Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5685

Search results for: ethical behavior

5685 The Developmental of Ethical Behavior of Nursing Students in Borommarajonani College of Nursing, Suratthani, Thailand

Authors: Ubonrattan Phophatanachai, Phensri Thongphet, Weerawan Kerdtong

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to compare the ethical behavior regarding responsibility and polite manners of nursing students of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Suratthani, Thailand before and after providing the activity session of ethical behavior development. The samples consisted of 103 sophomores in the academic year 2006. The tools were tested for reliability and content validity. The reliability of the Ethical Behavior Questionnaire measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.94. Data were analyzed using means, standard deviations, and dependent t-test. The findings were as follows: a) after the activity session, the mean scores of ethical behavior regarding responsibility and polite manners of nursing students increased from middle level to high level; b) mean scores of responsibilities and polite manners after the activity session were significantly higher than those before the session (t =28.36, p < .001; t =23.9, p < .001, respectively).

Keywords: development of ethical behavior, nursing students, health, nursing informatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
5684 Moral Identity and Moral Attentiveness as Predictors of Ethical Leadership in Financial Sector

Authors: Pilar Gamarra Gamarra, Michele Girotto

Abstract:

In the expanding field of leaders’ ethical behavior research, little attention has been paid to the association between finance leaders’ ethical traits (beyond personality) and ethical leadership, and more importantly, how these ethical characteristics can be predictors of ethical behavior at the leadership level in the financial sector. In this study, we tested a theoretical model based on uponsocial cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) and the cognitive-developmental model (Piaget, 1932) to examine leaders’ moral identity and moral attentiveness as antecedents of ethical leadership. After the 2008 economic crisis, the marketplace has awakened to the potential dangers of unethical behavior. The unethical behavior of the leaders of the financial sector was identified as guilty of this economic catastrophe. For that reason, it seems increasingly prudent for organizations to have leaders who are cognitively inclined toward ethical behavior. This evidence suggests that moral attentiveness and moral identity is perhaps one way of identifying those kinds of leaders. For leaders who are morally attentive and have a high moral identity, themes of ethics interventions are consistent with their way of seeing the word. As a result, these leaders could become critical components of change in organizations and could provide the energy and skills necessary for these efforts to be successful. Ethical behavior of leader from the financial sector and marketing sectors must be joined to manage the change. In this study, a leader’s moral identity, leader’s moral attentiveness, and self-importance of Ethical Leadership are measured for financial and marketing leaders to be compared to determine the relationship between the three variables in each sector. Other conclusion related to gender, educational level or generation are obtained.

Keywords: ethical leadership, moral identity, moral attentiveness, financial leaders, marketing leaders, ethical behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
5683 The Impact of Religiosity and Ethical Senstivity on Accounting Students’ Ethical Judgement Decision

Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Alteer

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is come up with theoretical model through understanding the causes and motives behind the auditors' sensitive to ethical dilemma through Auditing Students. This study considers the possibility of auditing students’ ethical judgement being affected by two individual factors, namely ethical sensitivity and religiosity. The finding of this study that there are several ethical theories a models provide a significant understanding of ethical issues and supported that ethical sensitivity and religiosity may affect ethical judgement decision among accounting students. The suggestion model proposes that student ethical judgement is influenced by their ethical sensitivity and their religiosity. Nonetheless, the influence of religiosity on ethical judgement is expected to be via ethical sensitivity.

Keywords: asccounting students, ethical sensitivity, religiosity, ethical judgement

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
5682 The Relationship between Organizational Political Behavior and Moral Values with Work Engagement in Sport Employees of National Iranian Gas Company

Authors: Seyed Salahedin Naghshbandi, Mahnaz Ahmadikhatir, Siavash Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between organizational political behavior and ethical values with the job enthusiasm of the sport personnel of the National Iranian Gas Company. The population of this research included all personnel of the National Iranian Gas Company's sports personnel (150 people). For collecting information, library resources and three questionnaires, organizational political behavior by Kaspar and Carlsen (1997), Lewall's moral values questionnaire (1986) and job enthusiasm questionnaire Schaufeli & Bekker (2003) have been used. Validity of the questionnaires was confirmed by university professors. Using Cronbach alpha correlation coefficient, the reliability of the organizational political behavior questionnaire was 0.92, the moral values questionnaire was 0.86 and the Schaufeli & Baker job enthusiasm questionnaire was 0.91-0.96. The results of this research show a significant, direct and positive relationship between the components of job aspiration with political behavior and ethical values. Therefore, managers of organizations should, as far as possible, remove political behaviors from the organization and be able to institutionalize ethical values in their organization so that they can increase employee eagerness.

Keywords: political behavior, ethical values, job enthusiasm, staff, national Iranian gas company

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
5681 Understanding Consumer Behavior Towards Business Ethics: Is it Really Important for Consumers

Authors: Ömer Akkaya, Muammer Zerenler

Abstract:

Ethics is important for all shareholders and stakeholders that a firm has in its environment. Whether a firm behaves ethically or unethically has a significant influence on consumers’ decision making and buying process. This research tries to explain business ethics from consumers’ perspective. The survey includes several questions to explain how consumers react if they know a firm behave unethically or ethically. What are consumers’ expectations regarding the ethical behavior of firm? Do consumer reward or punish the firms considering the ethics? Does it really important for consumers firms behaving ethical?

Keywords: business ethics, consumer behavior, ethics, social responsibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
5680 Attributes of Ethical Leadership and Ethical Guidelines in Malaysian Public Sector

Authors: M. Norazamina, A. Azizah, Y. Najihah Marha, A. Suraya

Abstract:

Malaysian Public Sector departments or agencies are responsible to provide efficient public services with zero corruption. However, corruption continues to occur due to the absence of ethical leadership and well-execution of ethical guidelines. Thus, the objective of this paper is to explore the attributes of ethical leadership and ethical guidelines. This study employs a qualitative research by analyzing data from interviews with key informers of public sector using conceptual content analysis (NVivo11). The study reveals eight attributes of ethical leadership which are role model, attachment, ethical support, knowledgeable, discipline, leaders’ spirituality encouragement, virtue values and shared values. Meanwhile, five attributes (guidelines, communication, check and balance, concern on stakeholders and compliance) of ethical guidelines are identified. These identified attributes should become the ethical identity and ethical direction of Malaysian Public Sector. This could enhance the public trust as well as the international community trust towards the public sector.

Keywords: check and balance, ethical guidelines, ethical leadership, public sector, spirituality encouragement

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
5679 Ethical Finance and Islamic Finance: Particularities, Possible Convergence and Potential Development

Authors: Safa Ougoujil, Sidi Mohamed Rigar

Abstract:

Economics is not an exact science. It cannot be from the moment it is a social science that concerns society organization, a human science that depends on the behavior of the men and women who make a part of this society. Therefore, it cannot ignore morality, the instinctive sense of good and evil, the natural order which place us between certain values, and which religion often sheds light on. In terms of finance, the reference to ethics is becoming more popular than ever. This is naturally due to the growing financial crises. Finance is less and less ethical, but some financial practices have continued to do so. This is the case of ethical finance and Islamic finance. After attempting to define the concepts of ethical finance and Islamic finance, in a period when financial innovation seeks to encourage differentiation in order to create more profit margins, this article attempts to expose the particularities, the convergences and the potentialities of development of these two sensibilities.

Keywords: convergences, ethical finance, Islamic finance, potential development

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
5678 The Contribution of Buddhist-Based Mindfulness Practices on Ethical Leadership: A Qualitative Study of Organizational Leaders in Thailand

Authors: Kunkanit Sutamchai, Kate E. Rowlands

Abstract:

Recent public ethical scandals in many organizations around the world have raised concern about organizational ethics, which have, in turn, made ethical behaviors and conducts on the part of leaders become more critical topics in organizational studies. However, current research on the benefits of mindfulness within the workplace contexts has predominantly focused on stress reduction and work performance enhancement, while the aspects of ethical behavior development have been far less investigated in mindfulness research in the organizational and management fields. Only recently has there been an emerging call for organizational researchers and practitioners to study mindfulness concepts and practices from the original Buddhist perspectives given that ethics is regarded as a foundation for Buddhist mindfulness. Yet little, if any, empirical research on the contributions of mindfulness practices to ethical leadership has been done in Eastern Buddhist contexts. Therefore, this study aims to explore the extent to which and how Buddhist-based mindfulness practices can influence organizational leaders’ ethical values and practices. On this basis, Thailand was selected as a context of study due to a predominantly Buddhist society and culture. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews with twenty executive leaders from various private organizations in Thailand, who practice Buddhist-based mindfulness meditation regularly. The findings from this study shed light on the role Buddhist-based mindfulness practices can play in promoting ethical behavior among executive leaders in Thailand. The results also suggest that ethical values and practices influenced by Buddhist-based mindfulness practices are well aligned with the elements appeared in the inter-disciplinary and cross-cultural ethical leadership framework, namely: humane, justice, sustainability and responsibility, and moderation. This study concludes that the integration of ethical dimensions to mindfulness practices may provide promising opportunities for ethical leadership development, particularly in the context of Thailand. This could contribute significantly to the future development of both organizations and society at large. The study also suggests that mindfulness interventions in organizational contexts should place more explicit emphasis on ethics. This may be done by relating the ethical principles underlying Buddhist-based mindfulness to other ethical systems in different contexts and cultures where they can be aligned.

Keywords: Buddhism, ethical leadership, leadership development, mindfulness, Thailand, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
5677 Teaching Ethical Behaviour: Conversational Analysis in Perspective

Authors: Nikhil Kewalkrishna Mehta

Abstract:

In the past researchers have questioned the effectiveness of ethics training in higher education. Also, there are observations that support the view that ethical behaviour (range of actions)/ethical decision making models used in the past make use of vignettes to explain ethical behaviour. The understanding remains in the perspective that these vignettes play a limited role in determining individual intentions and not actions. Some authors have also agreed that there are possibilities of differences in one’s intentions and actions. This paper makes an attempt to fill those gaps by evaluating real actions rather than intentions. In a way this study suggests the use of an experiential methodology to explore Berlo’s model of communication as an action along with orchestration of various principles. To this endeavor, an attempt was made to use conversational analysis in the pursuance of evaluating ethical decision making behaviour among students and middle level managers. The process was repeated six times with the set of an average of 15 participants. Similarities have been observed in the behaviour of students and middle level managers that calls for understanding that both the groups of individuals have no cognizance of their actual actions. The deliberations derived out of conversation were taken a step forward for meta-ethical evaluations to portray a clear picture of ethical behaviour among participants. This study provides insights for understanding demonstrated unconscious human behaviour which may fortuitously be termed both ethical and unethical.

Keywords: ethical behaviour, unethical behavior, ethical decision making, intentions and actions, conversational analysis, human actions, sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
5676 Business Ethics in Islam: Making Islamic Banking Attractive for the Customers Round the Globe

Authors: Fahad Ahmed Qureshi

Abstract:

Is it essential for a Muslim businessperson and employees of Islamic financial institutions not only in Islamic Banks to perform his/her actions ethically in a universally, competing habitat? The answer is an emphatic NO! in Islam, ethics conduct all departments of life. The orders for eternal success or falah in Islam are the same for all Muslims–whether in managing their business activities or in carrying out their routine affairs. Without designating any circumstantial ambience, Allah specify people who achieve success as those who are “inviting to all that is good (Khayr), enjoining what is right (Ma'ruf) and forbidding what is wrong (Munkar).” Within a business context, however, what sole axioms of regimen should a company follow? What is a Muslim businessperson’s encumbrance to internal and external stakeholders? Although an organization’s top executives may display sterling ethical behavior, how can middle- and lower-level managers be enthusiastic to perform in a correspondingly ethical manner? What are some protocols that would clinch persistent ethical behavior in a Muslim business?

Keywords: business, ethics, finance, Islam

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
5675 The Implications of Person-Organisation Spirituality Fit on Employees’ Ethical and Spiritual Leadership Behaviours: Insights from Jordan

Authors: Tamer Koburtay, Radi Haloub

Abstract:

Person-Organization fit theory concerns how people flourish in a workplace that is congruence with their values and other traits. This paper seeks to highlight the theoretical relevance that workplace spirituality may add to the existing theory development of the P-O fit. In specific, it aims to empirically test the emerged framework that encompasses how workplace and self-spirituality match may enhance the perceived P-O fit, and how such a fit can enhance both employees’ ethical behaviors (i.e., humanism and honesty) and spiritual leadership behaviors. Drawing on a survey of the private and public sectors in Jordan, the results reveal that increasing the match in workplace and employees’ spirituality positively enhances the perceived P-O fit. Further, ethical and spiritual behaviors were found to be positively linked with a higher P-O fit. The importance of this paper is by generating a concept (i.e., P-O spirituality fit) beyond the already vast literature on P-O fit.

Keywords: ethical behavior, leadership, P-O fit, spirituality, leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
5674 The Role of Ethical Orientation in Two Countries: Different Outcomes in Perception of Corporate Authenticity and Pro-Firm Behavior Intention

Authors: Kyujin Shim, Soojin Kim

Abstract:

This study identifies and examines the impact of factors on two types of CSR outcomes, consumers’ perceptions of corporate authenticity and their pro-firm behavior intentions. Specifically we investigated the roles of two factors - the consumers’ perceptions of CSR motives of a company (i.e. business-oriented vs. society-oriented) and their ethical orientations (i.e. deontology vs. consequentialism). A web-based survey was conducted in South Korea and the United States respectively to compare the differences of consumer reactions between the two countries. The results show that consumers in two countries behave differently to a firm’s CSR motives. In the United States, when consumers perceive a company’s CSR motive as society-oriented, they are more likely to perceive the company authentic and as a result more likely to engage in pro-firm behavior. However, when consumers’ ethical orientation is considered, only consumers’ consequential orientation led to their pro-firm behavioral intention. In South Korea, interpretation of two different CSR motives affects the valence in consumers’ perceptions of corporate authenticity (i.e. society-oriented CSR motive and positive perception of corporate authenticity vs. business-oriented CSR motive and negative perception of corporate authenticity). Korean consumers also showed same pattern in terms of relationship among society-oriented CSR motive, perception of corporate authenticity, and pro-firm behavior intention. Interestingly, Korean consumers’ consequential orientation affects both their perception of corporate authenticity and their pro-firm behavior intention positively. In addition, there was an interaction effect of business-oriented CSR motive and deontological orientation on perception of corporate authenticity. Theoretical and practical implications will be discussed.

Keywords: corporate authenticity, corporate social responsibility, consequentialist ethics, CSR motives, deontological ethics

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
5673 ‘Ethical Relativism’ in Offshore Business: A Critical Assessment

Authors: Biswanath Swain

Abstract:

Ethical relativism, as an ethical perspective, holds that moral worth of a course of action is dependent on a particular space and time. Moral rightness or wrongness of a course of action varies from space to space and from time to time. In short, ethical relativism holds that morality is relative to the context. If we reflect conscientiously on the scope of this perspective, we will find that it is wide-spread amongst the marketers involved in the offshore business. However, the irony is that most of the marketers gone along with ethical relativism in their offshore business have been found to be unsuccessful in terms of loss in market-share and bankruptcy. The upshot is purely self-defeating in nature for the marketers. GSK in China and Nestle Maggi in India are some of the burning examples of that sort. The paper argues and recommends that a marketer, as an alternative, should have recourse to Kantian ethical perspective to deliberate courses of action sensitive to offshore business as Kantian ethical perspective is logically and methodologically sound in nature.

Keywords: business, course of action, Kant, morality, offshore, relativism

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
5672 The Impact of Internal and External CSR on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Performance: Mediation of Organizational Identification and Moderation of Ethical Leadership. A Cross-Cultural Study

Authors: Huma Sarwar, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ishaq, Junaid Aftab

Abstract:

The hospitality sector contributes significantly to the global economy but it is also responsible for imposing adverse influences both environmentally and socially. The objective of this research is two-fold: (1) examining the direct impact of internal CSR and external CSR and indirect impact via organizational identification on creative performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and (2) determining the moderating role of ethical leadership in the relationships of internal- and external- CSR with organizational identification in a cross-cultural context. The data was were collected using multi-respondents and time-lagged data from 260 Pakistani and 239 UK respondents working in upscale hotels of the United Kingdom and Pakistan. The results demonstrate significant differences in both cultures as external CSR has a more substantial impact on organizational identification in the UK, whereas organizational identification has a relatively stronger influence on OCB and creative performance in collectivistic culture (i.e., Pakistan). The findings also confirmed that ethical leadership significantly moderates the relationship of internal- and external - CSR on organizational identification.

Keywords: Huma Sarwar, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ishaq, Junaid Aftab

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
5671 Ethical and Personality Factors and Accounting Professional Judgement

Authors: Shannon Hashemi, Alireza Daneshfar

Abstract:

Accounting ethical awareness has been widely promoted in recent years both in academia and in practice. However, the effectiveness of ethical awareness on accountants' judgment and choice of action is still debatable. This study investigates whether Machiavellianism and gender, as significant personality factors, influence the effect of ethical awareness on accountants' decision-making. Using an experiment, the results of ANOVA tests show that although introducing ethical awareness positively influences the accountants' judgment and choice of action, such an effect is significantly moderated by the accountants' Machiavellianism score and gender. Specifically, the test results show that the effect of introducing ethical awareness was higher on males with low Machiavellian score. The results also show that when the Machiavellian scores were high, the effect of ethical awareness was lower for both males and females. Applications of the results are discussed for accounting professionals as well as accounting ethics educators and researchers.

Keywords: ethical awareness, accounting decision making, Machiavellianism, ANOVA, ethics, accounting education

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
5670 Application of Western and Islamic Philosophy to Business Ethics

Authors: Elmamy Ahmedsalem

Abstract:

The world has witnessed the collapse of many corporate giants as a result of unethical behavior in recent decades. This has induced a series of questions by the global community on why such occurrences could happen, even with corporate governance in place. This paper attempts to propose a philosophical approach from an Islamic perspective to be consolidated with current corporate governance in order to confront contemporary dilemmas. In this paper, ethical theories are presented as a discussion followed by their applications to modern cases of financial collapses. Virtue ethics by Aristotle, justice and fairness by John Rawls, deontology by Immanuel Kant, and utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill, are the four theories which can then be contrasted with the paradigm of Muslim scholars. Despite the differences between the fundamental principles of Islamic and Western worldviews, their ethical theories are aimed at making right decisions and solving ethical dilemmas based on what is good for society. Therefore, Islamic principles should be synthesized with Western philosophy to form a more coherent framework. The integration of Islamic and western ethical theories into business is important for sound corporate governance.

Keywords: business ethics, Islamic philosophy, western philosophy, Western and Islamic worldview of ethics

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
5669 Ethical Leadership: A Theological and Ethical Alternative to the Culture of Greed in South African Government

Authors: Mookgo Solomon Kgatle

Abstract:

Introductory Statement: The effect of corruption in South Africa has seriously constrained development of the national economy and has significantly inhibited good governance in the country. The significance of this paper is a demonstration that Corruption in a South African government is greatly influenced by the culture of greed by leaders in government. Many leaders in government are not satisfied with what they receive on monthly basis in the form of salaries and allowances. Thus, the quest to accumulate, as many material possessions by cabinet ministers and public servants is what is crippling the annual budget and disadvantaging the poor masses of our people including women, children and the elderly. Basic Methodology: In order to deal with this dilemma, this paper proposes ethical leadership as a theological and ethical alternative and antidote to the culture of greed in government. Research Findings: Ethical leadership is proposed because unlike the culture of greed, it is a leadership that is based on respect for ethical principles and standards and for the dignity and privileges of others. Ethical leadership is synonymous with principles like trust, morality, consideration, equality, and justice. Conclusion: The conclusion is that ethical leadership is one of the solutions that can assist the South African government to deal with the root causes of corruption, that is, the culture of greed.

Keywords: ethical leadership, theological ethics, culture of greed, corruption, governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
5668 Accounting Practitioners’ Insight into Distance-Learning Graduates’ Workplace Ethics

Authors: Annelien A. Van Rooyen, Carol S. Binnekade, Deon Scott, Christina C. Shuttleworth

Abstract:

Society expects professional accountants to uphold fundamental principles of professional competence, confidentiality, and ethical behavior. Their work needs to be trusted by the public, clients and other stakeholders. However, self-interest, intimidation and even ignorance could create conditions in which accounting practitioners and their staff may act contradictory to these principles. Similarly, plagiarism and cheating occur regularly at higher education institutions, where students claim ignorance of these actions and the accompanying consequences. Teaching students ethical skills in a distance-learning environment where interaction between students and instructors is limited is a challenge for academics. This also applies to instructors who teach accounting subjects to potential professional accountants. The researchers wanted to understand the concerns of accounting practitioners regarding recently qualified accounting students’ understanding of ethics and the resulting influence on their conduct. A mixed method approach was used to obtain feedback from numerous accounting practitioners in South Africa. The research questions focused mainly on ethical conduct in the workplace and the influence of social media on the behavior of graduates. The findings of the research suggested, inter alia, that accounting practitioners are of the opinion that the ethical conduct of graduates starts at home, but higher education institutions play a pivotal role in providing students with an understanding of ethics in the workplace, including the role of social media. The paper concludes with recommendations on how academics in higher education institutions need to address these challenges.

Keywords: accounting profession, distance learning, ethics, workplace

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
5667 Ethical Leadership Mediates Subordinates’ Likeness for Leader and Affective Commitment to Squads among Police Cadets

Authors: Odunayo O. Oluwafemi, Valentine A. Mebu

Abstract:

There is a blur as to whether subordinates’ sheer fondness for a leader or the ethical behaviours demonstrated by such a leader is what engenders subordinates’ affective commitment to the group. This study aimed to depict and clarify that perceived ethical leadership by subordinates outweighs their likeness for a leader in determining their level of affective commitment to the group using a sample of police cadets. Subordinate cadets were asked to rate the ethical leadership behaviours displayed by their cadet Leaders; their likeness for their leaders and also rate their own affective commitment to their squads (N = 252, Mean Age = 22.70, Age range = 17 to 29 years, SD = 2.264, 75% males). A mediation analysis was conducted to test hypotheses. Results showed that there was a significant indirect effect between likeness for leaders and affective commitment through ethical leadership behaviour (b = .734, 95% BCa CI [.413, 1.146], p = .000); and a nonsignificant direct effect between likeness for leader and subordinates’ affective commitment (b = .526, 95% BCa CI [-.106, 1.157], p = .10), this indicated a full mediation. The results strongly suggested that the positive relationship between subordinates’ likeness for their leaders and their affective commitment to the squad is produced by perceived leaders’ ethical behaviours. Therefore, leaders should exhibit and prioritize ethical behaviours over the need to be liked by their subordinates to guarantee their affective commitment to group goals and aspirations.

Keywords: affective commitment, ethical leadership, leader cadets, likeness for leader, subordinate cadets

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
5666 The Role of Emotions in Addressing Social and Environmental Issues in Ethical Decision Making

Authors: Kirsi Snellman, Johannes Gartner, , Katja Upadaya

Abstract:

A transition towards a future where the economy serves society so that it evolves within the safe operating space of the planet calls for fundamental changes in the way managers think, feel and act, and make decisions that relate to social and environmental issues. Sustainable decision-making in organizations are often challenging tasks characterized by trade-offs between environmental, social and financial aspects, thus often bringing forth ethical concerns. Although there have been significant developments in incorporating uncertainty into environmental decision-making and measuring constructs and dimensions in ethical behavior in organizations, the majority of sustainable decision-making models are rationalist-based. Moreover, research in psychology indicates that one’s readiness to make a decision depends on the individual’s state of mind, the feasibility of the implied change, and the compatibility of strategies and tactics of implementation. Although very informative, most of this extant research is limited in the sense that it often directs attention towards the rational instead of the emotional. Hence, little is known about the role of emotions in sustainable decision making, especially in situations where decision-makers evaluate a variety of options and use their feelings as a source of information in tackling the uncertainty. To fill this lacuna, and to embrace the uncertainty and perceived risk involved in decisions that touch upon social and environmental aspects, it is important to add emotion to the evaluation when aiming to reach the one right and good ethical decision outcome. This analysis builds on recent findings in moral psychology that associate feelings and intuitions with ethical decisions and suggests that emotions can sensitize the manager to evaluate the rightness or wrongness of alternatives if ethical concerns are present in sustainable decision making. Capturing such sensitive evaluation as triggered by intuitions, we suggest that rational justification can be complemented by using emotions as a tool to tune in to what feels right in making sustainable decisions. This analysis integrates ethical decision-making theories with recent advancements in emotion theories. It determines the conditions under which emotions play a role in sustainability decisions by contributing to a personal equilibrium in which intuition and rationality are both activated and in accord. It complements the rationalist ethics view according to which nothing fogs the mind in decision making so thoroughly as emotion, and the concept of cheater’s high that links unethical behavior with positive affect. This analysis contributes to theory with a novel theoretical model that specifies when and why managers, who are more emotional, are, in fact, more likely to make ethical decisions than those managers who are more rational. It also proposes practical advice on how emotions can convert the manager’s preferences into choices that benefit both common good and one’s own good throughout the transition towards a more sustainable future.

Keywords: emotion, ethical decision making, intuition, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
5665 Work Engagement, Sense of Humor and Workplace Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital

Authors: Vandana Maurya

Abstract:

Positive psychological capital is the key contributor to the competitive advantage of the organizations. Moreover, work engagement and sense of humor are also positive notions and are able to facilitate positive workplace behaviour but the mechanism behind these relationships are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among work engagement, sense of humor and outcome variables (organizational citizenship behaviour and ethical performance) as well as investigating how psychological capital (PsyCap) mediates the relationships between work engagement, sense of humor and the outcome variables among healthcare professionals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on healthcare professionals (n= 240). Data were collected using questionnaires which includes Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Multi-dimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS), Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire, and Ethical Performance Scale (EPS). The results of the regression analyses showed that work engagement and sense of humor both positively predicted the outcome variables. Mediation analysis reveals that psychological capital mediates the relationship between predictor and outcome variables. The study recommends that the framework presented in this study can be an important tool for managers to enhance their employees’ psychological capital by increasing their levels of work engagement and sense of humor. In turn, psychological capital could be a positive resource for employees to dealing more ethically and enhancing more positive workplace behaviour.

Keywords: ethical performance, humor, organizational citizenship behavior, PsyCap, work engagement

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
5664 Ethical Leadership and Individual Creativity: The Mediating Role of Psychological Safety

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

This study examines the relationship between ethical leadership and individual creativity and focused on mediating effects of psychological safety. In order to clarify the mechanism of ethical leadership, psychological safety of the members was set as a mediator. Using data gathered from a sample of 150 employees. For data analysis, exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis, hierarchical regression analysis and Sobel-Test were performed. The results showed that ethical leadership had a positive effect on psychological safety and individual creativity, and psychological safety had a positive mediating effect. Since the mediating effect of psychological safety has been confirmed, we need to find ways to improve the psychological safety of the members in terms of organizational management. Psychological safety has a positive effect on individual creativity, which can have a positive impact on innovation throughout the organization.

Keywords: ethical leadership, creativity, psychological safety, ethics management, innovative behaviors

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
5663 The Reality of Ethical Finance in Algerian Commercial Banks: A Case Study of a Sample of Banking Agencies in Bordj Bou Arreridj and the Setif States

Authors: Asma Righi

Abstract:

After the global financial crisis of 2008, interest in ethical economics increased, particularly in the field of finance in general and commercial banks in particular. Indeed, it has become imperative for them to move from an institution that aims to make a profit to a community partner that takes the environmental aspect into account in its funding, rationalizes its decisions and adheres to ethics in its dealings. This leads it to the need of adopting the concept of ethical finance and standing on its most important principles and dimensions to realize profits on the one hand and to serve its society and its economy on the other hand. The objective of this research is centered on knowing the reality of the Algerian commercial banks’ adoption of the dimensions and principles of ethical finance. The quantitative methodology used is based on a questionnaire survey of twenty-four banking agencies in the states of Bordj Bou Arreridj and Setif. The data obtained were processed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. This research led to two main results: first, the author observed a limited application of the principles of ethical finance in commercial banks active in Algeria. This application is particularly in line with the implementation of the directives of the Central Bank and the imposed monetary policy. Second, the results showed that there is a significant difference in the application of ethical financial dimensions and principles between government and foreign banks.

Keywords: Algerian commercial banks, ethical banking, ethical finance, socially responsible investment

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
5662 Social Media and Counseling: Opportunities, Risks and Ethical Considerations

Authors: Kyriaki G. Giota, George Kleftaras

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to briefly review the opportunities that social media presents to counselors and psychologists. Particular attention was given to understanding some of the more important common risks inherent in social media and the potential ethical dilemmas which may arise for counselors and psychologists who embrace them in their practice. Key considerations of issues pertinent to an online presence such as multiple relationships, visibility and privacy, maintaining ethical principles and professional boundaries are being discussed.

Keywords: social media, counseling, risks, ethics

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
5661 A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Ethical Standards in Social and Behavioral Research

Authors: Xiwu Feng

Abstract:

The paper is to analyze research ethics in social and behavioral sciences from a cross-cultural perspective. A multi-phase study investigated implementations of ethical standards and guidelines in higher institutions in China. Institutional policies and procedures on human subject research and perceptions of human subject protection were assessed in the Chinese research universities from different regions. The findings of the study indicate that the implementations of ethical standards and guidelines vary from institution to institution and from region to region. Education and cultural backgrounds of the participants influence their perceptions of the welfare and privacy of human subjects. The results of the study reveal great differences and complexities in ethical standards for the protection of human subjects of research in contrast to the Western world. The Chinese collectivistic values and the cooperative-harmonious democracy play a significant role in perceiving and implementing ethical guidelines. Chinese researchers find themselves a long way to go before seeing implementations of regulations and guidelines on human subject research in social and behavioral sciences.

Keywords: ethical standards, human subjects, research ethics, social and behavioral research

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
5660 Counseling Ethics in Turkish Counseling Programs

Authors: Umut Arslan, John Sommers Flanagan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate qualifications of ethics training in counselor education programs in Turkey. The survey data were collected from 251 Turkish counseling students to examine differences in ethical judgments between freshmen and seniors. Chi-square analysis was used to analyze the data from an ethical practice and belief survey. This survey was used to assess counselor candidates’ ethical judgments regarding Turkish counseling ethical codes and sources of ethics information. Statistically significant differences were found between university seniors and freshmen on items that are related to confidentiality, dual relationships, and professional relationships. Furthermore, patterns based on demographic information showed significant differences as a result of gender, economic status, and parents’ educational level. Participants gave the highest rating of information sources to Turkish counseling ethical codes.

Keywords: ethics, training, Turkey, counselor, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
5659 The Beauty and the Cruel: The Price of Ethics

Authors: Camila Lee Park, Mauro Fracarolli Nunes

Abstract:

Understood as the preference for products and services that do not involve moral dilemmas, ethical consumption has been increasingly discussed by scholars, practitioners, and consumers. Among its diverse trends, the defense of animal rights and welfare seems to have gained particular momentum in past decades. Not surprisingly, companies, governments, ideologues, and virtually any institution or group interested in (re)shaping society invest in the building of narratives oriented to influence consumption behavior. The animal rights movement, for example, is devoted to the elimination of the use of animals in science, as well as of commercial animal agriculture and hunting activities. Although advances in ethical consumption may be observed in practice, it still seems more popular as rhetoric. Diverse scholars have addressed the disparities between self-professed ethical consumers and their actual purchase patterns, with differences being attributed to factors such as price sensitivity, lack of information, quality, cynicism, and limited availability. The gap is also linked to the 'consumer sovereignty myth', according to which consumers are only able to choose from a pre-determined range of choices made before products reach them. On the other hand, academics also debate ethical consumption behavior as more likely to occur when it assumes compliance with social norms. As sustainability becomes a permanent issue, customers may tend to adhere to ethical consumption, either because of an individual value or due to a social one. Regardless of these efforts, the actual value attributed to ethical businesses remains unclear. Likewise, the power of stakeholders’ initiatives to influence corporate strategies is dubious. In search to offer new perspectives on these matters, the present study concentrates on the following research questions: Do customers value products/companies that respect animal rights? If so, does such enhanced value convert into actions from the part of the companies? Broadly, we aim to understand if customers’ perception holds performative traits (i.e., are capable of either trigger or contribute to changes in organizational behaviour around the respect for animal rights). In addressing these issues, two preliminary behavioral vignette-based experiments were conducted, with the perspectives of 307 participants being assessed. Building on a case of the cosmetics industry, social, emotional, and functional values were hypothesized as directly impacting positive word-of-mouth, which, in turn, would carry direct effects on purchase intention. A first structural equation model was analyzed with the combined samples of studies I and II. Results suggest that emotional value strongly impacts both positive word-of-mouth and purchase intention. Data confirms initial expectations on customers valuing products and companies that comply with ethical postures concerning animals, especially if social-oriented practices are also present.

Keywords: animal rights, business ethics, emotional value, ethical consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
5658 Employee Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Impact on Organizational Performance: Evidence from the UAE

Authors: Sherine Farouk, Fauzia Jabeen

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the role played by ethical climate and CSR on organizational performance in public sector organizations. In particular, the research will shed light on the link between formalized ethical procedures and employee responses including corporate social responsibility, and organizational performance among public sector employees. Data was collected from 425 employees working in public sector organizations in Abu Dhabi, the capital of United Arab Emirates. Structural Equation Modeling will be used to test the proposed hypotheses. The paper contributes to the literature by being one of the first to study CSR and ethical climate within a Middle Eastern context, and will offer important implications for theory and practice.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, ethical climate, organizational performance, United Arab Emirates

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
5657 African Folklore for Critical Self-Reflection, Reflective Dialogue, and Resultant Attitudinal and Behaviour Change: University Students’ Experiences

Authors: T. M. Buthelezi, E. O. Olagundoye, R. G. L. Cele

Abstract:

This article argues that whilst African folklore has mainly been used for entertainment, it also has an educational value that has power to change young people’s attitudes and behavior. The paper is informed by the findings from the data that was generated from 154 university students who were coming from diverse backgrounds. The qualitative data was thematically analysed. Referring to the six steps of the behaviour change model, we found that African Folklore provides relevant cultural knowledge and instills values that enable young people to engage on self-reflection that eventually leads them towards attitudinal changes and behaviour modification. Using the transformative learning theory, we argue that African Folklore in itself is a pedagogical strategy that integrates cultural knowledge, values with entertainment elements concisely enough to take the young people through a transformative phase which encompasses psychological, convictional and life-style adaptation. During data production stage all ethical considerations were observed including obtaining gatekeeper’s permission letter and ethical clearance certificate from the Ethics Committee of the University. The paper recommends that African Folklore approach should be incorporated into the school curriculum particularly in life skills education with aims to change behaviour.

Keywords: African folklore, young people, attitudinal, behavior change, university students

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
5656 Approaches to Ethical Hacking: A Conceptual Framework for Research

Authors: Lauren Provost

Abstract:

The digital world remains increasingly vulnerable, making the development of effective cybersecurity approaches even more critical in supporting the success of the digital economy and national security. Although approaches to cybersecurity have shifted and improved in the last decade with new models, especially with cloud computing and mobility, a record number of high severity vulnerabilities were recorded in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and its National Vulnerability Database (NVD) in 2020. This is due, in part, to the increasing complexity of cyber ecosystems. Security must be approached with a more comprehensive, multi-tool strategy that addresses the complexity of cyber ecosystems, including the human factor. Ethical hacking has emerged as such an approach: a more effective, multi-strategy, comprehensive approach to cyber security's most pressing needs, especially understanding the human factor. Research on ethical hacking, however, is limited in scope. The two main objectives of this work are to (1) provide highlights of case studies in ethical hacking, (2) provide a conceptual framework for research in ethical hacking that embraces and addresses both technical and nontechnical security measures. Recommendations include an improved conceptual framework for research centered on ethical hacking that addresses many factors and attributes of significant attacks that threaten computer security; a more robust, integrative multi-layered framework embracing the complexity of cybersecurity ecosystems.

Keywords: ethical hacking, literature review, penetration testing, social engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 107