Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1309

Search results for: diagnosis

1309 Diagnosis of Avian Pathology in the East of Algeria

Authors: Khenenou Tarek, Benzaoui Hassina, Melizi Mohamed

Abstract:

The diagnosis requires a background of current knowledge in the field and also complementary means in which the laboratory occupies the central place for a better investigation. A correct diagnosis allows to establish the most appropriate treatment as soon as possible and avoids both the economic losses associated with mortality and growth retardation often observed in poultry furthermore it may reduce the high cost of treatment. Epedemiologic survey, hematologic and histopathologic study’s are three aspects of diagnosis heavily used in both human and veterinary pathology and the advanced researches in human medicine would be exploited to be applied in veterinary medicine with given modification .Whereas, the diagnostic methods in the east of Algeria are limited to the clinical signs and necropsy finding. Therefore, the diagnosis is based simply on the success or the failure of the therapeutic methods (therapeutic diagnosis).

Keywords: chicken, diagnosis, hematology, histopathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 504
1308 Testing Immunochemical Method for the Bacteriological Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

Authors: Assiya Madenovna Borsynbayeva, Kairat Altynbekovich Turgenbayev, Nikolay Petrovich Ivanov

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In this article presents the results of rapid diagnostics of tuberculosis in comparison with classical bacteriological method. The proposed method of rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis than bacteriological method allows shortening the time of diagnosis to 7 days, to visualize the growth of mycobacteria in the semi-liquid medium and differentiate the type of mycobacterium. Fast definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its derivatives in the culture medium is a new and promising direction in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

Keywords: animal diagnosis of tuberculosis, bacteriological diagnostics, antigen, specific antibodies, immunological reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
1307 The Accuracy of Parkinson's Disease Diagnosis Using [123I]-FP-CIT Brain SPECT Data with Machine Learning Techniques: A Survey

Authors: Lavanya Madhuri Bollipo, K. V. Kadambari

Abstract:

Objective: To discuss key issues in the diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD), To discuss features influencing PD progression, To discuss importance of brain SPECT data in PD diagnosis, and To discuss the essentiality of machine learning techniques in early diagnosis of PD. An accurate and early diagnosis of PD is nowadays a challenge as clinical symptoms in PD arise only when there is more than 60% loss of dopaminergic neurons. So far there are no laboratory tests for the diagnosis of PD, causing a high rate of misdiagnosis especially when the disease is in the early stages. Recent neuroimaging studies with brain SPECT using 123I-Ioflupane (DaTSCAN) as radiotracer shown to be widely used to assist the diagnosis of PD even in its early stages. Machine learning techniques can be used in combination with image analysis procedures to develop computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for PD. This paper addressed recent studies involving diagnosis of PD in its early stages using brain SPECT data with Machine Learning Techniques.

Keywords: Parkinson disease (PD), dopamine transporter, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), support vector machine (SVM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1306 Application of Interval Valued Picture Fuzzy Set in Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Palash Dutta

Abstract:

More frequently uncertainties are encountered in medical diagnosis and therefore it is the most important and interesting area of applications of fuzzy set theory. In this present study, an attempt has been made to extend Sanchez’s approach for medical diagnosis via interval valued picture fuzzy sets and exhibit the technique with suitable case studies. In this article, it is observed that a refusal can be expressed in the databases concerning the examined objects. The technique is performing diagnosis on the basis of distance measures and as a result, this approach makes it possible to introduce weights of all symptoms and consequently patient can be diagnosed directly.

Keywords: medical diagnosis, uncertainty, fuzzy set, picture fuzzy set, interval valued picture fuzzy set

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
1305 Motor Gear Fault Diagnosis by Measurement of Current, Noise and Vibration on AC Machine

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Ki-Seok Kim, Yong-Ho Jo

Abstract:

Lots of motors have been being used in industry. Therefore many researchers have studied about the failure diagnosis of motors. In this paper, the effect of measuring environment for diagnosis of gear fault connected to a motor shaft is studied. The fault diagnosis is executed through the comparison of normal gear and abnormal gear. The measured FFT data are compared with the normal data and analyzed for q-axis current, noise and vibration. For bad and good environment, the diagnosis results are compared. From these, it is shown that the bad measuring environment may not be able to detect exactly the motor gear fault. Therefore it is emphasized that the measuring environment should be carefully prepared.

Keywords: motor fault, diagnosis, FFT, vibration, noise, q-axis current, measuring environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
1304 Application of Sub-health Diagnosis and Reasoning Method for Avionics

Authors: Weiran An, Junyou Shi

Abstract:

Health management has become one of the design goals in the research and development of new generation avionics systems, and is an important complement and development for the testability and fault diagnosis technology. Currently, the research and application for avionics system health dividing and diagnosis technology is still at the starting stage, lack of related technologies and methods reserve. In this paper, based on the health three-state dividing of avionics products, state lateral transfer coupling modeling and diagnosis reasoning method considering sub-health are researched. With the study of typical case application, the feasibility and correctness of the method and the software are verified.

Keywords: sub-health, diagnosis reasoning, three-valued coupled logic, extended dependency model, avionics

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
1303 Role of DatScan in the Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Shraddha Gopal, Jayam Lazarus

Abstract:

Aims: To study the referral practice and impact of DAT-scan in the diagnosis or exclusion of Parkinson’s disease. Settings and Designs: A retrospective study Materials and methods: A retrospective study of the results of 60 patients who were referred for a DAT scan over a period of 2 years from the Department of Neurology at Northern Lincolnshire and Goole NHS trust. The reason for DAT scan referral was noted under 5 categories against Parkinson’s disease; drug-induced Parkinson’s, essential tremors, diagnostic dilemma, not responding to Parkinson’s treatment, and others. We assessed the number of patients who were diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease against the number of patients in whom Parkinson’s disease was excluded or an alternative diagnosis was made. Statistical methods: Microsoft Excel was used for data collection and statistical analysis, Results: 30 of the 60 scans were performed to confirm the diagnosis of early Parkinson’s disease, 13 were done to differentiate essential tremors from Parkinsonism, 6 were performed to exclude drug-induced Parkinsonism, 5 were done to look for alternative diagnosis as the patients were not responding to anti-Parkinson medication and 6 indications were outside the recommended guidelines. 55% of cases were confirmed with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. 43.33% had Parkinson’s disease excluded. 33 of the 60 scans showed bilateral abnormalities and confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Conclusion: DAT scan provides valuable information in confirming Parkinson’s disease in 55% of patients along with excluding the diagnosis in 43.33% of patients aiding an alternative diagnosis.

Keywords: DATSCAN, Parkinson's disease, diagnosis, essential tremors

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1302 A Framework for Early Differential Diagnosis of Tropical Confusable Diseases Using the Fuzzy Cognitive Map Engine

Authors: Faith-Michael E. Uzoka, Boluwaji A. Akinnuwesi, Taiwo Amoo, Flora Aladi, Stephen Fashoto, Moses Olaniyan, Joseph Osuji

Abstract:

The overarching aim of this study is to develop a soft-computing system for the differential diagnosis of tropical diseases. These conditions are of concern to health bodies, physicians, and the community at large because of their mortality rates, and difficulties in early diagnosis due to the fact that they present with symptoms that overlap, and thus become ‘confusable’. We report on the first phase of our study, which focuses on the development of a fuzzy cognitive map model for early differential diagnosis of tropical diseases. We used malaria as a case disease to show the effectiveness of the FCM technology as an aid to the medical practitioner in the diagnosis of tropical diseases. Our model takes cognizance of manifested symptoms and other non-clinical factors that could contribute to symptoms manifestations. Our model showed 85% accuracy in diagnosis, as against the physicians’ initial hypothesis, which stood at 55% accuracy. It is expected that the next stage of our study will provide a multi-disease, multi-symptom model that also improves efficiency by utilizing a decision support filter that works on an algorithm, which mimics the physician’s diagnosis process.

Keywords: medical diagnosis, tropical diseases, fuzzy cognitive map, decision support filters, malaria differential diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1301 Intelligent System for Diagnosis Heart Attack Using Neural Network

Authors: Oluwaponmile David Alao

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Misdiagnosis has been the major problem in health sector. Heart attack has been one of diseases that have high level of misdiagnosis recorded on the part of physicians. In this paper, an intelligent system has been developed for diagnosis of heart attack in the health sector. Dataset of heart attack obtained from UCI repository has been used. This dataset is made up of thirteen attributes which are very vital in diagnosis of heart disease. The system is developed on the multilayer perceptron trained with back propagation neural network then simulated with feed forward neural network and a recognition rate of 87% was obtained which is a good result for diagnosis of heart attack in medical field.

Keywords: heart attack, artificial neural network, diagnosis, intelligent system

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
1300 Application of Neural Petri Net to Electric Control System Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Sadiq J. Abou-Loukh

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The present work deals with implementation of Petri nets, which own the perfect ability of modeling, are used to establish a fault diagnosis model. Fault diagnosis of a control system received considerable attention in the last decades. The formalism of representing neural networks based on Petri nets has been presented. Neural Petri Net (NPN) reasoning model is investigated and developed for the fault diagnosis process of electric control system. The proposed NPN has the characteristics of easy establishment and high efficiency, and fault status within the system can be described clearly when compared with traditional testing methods. The proposed system is tested and the simulation results are given. The implementation explains the advantages of using NPN method and can be used as a guide for different online applications.

Keywords: petri net, neural petri net, electric control system, fault diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
1299 Usage of “Flowchart of Diagnosis and Treatment” Software in Medical Education

Authors: Boy Subirosa Sabarguna, Aria Kekalih, Irzan Nurman

Abstract:

Introduction: Software in the form of Clinical Decision Support System could help students in understanding the mind set of decision-making in diagnosis and treatment at the stage of general practitioners. This could accelerate and ease the learning process which previously took place by using books and experience. Method: Gather 1000 members of the National Medical Multimedia Digital Community (NM2DC) who use the “flowchart of diagnosis and treatment” software, and analyse factors related to: display, speed in learning, convenience in learning, helpfulness and usefulness in the learning process, by using the Likert Scale through online questionnaire which will further be processed using percentage. Results and Discussions: Out of the 1000 members of NM2DC, apparently: 97.0% of the members use the software and 87.5% of them are students. In terms of the analysed factors related to: display, speed in learning, convenience in learning, helpfulness and usefulness of the software’s usage, the results indicate a 90.7% of fairly good performance. Therefore, the “Flowchart of Diagnosis and Treatment” software has helped students in understanding the decision-making of diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion: the use of “Flowchart of Diagnosis and Treatment” software indicates a positive role in helping students understand decision-making of diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: usage, software, diagnosis and treatment, medical education

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1298 Intelligent Prediction System for Diagnosis of Heart Attack

Authors: Oluwaponmile David Alao

Abstract:

Due to an increase in the death rate as a result of heart attack. There is need to develop a system that can be useful in the diagnosis of the disease at the medical centre. This system will help in preventing misdiagnosis that may occur from the medical practitioner or the physicians. In this research work, heart disease dataset obtained from UCI repository has been used to develop an intelligent prediction diagnosis system. The system is modeled on a feedforwad neural network and trained with back propagation neural network. A recognition rate of 86% is obtained from the testing of the network.

Keywords: heart disease, artificial neural network, diagnosis, prediction system

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
1297 Diagnosis of the Lubrification System of a Gas Turbine Using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

Authors: H. Mahdjoub, B. Hamaidi, B. Zerouali, S. Rouabhia

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The issue of fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) has gained widespread industrial interest in process condition monitoring applications. Accordingly, the use of neuro-fuzzy technic seems very promising. This paper treats a diagnosis modeling a strategic equipment of an industrial installation. We propose a diagnostic tool based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The neuro-fuzzy network provides an abductive diagnosis. Moreover, it takes into account the uncertainties on the maintenance knowledge by giving a fuzzy characterization of each cause. This work was carried out with real data of a lubrication circuit from the gas turbine. The machine of interest is a gas turbine placed in a gas compressor station at South Industrial Centre (SIC Hassi Messaoud Ouargla, Algeria). We have defined the zones of good and bad functioning, and the results are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method.

Keywords: fault detection and diagnosis, lubrication system, turbine, ANFIS, training, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
1296 The Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Omani Women

Authors: H. Al-Awaisi, M. H. Al-Azri, S. Al-Rasbi, M. Al-Moundhri

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. It is also the most common cancer among females in Oman with 100 new breast cancer cases diagnosed every year. It has been found that breast cancer have a devastating effect on women’s life. Women diagnosed with breast cancer might develop negative attitudes towards the illness and their bodies. They might also suffer from psychological ailments such as depression. Despite the evidence on the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on women, there was no study found to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis among women in Oman. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Omani women. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were analyzed thematically. From the data, there are four main themes identified in relation to the impact of cancer diagnosis on Omani women. These are 'shock and disbelieve', 'a death sentence', “uncertain future” and “social stigma”. At the time of interviews, all participants had advanced breast cancer with some participants having metastatic disease. The impact of the word “cancer” had a profound and catastrophic effect on the women and their close relatives. In conclusion, breast cancer diagnosis was shocking and mainly perceived as a death sentence by Omani women with uncertain future and social stigma. Regardless of age, maternal status and education level, it is evident that Omani women participated in this study lacked awareness about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Keywords: breast cancer, coping, diagnosis, Oman, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
1295 Intelligent Prediction of Breast Cancer Severity

Authors: Wahab Ali, Oyebade K. Oyedotun, Adnan Khashman

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Breast cancer remains a threat to the woman’s world in view of survival rates, it early diagnosis and mortality statistics. So far, research has shown that many survivors of breast cancer cases are in the ones with early diagnosis. Breast cancer is usually categorized into stages which indicates its severity and corresponding survival rates for patients. Investigations show that the farther into the stages before diagnosis the lesser the chance of survival; hence the early diagnosis of breast cancer becomes imperative, and consequently the application of novel technologies to achieving this. Over the year, mammograms have used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, but the inconclusive deductions made from such scans lead to either false negative cases where cancer patients may be left untreated or false positive where unnecessary biopsies are carried out. This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks in the prediction of severity of breast tumour (whether benign or malignant) using mammography reports and other factors that are related to breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, intelligent classification, neural networks, mammography

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
1294 Fuzzy Inference System for Diagnosis of Malaria

Authors: Purnima Pandit

Abstract:

Malaria remains one of the world’s most deadly infectious disease and arguably, the greatest menace to modern society in terms of morbidity and mortality. To choose the right treatment and to ensure a quality of life suitable for a specific patient condition, early and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential. It reduces transmission of disease and prevents deaths. Our work focuses on designing an efficient, accurate fuzzy inference system for malaria diagnosis.

Keywords: fuzzy inference system, fuzzy logic, malaria disease, triangular fuzzy number

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
1293 Diabetes Diagnosis Model Using Rough Set and K- Nearest Neighbor Classifier

Authors: Usiobaifo Agharese Rosemary, Osaseri Roseline Oghogho

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Diabetes is a complex group of disease with a variety of causes; it is a disorder of the body metabolism in the digestion of carbohydrates food. The application of machine learning in the field of medical diagnosis has been the focus of many researchers and the use of recognition and classification model as a decision support tools has help the medical expert in diagnosis of diseases. Considering the large volume of medical data which require special techniques, experience, and high diagnostic skill in the diagnosis of diseases, the application of an artificial intelligent system to assist medical personnel in order to enhance their efficiency and accuracy in diagnosis will be an invaluable tool. In this study will propose a diabetes diagnosis model using rough set and K-nearest Neighbor classifier algorithm. The system consists of two modules: the feature extraction module and predictor module, rough data set is used to preprocess the attributes while K-nearest neighbor classifier is used to classify the given data. The dataset used for this model was taken for University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) database. Half of the data was used in the training while the other half was used in testing the system. The proposed model was able to achieve over 80% accuracy.

Keywords: classifier algorithm, diabetes, diagnostic model, machine learning

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1292 Process Data-Driven Representation of Abnormalities for Efficient Process Control

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho

Abstract:

Unexpected operational events or abnormalities of industrial processes have a serious impact on the quality of final product of interest. In terms of statistical process control, fault detection and diagnosis of processes is one of the essential tasks needed to run the process safely. In this work, nonlinear representation of process measurement data is presented and evaluated using a simulation process. The effect of using different representation methods on the diagnosis performance is tested in terms of computational efficiency and data handling. The results have shown that the nonlinear representation technique produced more reliable diagnosis results and outperforms linear methods. The use of data filtering step improved computational speed and diagnosis performance for test data sets. The presented scheme is different from existing ones in that it attempts to extract the fault pattern in the reduced space, not in the original process variable space. Thus this scheme helps to reduce the sensitivity of empirical models to noise.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, nonlinear technique, process data, reduced spaces

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1291 Importance of Developing a Decision Support System for Diagnosis of Glaucoma

Authors: Murat Durucu

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Glaucoma is a condition of irreversible blindness, early diagnosis and appropriate interventions to make the patients able to see longer time. In this study, it addressed that the importance of developing a decision support system for glaucoma diagnosis. Glaucoma occurs when pressure happens around the eyes it causes some damage to the optic nerves and deterioration of vision. There are different levels ranging blindness of glaucoma disease. The diagnosis at an early stage allows a chance for therapies that slows the progression of the disease. In recent years, imaging technology from Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT), Stereoscopic Disc Photo (SDP) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) have been used for the diagnosis of glaucoma. This better accuracy and faster imaging techniques in response technique of OCT have become the most common method used by experts. Although OCT images or HRT precision and quickness, especially in the early stages, there are still difficulties and mistakes are occurred in diagnosis of glaucoma. It is difficult to obtain objective results on diagnosis and placement process of the doctor's. It seems very important to develop an objective decision support system for diagnosis and level the glaucoma disease for patients. By using OCT images and pattern recognition systems, it is possible to develop a support system for doctors to make their decisions on glaucoma. Thus, in this recent study, we develop an evaluation and support system to the usage of doctors. Pattern recognition system based computer software would help the doctors to make an objective evaluation for their patients. It is intended that after development and evaluation processes of the software, the system is planning to be serve for the usage of doctors in different hospitals.

Keywords: decision support system, glaucoma, image processing, pattern recognition

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1290 Evaluation of Diagnosis Performance Based on Pairwise Model Construction and Filtered Data

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho

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It is quite important to utilize right time and intelligent production monitoring and diagnosis of industrial processes in terms of quality and safety issues. When compared with monitoring task, fault diagnosis represents the task of finding process variables responsible causing a specific fault in the process. It can be helpful to process operators who should investigate and eliminate root causes more effectively and efficiently. This work focused on the active use of combining a nonlinear statistical technique with a preprocessing method in order to implement practical real-time fault identification schemes for data-rich cases. To compare its performance to existing identification schemes, a case study on a benchmark process was performed in several scenarios. The results showed that the proposed fault identification scheme produced more reliable diagnosis results than linear methods. In addition, the use of the filtering step improved the identification results for the complicated processes with massive data sets.

Keywords: diagnosis, filtering, nonlinear statistical techniques, process monitoring

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1289 Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis of Primary Progressive Aphasia in a Younger Middle Aged Patient

Authors: Robert Krause

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Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease similar to frontotemporal and semantic dementia, while having a different clinical image and anatomic pathology topography. Nonetheless, they are often included under an umbrella term: frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In the study, examples of diagnosing PPA are presented through the multidisciplinary lens of specialists from different fields (neurologists, psychiatrists, clinical speech therapists, clinical neuropsychologists and others) using a variety of diagnostic tools such as MR, PET/CT, genetic screening and neuropsychological and logopedic methods. Thanks to that, specialists can get a better and clearer understanding of PPA diagnosis. The study summarizes the concrete procedures and results of different specialists while diagnosing PPA in a patient of younger middle age and illustrates the importance of multidisciplinary approach to differential diagnosis of PPA.

Keywords: primary progressive aphasia, etiology, diagnosis, younger middle age

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1288 A Retrospective Study on the Age of Onset for Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Muhammad Qamar

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There is a progressive increase in the prevalence of early onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Early detection of Type 2 diabetes enhances the length and/or quality of life which might result from a reduction in the severity, frequency or prevent or delay of its long-term complications. The study aims to determine the onset age for the first diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A retrospective study conducted in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang in Penang, Malaysia, January- December 2016. Records of 519 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened to collect demographic data and determine the age of first-time diabetes mellitus diagnosis. Patients classified according to the age of diagnosis, gender, and ethnicity. The study included 519 patients with age (55.6±13.7) years, female 265 (51.1%) and male 254 (48.9%). The ethnicity distribution was Malay 191 (36.8%), Chinese 189 (36.4%) and Indian 139 (26.8%). The age of Type 2 diabetes diagnosis was (42±14.8) years. The female onset of diabetes mellitus was at age (41.5±13.7) years, while male (42.6±13.7) years. Distribution of diabetic onset by ethnicity was Malay at age (40.7±13.7) years, Chinese (43.2±13.7) years and Indian (42.3±13.7) years. Diabetic onset was classified by age as follow; ≤20 years’ cohort was 33 (6.4%) cases. Group >20- ≤40 years was 190 (36.6%) patients, and category >40- ≤60 years was 270 (52%) subjects. On the other hand, the group >60 years was 22 (4.2%) patients. The range of diagnosis was between 10 and 73 years old. Conclusion: Malay and female have an earlier onset of diabetes than Indian, Chinese and male. More than half of the patients had diabetes between 40 and 60 years old. Diabetes mellitus is becoming more common in younger age <40 years. The age at diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has decreased with time.

Keywords: age of onset, diabetes diagnosis, diabetes mellitus, Malaysia, outpatients, type 2 diabetes, retrospective study

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1287 The Relation between Physical Health and Mental Health in Women of Reproductive Age

Authors: Hannah Yael Ephraim

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During reproductive age (between 15 and 44), women are particularly susceptible to psychiatric illness. Depression and anxiety disorders are especially common for women during reproductive age. Women of reproductive age are also at greater risk for multiple physical conditions during this time. Existing literature focuses on the impact of mental health on physical health, showing that people with anxiety and depression repeatedly show greater physical health risk among those with developing chronic medical illness. However, there is limited research on the impact physical health has on mental health in women of reproductive age, a large and vulnerable population. For this reason, the current study seeks to ask the following questions: are women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of a chronic physical condition more likely to experience symptoms of mental illness than women without a diagnosis of a chronic physical condition? Does the type of physical illness relate to signs and symptoms of depression and anxiety? A quasi-experimental research design was implemented to compare the mental health outcomes of women with the diagnosis of chronic medical conditions and women without the diagnosis of a chronic medical condition. Quantitative data was collected through an anonymous ten-minute Qualtrics survey. The survey was sent out through multiple online platforms. The sample includes two groups of women: one group with the diagnosis of a chronic medical illness, and one group without a diagnosis and/or symptoms (N = 541). Participants identify as a woman and are between the ages of 15 and 44. A comparison of women with a diagnosis of a chronic physical condition and those without a diagnosis will be conducted to explore differences in depression and anxiety symptoms between women with and without a chronic medical diagnosis. The impact race, SES, and occupation will also be addressed in relation to anxiety and/or depression in women of reproductive age. This study will further the understanding of the relationship between mental illness in women of reproductive age with chronic medical conditions. The results of this study will have implications for the integration of mental health care in women’s health centers and perhaps training of clinicians and physicians providing psychological and medical care to women of reproductive age.

Keywords: mental health, physical health, reproductive age, women

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1286 Factors Contributing to Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer and Its Outcome in Jamhoriat Hospital Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Jawad Fardin

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Over 60% of patients with breast cancer in Afghanistan present late with advanced stage III and IV, a major cause for the poor survival rate. The objectives of this study were to identify the contributing factors for the diagnosis and treatment delay and its outcome. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 318 patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer in the oncology department of Jamhoriat hospital, which is the first and only national cancer center in Afghanistan; data were collected from medical records and interviews conducted with women diagnosed with breast cancer, linear regression and logistic regression were used for analysis. Patient delay was defined as the time from first recognition of symptoms until first medical consultation and doctor form first consultation with a health care provider until histological confirmation of breast cancer. The mean age of patients was 49.2+_ 11.5years. The average time for the final diagnosis of breast cancer was 8.5 months; most patients had ductal carcinoma 260.7 (82%). Factors associated with delay were low education level 76% poor socioeconomic and cultural conditions 81% lack of cancer center 73% lack of screening 19%. The stage distribution was as follows stage IV 4 22% stage III 44.4% stage II 29.3% stage I 4.3%. Complex associated factors were identified to delayed the diagnosis of breast cancer and increased adverse outcomes consequently. Raising awareness and education in women, the establishment of cancer centers and providing accessible diagnosis service and screening, training of general practitioners; required to promote early detection, diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: delayed diagnosis and poor outcome, breast cancer in Afghanistan, poor outcome of delayed breast cancer treatment, breast cancer delayed diagnosis and treatment in Afghanistan

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1285 Alternative General Formula to Estimate and Test Influences of Early Diagnosis on Cancer Survival

Authors: Li Yin, Xiaoqin Wang

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Background and purpose: Cancer diagnosis is part of a complex stochastic process, in which patients' personal and social characteristics influence the choice of diagnosing methods, diagnosing methods, in turn, influence the initial assessment of cancer stage, the initial assessment, in turn, influences the choice of treating methods, and treating methods in turn influence cancer outcomes such as cancer survival. To evaluate diagnosing methods, one needs to estimate and test the causal effect of a regime of cancer diagnosis and treatments. Recently, Wang and Yin (Annals of statistics, 2020) derived a new general formula, which expresses these causal effects in terms of the point effects of treatments in single-point causal inference. As a result, it is possible to estimate and test these causal effects via point effects. The purpose of the work is to estimate and test causal effects under various regimes of cancer diagnosis and treatments via point effects. Challenges and solutions: The cancer stage has influences from earlier diagnosis as well as on subsequent treatments. As a consequence, it is highly difficult to estimate and test the causal effects via standard parameters, that is, the conditional survival given all stationary covariates, diagnosing methods, cancer stage and prognosis factors, treating methods. Instead of standard parameters, we use the point effects of cancer diagnosis and treatments to estimate and test causal effects under various regimes of cancer diagnosis and treatments. We are able to use familiar methods in the framework of single-point causal inference to accomplish the task. Achievements: we have applied this method to stomach cancer survival from a clinical study in Sweden. We have studied causal effects under various regimes, including the optimal regime of diagnosis and treatments and the effect moderation of the causal effect by age and gender.

Keywords: cancer diagnosis, causal effect, point effect, G-formula, sequential causal effect

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1284 Rule-Based Expert System for Headache Diagnosis and Medication Recommendation

Authors: Noura Al-Ajmi, Mohammed A. Almulla

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With the increased utilization of technology devices around the world, healthcare and medical diagnosis are critical issues that people worry about these days. Doctors are doing their best to avoid any medical errors while diagnosing diseases and prescribing the wrong medication. Subsequently, artificial intelligence applications that can be installed on mobile devices such as rule-based expert systems facilitate the task of assisting doctors in several ways. Due to their many advantages, the usage of expert systems has increased recently in health sciences. This work presents a backward rule-based expert system that can be used for a headache diagnosis and medication recommendation system. The structure of the system consists of three main modules, namely the input unit, the processing unit, and the output unit.

Keywords: headache diagnosis system, prescription recommender system, expert system, backward rule-based system

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1283 Delay in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Initiation of TB Treatment in the Private and Public Health Sectors, Udaipur District, Rajasthan, India, Nov 2013

Authors: Yogita Tulsian, R. S. Gupta, K. F. Laserson

Abstract:

Background: Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of TB facilitates disease transmission in the community, so we conducted a study to evaluate the burden of and risk factors for delay in TB diagnosis and initiation of TB treatment among patients in the private and public sectors in Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 100 new sputum-positive TB. Patients were interviewed in the intensive phase of treatment September 2013-November 2013 Long total diagnosis delay (TDD) was defined as a time interval between first symptom to confirmed diagnosis > 30 days. Long health treatment delay (HTD) was defined as a time interval between confirmed diagnosis to treatment initiation > 7 days. Results: We observed a median TDD of 55 days (range: 7-136 days) in the public sector and of 92 days (11-380 days) in the private sector. Long TDD in the private sector was significantly associated with middle-higher socio-economic status (Risk Ratio (RR): 2;95% CI: 1.3-3). The reasons reported from the private sector for long TDD were suspect TB patients not advised for sputum examination (RR: 42; 95% CI:2.6-660), practise of self-medication (RR: 17.4; 95% CI: 1.1-267), or lack of awareness (RR: 9.7;95% CI: 0.6-145). The median HTD in the public sector was 3 days (range: 0-14 days), and in the private sector, 2 days (range: 0-11 days) (non-significant difference). Conclusions: Long TDD in private sector may be improved through sputum referral for all suspect TB cases and better education to all regarding TB.

Keywords: diagnosis delay, treatment delay, privatesector, public sector

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1282 Deep Neck Infection Associated with Peritoneal Sepsis: A Rare Death Case

Authors: Sait Ozsoy, Asude Gokmen, Mehtap Yondem, Hanife A. Alkan, Gulnaz T. Javan

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Deep neck infection often develops due to upper respiratory tract and odontogenic infections. Gastrointestinal System perforation can occur for many reasons and is in need of the early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment. In both cases late or incorrect diagnosis may lead to increase morbidity and high mortality. A patient with a diagnosis of deep neck abscess died while under treatment due to sepsis and multiple organ failure. Autopsy finding showed duodenal ulcer and this is reported in the literature.

Keywords: peptic ulcer perforation, peritonitis, retropharyngeal abscess, sepsis

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1281 Diagnosis and Management of Obesity Among South Asians: A Paradigm

Authors: Deepa Vasudevan, Thomas Northrup, Angela Stotts, Michelle Klawans

Abstract:

To date, we have conducted three studies on this subject. The research done to date is through three studies. The initial study was to document that modified criteria independently identified higher numbers of overweight/obese South Asian Indians. The second study was to document physician knowledge of appropriate diagnosis of obesity among South Asian Indians. The final study was an intervention to evaluate the efficacy of a training module on improving physician diagnosis and counseling of overweight/obese Asian patients.

Keywords: South Asian Indians, obesity, physicians, BMI and waist circumference

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1280 An Audit of the Diagnosis of Asthma in Children in Primary Care and the Emergency Department

Authors: Abhishek Oswal

Abstract:

Background: Inconsistencies between the guidelines for childhood asthma can pose a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. NICE guidelines are the most commonly followed guidelines in primary care in the UK; they state that to be diagnosed with asthma, a child must be more than 5 years old and must have objective evidence of the disease. When diagnoses are coded in general practice (GP), these guidelines may be superseded by communications from secondary care. Hence it is imperative that diagnoses are correct, as per up to date guidelines and evidence, as this affects follow up and management both in primary and secondary care. Methods: A snapshot audit at a general practice surgery was undertaken of children (less than 16 years old) with a coded diagnosis of 'asthma', to review the age at diagnosis and whether any objective evidence of asthma was documented at diagnosis. 50 cases of asthma in children presenting to the emergency department (ED) were then audited to review the age at presentation, whether there was evidence of previous asthma diagnosis and whether the patient was discharged from ED. A repeat audit is planned in ED this winter. Results: In a GP surgery, there were 83 coded cases of asthma in children. 51 children (61%) were diagnosed under 5, with 9 children (11%) who had objective evidence of asthma documented at diagnosis. In ED, 50 cases were collected, of which 4 were excluded as they were referred to the other services, or for incorrect coding. Of the 46 remaining, 27 diagnoses confirmed to NICE guidelines (59%). 33 children (72%) were discharged from ED. Discussion: The most likely reason for the apparent low rate of a correct diagnosis is the significant challenge of obtaining objective evidence of asthma in children. There were a number of patients who were diagnosed from secondary care services and then coded as 'asthma' in GP, without having objective documented evidence. The electronic patient record (EPR) system used in our emergency department (ED) did not allow coding of 'suspected diagnosis' or of 'viral induced wheeze'. This may have led to incorrect diagnoses coded in primary care, of children who had no confirmed diagnosis of asthma. We look forward to the re-audit, as the EPR system has been updated to allow suspected diagnoses. In contrast to the NICE guidelines used here, British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines allow for a trial of treatment and subsequent confirmation of diagnosis without objective evidence. It is possible that some of the cases which have been classified as incorrect in this audit may still meet other guidelines. Conclusion: The diagnosis of asthma in children is challenging. Incorrect diagnoses may be related to clinical pressures and the provision of services to allow compliance with NICE guidelines. Consensus statements between the various groups would also aid the decision-making process and diagnostic dilemmas that clinicians face, to allow more consistent care of the patient.

Keywords: asthma, diagnosis, primary care, emergency department, guidelines, audit

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