Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 424

Search results for: Harsh Shah

424 Thermal Management of a Compact Electronic Device Subjected to Different Harsh Operating Conditions

Authors: Murat Parlak, Muhammed Çağlar Malyemez


In a harsh environment, it is crucialtoinvestigatethethermal problem systematically implement a reliableandeffectivecoolingtechniqueformilitaryequipment. In this study, an electronicaldevice has been designed to fit different boundary conditions. Manyfinalternatives can be possiblesolutionsforthethermal problem. Therefore, it is an important step to define an easyproduciblefindesignand a low power fan selection for the optimum unit-design satisfying IP68. The equipment is planned to serve at 71C environment conditions and it also can be screwedto a cold plate at +85C. In both conditions, it is intendedtousethesamechassiswithoutanymodifications. To optimize such a ruggeddevice, all CFD analysis has been done withAnsysFluent 2021®. Afterstudyingpinfins, it is seenthatthesurfacearea is not enough, hencethefin-type is changed to a straightrectangulartypewithforcedconvectioncooling. Finally, a verycompactproductthat can serve in a harsh environment is obtained.

Keywords: electronic cooling, harsh environment, forced convection, compact design

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423 Spirituality and Happiness among Youth: A Correlative Study

Authors: Harsh Shah


Spirituality and happiness are two very important aspects of human life. After defining happiness, an attempt has been made in this paper to review research on the relationship between happiness and spirituality, and then to experimentally study their correlation among students aged between 18-24 years. The relation was assessed in 200 students from IIT Kharagpur, who rated their own spirituality, and happiness using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) developed by Underwood, and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) developed by Lyubomirsky and Lepper, respectively. Students who were more spiritual in general, were happier as well, and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient method gave a high positive correlation between happiness and spirituality.

Keywords: happiness, spirituality, youth, correlation, depression, religion

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422 Film Sensors for the Harsh Environment Application

Authors: Wenmin Qu


A capacitance level sensor with a segmented film electrode and a thin-film volume flow sensor with an innovative by-pass sleeve is presented as industrial products for the application in a harsh environment. The working principle of such sensors is well known; however, the traditional sensors show some limitations for certain industrial measurements. The two sensors presented in this paper overcome this limitation and enlarge the application spectrum. The problem is analyzed, and the solution is given. The emphasis of the paper is on developing the problem-solving concepts and the realization of the corresponding measuring circuits. These should give advice and encouragement, how we can still develop electronic measuring products in an almost saturated market.

Keywords: by-pass sleeve, charge transfer circuit, fixed ΔT circuit, harsh environment, industrial application, segmented electrode

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421 Harsh Discipline and Later Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Two Contexts

Authors: Olga Santesteban, Glorisa Canino, Hector R. Bird, Cristiane S. Duarte


Objective: To address whether harsh discipline is associated with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in Puerto Rican children over time. Background: Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies report that rates of DBD vary by gender, age and other demographics, being more frequent among boys, later in life and among those who live in urban areas. Also, the literature supports the direct, positive association between harsh discipline and externalizing behaviors. Nevertheless, scholars have underscored the important role of race and ethnicity in understanding discipline effects on children. The impact of harsh discipline in a Puerto Rican population remains to be studied. Methods: Sample: This is a secondary analysis of the Boricua Youth Study which assessed yearly (3 times) Puerto Rican children aged 5-15 in two different sites: San Juan (Puerto Rico) and the South Bronx (NY), N=2951. Participants that did not have scores of harsh discipline in the 3 waves were excluded for this analysis (N=2091). Main Measures: a) Harsh Discipline (Parent report) was measured using 6 items from the “Parental Discipline Scale” that measures various forms of punishment, including physical and verbal abuse, and withholding affection; b) Disruptive Behavior Disorder (Parent report): Parent version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV) was used to asses children’s conduct disorders; c) Demographic factors: Child gender, child age, family income, marital status; d) Parental factors: parental psychopathology, parental monitoring, familism, parent support; e) Children characteristics: Controlling for any diagnostic at wave 1 (internalizing or externalizing). Data Analysis: Logistic regression was carried out relating the likelihood of DBD to harsh discipline along waves controlling for potential confounders as demographics, child and parent characteristics. Results: There were no significant differences in harsh discipline by site in wave 1 and wave 2 but there was a significant difference in wave 3. Also, there were no significant differences in DBD by site in wave 1 and wave 2 but there was a significant difference in wave 3. There was a significant difference of discipline by gender and age in all the waves. We calculated unadjusted (OR) and adjusted (AOD) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) showing the relation between harsh discipline at wave 1 and the presence of child disruptive behavior disorder at wave 3 for both South Bronx and Puerto Rico. There was an association between harsh discipline and the likelihood of having DBD in The Bronx (AOR=1.76; 95%CI=1.13-2.74, p.013) and in Puerto Rico (AOR=2.17; 95%CI=1.28-3.67, p.004) having controlled for demographic, parental and individual factors. Conclusions: Context may be an important differential factor shaping the potential risk of harsh discipline toward DBD for Puerto Rican children.

Keywords: disruptive behavior disorders, harsh discipline, puerto rican, psychological education

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420 Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments

Authors: Branislav Timotijevic, Yves Petremand, Markus Luetzelschwab, Dara Bayat, Laurent Aebi


Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.

Keywords: optical MEMS, temperature sensor, accelerometer, remote sensing, harsh environment

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419 What Lies Beneath: Kanti Shah’s Children of Midnight

Authors: Vibhushan Subba


B-movies are almost always ‘glanced over’, ‘swept beneath’, ‘hidden from’ and ‘locked away’ to live a secret life; a life that exists but enjoys only a mummified existence behind layers of protective covering. They are more often than not discarded as ‘trash’, ‘sleaze’, ‘porn’ and put down for their ‘bad taste’ or at least that has been the case in India. With the art film entering the realm of high art, the popular and the mainstream has been increasingly equated with the A grade Bollywood film. This leaves the B-movie to survive as a degraded cultural artifact on the fringes of the mainstream. Kanti Shah’s films are part of a secret, traversing the libidinal circuits of the B and C grade through history. His films still circulate like a corporeal reminder of the forbidden and that which is taboo, like a hidden fracture that threatens to split open bourgeois respectability. Seeking to find answers to an aesthetic that has been rejected and hidden, this paper looks at three films of Kanti Shah to see how the notion of taboo, censorship and the unseen coincide, how they operate in the domain of his cinema and try and understand a form that draws our attention to the subterranean forces at work.

Keywords: B-movies, trash, taboo, censorship

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418 Special Single Mode Fiber Tests of Polarization Mode Dispersion Changes in a Harsh Environment

Authors: Jan Bohata, Stanislav Zvanovec, Matej Komanec, Jakub Jaros, David Hruby


Even though there is a rapid development in new optical networks, still optical communication infrastructures remain composed of thousands of kilometers of aging optical cables. Many of them are located in a harsh environment which contributes to an increased attenuation or induced birefringence of the fibers leading to the increase of polarization mode dispersion (PMD). In this paper, we report experimental results from environmental optical cable tests and characterization in the climate chamber. We focused on the evaluation of optical network reliability in a harsh environment. For this purpose, a special thermal chamber was adopted, targeting to the large temperature changes between -60 °C and 160 C° with defined humidity. Single mode optical cable 230 meters long, having six tubes and a total number of 72 single mode optical fibers was spliced together forming one fiber link, which was afterward tested in the climate chamber. The main emphasis was put to the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) changes, which were evaluated by three different PMD measuring methods (general interferometry technique, scrambled state-of-polarization analysis and polarization optical time domain reflectometer) in order to fully validate obtained results. Moreover, attenuation and chromatic dispersion (CD), as well as the PMD, were monitored using 17 km long single mode optical cable. Results imply a strong PMD dependence on thermal changes, imposing the exceeding 200 % of its value during the exposure to extreme temperatures and experienced more than 20 dB insertion losses in the optical system. The derived statistic is provided in the paper together with an evaluation of such as optical system reliability, which could be a crucial tool for the optical network designers. The environmental tests are further taken in context to our previously published results from long-term monitoring of fundamental parameters within an optical cable placed in a harsh environment in a special outdoor testbed. Finally, we provide a correlation between short-term and long-term monitoring campaigns and statistics, which are necessary for optical network safety and reliability.

Keywords: optical fiber, polarization mode dispersion, harsh environment, aging

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417 Numerical Modeling of a Molten Salt Power Tower Configuration Adaptable for Harsh Winter Climate

Authors: Huiqiang Yang, Domingo Santana


This paper proposes a novel configuration which introduces a natural draft dry cooling tower system in a molten salt power tower. A three-dimensional numerical modeling was developed based on the novel configuration. A plan of building 20 new concentrating solar power plants has been announced by Chinese government in September 2016, and among these 20 new plants, most of them are located in regions with long winter and harsh winter climate. The innovative configuration proposed includes an external receiver concrete tower at the center, a natural draft dry cooling tower which is surrounding the external receiver concrete tower and whose shell is fixed on the external receiver concrete tower, and a power block (including a steam generation system, a steam turbine system and hot/cold molten salt tanks, and water treatment systems) is covered by the roof of the natural draft dry cooling tower. Heat exchanger bundles are vertically installed at the furthest edge of the power block. In such a way, all power block equipment operates under suitable environmental conditions through whole year operation. The monthly performance of the novel configuration is simulated as compared to a standard one. The results show that the novel configuration is much more efficient in each separate month in a typical meteorological year. Moreover, all systems inside the power block have less thermal losses at low ambient temperatures, especially in harsh winter climate. It is also worthwhile mentioning that a photovoltaic power plant can be installed on the roof of the cooling tower to reduce the parasites of the molten salt power tower.

Keywords: molten salt power tower, natural draft dry cooling, commercial scale, power block, harsh winter climate

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416 Effect of Atmospheric Turbulence on Hybrid FSO/RF Link Availability under Qatar's Harsh Climate

Authors: Abir Touati, Syed Jawad Hussain, Farid Touati, Ammar Bouallegue


Although there has been a growing interest in the hybrid free-space optical link and radio frequency FSO/RF communication system, the current literature is limited to results obtained in moderate or cold environment. In this paper, using a soft switching approach, we investigate the effect of weather inhomogeneities on the strength of turbulence hence the channel refractive index under Qatar harsh environment and their influence on the hybrid FSO/RF availability. In this approach, either FSO/RF or simultaneous or none of them can be active. Based on soft switching approach and a finite state Markov Chain (FSMC) process, we model the channel fading for the two links and derive a mathematical expression for the outage probability of the hybrid system. Then, we evaluate the behavior of the hybrid FSO/RF under hazy and harsh weather. Results show that the FSO/RF soft switching renders the system outage probability less than that of each link individually. A soft switching algorithm is being implemented on FPGAs using Raptor code interfaced to the two terminals of a 1Gbps/100 Mbps FSO/RF hybrid system, the first being implemented in the region. Experimental results are compared to the above simulation results.

Keywords: atmospheric turbulence, haze, hybrid FSO/RF, outage probability, refractive index

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415 Polymer-Ceramic Composite Film Fabrication and Characterization for Harsh Environment Applications

Authors: Santiranjan Shannigrahi, Mohit Sharma, Ivan Tan Chee Kiang, Yong Anna Marie


Polymer-ceramics composites are gaining importance due to their high specific strength, corrosion resistance, and high mechanical properties, as well as low cost. As a result, polymer composites are suitable for various industrial applications, like automobiles, aerospace, and biomedical areas. The present work comprises the development of polymer-ceramic composite films and is tested for the harsh environment including weatherability and UV barrier property. The polymer composite films are kept in weather chamber for a fixed period of time followed by tested for their physical, mechanical and chemical properties. The composite films are fabricated using compounding followed by hot pressing. UV-visible spectroscopy results reveal that the pure polymer polyethylene (PE) films are transparent in the visible range and do not absorb UV. However, polymer ceramic composite films start absorbing UV completely even at very low filler loading amount of 5 wt.%. The changes in tensile properties of the various composite films before and after UV illuminations for 40 hrs at 60 degC are analyzed. The tensile strength of neat PE film has been observed 8% reduction, whereas the remarkable increase in tensile strength has been observed (18% improvement for 10 wt. % filled composites films). The UV exposure leads to strengthen the crosslinking among PE polymer chains in the filled composite films, which contributes towards the incremented tensile strength properties.

Keywords: polymer ceramic composite, processing, harsh environment, mechanical properties

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414 Saudi Arabia Border Security Informatics: Challenges of a Harsh Environment

Authors: Syed Ahsan, Saleh Alshomrani, Ishtiaq Rasool, Ali Hassan


In this oral presentation, we will provide an overview of the technical and semantic architecture of a desert border security and critical infrastructure protection security system. Modern border security systems are designed to reduce the dependability and intrusion of human operators. To achieve this, different types of sensors are use along with video surveillance technologies. Application of these technologies in a harsh desert environment of Saudi Arabia poses unique challenges. Environmental and geographical factors including high temperatures, desert storms, temperature variations and remoteness adversely affect the reliability of surveillance systems. To successfully implement a reliable, effective system in a harsh desert environment, the following must be achieved: i) Selection of technology including sensors, video cameras, and communication infrastructure that suit desert environments. ii) Reduced power consumption and efficient usage of equipment to increase the battery life of the equipment. iii) A reliable and robust communication network with efficient usage of bandwidth. Also, to reduce the expert bottleneck, an ontology-based intelligent information systems needs to be developed. Domain knowledge unique and peculiar to Saudi Arabia needs to be formalized to develop an expert system that can detect abnormal activities and any intrusion.

Keywords: border security, sensors, abnormal activity detection, ontologies

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413 Characterization of Nano Coefficient of Friction through Lfm of Superhydrophobic/Oleophobic Coatings Applied on 316l Ss

Authors: Hamza Shams, Sajid Saleem, Bilal A. Siddiqui


This paper investigates the coefficient of friction at nano-levels of commercially available superhydrophobic/oleophobic coatings when applied over 316L SS. 316L Stainless Steel or Marine Stainless Steel has been selected for its widespread uses in structures, marine and biomedical applications. The coatings were investigated in harsh sand-storm and sea water environments. The particle size of the sand during the procedure was carefully selected to simulate sand-storm conditions. Sand speed during the procedure was carefully modulated to simulate actual wind speed during a sand-storm. Sample preparation was carried out using prescribed methodology by the coating manufacturer. The coating’s adhesion and thickness was verified before and after the experiment with the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The value for nano-level coefficient of friction has been determined using Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM). The analysis has been used to formulate a value of friction coefficient which in turn is associative of the amount of wear the coating can bear before the exposure of the base substrate to the harsh environment. The analysis aims to validate the coefficient of friction value as marketed by the coating manufacturers and more importantly test the coating in real-life applications to justify its use. It is expected that the coating would resist exposure to the harsh environment for a considerable amount of time. Further, it would prevent the sample from getting corroded in the process.

Keywords: 316L SS, scanning electron microscopy, lateral force microscopy, marine stainless steel, oleophobic coating, superhydrophobic coating

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412 Cooperation and Conflict in Child Rearing Practices among Parents in Indian Context

Authors: Jilly John


The paper reports one of the study conducted to explore the dimensions of child rearing practice and effects of power difference among parents on child rearing practices adopted in the families. The first objective investigated dimensions of child rearing practices (a) overprotection (b) disciplinarian, (c) esteem building, (d) normal, (e) harsh (f) ridicule, and (g) rejection. The second objective investigated difference among father and mother on child rearing practices. The results of the study revealed that dimensions of child rearing practices are crucial variables which resulted in form of major deviations in distribution of parents in the seven dimensions. Analysis of objective two revealed that harsh and ridicule dimensions of child rearing practices are significantly different among father and mother. The dimensions are also different when the parents are employed and according to the type of families. Thus the results of the study present the possibility of changed child rearing practices among Indian families in relation to prevalent sociodemographic changes and indicate the necessity to re-examine culture-based explanations on child rearing practices.

Keywords: child rearing practices, dimensions of child rearing, difference among parents, Indian families

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411 University Students Sport’s Activities Assessment in Harsh Weather Conditions

Authors: Ammar S. M. Moohialdin, Bambang T. Suhariadi, Mohsin Siddiqui


This paper addresses the application of physiological status monitoring (PSM) for assessing the impact of harsh weather conditions on sports activities in universities in Saudi Arabia. Real sports measurement was conducted during sports activities such that the physiological status (HR and BR) of five students were continuously monitored by using Zephyr BioHarnessTM 3.0 sensors in order to identify the physiological bonds and zones. These bonds and zones were employed as indicators of the associated physiological risks of the performed sports activities. Furthermore, a short yes/no questionnaire was applied to collect information on participants’ health conditions and opinions of the applied PSM sensors. The results show the absence of a warning system as a protective aid for the hazardous levels of extremely hot and humid weather conditions that may cause dangerous and fatal circumstances. The applied formulas for estimating maximum HR provides accurate estimations for Maximum Heart Rate (HRmax). The physiological results reveal that the performed activities by the participants are considered the highest category (90–100%) in terms of activity intensity. This category is associated with higher HR, BR and physiological risks including losing the ability to control human body behaviors. Therefore, there is a need for immediate intervention actions to reduce the intensity of the performed activities to safer zones. The outcomes of this study assist the safety improvement of sports activities inside universities and athletes performing their sports activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to represent a special case of the application of PSM technology for assessing sports activities in universities considering the impacts of harsh weather conditions on students’ health and safety.

Keywords: physiological status monitoring (PSM), heart rate (HR), breathing rate (BR), Arabian Gulf

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410 Khiaban (the Street) as an Ancient Percept of the Iranian Urban Landscape: An Aesthetic Reading of Lalehzar Street, the First Modern Khiaban in Iran

Authors: Mohammad Atashinbar


Lalehzar was one of the main streets in central Tehran in late Qajar and 1st Pahlavi (1880-1940) and a center of attention for the government. It was a natural walk during the last decade of the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah (1880-1895). However, this street lost its prosperity status under the 2nd Pahlavi and evolved from a modern cultural street to a commercial corridor. Lalehzar's decline was the result of the immigration of the upper class from the inner city to the northern part and the consequent transfer of amenities and luxury goods with them. It seems that during Lalehzar's six decades of prosperity, this khiâbân has received an aesthetic look, which has made it enjoyable and appreciated by Tehran’s people. Various post-revolutionary urban management measures have been taken to revive Lalehzar and improve the quality of its urban life. Since the beginning of the Safavid era, the khiâbân was accompanied by the concept of urban space, and its characteristics are explained by referring to the main axis of the Persian Garden with rows of trees, streams, and a line of flowers on both sides. The construction of a street inside the city as an urban space benefits from a mental concept as a spiritual and exciting space, especially in common forms in the Persian Garden. Before that, the khiâbân was a religious and mythical concept, and we can even say that the mastery of this concept led to its appearance in the garden. In Tehran, Lalehzar Street is a gateway to modernity. The aesthetic changes in Lalehzar Street, inspired by Nasser al-Din Shah's journey to Europe around 1870, coinciding with the changes in architectural and urban landscape movements around the world between 1880 and 1940. The Shah is impressed by the modernist urbanism and, in particular, the Champs-Élysées in Paris. A tree-lined promenade with the hallmarks of the Persian Garden is familiar to Nasser al-Din Shah's mental image of beauty. In its state of mind, the main axis of the Persian Garden has the characteristics of a promenade. Therefore, the origins of the aesthetic of Lalehzar Street come from the aesthetics of the khiâbân. Admitting that the Champs-Élysées served as a model for Lalehzar, it seems that the Shah wanted to associate the Champs-Élysées with Lalehzar and highlight its landscape aspects by building this street. Depending on whether the percepts have their own aesthetic, this proposal seeks to analyze the aesthetic evolutions of the khiâbân as a percept towards the street as a component of the urban landscape in Lalehzar. The research attempts to review the aesthetic aspects of Lalehzar between 1880-1940 by using iconographic analysis, based on the available historical data, to find the leading aesthetics principles of this street. The aesthetic view to Lalehzar as an artwork is one of the main achievements of this study.

Keywords: Lalehzar, aesthetics, percept, Tehran, street

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409 Layout Optimization of a Start-up COVID-19 Testing Kit Manufacturing Facility

Authors: Poojan Vora, Hardik Pancholi, Sanket Tajane, Harsh Shah, Elias Keedy


The global COVID-19 pandemic has affected the industry drastically in many ways. Even though the vaccine is being distributed quickly and despite the decreasing number of positive cases, testing is projected to remain a key aspect of the ‘new normal’. Improving existing plant layout and improving safety within the facility are of great importance in today’s industries because of the need to ensure productivity optimization and reduce safety risks. In practice, it is essential for any manufacturing plant to reduce nonvalue adding steps such as the movement of materials and rearrange similar processes. In the current pandemic situation, optimized layouts will not only increase safety measures but also decrease the fixed cost per unit manufactured. In our case study, we carefully studied the existing layout and the manufacturing steps of a new Texas start-up company that manufactures COVID testing kits. The effects of production rate are incorporated with the computerized relative allocation of facilities technique (CRAFT) algorithm to improve the plant layout and estimate the optimization parameters. Our work reduces the company’s material handling time and increases their daily production. Real data from the company are used in the case study to highlight the importance of colleges in fostering small business needs and improving the collaboration between college researchers and industries by using existing models to advance best practices.

Keywords: computerized relative allocation of facilities technique, facilities planning, optimization, start-up business

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408 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Floating Tablets of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

Authors: Gajera Lalit, Shah Pranav, Shah Shailesh


Venlafaxine hydrochloride has a short elimination half-life of 5 ± 2 hr, and absorption window in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The conventional tablets need to be administered two to three times a day and possess an oral bioavailability of 45%. The purpose of this study was to formulate gastroretentive effervescent floating tablets of Venlafaxine HCl. Different grades of HPMC namely K15M, K4M, K100M and E15LV were employed as swelling polymers whereas sodium bicarbonate was employed as gas generating agent. The direct compression method was employed for the formulation of tablets. The tablets were evaluated in terms of hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content, water uptake, in-vitro floating behavior and in-vitro drug release study. All the formulations exhibited very short floating lag time of < 1 min and total floating time of 12 hr. Formulation L3 containing 25 mg and 75 mg of HPMC E15 LV and HPMC K15M respectively exhibited complete drug release within 12 hrs.

Keywords: venlafaxine HCl, hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose, floating gastro retentive tablets, in-vitro drug release, non-fickian diffusion

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407 Enhanced Production of Endo-β-1,4-Xylanase from a Newly Isolated Thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29 for Prospective Industrial Applications

Authors: Zainab Bibi, Afsheen Aman, Shah Ali Ul Qader


Endo-β-1,4-xylanases [EC] are one of the major groups of enzymes that are involved in degradation process of xylan and have several applications in food, textile and paper processing industries. Due to broad utility of endo-β-1,4-xylanase, researchers are focusing to increase the productivity of this hydrolase from various microbial species. Harsh industrial condition, faster reaction rate and efficient hydrolysis of xylan with low risk of contamination are critical requirements of industry that can be fulfilled by synthesizing the enzyme with efficient properties. In the current study, a newly isolated thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29 was used in order to attain the maximum production of endo-1,4-β-xylanase. Bacterial culture was isolated from soil, collected around the blast furnace site of a steel processing mill, Karachi. Optimization of various nutritional and physical factors resulted the maximum synthesis of endo-1,4-β-xylanase from a thermophile. High production yield was achieved at 60°C and pH-6.0 after 24 hours of incubation period. Various nitrogen sources viz. peptone, yeast extract and meat extract improved the enzyme synthesis with 0.5%, 0.2% and 0.1% optimum concentrations. Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (0.25%), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.05%), ammonium sulfate (0.05%) and calcium chloride (0.01%) were noticed as valuable salts to improve the production of enzyme. The thermophilic nature of isolate, with its broad pH stability profile and reduced fermentation time indicates its importance for effective xylan saccharification and for large scale production of endo-1,4-β-xylanase.

Keywords: geobacillus, optimization, production, xylanase

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406 The Importance of Right Speech in Buddhism and Its Relevance Today

Authors: Gautam Sharda


The concept of right speech is the third stage of the noble eightfold path as prescribed by the Buddha and followed by millions of practicing Buddhists. The Buddha lays a lot of importance on the notion of right speech (Samma Vacca). In the Angutara Nikaya, the Buddha mentioned what constitutes right speech, which is basically four kinds of abstentions; namely abstaining from false speech, abstaining from slanderous speech, abstaining from harsh or hateful speech and abstaining from idle chatter. The Buddha gives reasons in support of his view as to why abstaining from these four kinds of speeches is favourable not only for maintaining the peace and equanimity within an individual but also within a society. It is a known fact that when we say something harsh or slanderous to others, it eventually affects our individual peace of mind too. We also know about the many examples of hate speeches which have led to senseless cases of violence and which are well documented within our country and the world. Also, indulging in false speech is not a healthy sign for individuals within a group as this kind of a social group which is based on falsities and lies cannot really survive for long and will eventually lead to chaos. Buddha also told us to refrain from idle chatter or gossip as generally we have seen that idle chatter or gossip does more harm than any good to the individual and the society. Hence, if most of us actually inculcate this third stage (namely, right speech) of the noble eightfold path of the Buddha in our daily life, it would be highly beneficial both for the individual and for the harmony of the society.

Keywords: Buddhism, speech, individual, society

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405 Reliability-Based Codified Design of Concrete Structures

Authors: Naser Alenezi, Ibrahim Alsakkaf, Osama Eid


The main objective of this study is to develop an independent reliability based code for reinforced concrete (R/C) structural components and elements solely for the State of Kuwait and its neighboring countries. The proposed code will take into account the harsh Kuwait’s harsh environment, loading conditions and material strengths. The method for developing such a code is based on structural reliability theory that takes into accounts the specific geographical and the various prescribed societal environment of the Kuwait region. These methods were developed according to the following four components: (1) loads, (2) structural strength, (3) reliability analysis, and (4) achieving target reliability levels (reliability index ’s ). The final product from this study will be a design code for R/C structural elements that include beams and columns, and some other structural members. This reliability-based LRFD design code will provide appropriate, easy, fast, and economical approach for designing R/C structural elements such as, beams and columns, for both houses and bridges, and other concrete structures. In addition, this reliability-based codified design of R/C beams, columns, and, possibly, concrete slabs will improve the design and serviceability of R/C bridge and building systems in Kuwait and neighboring GCC countries. Also, it has the potential to reduce the cost of new concrete structures, as fewer materials are used with more design efficiency.

Keywords: live laod, design, evaluation, structural building

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404 The Mechanical Response of a Composite Propellant under Harsh Conditions

Authors: Xin Tong, Jin-sheng Xu, Xiong Chen, Ya Zheng


The aim of this paper is to study the mechanical properties of HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) composite propellant under harsh conditions. It describes two tests involving uniaxial tensile tests of various strain rates (ranging from 0.0005 s-1 to 1.5 s-1), temperatures (ranging from 223 K to 343 K) and high-cycle fatigue tests under low-temperature (223 K, frequencies were set at 50, 100, 150 Hz) using DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer). To highlight the effect of small pre-strain on fatigue properties of HTPB propellant, quasi-static stretching was carried out before fatigue loading, and uniaxial tensile tests at constant strain rates were successively applied. The results reveal that flow stress of propellant increases with reduction in temperature and rise in strain rate, and the strain rate-temperature equivalence relationship could be described by TTSP (time-temperature superposition principle) incorporating a modified WLF equation. Moreover, the rate of performance degradations and damage accumulation of propellant during fatigue tests increased with increasing strain amplitude and loading frequencies, while initial quasi-static loading has a negative effect on fatigue properties by comparing stress-strain relations after fatigue tests.

Keywords: fatigue, HTPB propellant, tensile properties, time-temperature superposition principle

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403 Evaluation of High Temperature Wear Performance of as Cladded and Tig Re-Melting Stellite 6 Cladded Overlay on Aisi-304L Using SMAW Process

Authors: Manjit Singha, Sandeep Singh Sandhu, A. S. Shahi


Stellite 6 is cobalt based superalloy used for protective coatings. It is used to improve the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This paper reports the high temperature wear analysis of satellite 6 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiment was carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and hardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be the optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding on two plates of AISI 304 L substrate. On the first plate, seven layers seven passes of stellite 6 was overlaid which was used in as cladded form and the second plate was overlaid with five layers five passes of satellite 6 with further TIG remelting. The wear performance was examined for normal temperature environmental condition and harsh temperature environmental condition. The satellite 6 coating with TIG remelting was found to be better in both the conditions even with lesser metal deposition due to its finer grain structure.

Keywords: surfacing, stellite 6, dilution, overlay, SMAW, high-temperature frictional wear, micro-structure, micro-hardness

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402 Persian Garden Design and Climate Case Studies: Shahzadeh-Mahan and Shah Garden

Authors: Raheleh Saifiabolhassan


Gardens symbolize human effort to bring Eden to earth and are defined as the purest pleasures and the greatest inspiration for men. According to Persian mythology, a garden called "Paris" is a magical, perfumed place populated by beautiful and angelic creatures. "Pardis" comes from the word "paridaiza," which means "walled garden." Gardening has always been a worldwide attraction due to the abundance of green space, and desert gardens are no exception. Because most historical garden designs use a similar pattern, such as Chahar-Bagh, climate effects have not been considered. The purpose of studying these general designs was to determine whether location and weather conditions are affecting them. So, two gardens were chosen for comparison: a desert (Shahzadeh-Mahan) and a humid garden (Shah) and compared their geometry, irrigation system, entrances, and pavilions. The findings of the study revealed that there are several notable differences among their architectural principles. For example, the desert garden design is introverted with transparent surfaces and a single focal point, while the moderate garden is extraverted with high complexity and multiple perspectives. In conclusion, the study recognizes the richness and significance of the Persian garden concept, which can be applied in many different contexts.

Keywords: Pardis, Chahar-bagh, Persian garden, temperate, humid climate, geometry, pavilion, irrigations, culture

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401 Design with Nature: Vernacular Buildings Adaptation to Sand Landforms in Sahara Desert

Authors: Mohammed Sherzad


The Sahara desert covers third of the total surface of Africa with a quarter of this area within the national boundaries of Algeria. Sand drift and deposition is considered one of the major factors of the desertification process in the area. It is estimated that a third of the world's hot arid lands are covered by aeolian sand deposits, forming extensive sand bedforms. The Gourrara region in the Grand Erg Occidental (west of Algerian Sahara) and the region of Souf in the Grand Erg Oriental (east of Algerian Sahara) have been chosen as case studies. These were significant cultural and trading centers for many centuries despite their remote location and their harsh desert environment particularly solar radiation and sand drift and deposition. The architecture of the sustained vernacular settlements in each of the two regions has unique design features for this environment. So do the irrigation systems used - palm groves and the foggara system for capturing and distributing groundwater. However, the ecological balance which enabled the Saharans to live with the desert has been upset. New buildings often use technology based on models imported or imposed from areas that climatically have little in common. These make the inhabitants live ‘in the desert’ rather than ‘with the desert’. This paper will describe the qualities of the vernacular architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness and adaptability to the region’s harsh desert environment in comparison with contemporary buildings. Developing design guides and approaches based on lessons from the traditional architecture is important to ensure sustained livelihoods of the inhabitants in these areas.

Keywords: vernacular architecture, desert architecture, hot climate, aeolian sand deposition

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400 Effect of High Volume processed Fly Ash on Engineering Properties of Concrete

Authors: Dhara Shah, Chandrakant Shah


As everyone knows, fly ash is a residual material we get upon energy production using coal. It has found numerous advantages for use in the concrete industry like improved workability, increased ultimate strength, reduced bleeding, reduced permeability, better finish and reduced heat of hydration. Types of fly ash depend on the type of coal and the coal combustion process. It is a pozzolanic material and has mainly two classes, F and C, based on the chemical composition. The fly ash used for this experimental work contains significant amount of lime and would be categorized as type F fly ash. Generally all types of fly ash have particle size less than 0.075mm. The fineness and lime content of fly ash are very important as they will affect the air content and water demand of the concrete, thereby affecting the durability and strength of the concrete. The present work has been done to optimize the use of fly ash to produce concrete with improved results and added benefits. A series of tests are carried out, analyzed and compared with concrete manufactured using only Portland cement as a binder. The present study is carried out for concrete mix with replacement of cement with different proportions of fly ash. Two concrete mixes M25 and M30 were studied with six replacements of cement with fly ash i.e. 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60% and 65% for 7-day, 14-day, 28-day, 56-day and 90-day. Study focused on compressive strength, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture of concrete. Study clearly revealed that cement replacement by any proportion of fly ash failed to achieve early strength. Replacement of 40% and 45% succeeded in achieving required flexural strength for M25 and M30 grade of concrete.

Keywords: processed fly ash, engineering properties of concrete, pozzolanic, lime content

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399 Simulation-Based Control Module for Offshore Single Point Mooring System

Authors: Daehyun Baek, Seungmin Lee, Minju Kim Jangik Park, Hyeong-Soon Moon


SPM (Single Point Mooring) is one of the mooring buoy facilities installed on a coast near oil and gas terminal which is not able to berth FPSO or large oil tankers under the condition of high draft due to geometrical limitation. Loading and unloading of crude oil and gas through a subsea pipeline can be carried out between the mooring buoy, ships and onshore facilities. SPM is an offshore-standalone system which has to withstand the harsh marine environment with harsh conditions such as high wind, current and so on. Therefore, SPM is required to have high stability, reliability and durability. Also, SPM is comprised to be integrated systems which consist of power management, high pressure valve control, sophisticated hardware/software and a long distance communication system. In order to secure required functions of SPM system, a simulation model for the integrated system of SPM using MATLAB Simulink and State flow tool has been developed. The developed model consists of configuration of hydraulic system for opening and closing of PLEM (Pipeline End Manifold) valves and control system logic. To verify functions of the model, an integrated simulation model for overall systems of SPM was also developed by considering handshaking variables between individual systems. In addition to the dynamic model, a self-diagnostic function to determine failure of the system was configured, which enables the SPM system itself to alert users about the failure once a failure signal comes to arise. Controlling and monitoring the SPM system is able to be done by a HMI system which is capable of managing the SPM system remotely, which was carried out by building a communication environment between the SPM system and the HMI system.

Keywords: HMI system, mooring buoy, simulink simulation model, single point mooring, stateflow

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398 The Influence of Mobile Phone Addiction on Academic Performance among Teenagers in Shah Alam, Malaysia

Authors: Jamaluddin Abd Rashid, Aris Abdul Rahman


Mobile phones have become the most popular way to communicate with other individuals and it has created an unspoken social dependency. Making phone calls, instant messaging, playing online games and accessing the Internet are among the features added to a mobile phone, attracting teenagers to spend more hours fixated on their gadgets. As such, this study attempted to examine the frequency of time spent on mobile phones and how this influenced academic performance. A quantitative methodology was applied in this study, where face to face survey through the distribution of questionnaires was facilitated onto a group of 200 secondary school students from the Shah Alam community in Selangor,Malaysia. Both genders, male and females were assessed equally to find out if there exists a correlation between genders when measuring higher or lower frequency of attachment to mobile phones. It can also be seen that 100% correspondents have a mobile phone in their possession. The adolescents uses mobile phones daily, which shows students being somewhat addicted, as they tend to feel that it is necessary to use a mobile phone. The main findings of this research found out that, students that are mobile phone addictive received a lower grade in schools. Mobile phone addiction does affect academic performance negatively. As this study discusses the modern-day phenomenon, it is hoped that the findings and discussion could add to present literary works and help future researchers understand the relationship between mobile phone addiction and academic performance.

Keywords: academic performance, mobile phone addiction, social media, student

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397 Eliminating Injury in the Work Place and Realizing Vision Zero Using Accident Investigation and Analysis as Method: A Case Study

Authors: Ramesh Kumar Behera, Md. Izhar Hassan


Accident investigation and analysis are useful to identify deficiencies in plant, process, and management practices and formulate preventive strategies for injury elimination. In India and other parts of the world, industrial accidents are investigated to know the causes and also to fulfill legal compliances. However, findings of investigation are seldom used appropriately to strengthen Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in expected lines. The mineral rich state of Odisha in eastern coast of India; known as a hub for Iron and Steel industries, witnessed frequent accidents during 2005-2009. This article based on study of 982 fatal ‘factory-accidents’ occurred in Odisha during the period 2001-2016, discusses the ‘turnaround-story’ resulting in reduction of fatal accident from 122 in 2009 to 45 in 2016. This paper examines various factors causing incidents; accident pattern in steel and chemical sector; role of climate and harsh weather conditions on accident causation. Software such as R, SQL, MS-Excel and Tableau were used for analysis of data. It is found that maximum fatality is caused due to ‘fall from height’ (24%); steel industries are relatively more accident prone; harsh weather conditions of summer increase chances of accident by 20%. Further, the study suggests that enforcement of partial work-restriction around lunch time during peak summer, screening and training of employees reduce accidents due to fall from height. The study indicates that learning from accident investigation and analysis can be used as a method to reduce work related accidents in the journey towards ‘Vision Zero’.

Keywords: accident investigation and analysis, fatal accidents in India, fall from height, vision zero

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396 Interdisciplinary Approach for Economic Production of Oil and Gas Reserves: Application of Geothermal Energy for Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Dharmit Viroja, Prerakkumar Shah, Rajanikant Gajera, Ruchit Shah


With present scenario of aging oil and gas fields with high water cuts, volatile oil prices and increasing greenhouse gas emission, the need for alleviating such issues has necessitated for oil and gas industry to make the maximum out of available assets, infrastructure and reserves in mother Earth. Study undertaken emphasizes on utilizing Geothermal Energy under specific reservoir conditions for Enhanced oil Recovery (EOR) to boost up production. Allied benefits of this process include mitigation of electricity problem in remote fields and controlled CO-emission. Utilization of this energy for EOR and increasing economic life of field could surely be rewarding. A new way to value oil lands would be considered if geothermal co-production is integrated in the field development program. Temperature profile of co-produced fluid across its journey is a pivotal issue which has been studied. Geo pressured reservoirs resulting from trapped brine under an impermeable bed is also a frontier for exploitation. Hot geothermal fluid is a by-product of large number of oil and gas wells, historically this hot water has been seen as an inconvenience; however, it can be looked at as a useful resource. The production of hot fluids from abandoned and co-production of hot fluids from producing wells has potential to prolong life of oil and gas fields. The study encompasses various factors which are required for use of this technology and application of this process across various phases of oil and gas value chain. Interdisciplinary approach in oil and gas value chain has shown potential for economic production of estimated oil and gas reserves.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, geo-pressured reservoirs, geothermal energy, oil and gas value chain

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395 Isolation and Identification Fibrinolytic Protease Endophytic Fungi from Hibiscus Leaves in Shah Alam

Authors: Mohd Sidek Ahmad, Zainon Mohd Noor, Zaidah Zainal Ariffin


Fibrin degradation is an important part in prevention or treatment of intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Plasmin like fibrinolytic enzymes has given new hope to patient with cardiovascular diseases by treating fibrin aggregation related diseases with traditional plasminogen activator which have many side effects. Various researches involving wide range of sources for production of fibrinolytic proteases, from bacteria, fungi, insects and fermented foods. But few have looked into endophytic fungi as a potential source. Sixteen (16) endophytic fungi were isolated from Hibiscus sp. leaves from six different locations in Shah Alam, Selangor. Only two endophytic fungi, FH3 and S13 showed positive fibrinolytic protease activities. FH3 produced 5.78cm and S13 produced 4.48cm on Skim Milk Agar after 4 days of incubation at 27°C. Fibrinolytic activity was observed; 3.87cm and 1.82cm diameter clear zone on fibrin plate of FH3 and S13 respectively. 18srRNA was done for identification of the isolated fungi with positive fibrinolytic protease. S13 had the highest similarity (100%) to that of Penicillium citrinum strain TG2 and FH3 had the highest similarity (99%) to that of Fusarium sp. FW2PhC1, Fusarium sp. 13002, Fusarium sp. 08006, Fusarium equiseti strain Salicorn 8 and Fungal sp. FCASAn-2. Media composition variation showed the effects of carbon nitrogen on protein concentration, where the decrement of 50% of media composition caused drastic decrease in protease of FH3 from 1.081 to 0.056 and also S13 from 2.946 to 0.198.

Keywords: isolation, identification, fibrinolytic protease, endophytic fungi, Hibiscus leaves

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