Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3322

Search results for: cognitive behavioral therapy

3322 Cognitive Behavior Therapy with a Migrant Pakistani in Malaysia: A Single Case Study of Conversion Disorder

Authors: Fahad R. Choudhry., Khadeeja Munawar


This clinical case presents a 24 years old, Muslim Pakistani girl with a history of conversion disorder. Her symptoms comprised fits, restlessness, numbness in legs, poor coordination and balance, burning during urination and retention. A cognitive-behavioral model was used for conceptualizing her problem and devising a management plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and culturally adapted coping statements. She took 13 therapy sessions and was presented with idiosyncratic case conceptualization. Psychoeducation, coping statements, extinction, verbal challenging, and behavioral activation techniques were practiced in a collaborative way for cognitive restructuring of the client. Focus of terminal sessions was on anger management. The client needed a couple of more sessions in order to help her manage her anger. However, the therapy was terminated on the part of the client after attainment of short term goals. The client reported to have a 75 % improvement in her overall condition and remained compliant throughout the therapy.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, conversion disorder, female, Muslim, Pakistani

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3321 Effectiveness of Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Binge Eating Disorder in Females

Authors: Saeed Dehnavi, Ismail Asadallahi, Fatemeh Rahmatian, Elahe Rahimian


Purpose: Due to an increasing prevalence of over eating disorders, this paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of short-term group cognitive-behavioral therapy on reducing binge eating behavior and depression symptoms among females suffered from binge eating disorder (BED) in Qazvin, Iran. Methodology: This is aquasi-experimental study (pre-post testing plan with control group). Using a convenience sampling technique, binge eating scale (BES) and clinical interviews, 30 persons were selected among all clients who had referred to weight loss centers in Qazvin, these persons were randomly placed into two control and experimental groups. The experimental group participated in a seven-session plan on short-term cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Results: The results showed that the short term group cognitive-behavioral therapy results in a significant reduction in binge eating signs and depressive symptoms within the experimental group, compared to the control. Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is known that short-term group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in reducing overeating symptoms. Hence, it can be used as an economical and effective treatment method for individuals suffering from BED.

Keywords: cognitive-behavioral group therapy, binge eating disorder, depression

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3320 The Effect of Incorporating Animal Assisted Interventions with Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Authors: Kayla Renteria


This study explored the role animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) can play in treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) when incorporated into Trauma-informed cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). A review of the literature was performed to show how incorporating AAP could benefit TF-CBT since this treatment model often presents difficulties, such as client motivation and avoidance of the exposure element of the intervention. In addition, the fluidity of treatment goals during complex trauma cases was explored, as this issue arose in the case study. This study follows the course of treatment of a 12-year-old female presenting with symptoms of PTSD. Treatment consisted of traditional components of the TF-CBT model, with the added elements of AAP to address typical treatment obstacles in TF-CBT. A registered therapy dog worked with the subject in all sessions throughout her treatment. The therapy dog was incorporated into components such as relaxation and coping techniques, narrative therapy techniques, and psychoeducation on the cognitive triangle. Throughout the study, the client’s situation and clinical needs required the therapist to switch goals to focus on current safety and stability. The therapy dog provided support and neurophysiological benefits to the client through AAP during this shift in treatment. The client was assessed quantitatively using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale Self Report for DSM-5 (CPSS-SR-5) before and after therapy and qualitatively through a feedback form given after treatment. The participant showed improvement in CPSS-SR-V scores, and she reported that the incorporation of the therapy animal improved her therapy. The results of this study show how the use of AAP provided the client a solid, consistent relationship with the therapy dog that supported her through processing various types of traumas. Implications of the results of treatment and for future research are discussed.

Keywords: animal-assisted therapy, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, PTSD in children, trauma treatment

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3319 Effectiveness of Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy on the Communication Patterns of Couples Applying for Divorce

Authors: Sakineh Abbasi Bourondaragh


The aim of this research is effectiveness of integrative behavioral couples therapy on the communication patterns of couples applying for divorce. We selected (N=20) reports from Tabriz Family Judicial Complex (FJC) of couples which have conflict in their marital relationships. All of reports were released during 2012. First, they were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups and all the couples were given pre-test. They participated in twelve therapy sessions. Then the experimental group was exposed to an experimental intervention, but the control group was not received experimental intervention. The subjects were treated. At the end of treatment, a post-test was performed about subjects (each of two groups).The results showed that integrative behavioral couple therapy could increase and improve communication patterns. The findings also showed that integrative behavioral couples therapy had increased mutual constructive pattern and decreased demand/withdraw pattern and mutual avoidance pattern of CPQ sub-scale. Steady change indicator showed that the difference is clinically meaningful.

Keywords: integrative behavioral couple therapy, communication patterns, cognitive sciences, Family Judicial Complex

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3318 Buddhist Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Address Depression Among Elderly Population: Multi-cultural Model of Buddhist Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Address Depression Among Elderly Population

Authors: Ashoke Priyadarshana Premananda


As per the suggestions of previously conducted research in Counseling Psychology, the necessity of forming culture- friendly approaches has been strongly emphasized by a number of scholars in the field. In response to that, Multicultural-model of Buddhist Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MMBCBT) has been formed as a culture-friendly therapeutic approach to address psychological disturbances (depression) in late adulthood. Elderly population in the world is on the rise by leaps and bounds, and forming a culture-based therapeutic model which is blended with Buddhist teachings has been the major objective of the study. Buddhist teachings and cultural applications, which were mapped onto Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in the West, ultimately resulted in MMBCBT. Therefore, MMBCBT is a blend of cultural therapeutic techniques and the essence of certain Buddhist teachings extracted from five crucial suttas, which include CBT principles. In the process of mapping, MeghiyaSutta, GirimānandaSutta, SallekhaSutta, DvedhāvitakkaSutta, and Vitakka- SaṇṭhānaSutta have been taken into consideration mainly because of their cognitive behavioral content. The practical components of Vitakka- Saṇṭhānasutta (Aññanimittapabbaṃ) and Sallekhasutta (SallekhaPariyāya and CittuppādaPariyāya) have been used in the model while mindfulness of breathing was also carried out with the participants. Basically, multi-cultural therapeutic approaches of MMBCBT aim at modifying behavior (behavioral modification), whereas the rest is centered to the cognitive restructuring process. Therefore, MMBCBT is endowed with Behavioral Therapy (BT) and Cognitive Therapy(CT). In order to find out the validation of MMBCBT as a newly formed approach, it was then followed by mixed research (quantitative and qualitative research) with a sample selected from the elderly population following the purposive sampling technique. 40 individuals were selected from three elderly homes as per the purposive sampling technique. Elderly people identified to be depressed via Geriatric Depression Scale underwent MMBCBT for two weeks continuously while action research was being conducted simultaneously. Additionally, a Focus Group interview was carried out to support the action research. As per the research findings, people who identified depressed prior to the exposure to MMBCBT were found to be showing positive changes after they were exposed to the model. “Paired Sample t test” showed that the Multicultural Model of Buddhist based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy reduced depression of elderly people (The mean value (x̄) of the sample (level of depression) before the model was 10.7 whereas the mean value after the model was 7.5.). Most importantly, MMBCBT has been found to be effectively used with people from all walks of life despite religious diversities.

Keywords: buddhist psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy in buddhism, counseling in cultural context, gerontology, and buddhism

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3317 The Impact of Self-Regulation Couple Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Emotional Abuse in Turbulent Couples

Authors: M. Kargar., S. A. Kimiaei, A. Mashhadie


This paper is a quasi-experimental study investigating the effect of self-regulation couple therapy on cognitive emotion regulation and emotional abuse in turbulent couples. Of the couples consulting the counseling and psychotherapy centers of Social Welfare and Education Office of Mashahd, ten couples were randomly selected through a stratified sampling method and were equally assigned to experimental and waiting list control groups. After completing the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ) and emotional abuse scale (EAS), the results showed that self-regulation couple therapy can increase the participants’ adaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation strategies, reduce their maladaptive cognitive emotion self-regulation, and decrease their emotional abuse.

Keywords: self-regulation couple therapy, cognitive emotion regulation, emotional abuse

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3316 Augmentation of Conventional Medicine for Post-concussion Syndrome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Accelerates Symptomatic Relief in Affected Individuals

Authors: Waqas Mehdi, Muhammad Umar Hassan, Khadeeja Mustafa


Objective: Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is a medical term used to point out the complicated combination of physical, emotional, cognitive and behavioral signs and symptoms associated with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury(mTBI). This study was conducted to assess the improvement or debilitating effect of behavioral therapy in addition to the conventional treatment and to document these results for increasing the efficiency of treatment provided to such cases. Method: This was primarily an interventional prospective cohort study which was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Hospital Lahore. The sample size was 200 patients who were randomly distributed into two groups. The interventional group with Cognitive behavioral therapy was added in addition to the conventional treatment regimen and the Control group receiving only conventional treatment. Results were noted initially as well as after two weeks of the follow-up period. Data were subsequently analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and associations worked out. Result and conclusion: Among the patients that were given therapy sessions along with conventional medicine, there was a significant improvement in the symptoms and their overall quality of life. It is also important to notice that the time period taken for these effects to wane is cut down by psychiatric solutions too. So we can conclude that CBT sessions not only speed up recovery in patients with post-concussion syndrome they also aid in the efficiency improvement in functional capability and quality of life.

Keywords: neurosurgery, CBT, PCS, mTBI

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3315 Pilot Trial of Evidence-Based Integrative Group Therapy to Improve Executive Functioning among Adults: Implications for Community Mental Health and Training Clinics

Authors: B. Parchem, M. Watanabe, D. Modrakovic, L. Mathew, A. Franklin, M. Cao, R. E. Broudy


Objective: Executive functioning (EF) deficits underlie several mental health diagnoses including ADHD, anxiety, and depression. Community mental health clinics face extensive waitlists for services with many referrals involving EF deficits. A pilot trial of a four-week group therapy was developed using key components from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), and mindfulness with an aim to improve EF skills and offer low-fee services. Method: Eight adults (M = 34.5) waiting for services at a community clinic were enrolled in a four-week group therapy at an in-house training clinic for doctoral trainees. Baseline EF, pre-/post-intervention ADHD and distress symptoms, group satisfaction, and curriculum helpfulness were assessed. Results: Downward trends in ADHD and distress symptoms pre/post-intervention were not significant. Favorable responses on group satisfaction and helpfulness suggest clinical utility. Conclusion: Preliminary pilot data from a brief group therapy to improve EF may be an efficacious, acceptable, and feasible intervention for adults waiting for services at community mental health and training clinics where there are high demands and limits to services and staffs.

Keywords: executive functioning, cognitive-behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, adult group therapy

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3314 I Can’t Escape the Scars, Even If I Do Get Better”: A Discourse Analysis of Adolescent Talk About Their Self-Harm During Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Sessions for Major Depressive Disorder

Authors: Anna Kristen


There has been a pronounced increase in societal discourses around adolescent self-harm, yet there is a paucity of literature examining adolescent talk about self-harm that accounts for the sociocultural context. The objective of this study was to explore how adolescents with Depression talk about their self-harm engagement in consideration of both socio-cultural discourses and the therapy context during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) sessions. Utilizing a sample from the Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies study, discourse analysis was carried out on audio-recorded CBT sessions. The study established three groupings of results: (a) adolescent positioning as stuck in self-harm engagement; (b) adolescent positioning as ambivalent in the talk about ceasing self-harm; and (c) adolescent use of stigma discourses in self-harm talk & constructions of self-harm scars. These findings indicate that clinician awareness of adolescent use of language and discourse may inform interventions beyond Manualized CBT strategies. These findings are highly relevant in light of research that demonstrates CBT treatment for adolescent depression does not effectively address concurring self-harm and given that self-harm is the most significant risk factor predictive of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

Keywords: adolescence, cognitive-behavioral therapy, discourse, self-harm, stigma

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3313 The Effect of Drug Prevention Programme Based On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self Concept Module Towards Resiliency and Aggression Among At-Risk Youth in Malaysia

Authors: Mohammad Aziz Shah Mohamed Arip, Aslina Ahmad, Fauziah Mohd Sa'ad, Samsiah Mohd Jais, Syed Sofian Syed Salim


This experimental study evaluates the effect of using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self-Concept Model (MSCM) in a drug prevention programme to increase resiliency and reduce aggression among at-risk youth in Malaysia. A number of 60 (N=60) university students who were at-risk of taking drugs were involved in this study. Participants were identified with self-rating scales, Adolescent Resilience Attitude Scale (ARAS) and Aggression Questionnaire. Based on the mean score of these instruments, the participants were divided into the treatment group, and the control group. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding showed that the mean score of resiliency was increased in the treatment group compared to the control group. It also shows that the mean score of aggression was reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group. Drug Prevention Programme was found to help in enhancing resiliency and reducing aggression among participants in the treatment group compared to the controlled group. Implications were given regarding the preventive actions on drug abuse among youth in Malaysia.

Keywords: drug prevention programme, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), multidimensional self concept model (MSCM), resiliency, aggression, at-risk youth

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3312 Predicting Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis Using Machine Learning and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Eva Tolmeijer, Emmanuelle Peters, Veena Kumari, Liam Mason


Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is effective in many but not all patients, making it important to better understand the factors that determine treatment outcomes. To date, no studies have examined whether neuroimaging can make clinically useful predictions about who will respond to CBTp. To this end, we used machine learning methods that make predictions about symptom improvement at the individual patient level. Prior to receiving CBTp, 22 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a social-affective processing task during functional MRI. Multivariate pattern analysis assessed whether treatment response could be predicted by brain activation responses to facial affect that was either socially threatening or prosocial. The resulting models did significantly predict symptom improvement, with distinct multivariate signatures predicting psychotic (r=0.54, p=0.01) and affective (r=0.32, p=0.05) symptoms. Psychotic symptom improvement was accurately predicted from relatively focal threat-related activation across hippocampal, occipital, and temporal regions; affective symptom improvement was predicted by a more dispersed profile of responses to prosocial affect. These findings enrich our understanding of the neurobiological underpinning of treatment response. This study provides a foundation that will hopefully lead to greater precision and tailoring of the interventions offered to patients.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, machine learning, psychosis, schizophrenia

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3311 Childhood Trauma and Borderline Personality: An Analysis of the Root Causes and Treatment Plans

Authors: Sidika McNeil


Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a personality disorder that has been found to have strong origins in childhood trauma. One of the key symptoms of BPD is an association with irregular moods swings, as well as suicidal ideation (SI). Owing to the typically severe trauma patients experience during childhood, it is hard for them to control their emotions and thus makes it hard to emotionally regulate. It is then very common for those suffering from BPD to turn to unhealthy coping mechanisms, such as substance use, unhealthy relationships, and more, often unsuccessfully creating experiences that facilitate safety which leads to further negative experiences. With the high suicide rating among children, adolescents, and teens, and an ever-increasing number of children being diagnosed with BPD, it is very important that more research is done to find further treatments for patients who are currently suffering. Methods: Utilizing data found in prior studies, this paper will analyze the literature to focus on a comprehensive treatment plan for those with DBT. It is currently suggested that with the use of dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), a therapy that focuses on changing negative thinking patterns and pushes for more positive ones is helpful for treatment for those with BPD. Though this therapy is not a cure to BPD, it does help mitigate the risk; this essay will explore other options that can further the treatment process, such as cognitive analytical therapy (CAT), which focuses on delving into the past to find the root causes of an issue to create coping strategies and harm reduction, a type of therapy used to aid patients in lowering the use of substances without complete cessation. Results: The research provides enough evidence to link between the treatment of BPD with the utilization of CAT.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder, cognitive analytical therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, harm reduction, suicidal ideation

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3310 The Effect of Meta-Cognitive Therapy on Meta-Cognitive Defects and Emotional Regulation in Substance Dependence Patients

Authors: Sahra Setorg


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of meta-cognitive therapy on meta-cognitive defects and emotional regulation in industrial substance dependence patients. This quasi-experimental research was conducted with post-test and two-month follow-up design with control and experimental groups. The statistical population consisted of all industrial Substance dependence patients refer to addictive withdrawal clinics in Esfahan city, in Iran in 2013. 45 patients were selected from three clinics through the convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two experimental groups (15 crack dependences, 15 amphetamine dependences) and one control group (n=15). The meta-cognitive questionnaire (MCQ) and difficulties in emotional regulation questionnaire (DERS) were used as pre-test measures and the experimental groups (crack and amphetamine) received 8 MC therapy sessions in groups. The data were analyzed via multivariate covariance statistic method by spss-18. The results showed that MCT had a significant effect in improving the meta-cognitive defects in crack and amphetamine dependences. Also, this therapy can increase the emotional regulation in both groups (p<0/05).The effect of this therapy is confirmed in two months followup. According to these findings, met-cognitive is as an interface and important variable in prevention, control, and treatment of the new industrial substance dependences.

Keywords: meta-cognitive therapy, meta-cognitive defects, emotional regulation, substance dependence disorder

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3309 Habituation on Children Mental Retardation through Practice of Behaviour Therapy in Great Aceh, Aceh Province

Authors: Marini Kristina Situmeang, Siti Hazar Sitorus, Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Arfan Fadli


This study aims to identify and explain how forms of treatment and community action include parents who have children with mental retardation while undergoing behavioral therapy that leads to habituation processes. Based on observations made there is inappropriate treatment such as labeling that child mental retardation is considered ‘crazy’ by some people in Aceh Besar region. Reflecting on the phenomenon of discriminatory treatment, the existence of children with mental retardation should be realized in concrete actions that can encourage the development of cognitive abilities, language, motor, and social, one of them through behavioral. The purpose of this research is to find out and explain how the social practices of children with mental retardation when undergoing behavioral therapy that leads to habituation process. This study focuses on families or parents who have children with mental retardation and do therapy of behavioral therapy at home or at physiotherapy clinics in Aceh Besar. The research method is qualitative with case study approach. Data collection techniques are conducted with in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The results showed that habituation process which is conducted by parents at home and in fisotherapy clinic have a positive effect on the development of children behavior of mental retardation, especially when dealing with the environment of the community around the residence. Habituation processes conducted through behavioral therapy practices are influenced by Habitus (Gestational and childcare at therapy) and Reinforcement (in this case family and social support). Habituation process is done in the form of habituation, the creation of the situation, and strengthening the character. For example, when a child's mental retardation commits a wrong act (disgraceful or inappropriate behavior) then the child gets punishment in accordance with the form of punishment in a normal child generally, and when he performs a good deed, then he is given a prize such as praise or a thing he likes. Through some of these actions, the child with mental retardation can behave in accordance with the character formed and expected by the community. The process of habituation done by parents accompanied by continuous support of physiotherapy can be one of the alternative booster of cognitive and social development of children mental retardation to then out of the ‘crazy’ label that has been given.

Keywords: behaviour therapy, habituation, habitus, mental retardation

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3308 Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of Stroke; A Systematic Review

Authors: Zahra Hassani


Background and Purpose: Poststroke depression (PSD) is one of the complications of a stroke that reduces the patient's chance of recovery, becomes irritable, and changes personality. Cognitive rehabilitation is one of the non-pharmacological methods that improve deficits such as attention, memory, and symptoms of depression. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke. Method: In this study, a systematic review of the databases Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier between the years 2015 and 2019 with the keywords cognitive rehabilitation therapy, post-stroke, depression Search is done. In this process, studies that examined the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke were included in the study. Results: Inclusion criteria were full-text availability, interventional study, and non-review articles. There was a significant difference between the articles in terms of the indices studied, sample number, method of implementation, and so on. A review of studies have shown that cognitive rehabilitation therapy has a significant role in reducing the symptoms of post-stroke depression. The use of these interventions is also effective in improving problem-solving skills, improving memory, and improving attention and concentration. Conclusion: This study emphasizes on the development of efficient and flexible adaptive skills through cognitive processes and its effect on reducing depression in patients after stroke.

Keywords: cognitive therapy, depression, stroke, rehabilitation

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3307 The Effects of Music Therapy on Positive Negative Syndrome Scale, Cognitive Function, and Quality of Life in Female Schizophrenic Patients

Authors: Elmeida Effendy, Mustafa M. Amin, Nauli Aulia Lubis, P. J. Sirait


Music therapy may have an effect on mental illnesses. This is a comparative, quasi-experimental study to examine the effect of music therapy added to standard care on Positive Negative Syndrome Scale, Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in female schizophrenic patients. 50 schizophrenic participants who were diagnosed with semistructured MINI ICD-X, were assigned into two groups received pharmacotherapy. Participants were assigned into each group of therapy by using matched allocation method. Music therapy added on to the first group. They received music therapy, using Mozart Sonata four times a week, over a period of six week. Positive and negative symptoms were measured by using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Cognitive function were measured by using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA). All rating scale were administrated by certified skill residents every week after music therapy session. The participants who were received pharmaco-and-music therapy significantly showed greater response than who received pharmacotherapy only. The mean difference of response were -6,6164 (p=0,001) for PANNS, 2,911 (p=0,004) for MMSE, 3,618 (p=0,001) for MOCA, 4,599 (p=0,001) for SF-36. Music therapy have beneficial effects on PANSS, Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in schizophrenic patients.

Keywords: music therapy, rating scale, schizophrenia, symptoms

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3306 Managing Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizure Disorder: The Benefits of Collaboration between Psychiatry and Neurology

Authors: Donald Kushon, Jyoti Pillai


Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizure Disorder (PNES) is a challenging clinical problem for the neurologist. This study explores the benefits of on-site collaboration between psychiatry and neurology in the management of PNES. A 3 month period at a university hospital seizure clinic is described detailing specific management approaches taken as a result of this collaboration. This study describes four areas of interest: (1. After the video EEG results confirm the diagnosis of PNES, the presentation of the diagnosis of PNES to the patient. (2. The identification of co-morbid psychiatric illness (3. Treatment with specific psychotherapeutic interventions (including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) and psychopharmacologic interventions (primarily SSRIs) and (4. Preliminary treatment outcomes.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), psychogenic non-epileptic seizure disorder (PNES), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), video electroencephalogram (VEEG)

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3305 The Effectiveness of Group Counseling of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation in High School Students

Authors: Hossein Ilanloo, Sedigheh Ahmadi, Kianoosh Zahrakar


The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of group counseling of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on cognitive emotion regulation in high school students. The research design was quasi-experimental and pre-test-post-test type and a two-month follow-up with a control group. The statistical population of the study consisted of all-male high school students in Takestan city in the Academic Year 2020-2021. The sample comprised 30 high school male students selected through the convenience sampling method and randomly assigned to experimental (n=15) and control (n=15) groups. The experimental group then received ten sessions of 90-minute group counseling of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and the control group did not receive any intervention. In order to collect data, the author used the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). The researcher also used multivariate analysis of covariance, repeated measures, LSD post hoc test, and SPSS-26 software for data analysis.

Keywords: mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, cognitive emotion regulation, students, high schools

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3304 Cognitive Behavioral Modification in the Treatment of Aggressive Behavior in Children

Authors: Dijana Sulejmanović


Cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM) is a combination of cognitive and behavioral learning principles to shape and encourage the desired behaviors. A crucial element of cognitive-behavioral modification is that a change the behavior precedes awareness of how it affects others. CBM is oriented toward changing inner speech and learning to control behaviors through self-regulation techniques. It aims to teach individuals how to develop the ability to recognize, monitor and modify their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The review of literature emphasizes the efficiency the CBM approach in the treatment of children's hyperactivity and negative emotions such as anger. The results of earlier research show how impulsive and hyperactive behavior, agitation, and aggression may slow down and block the child from being able to actively monitor and participate in regular classes, resulting in the disruption of the classroom and the teaching process, and the children may feel rejected, isolated and develop long-term poor image of themselves and others. In this article, we will provide how the use of CBM, adapted to child's age, can incorporate measures of cognitive and emotional functioning which can help us to better understand the children’s cognitive processes, their cognitive strengths, and weaknesses, and to identify factors that may influence their behavioral and emotional regulation. Such a comprehensive evaluation can also help identify cognitive and emotional risk factors associated with aggressive behavior, specifically the processes involved in modulating and regulating cognition and emotions.

Keywords: aggressive behavior, cognitive behavioral modification, cognitive behavioral theory, modification

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3303 Spirituality Enhanced with Cognitive-Behavioural Techniques: An Effective Method for Women with Extramarital Infidelity: A Literature Review

Authors: Setareh Yousife


Introduction: Studies suggest that Extramarital Infidelity (EMI) variants, such as sexual and emotional infidelities are increasing in marriage relationships. To our knowledge, less is known about what therapies and mental-hygiene factors can prevent more effective this behavior and address it. Spiritual and cognitive-behavioural health have proven to reduce marital conflict, Increase marital satisfaction and commitment. Objective: This study aims to discuss the effectiveness of spiritual counseling combined with Cognitive-behavioural techniques in addressing Extramarital Infidelity. Method: Descriptive, analytical, and intervention articles indexed in SID, Noormags, Scopus, Iranmedex, Web of Science and PubMed databases, and Google Scholar were searched. We focused on Studies in which Women with extramarital relationships, including heterosexual married couples-only studies and spirituality/religion and CBT as coping techniques used as EMI therapy. Finally, the full text of all eligible articles was prepared and discussed in this review. Results: 25 publications were identified, and their textual analysis facilitated through four thematic approaches: The nature of EMI in Women, the meaning of spirituality in the context of mental health and human behavior as well as psychotherapy; Spirituality integrated into Cognitive-Behavioral approach, The role of Spirituality as a deterrent to EMI. Conclusions: The integration of the findings discussed herein suggests that the application of cognitive and behavioral skills in addressing these kinds of destructive family-based relationships is inevitable. As treatments based on religion/spirituality or cognition/behavior do not seem adequately effective in dealing with EMI, the combination of these approaches may lead to higher efficacy in fewer sessions and a shorter time.

Keywords: spirituality, religion, cognitive behavioral therapy, extramarital relation, infidelity

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3302 Impact of Motor Behaviour Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana Zeina


Cognitive and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASDs and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and motor behavior aspects. Based on these findings we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future research should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, and ritual and routine adherence and use different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: cognitive ability, CANTAB test, behaviour motor aspects, autism spectrum disorders

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3301 An Open Trial of Mobile-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Pupillometry Predictors of Outcome

Authors: Eric Granholm, Christophe Delay, Jason Holden, Peter Link


Negative symptoms are an important unmet treatment needed for schizophrenia. We conducted an open trial of a novel blended intervention called mobile-assisted cognitive behavior therapy for negative symptoms (mCBTn). mCBTn is a weekly group therapy intervention combining in-person and smartphone-based CBT (CBT2go app) to improve experiential negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Both the therapy group and CBT2go app included recovery goal setting, thought challenging, scheduling of pleasurable activities and social interactions, and pleasure savoring interventions to modify defeatist attitudes, a target mechanism associated with negative symptoms, and improve experiential negative symptoms. We tested whether participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=31) who met prospective criteria for persistent negative symptoms showed improvement in experiential negative symptoms. Retention was excellent (87% at 18 weeks) and severity of defeatist attitudes and motivation and pleasure negative symptoms declined significantly in mCBTn with large effect sizes. We also tested whether pupillary responses, a measure of cognitive effort, predicted improvement in negative symptoms mCBTn. Pupillary responses were recorded at baseline using a Tobii pupillometer during the digit span task with 3-, 6- and 9-digit spans. Mixed models showed that greater dilation during the task at baseline significantly predicted a greater reduction in experiential negative symptoms. Pupillary responses may provide a much-needed prognostic biomarker of which patients are most likely to benefit from CBT. Greater pupil dilation during a cognitive task predicted greater improvement in experiential negative symptoms. Pupil dilation has been linked to motivation and engagement of executive control, so these factors may contribute to benefits in interventions that train cognitive skills to manage negative thoughts and emotions. The findings suggest mCBTn is a feasible and effective treatment for experiential negative symptoms and justify a larger randomized controlled clinical trial. The findings also provide support for the defeatist attitude model of experiential negative symptoms and suggest that mobile-assisted interventions like mCBTn can strengthen and shorten intensive psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia.

Keywords: cognitive-behavioral therapy, mobile interventions, negative symptoms, pupillometry schizophrenia

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3300 Schema Therapy as Treatment for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comorbid Personality Disorder: A Multiple Baseline Case Series Study Testing Cognitive-Behavioral and Experiential Interventions

Authors: Richard Vuijk, Arnoud Arntz


Rationale: To our knowledge treatment of personality disorder comorbidity in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is understudied and is still in its infancy: We do not know if treatment of personality disorders may be applicable to adults with ASD. In particular, it is unknown whether patients with ASD benefit from experiential techniques that are part of schema therapy developed for the treatment of personality disorders. Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate the efficacy of a schema mode focused treatment with adult clients with ASD and comorbid personality pathology (i.e. at least one personality disorder). Specifically, we investigate if they can benefit from both cognitive-behavioral, and experiential interventions. Study design: A multiple baseline case series study. Study population: Adult individuals (age > 21 years) with ASD and at least one personality disorder. Participants will be recruited from Sarr expertise center for autism in Rotterdam. The study requires 12 participants. Intervention: The treatment protocol consists of 35 weekly offered sessions, followed by 10 monthly booster sessions. A multiple baseline design will be used with baseline varying from 5 to 10 weeks, with weekly supportive sessions. After baseline, a 5-week exploration phase follows with weekly sessions during which current and past functioning, psychological symptoms, schema modes are explored, and information about the treatment will be given. Then 15 weekly sessions with cognitive-behavioral interventions and 15 weekly sessions with experiential interventions will be given. Finally, there will be a 10-month follow-up phase with monthly booster sessions. Participants are randomly assigned to baseline length, and respond weekly during treatment and monthly at follow-up on Belief Strength of negative core beliefs (by VAS), and fill out SMI, SCL-90 and SRS-A 7 times during screening procedure (i.e. before baseline), after baseline, after exploration, after cognitive and behavioral interventions, after experiential interventions, and after 5- and 10- month follow-up. The SCID-II will be administered during screening procedure (i.e. before baseline), at 5- and at 10-month follow-up. Main study parameters: The primary study parameter is negative core beliefs. Secondary study parameters include schema modes, personality disorder manifestations, psychological symptoms, and social interaction and communication. Discussion: To the best of author’s knowledge so far no study has been published on the application of schema mode focused interventions in adult patients with ASD and comorbid PD(s). This study offers the first systematic test of application of schema therapy for adults with ASD. The results of this study will provide initial evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy in treating adults with both ASD and PD(s). The study intends to provide valuable information for future development and implementation of therapeutic interventions for adults with both ASD and PD(s).

Keywords: adults, autism spectrum disorder, personality disorder, schema therapy

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3299 Conceptual Synthesis as a Platform for Psychotherapy Integration: The Case of Transference and Overgeneralization

Authors: Merav Rabinovich


Background: Psychoanalytic and cognitive therapy attend problems from a different point of view. At the recent decade the integrating movement gaining momentum. However only little has been studied regarding the theoretical interrelationship among these therapy approaches. Method: 33 transference case-studies that were published in peer-reviewed academic journals were coded by Luborsky's Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) method (components of wish, response from other – real or imaginal - and the response of self). CCRT analysis was conducted through tailor-made method, a valid tool to identify transference patterns. Rabinovich and Kacen's (2010, 2013) Relationship Between Categories (RBC) method was used to analyze the relationship among these transference patterns with cognitive and behavior components appearing at those psychoanalytic case-studies. Result: 30 of 33 cases (90%) were found to connect the transference themes with cognitive overgeneralization. In these cases, overgeneralizations were organized around Luborsky's transference themes of response from other and response of self. Additionally, overgeneralization was found to be an antithesis of the wish component, and the tension between them found to be linked with powerful behavioral and emotional reactions. Conclusion: The findings indicate that thinking distortions of overgeneralization (cognitive therapy) are the actual expressions of transference patterns. These findings point to a theoretical junction, a platform for clinical integration. Awareness to this junction can help therapists to promote well psychotherapy outcomes relying on the accumulative wisdom of the different therapies.

Keywords: transference, overgeneralization, theoretical integration, case-study metasynthesis, CCRT method, RBC method

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3298 Using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Mini Mental State Examination-2 in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Case Studies

Authors: Cornelia-Eugenia Munteanu


From a psychological perspective, psychopathology is the area of clinical psychology that has at its core psychological assessment and psychotherapy. In day-to-day clinical practice, psychodiagnosis and psychotherapy are used independently, according to their intended purpose and their specific methods of application. The paper explores how the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Mini Mental State Examination-2 (MMSE-2) psychological tools contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy (CBT). This combined approach, psychotherapy in conjunction with assessment of personality and cognitive functions, is illustrated by two cases, a severe depressive episode with psychotic symptoms and a mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. The order in which CBT, MMPI-2, and MMSE-2 were used in the diagnostic and therapeutic process was determined by the particularities of each case. In the first case, the sequence started with psychotherapy, followed by the administration of blue form MMSE-2, MMPI-2, and red form MMSE-2. In the second case, the cognitive screening with blue form MMSE-2 led to a personality assessment using MMPI-2, followed by red form MMSE-2; reapplication of the MMPI-2 due to the invalidation of the first profile, and finally, psychotherapy. The MMPI-2 protocols gathered useful information that directed the steps of therapeutic intervention: a detailed symptom picture of potentially self-destructive thoughts and behaviors otherwise undetected during the interview. The memory loss and poor concentration were confirmed by MMSE-2 cognitive screening. This combined approach, psychotherapy with psychological assessment, aligns with the trend of adaptation of the psychological services to the everyday life of contemporary man and paves the way for deepening and developing the field.

Keywords: assessment, cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, MMPI-2, MMSE-2, psychopathology

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3297 Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Cognitive Function among Breast Cancer Patients in Eastern Country

Authors: Arunima Datta, Prathama Guha Chaudhuri, Ashis Mukhopadhyay


Background: Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one of the newer forms (third wave) therapy. This therapy helps a cancer patient to increase acceptance level about their disease as well as their present situation. Breast cancer patients are known to suffer from depression and mild cognitive impairment; both affect their quality of life. Objectives:The present study had assessed effect of structured ACT intervention on cognitive function and acceptance level among breast cancer patients who were undergoing chemotherapy. Method: Data was collected from 123 breast cancer patients those who were undergoing chemotherapy were willing to undergo psychological treatment, with no history of past psychiatric illness. Their baseline of cognitive function and acceptance levels were assessed using validated tools. The effect of sociodemographic factors and clinical factors on cognitive function was determined at baseline.The participants were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (ACT, 4 sessions over 2 months) and control group. Cognitive function and acceptance level were measured during post intervention on 2months follow-up. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect on cognitive function and acceptance level in two groups. Result: At baseline, the factors that significantly influenced slower speed of task performance were ER PR HER2 status; number of chemo cycle, treatment type (Adjuvant and neo-adjuvant) was related with that. Sociodemographic characteristics did not show any significant difference between slow and fast performance. Per and post intervention analysis showed that ACT intervention resulted in significant difference both in terms of speed of cognitive performance and acceptance level. Conclusion: ACT is an effective therapeutic option for treating mild cognitive impairment and improve acceptance level among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Keywords: acceptance and commitment therapy, breast cancer, quality of life, cognitive function

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3296 A Dialectical Behavioral Therapy Adaptation in Reducing Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Harm in Older Adults

Authors: Valerie Alexander, Amanda Gutierrez, Veronica Campbell, Dara Schwartz, B. Charles Tatum


It has long been assumed that personality disorders (PD) originate in adolescence or early adulthood and that the maladaptive behaviors significantly attenuate over time. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 supports early onset of PD and views the pattern of behaviors as enduring and stable. The premise of this study is that PD may not always begin early in life, that behaviors may change over the lifespan, and that current treatment modalities may be beneficial in seniors. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) exhibited earlier in life may, in older adults, be manifested in less overt high-risk behaviors but by refusal to take medication and get necessary medical treatment. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is a well-known treatment modality for teaching emotional regulation and distress tolerance and thus reducing self-injurious behaviors yet very little has been studied about SIB and treatment in older adults. The population for this study was older adults, with a history of SIB, a PD, and depression and/or anxiety. Participants learned an adapted version of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) as developed by DBT trained therapists. The results provided clinical potentials for the efficacy of DBT to reduce SIB, decrease depression and anxiety in the older adult population.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, dialectical behavioral therapy, personality disorders, self-harm behavior, treatment in older adults

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3295 Analyzing Initial Efficacy of Animal Assisted Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case Study

Authors: Georgitta Joseph Valiyamattam


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a growing phenomenon in India with over 10 million cases being recorded. Children with various levels and forms of ASD can be a major challenge both within the context of regular or special schooling. According to statistics by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one in every 88 children today is born with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) against a ratio of one in 110 few years back. The growing number of children with autism spectrum disorders places greater demands on health services and necessitates the roping in of non-traditional modes of treatment to complement or even substitute traditional health care methods when possible. Research evidence, particularly from Western countries, as also some parts of Asia, suggests that animal-assisted therapy, or zootherapy, may be used as an effective individual or complementary therapeutic tool for increasing overall wellbeing and quality of life among children with Autism spectrum disorders. The paper through a case-study format seeks to evaluate the efficacy (initial stage) of animal assisted therapy (canine-therapy with visiting dog: breed-Golden retriever), as a non-conventional treatment modality for improving cognitive functioning and managing the behavioral and psychological symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. As a pilot study forming the basis for subsequent larger application of AAT, it analyses areas of efficacy as also the challenges faced, both with regard to the mode of therapy, as also particular to the Indian setting.

Keywords: animal assisted therapy, autism, canine therapy, analyzing initial efficacy

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3294 Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Review of the Indian Scenario

Authors: Garima Joshi, Pratap Sharan, V. Sreenivas, Nand Kumar, Kameshwar Prasad, Ashima N. Wadhawan


Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder and is marked by cognitive impairment, which deleteriously impacts the social and professional functioning along with the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers. Often the cognitive symptoms are in their prodromal state and worsen as the illness progresses; they have proven to have a good predictive value for the prognosis of the illness. It has been shown that intensive cognitive rehabilitation (CR) leads to improvements in the healthy as well as cognitively-impaired subjects. As the majority of population in India falls in the lower to middle socio-economic status and have low education levels, using the existing packages, a majority of which are developed in the West, for cognitive rehabilitation becomes difficult. The use of technology is also restricted due to the high costs involved and the limited availability and familiarity with computers and other devices, which pose as an impedance for continued therapy. Cognitive rehabilitation in India uses a plethora of retraining methods for the patients with schizophrenia targeting the functions of attention, information processing, executive functions, learning and memory, and comprehension along with Social Cognition. Psychologists often have to follow an integrative therapy approach involving social skills training, family therapy and psychoeducation in order to maintain the gains from the cognitive rehabilitation in the long run. This paper reviews the methodologies and cognitive retaining programs used in India. It attempts to elucidate the evolution and development of methodologies used, from traditional paper-pencil based retraining to more sophisticated neuroscience-informed techniques in cognitive rehabilitation of deficits in schizophrenia as home-based or supervised and guided programs for cognitive rehabilitation.

Keywords: schizophrenia, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological interventions, integrated approached to rehabilitation

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3293 Behavioral Intentions and Cognitive-Affective Effects of Exposure to YouTube Advertisements among College Students

Authors: Abd El-Basit Ahmed Hashem Mahmoud, Othman Fekry Abdelbaki


This study attempts to investigate the exposure to YouTube ads among Egyptian college students, their attitudes towards these ads, behavioral intentions to watch them, and the effects of this exposure and to examine the relationships among these variables as well. The current study is theoretically guided by the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and cognitive-affective behavioral model (CAB) through a questionnaire survey administered to a convenience sample of 390 college students who watch YouTube videos from Cairo University, Egypt from February to May 2019. The results showed that 98.7% of respondents exposed to YouTube ads, and both of their attitudes towards YouTube ads exposure and their intentions to this exposure were moderately positive. The findings also indicated that respondents' gender had a significant impact on their intention to expose these ads. One-way ANOVA indicated that their attitudes towards exposure to YouTube ads influenced their behavioral intentions to watch these ads, and it also demonstrated that their behavioral intentions to watch these ads had an impact on the exposure to such ads. Pearson correlation revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between respondents' attitudes towards YouTube ads exposure and the cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects of this exposure.

Keywords: attitudes, behavioral intentions, theory of reasoned action, YouTube ads

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