Authors: Marta Kaprzyk

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The cinema of Alejandro González Iñárritu hasn’t been subjected to a lot of detailed analysis yet, what makes it an exceptionally interesting research material. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the significance of urban space in three films of this Mexican director, that forms Death Trilogy: ‘Amores Perros’ (2000), ‘21 Grams’ (2003) and ‘Babel’ (2006). The fact that in the aforementioned movies the urban space itself becomes an additional protagonist with its own identity, psychology and the ability to transform and affect other characters, in itself warrants for independent research and analysis. Independently, such mode of presenting urban space has another function; it enables the director to complement the rest of characters. The basis for methodology of this description of cinematographic space is to treat its visual layer as a point of departure for a detailed analysis. At the same time, the analysis itself will be supported by recognised academic theories concerning special issues, which are transformed here into essential tools necessary to describe the world (mise-en-scène) created by González Iñárritu. In ‘Amores perros’ the Mexico City serves as a scenery – a place full of contradictions- in the movie depicted as a modern conglomerate and an urban jungle, as well as a labyrinth of poverty and violence. In this work stylistic tropes can be found in an intertextual dialogue of the director with photographies of Nan Goldin and Mary Ellen Mark. The story recounted in ‘21 Grams’, the most tragic piece in the trilogy, is characterised by almost hyperrealistic sadism. It takes place in Memphis, which on the screen turns into an impersonal formation full of heterotopias described by Michel Foucault and non-places, as defined by Marc Augé in his essay. By contrast, the main urban space in ‘Babel’ is Tokio, which seems to perfectly correspond with the image of places discussed by Juhani Pallasmaa in his works concerning the reception of the architecture by ‘pathological senses’ in the modern (or, even more adequately, postmodern) world. It’s portrayed as a city full of buildings that look so surreal, that they seem to be completely unsuitable for the humans to move between them. Ultimately, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate the coherence of the manner in which González Iñárritu designs urban spaces in his Death Trilogy. In particular, the author attempts to examine the imperative role of the cities that form three specific microcosms in which the protagonists of the Mexican director live their overwhelming tragedies.

Keywords: cinematographic space, Death Trilogy, film Studies, González Iñárritu Alejandro, urban space

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