Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: symbolism

49 The Symbolism of Kolanut in Igbo Cosmology: A Re-Examination

Authors: Chukwudi Chidume

Abstract:

This paper considers the symbolism of kola nut according to Igbo worldview. How kola nut helps to shape the people’s philosophical ideology, especially in relation to religion. The roles of kola nut within the Igbo socio-cultural context and the values attached to these roles will be examined. The roles of kola nut as a means of socialization, education and transmission of cultural values from the preceding to succeeding generations will come under consideration. Equally, this paper looks at the traditional rules regarding not only the uses but more essentially the mode of kola nut presentation, blessing, breaking and sharing of kola nut. How these rules and kola nut have persisted in the face of social and cultural changes which have affected the Igbo people shall be reviewed. The roles played by kola nut in Igbo religion will come under study, which is to correct some of the misconceptions by writers who are motivated by eurocentric idealism but quite oblivious of the Igbo cultural setting and the place of kola nut in it. The onslaught of Western civilization causing the change of attitude among the young generation towards kola nut as a vital aspect of our culture tends to pose a threat to the future and survival of kola nut. Again, the study of Igbo culture as many have done rarely gives an in depth knowledge on the concept, roles and symbolism of kola nut as one of the sacred objects like Ofo and Shrines in Igboland. Mostly it is forgotten that without kola nut, shrines cannot be attended to. Many people think that the spiritual significance and sacramental symbolism are not worth exploring. They, therefore, refuse to try and discover the ritual ramifications, claiming that to probe into the mystery demystifies the matter. Kola nut symbolism is not mysteriously inexplicable. It is a revered symbol of social intercourse with deep social relevance.

Keywords: communion, consecration, Igbo, kola nut, religion

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48 Liturgical Elements and Symbolism of Light in Christian Sacred Space

Authors: Zorana Sokol Gojnik, Igor Gojnik, Marina Simunic Bursic

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The light is one of the major themes of theology of sacred space. Christian theology, but also architecture in its complexity, is permeated by the symbolism of light from its beginning. The aim of this paper is to deeply analyse the symbolism of light in every single element of contemporary Christian sacred space such as altar, ambo, baptistery, tabernacle, confessionals, stations of the cross, etc. The research will be carried out using the methodology of research of literature and comparatively observation of contemporary examples of sacred architecture. The research will use the insights of analyzed literature and examples of sacred architecture in order to describe the background of the problem as well as to complement the received results with the reliable scientific findings. The paper will highlight the importance of symbolic and theological points of view in contemporary church design using the light as a building part of every single part of sacred architecture as there is an insight that, in contemporary sacred architecture, there is a lack of understanding of symbolic and theological aspect of light while designing new sacred spaces.

Keywords: architecture, liturgy, sacred architecture, theology of space

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47 Studying the Linguistics of Hungarian Luxurious Brands: Analysing the Sound Effects from a non-Hungarian Consumer’s Perspective

Authors: Syrine Bassi

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Sound symbolism has been able to give us an exciting new tool to target consumers’ brand perception. It acts on a subconscious level making them less likely to reject the implicit message delivered by the sound of the brand name. Most of the research conducted in the field was focused on the English language as it is the language used for international branding campaigns and global companies. However, more research is examining the sound symbolism in other languages and comparing it to the English language findings. Besides, researchers have been able to study luxury brand names and spot out the patterns used in them to provoke luxury and sophistication. It stands to a reason to connect the luxury brand names and the local language’s sound effects since a considerable number of these brands are promoting the origin of the Maison, therefore, have names in foreign languages. This study was established around the Hungarian luxury brand names. It aims to spot out the patterns used in these names that connect to the previous findings of luxury sound effects and also the differences. We worked with a non-Hungarian speaking sample who had some basic knowledge of the language just to make sure they were able to correctly pronounce the names. The results have shown both similarities and differences when it comes to perceiving luxury based on the brand name. As the Hungarian language can be qualified as a saturated language, consonant wise, it was easy to feed the luxury feeling only by using designers' names, however, some complicated names were too difficult and repulsive to consider as luxurious. On the other hand, oversimplifying some names did not convey the desired image as it was too simple and easy. Overall, some sounds have been proved to be linked to luxury as the literature suggests, the difficulty of pronunciation has also proved effective since it highlights the distant feeling consumers crave when looking for luxury. These results suggest that sound symbolism can set up an aura of luxury when used properly, leveraging each languages’ convenient assets.

Keywords: hungarian language, linguistics, luxury brands, sound symbolism

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46 Role of Symbolism in the Journey towards Spirituality: A Case Study of Mosque Architecture in Bahrain

Authors: Ayesha Agha Shah

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The purpose of a mosque or a place of worship is to build a spiritual relation with God. If the sense of spirituality is not achieved, then sacred architecture appears to be lacking depth. Form and space play a significant role to enhance the architectural quality to impart a divine feel to a place. To achieve this divine feeling, form and space, and unity of opposites, either abstract or symbolic can be employed. It is challenging to imbue the emptiness of a space with qualitative experience. Mosque architecture mostly entails traditional forms and design typology. This approach for Muslim worship produces distinct landmarks in the urban neighborhoods of Muslim societies, while creating a great sense of spirituality. The universal symbolic characters in the mosque architecture had prototype geometrical forms for a long time in history. However, modern mosques have deviated from this approach to employ different built elements and symbolism, which are often hard to be identified as related to mosques or even as Islamic. This research aims to explore the sense of spirituality in modern mosques and questions whether the modification of geometrical features produce spirituality in the same manner. The research also seeks to investigate the role of ‘geometry’ in the modern mosque architecture. The research employs the analytical study of some modern mosque examples in the Kingdom of Bahrain, reflecting on the geometry and symbolism adopted in the new mosque architecture design. It buttresses the analysis by the engagement of people’s perceptions derived using a survey of opinions. The research expects to see the significance of geometrical architectural elements in the mosque designs. It will find answers to the questions such as; what is the role of the form of the mosque, interior spaces and the effect of the modified symbolic features in the modern mosque design? How can the symbolic geometry, forms and spaces of a mosque invite a believer to leave the worldly environment behind and move towards spirituality?

Keywords: geometry, mosque architecture, spirituality, symbolism

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45 The Role of Ideophones: Phonological and Morphological Characteristics in Literature

Authors: Cristina Bahón Arnaiz

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Many Asian languages, such as Korean and Japanese, are well-known for their wide use of sound symbolic words or ideophones. This is a very particular characteristic which enriches its lexicon hugely. Ideophones are a class of sound symbolic words that utilize sound symbolism to express aspects, states, emotions, or conditions that can be experienced through the senses, such as shape, color, smell, action or movement. Ideophones have very particular characteristics in terms of sound symbolism and morphology, which distinguish them from other words. The phonological characteristics of ideophones are vowel ablaut or vowel gradation and consonant mutation. In the case of Korean, there are light vowels and dark vowels. Depending on the type of vowel that is used, the meaning will slightly change. Consonant mutation, also known as consonant ablaut, contributes to the level of intensity, emphasis, and volume of an expression. In addition to these phonological characteristics, there is one main morphological singularity, which is reduplication and it carries the meaning of continuity, repetition, intensity, emphasis, and plurality. All these characteristics play an important role in both linguistics and literature as they enhance the meaning of what is trying to be expressed with incredible semantic detail, expressiveness, and rhythm. The following study will analyze the ideophones used in a single paragraph of a Korean novel, which add incredible yet subtle detail to the meaning of the words, and advance the expressiveness and rhythm of the text. The results from analyzing one paragraph from a novel, after presenting the phonological and morphological characteristics of Korean ideophones, will evidence the important role that ideophones play in literature. 

Keywords: ideophones, mimetic words, phonomimes, phenomimes, psychomimes, sound symbolism

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44 The Reintegration of the Past as Self-Realisation

Authors: Haotian Wu

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This article examines the figure Zhao Tao in Jia Zhangke’s films in light of Carl Jung’s psychoanalytical theory. Zhao is a recurring aesthetic trope in Jia’s films, and the characters she plays often have an intimate relationship with the past. Nevertheless, this relationship has not been systematically investigated, especially its symbolism of the typical relationship between the past and the self in post-social China. To fill this research gap, the article will explore how Zhao’s characters discover, preserve, and adapt the past in I Wish I knew (2010), Mountains May Depart (2015), and Ash Is Purest White (2018). Through a Jungian lens, these three levels of engagement with the past will be demonstrated as corresponding with Jung’s psychoanalytical theory of self-realisation, which entails the confrontation with the shadow, the embodiment of the archetype, and individuation. Thus, by articulating a film-philosophy dialogue between Jia and Jung, this article will develop a new philosophy of self-realisation based on the symbolism of Zhao. Through the reintegration of the past, the individuals can overcome the fragmentation of temporality and selfhood in the postmodern world and achieve self-realisation.

Keywords: Jia Zhangke, Jung, psychoanalysis, self-realisation

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43 The Arts of Walisanga's Mosques in Java: Structure/Architecture Studies and Its Meaning in Anthropological Perspective

Authors: Slamet Subiyantoro, Mulyanto

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Revealing the structure and symbolism meaning of the walisanga’s mosque arts in Java is very important to explain the philosophy of religious foundation which is a manifestation of the norms/ value system and behavior of the Javanese Islam society that support the culture. This research's aims are also to find the structure pattern of walisanga’s mosque and its symbolic meaning in the context of Javanese Islam society. In order to obtain the research objectives, the research were done in several walisanga’s mosques in Java using anthropological approach which is focused on its interpretation and semiotic analysis. The data were collected through interviews with key informants who well informed about the shape and symbolism of walisanga’s mosques in Java. The observation technique is done through visiting walisanga’s mosques to see directly about its structure/ architecture. In completing the information of comprehensive result of the research, it is also used documents and archives as well as any other source which is analyzed to deepen the discussion in answering the problems research. The flow of analysis is done using an interactive model through stages of data collection, data reduction, data presentation and verification. The analysis is done continuously in a cycle system to draw valid conclusions. The research result indicates that the structure/architecture of walisanga’s mosque in Java is structured/built up vertically as well as horizontally. Its structure/architecture is correlated to each other which is having a sacred meaning that is a process represents the mystical belief such as sangkan paraning dumadi and manuggaling kawula gusti.

Keywords: Walisanga’s mosques, Java, structure and architecture, meaning

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42 Hair Symbolism and Changing Perspective of Women’s Role in Children’s and Young Adult Literature

Authors: Suchismita Dattagupta

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Social rules and guidelines specify how a body should be clothed and how it should look. The social rules have made the body a space for expression, oppression and sexual 'commodification'. Being a malleable aspect of the human body, hair has always been worn in a number of ways and this characteristic of hair has made it an essential vehicle for conveying symbolic meaning. Hair, particularly women’s hair has always been considered to be associated with richness and beauty, apart from being associated with sexual power. Society has always had a preoccupation with hair bordering on obsession and has projected its moral and political supremacy by controlling and influencing how an individual wears their hair. Irrespective of the gender of the individual, society has tried to control an individual’s hair to express its control. However, with time, there has been a marked change in the way hair has been used by the individual. Hair has always been the focus of scholarly studies; not just aesthetically, but also in the cultural and social context. The fascination with hair rises from the fact that it is the only part of the human body that is always on display. Fetishization of hair is common in literature and goes ahead to reveal the character’s social and moral status. Modern authors for children and young adults have turned this concept on its head to point out how characters are breaking away from the mould and establishing their personal, moral and social boundaries. This paper will trace the change in hair symbolism in literature for children and young adults to understand how it has changed over the course of the time and what light it throws on the changing pattern of women’s position in society.

Keywords: gender, hair, social symbols, society, women's role

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41 History of Textiles and Fashion: Gender Symbolism in the Context of Colour

Authors: Damayanthie Eluwawalage

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Historically, the color-coded attire demarcated differences, for example, differences in social position and differences in gender, etc. Distinctive colors are worn by different classes in medieval England. By the twentieth-century Western society, certain colors were firmly associated with the specific gender; as pink for girls, and blue for boys. The color-coded gender phenomenon was a novelty at the turn of the twentieth-century and became widely practiced after World War II. Prior to that era, there were no distinctions or differences in the dress of younger children, in relation to their gender. In the nineteenth century, pink suits were highly acceptable for gentlemen’s attire. Frenchmen in the eighteenth-century wore colors with an infinite range of hues like pink, plum, white, cream, blue, yellow, puce and sea green. Nineteenth-century European male austerity, primarily caused by the usage of sombre colors such as black, white and grey, has been described as an element for dignity, control and morality. In the nineteenth century, there were many color-associated distinctions, as certain colors were reserved for the unmarried, the single or the aged. Two luminous colors in one dress was ‘vulgar’ and yellow was generally regarded as unladylike. Yellow was the color utilised for most correctional attire. Orange was prohibited for the unmarried. Fashionable dressing in the nineteenth century was more gender-differentiated than in previous centuries. Masculine austerity, emphasized a shift in class relations. As a result of that shift, male attire became more uniform, homogeneous and integrated (amongst the classes), than its traditional hierarchal approach.

Keywords: textiles, fashion, gender symbolism, color

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40 Aesthetic and Social Vision in Abubakar Gimba’s a Toast in the Cemetery

Authors: James Funsho Tope

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Being the prolific writer that he is, Gimba’s collection of Short Stories, A Toast in the Cemetery, brings out the themes of decay and corruption in the urban setting through the use of images, symbols, setting and character. Gimba seeks through these media to reveal the decay and corruption in the society. Gimba uses aesthetics to convey his message, thus making a call for change in the fabrics of society.

Keywords: corruption, decay, character, setting, symbolism, images, society

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39 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

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Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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38 Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering/ YuanZe University

Authors: Sankhanil Das, Arunava Dasgupta, Keya Mitra

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This paper investigates the relationship between natural ecological systems and modern urban morphology. Over years, ecological conditions represented by natural resources such as natural landforms, systems of water, urban geography and land covers have been a significant driving factor of how settlements have formed, expanded and functioned. These have played a pivotal role in formation of the community character and the cultural identity of the urban spaces, and have steered cultural behavior within these settings. Such cultural behaviors have been instrumental in transforming mere spaces to places with meaning and symbolism. The natural process of city formation is principally founded upon the idea of balance and harmony, mostly in a subconscious manner. Reimaging such processes of natural evolution, this paper systematically builds a development model that generates a balance between environment and development, with specific focus on the Urban-Rural fringe areas in the Temple Town of Puri, in Eastern India. Puri represents a unique cross section of ecological landscape, cultural practices and religious symbolism with a very rich history and a vibrant heritage. While the city centre gets more and more crowded by tourists and pilgrims to accommodate related businesses, the original residents of Puri relocate to move towards the urban peripheral areas for better living conditions, gradually converting agricultural lands into non agricultural uses. This rapid spread into the rural hinterland is devoid of any connection with the rich cultural identity of Puri. These past four decades of ‘development’ has been at the cost of 810 Hectares of ecological Lake systems in the region. Invaluable ecological resources at urban rural edges are often viewed as hindrances to development and conceptualized as taking away from the image of the city. This paper attempts to understand the language of development over years on existing natural resources through topo-analysis and proposes a sustainable approach of development using different planning tools, with ecological resources as the pivotal factor of development.

Keywords: livability, sustainable development, urbanization, urban-rural edge

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37 Transcendental Birth of the Column from the Full Jar Expressed at the Notre Dame of Paris and Saint Germain-des-Pres

Authors: Kang Woobang

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The base of the column is not only a support but also the embodiment of profound symbolism full of cosmic energy. Finding the full jars from which various energy emanate at the Notre Dame of Paris and Saint-Germain-des-Pres in France, the author was so shocked. As the column is cosmic tree, from the Full Jar full with cosmic energy emerges the cosmic tree composed of shaft and capital.

Keywords: full picher or jar, transcendental or supernatural birth from yonggi, yonggimun, yonggissak

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36 Origins of the Tattoo: Decoding the Ancient Meanings of Terrestrial Body Art to Establish a Connection between the Natural World and Humans Today

Authors: Sangeet Anand

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Body art and tattooing have long been practiced as a form of self-expression for centuries, and this study studies and analyzes the pertinence of tattoo culture in our everyday lives and ancient past. Individuals of different cultures represent ideas, practices, and elements of their cultures through symbolic representation. These symbols come in all shapes and sizes and can be as simple as the makeup you put on every day to something more permanent such as a tattoo. In the long run, these individuals who choose to display art on their bodies are seeking to express their individuality. In addition, these visuals are ultimately a reflection of our own appropriate cultures deem as beautiful, important, and powerful to the human eye. They make us known to the world and give us a plausible identity in an ever-changing world. We have lived through and seen a rise in hippie culture today. This type of bodily decoration displayed by this fad has made it seem as though body art is a visual language that is relatively new. But quite to the contrary, it is not. Through cultural symbolic exploration, we can answer key questions to ideas that have been raised for centuries. Through careful, in-depth interviews, this study takes a broad subject matter-art, and symbolism-and culminates it into a deeper philosophical connection between the world and its past. The basic methodologies used in this sociocultural study include interview questionnaires and textual analysis, which encompass a subject and interviewer as well as source material. The major findings of this study contain a distinct connection between cultural heritage and the day-to-day likings of an individual. The participant that was studied during this project demonstrated a clear passion for hobbies that were practiced even by her ancestors. We can conclude, through these findings, that there is a deeper cultural connection between modern day humans, the first humans, and the surrounding environments. Our symbols today are a direct reflection of the elements of nature that our human ancestors were exposed to, and, through cultural acceptance, we can adorn ourselves with these representations to help others identify our pasts. Body art embraces the different aspects of different cultures and holds significance, tells stories, and persists, even as the human population rapidly integrates. With this pattern, our human descendents will continue to represent their cultures and identities in the future. Body art is an integral element in understanding how and why people identify with certain aspects of life over others and broaden the scope for conducting more analysis cross-culturally.

Keywords: natural, symbolism, tattoo, terrestrial

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35 Substitutional Inference in Poetry: Word Choice Substitutions Craft Multiple Meanings by Inference

Authors: J. Marie Hicks

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The art of the poetic conjoins meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm. Perhaps the reader might read this opening sentence as 'The art of the poetic combines meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm,' which holds a similar message, but is not quite the same. The reader understands that these factors are combined in this literary form, but to gain a sense of the conjoining of these factors, the reader is forced to consider that these aspects of poetry are not simply combined, but actually adjoin, abut, skirt, or touch in the poetic form. This alternative word choice is an example of substitutional inference. Poetry is, ostensibly, a literary form where language is used precisely or creatively to evoke specific images or emotions for the reader. Often, the reader can predict a coming rhyme or descriptive word choice in a poem, based on previous rhyming pattern or earlier imagery in the poem. However, there are instances when the poet uses an unexpected word choice to create multiple meanings and connections. In these cases, the reader is presented with an unusual phrase or image, requiring that they think about what that image is meant to suggest, and their mind also suggests the word they expected, creating a second, overlying image or meaning. This is what is meant by the term 'substitutional inference.' This is different than simply using a double entendre, a word or phrase that has two meanings, often one complementary and the other disparaging, or one that is innocuous and the other suggestive. In substitutional inference, the poet utilizes an unanticipated word that is either visually or phonetically similar to the expected word, provoking the reader to work to understand the poetic phrase as written, while unconsciously incorporating the meaning of the line as anticipated. In other words, by virtue of a word substitution, an inference of the logical word choice is imparted to the reader, while they are seeking to rationalize the word that was actually used. There is a substitutional inference of meaning created by the alternate word choice. For example, Louise Bogan, 4th Poet Laureate of the United States, used substitutional inference in the form of homonyms, malapropisms, and other unusual word choices in a number of her poems, lending depth and greater complexity, while actively engaging her readers intellectually with her poetry. Substitutional inference not only adds complexity to the potential interpretations of Bogan’s poetry, as well as the poetry of others, but provided a method for writers to infuse additional meanings into their work, thus expressing more information in a compact format. Additionally, this nuancing enriches the poetic experience for the reader, who can enjoy the poem superficially as written, or on a deeper level exploring gradations of meaning.

Keywords: poetic inference, poetic word play, substitutional inference, word substitution

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34 Analyzing Architectural Narrative in 21st-Century Museums

Authors: Ihjaz Zubair Pallakkan Tharammal, Lakshmi S. R.

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Storytelling has been an important part of human life throughout history. It allows communities to unlearn, learn and relearn. There are different mediums of storytelling that are used in an individual's day to day life. For instance, ideas are shared through oral stories, comics, music, art, architecture, etc. This paper explores the concept of architectural narrative and its significance in conveying messages and stories. The research aims to study and analyse the potential of museums and the importance of incorporating architectural narratives in museums, particularly in 21st century India. The research is also an exploratory and comparative analysis of narrative elements like semiotics, symbolism, spatial structure, etc., and finally derives strategies to design spaces that speak to the users.

Keywords: museum, architectural narrative, narratology, spatial storytelling

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33 The Hindu Temple: Architecture, Culture and Spirituality

Authors: Tanisha Dutta, Vinayak S. Adane

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A Hindu temple has always been the centre of worldly knowledge, art, culture, and spiritual knowledge. The temple centers and the temple structures alike, teach the observer about all kinds of worldly systems, codes of conduct, performing and other arts etc. During the medieval period, these were the only centers of knowledge. Therefore, these spaces had the burden and responsibility of covering all the various facets of life. It is understandable therefore, that a Hindu temple is easily the confluence of intricate architecture, cultural blossoming and spiritual knowledge transmittance. The architecture of a Hindu temple supports all these in a way that they co-exist and develop a symbiotic relationship, each enhancing the manifested form of the other. This symbiosis is presented through the temples of Khajuraho, India. This paper, therefore, elaborates the finer aspects of the mentioned areas in a Hindu temple context, through the case study of the Khajuraho group of temples.

Keywords: Hindu temples' concept, symbolism, temple architecture

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32 Evolution of Memorial Architecture: Comparative Study of Aesthetics and Elements of Memorials in Europe and Indian Subcontinent

Authors: Madhusudan Hamirwasia, Sarang Barbarwar, Arshleen Kaur

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The construction of memorials began thousands of years ago and the practice is still continuing. These memorials became a symbol to honor great people and events in the history. The aim of the study was to understand the evolution of memorials from an architectural design perspective. It is also concentrated on the similarities and differences between the memorials in Europe and those in the Indian subcontinent. The study shows how the design of a memorial has seen a considerable shift from the tribal Urasgattas to the contemporary commemorative structures. While they were somber symbolic gestures in the past, they have now transformed into a socio-cultural space in urban areas. Not only the memorials were inspired by the culture but the culture too got influenced by the memorials as with progressing time, they hold the vital link to our past. The study intends to encapsulate the essence of design elements in these memorials that convey the visitors the intangible messages held by the edifice in its tangible presence.

Keywords: evolution, emotion, memorials, symbolism

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31 Enhancing Visual Corporate Identity on Festive Money Packets Design with Cultural Symbolisms

Authors: Noranis Ismail, Shamsul H. A. Rahman

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The objective of this research is to accentuate the importance of Visual Corporate Identity by utilizing Malay motifs amalgamated with Malay proverbs to enhance the corporate brand of The Design School (TDS) of Taylor’s University. The researchers aim to manipulate festive money packet as a mean to communicate to the audience by using non-verbal visual cues such as colour, languages, and symbols that reflect styles and cultural heritage. The paper concluded that it is possible to utilize Hari Raya packet as a medium for creative expressions by creating high-impact design through the symbolism of selected Malay proverbs and traditional Malay motifs to enhance TDS corporate visual identity. It also provides a vital contribution to other organizations to understand an integral part of corporate visual identity in heightening corporate brand by communicating indirectly to its stakeholders using visual mnemonic and cultural heritage.

Keywords: corporate branding, cultural cues, Malay culture, visual identity

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30 Archaeology Study of Soul Houses in Ancient Egypt on Five Models in the Grand Egyptian Museum

Authors: Ayman Aboelkassem, Mahmoud Ali

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Introduction: The models of soul houses have appeared in the prehistory, old kingdom and middle kingdom period. These soul houses represented the imagination of the deceased about his house in the afterlife, some of these soul houses were two floors and the study will examine five models of soul houses which were discovered near Saqqara site by an Egyptian mission. These models had been transferred to The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM) to be ready to display at the new museum. We focus on models of soul houses (GEM Numbers, 1276, 1280, 1281, 1282, 8711) these models of soul houses were related to the old kingdom period. These models were all made of pottery, the five models have an oval shape and were decorated with relief. Methodology: The study will focus on the development of soul houses during the different periods in ancient Egypt, the function of soul houses, the kind of offerings which were put in it and the symbolism of the offerings colors in ancient Egyptian believe. Conclusion: This study is useful for the heritage and ancient civilizations especially when we talk about opening new museums like The Grand Egyptian Museum which will display a new collection of soul houses. The study of soul houses and The kinds of offerings which put in it reflect the economic situation in the Egyptian society and kinds of oils which were famous in ancient Egypt.

Keywords: archaeology study, Grand Egyptian Museum, relief, soul houses

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29 A Comparative Analysis of the Role, Representations and Architectural Identity of Public Space in Medieval and Contemporary Cairo

Authors: Muhammad Feteha

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The socio-political Middle East scene has radically changed over the last decade, and one major contributor to this change was the Egyptian revolution of 2011. The massive impact of this revolution that originally started as a small protest in the Tahrir square has attracted more scholars to study the public space in Egypt, where it has become a necessity in order to understand and improve the socio-political conditions. The status of public space in Egypt has been deteriorating due to many reasons, including privatization and neglect. This paper studies one of the major problems of the contemporary public space in Cairo, which is the lack of identity. This takes place through a comparative analysis between selected case studies from both medieval and contemporary Cairo. The theoretical framework upon which the analysis is based views public space as a ‘container of social action’ and a ‘product of spatial practice’. Through the ‘deciphering of space’, differences in the socio-political role, symbolism, and identity of public spaces between both eras are shown. The paper aims to extract some lessons from public space in medieval Cairo, which was truly the ‘centerpiece of the public realm’ and a ‘fundamental expressions’ of the unique trans-dynastic architectural identity of Cairo. In addition, it suggests some strategies to revive the Cairene identity of public space instead of constructing new ones to be only ‘utilitarian spaces used for circulation’ and lack any identity.

Keywords: architectural identity, Cairene public space, Islamic architectural history, production of space

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28 Crossing Narrative Waters in World Cinema: Alamar (2009) and Kaili Blues (2015)

Authors: Dustin Dill

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The physical movement of crossing over water points to both developing narrative tropes and innovative cinematography in World Cinema today. Two prime examples, Alamar (2009) by Pedro González-Rubio and Kaili Blues (2015) by Bi Gan, demonstrate how contemporary storytelling in a film not only rests upon these water shots but also emerges from them. The range of symbolism that these episodes in the story provoke goes hand in hand with the diverse filming sequences found in the respective productions. While González-Rubio decides to cut the scene into long and longer shots, Gan uses a single take. The differing angles depict equally unique directors and film projects: Alamar runs parallel to many definitions of the essay film, and Kaili Blues resonates much more with mystery and art film. Nonetheless, the crossing of water scenes influence the narratives’ subjects despite the generic consequences, and it is within the essay, mystery, and art film genres which allows for a better understanding of World Cinema. Tiago de Luca explains World Cinema’s prerogative of giving form to a certain type of spectator does not always line up. Given the immense number of interpretations of crossing water —the escape from suffering to find nirvana, rebirth, and colonization— underline the difficulty of categorizing it. If before this type of cross-genre was a trait that defined World Cinema in its beginning, this study observes that González-Rubio and Gan question the all-encompassing genre with their experimental shots of a universal narrative trope, the crossing of water.

Keywords: cinematography, genre, narrative, world cinema

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27 Meanings and Construction: Evolution of Inheriting the Traditions in Chinese Modern Architecture in the 1980s

Authors: Wei Wang

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Queli Hotel, Xixi Scenery Spot Reception and Square Pagoda Garden are three important landmarks of localized Chinese modern architecture (LCMA) in the architectural design context of "Inheriting the Traditions in Modern Architecture" in the 1980s. As the most representative cases of LCMA in the 1980s, they interpret the traditions of Chinese garden and imperial roof from different perspectives. Based on the research text, conceptual drawings, construction drawings and site investigation, this paper extracts two groups of prominent contradictions in practice ("Pattern-Material-Structure" and "Type-Topography-Body") for keyword-based analysis to compare and examine different choices and balances by architects. Based on this, this paper attempts to indicate that the ideographic form derived from macro-narrative and the innovative investigation in construction is a pair of inevitable contradictions that must be handled and coordinated in these practices. The collision of the contradictions under specific conditions results in three cognitive attitudes and practical strategies towards traditions: Formal symbolism, spatial abstraction and construction-based narrative. These differentiated thoughts about Localization and Chineseness reflect various professional ideologies and value standpoints in the transition of Chinese Architecture discipline in the 1980s. The great variety in this particular circumstance suggests tremendous potential and possibilities of the future LCMA.

Keywords: construction, meaning, Queli Hotel, square pagoda garden, tradition, Xixi scenery spot reception

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26 Reimaging Archetype of Mosque: A Case Study on Contemporary Mosque Architecture in Bangladesh

Authors: Sabrina Rahman

Abstract:

The Mosque is Islam’s most symbolic structure, as well as the expression of collective identity. From the explicit words of our Prophet, 'The earth has been created for me as a masjid and a place of purity, and whatever man from my Ummah finds himself in need of prayer, let him pray' (anywhere)! it is obvious that a devout Muslim does not require a defined space or structure for divine worship since the whole earth is his prayer house. Yet we see that from time immemorial man throughout the Muslim world has painstakingly erected innumerable mosques. However, mosque design spans time, crosses boundaries, and expresses cultures. It is a cultural manifestation as much as one based on a regional building tradition or a certain interpretation of religion. The trend to express physical signs of religion is not new. Physical forms seem to convey symbolic messages. However, in recent times physical forms of mosque architecture are dominantly demising from mosque architecture projects in Bangladesh. Dome & minaret, the most prominent symbol of the mosque, is replacing by contextual and contemporary improvisation rather than subcontinental mosque architecture practice of early fellows. Thus the recent mosque projects of the last 15 years established the contemporary architectural realm in their design. Contextually, spiritual lighting, the serenity of space, tranquility of outdoor spaces, the texture of materials is widely establishing a new genre of Muslim prayer space. A case study based research will lead to specify its significant factors of modernism. Based on the findings, the paper presents evidence of recent projects as well as a guideline for the future image of contemporary Mosque architecture in Bangladesh.

Keywords: contemporary architecture, modernism, prayer space, symbolism

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25 Anton Bruckner’s Requiem in Dm: The Reinterpretation of a Liturgical Genre in the Viennese Romantic Context

Authors: Sara Ramos Contioso

Abstract:

The premiere of Anton Bruckner's Requiem in Dm, in September 1849, represents a turning point in the composer's creative evolution. This Mass of the Dead, which was dedicated to the memory of his esteemed friend and mentor Franz Sailer, establishes the beginning of a new creative aesthetic in the composer´s production and links its liturgical development, which is contextualized in the monastery of St. Florian, to the use of a range of musicals possibilities that are projected by Bruckner on an orchestral texture with choir and organ. Set on a strict tridentine ritual model, this requiem exemplifies the religious aesthetics of a composer that is committed to the Catholic faith and that also links to its structure the reinterpretation of a religious model that, despite being romantic, shows a strong influence derived from the baroque or the Viennese Classicism language. Consequently, the study responds to the need to show the survival of the Requiem Mass within the romantic context of Vienna. Therefore, it draws on a detailed analysis of the score and the creative context of the composer with the intention of linking the work to the tradition of the genre and also specifying the stylistic particularities of its musical model within a variability of possibilities such as the contrasting precedents of Mozart, Haydn, Cherubini or Berlioz´s requiems. Tradition or modernity, liturgy or concert hall are aesthetic references that will condition the development of the Requiem Mass in the middle of the nineteenth century. In this context, this paper tries to recover Bruckner's Requiem in Dm as a musical model of the romantic ritual of deceased and as a stylistic reference of a creative composition that will condition the development of later liturgical works such as Liszt or DeLange (1868) ones.

Keywords: liturgy, religious symbolism, requiem, romanticism

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24 Cultural Reflection within Contemporary Residential Interior in India

Authors: Icy Vinod Sanghvi

Abstract:

In the light of rising modernism within the residential design industry, a significant growth of the western concepts of maximalism or minimalism is observed in the Indian housings. Although dynamism in design styles is natural due to the constant emergence of new innovations, it is imperative that local houses reflect cultural identity. This paper highlights the importance of ‘Indian Modernism’, and how to incorporate the same in residential design. Thus, helping the Indian culture to flourish and become a significant part of housing design in the future. A literature review was conducted to analyze and derive effective methods to build cultural value whilst catering to the urban and contemporary design industry. Alongside, a questionnaire survey was conducted to observe how the local houses are designed and to understand the preferences of people with regards to the design styles incorporated in their homes. In addition, their opinions on the excessive use of contemporary styles in home designs was recorded. The results of the same provided a better understanding of the local audience, their demands, and their willingness to adapt to contemporary designs. Studying color, materials, ornamentation, symbolism, detail, and structure offers an in-depth understanding of the essence of traditional Indian homes. These variables further provided effective solutions for design ideation and mockups for efficient traditional yet contemporary spaces. Design interventions like these can build a revolutionary set of practices that involve creating a balance between contemporary and traditional styles. The emergence of this synergy will not only make contemporary homes communicative but also allow India to compete within the global residential architecture industry with a strong foundation of its rich heritage.

Keywords: balance, contemporary design, cultural identity, Indian modernism

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23 Archetypes in the Rorschach Inkblots: Imparting Universal Meaning in the Face of Ambiguity

Authors: Donna L. Roberts

Abstract:

The theory of archetypes contends that themes based on universal foundational images reside in and are transmitted generationally through the collective unconscious, which is referenced throughout an individual’s experience in order to make sense of that experience. There is then, a profoundly visceral and instinctive agreement on the gestalt of these universal themes and how they apply to the human condition throughout space and time. The inherent nature of projective tests, such as the Rorschach Inkblot, necessitates that the stimulus is ambiguous and thus elicits responses that reflect the unconscious inner psyche of the respondent. As the development of the Rorschach inkblots was relatively random and serendipitous - i.e., the inkblots were not engineered to elicit a specifically defined response - it would stand to reason that without a collective unconscious, every individual would interpret the inkblots in an individualized and unique way. Yet this is not the case. Instead, common themes appear in the images of the inkblots and their interpretation that reflect this deeper iconic understanding. This study analyzed the ten Rorschach inkblots in terms of Jungian archetypes, both with respect to the form of images on each plate and the commonly observed themes in responses. Examples of the archetypes were compared to each of the inkblots, with subsequent descriptions matched to the standard responses. The findings yielded clear and distinct instances of the universal symbolism intrinsic in the inkblot images as well as ubiquitous throughout the responses. This project illustrates the influence of the theories of psychologist Carl Gustav Jung on the interpretation of the ambiguous stimuli. It further serves to demonstrate the merit of Jungian psychology as a valuable tool with which to understand the nature of projective tests in general, Rorschach’s work specifically, and ultimately the broader implications for our collective unconscious and common humanity.

Keywords: archetypes, inkblots, projective tests, Rorschach

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22 Cultural Semiotics of the Traditional Costume from Banat’s Plain from 1870 to 1950 from Lotman’s Perspective

Authors: Glavan Claudiu

Abstract:

My paper focuses on the cultural semiotic interpretation of the Romanian costume from Banat region, from the perspective of Lotman’s semiotic theory of culture. Using Lotman’s system we will analyse the level of language, text and semiosphere within the unity of Banat’s traditional costume. In order to establish a common language and to communicate, the forms and chromatic compositions were expressed through symbols, which carried semantic meanings with an obvious significant semantic load. The symbols, used in this region, receive a strong specific ethnical mark in its representation, in its compositional and chromatic complexity, in accordance with the values and conceptions of life for the people living here. Thus the signs become a unifying force of this ethnic community. Associated with the signs, were the fabrics used in manufacturing the costumes and the careful selections of colours. For example, softer fabrics like silk associated with red vivid colours were used for young woman sending the message they ready to be married. The unity of these elements created the important message that you were sending to your community. The unity of the symbol, fabrics and choice of colours used on the costume carried out an important message like: marital status, social position, or even the village you belonged to. Using Lotman’s perspective on cultural semiotics we will read and analyse the symbolism of the traditional Romanian art from Banat. We will discover meaning in the codified existence of ancient solar symbols, symbols regarding fertility, religious symbols and very few heraldic symbols. Visual communication makes obvious the importance of semiotic value that the traditional costume is carrying from our ancestors.

Keywords: traditional costume, semiotics, Lotman’s theory of culture, traditional culture, signs and symbols

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21 Enhancing Creative Writing Skill through the Implementation of Creative Thinking Process

Authors: Bussabamintra Chalauisaeng

Abstract:

The creative writing skill of Thai fourth year university learners majoring in English at Khon Kaen University, Thailand has been enhanced in an English creative writing course through the implementation of creative thinking process. The creative writing assignments cover writing a variety of short poems and a short story, bibliography and short play scripts. However, this study focuses mainly on writing short poems and short stories through the implementation of creative thinking process via action research design with on-going needs analysis and feedbacks to meet their learning needs for 45 hours. At the end of the course, forty two learners’ creative writing skill appeared to be significantly improved. Through the research instruments such as the tasks assigned both inside and outside the class as self –study including class observation, semi-conversational interviews and teacher feedback both in persons and on line including peer feedbacks. The research findings show that the target learners could produce better short poems and short story assessed by the set of criteria such as the creative and innovative short poems and short stories with complete and interesting elements of a short story like plot, theme, setting, symbolism and so on. This includes a higher level of the awareness of the pragmatic use of English writing in terms of word choices, grammar rules and writing styles. All of these outcomes reflect positive trends of success in terms of the learners’ improved creative writing skill as well as better attitudes to and motivation for learning to write English for pleasure. More interestingly, many learners claimed that this innovative teaching method through the implementation of creative thinking process integrated with creative writing help stretch their imaginations and inspire them to become a writer in the future.

Keywords: creative thinking process, creative writing skill, enhancing, implementing

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20 The Divine Elephant: Asian Elephants in Religions and Religious Practices

Authors: Ashna Sinha, Surendra Varma

Abstract:

The Asian elephant is predominantly found in South Asian and Southeast Asian countries. They are intrinsically associated with the religions, religious and cultural practices and festivals of these regions. Amazingly, these magnificent animals are also mentioned in the texts and are found sculpted on the walls of places of religious significance even in the Middle Eastern countries, and evidently, they have been mentioned in all the major religions. The elephants are intrigued and associated with the cultural and religious practices of Asians for thousands of years. While some of the practices and festivals in certain geographical regions are going on for years; some regions and religions have gone through a cultural shift and cultural adaptation, and have incorporated the participation of these divine beings. The symbolism of elephants is used for preaching and giving philosophical lessons through stories and painted art, across different religions through varying literary and visual artworks. The animals carved on the ancient and present day temples can easily be found in South and South East Asian countries, signifying the importance of the animal in a given religion which the temples are associated with. Though not sculpted but captive elephants are easily found on the premises of the places of worship to give a blessing to the people or to give a tour to show their own connotation with the religion. They are also used for carrying out processions in varying religious and cultural activities, and are considered to be of immense value as they add an extra glamour and publicize the wealth and weightiness of that distinct religion or culture. Our critical review of elephant’s association with religions and their practices show, although they give a higher degree of value and respects to this animal, the practices do not match with their biological design, but profoundly compromise their welfare and conservation. It is time to follow the values the animal enjoy and use the same for their conservation and welfare.

Keywords: conservation, elephant, religion, welfare

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