Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1253

Search results for: recovery

1253 The Initiator Matters in Service Co-Recovery: Investigation on Attribution and Satisfaction

Authors: Chia-Ching Tsai

Abstract:

In the literature, the positive effect of service co-recovery has been evidenced, and which customers’ attribution is the key successful factor has also been indicated. There is also literature investigating on initiation of co-recovery for finding out the superior way to co-recovery, and indicating co-recovery initiated by employees causes better effect of co-recovery. This research postulates the consequences of co-recovery by different initiators affect customers’ attribution and the resultant results. Thus, this research uses a 3x2 factorial design to investigate the impact of initiator of co-recovery and consequence of co-recovery on customers’ attribution and post-recovery satisfaction. The results show initiation of co-recovery has a significant influence on internal attribution, and the employee initiator causes the highest internal attribution. The consequences of co-recovery interact with initiators of co-recovery on internal attribution significantly. Moreover, internal attribution significantly affects post-recovery satisfaction.

Keywords: service co-recovery, initiation of co-recovery, attribution, post-recovery satisfaction

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1252 The Impact of Level and Consequence of Service Co-Recovery on Post-Recovery Satisfaction and Repurchase Intent

Authors: Chia-Ching Tsai

Abstract:

In service delivery, interpersonal interaction is the key to customer satisfaction, and apparently, the factor of human is critical in service delivery. Besides, customers quite care about the consequences of co-recovery. Thus, this research focuses on service failure caused by other customers and uses a 2x2 factorial design to investigate the impact of consequence and level of service co-recovery on post-recovery satisfaction and repurchase intent. 150 undergraduates were recruited as participants, and assigned to one of the four cells randomly. Every participant was requested to read the scenario and then rated the post-recovery satisfaction and repurchase intent. The results show that under the condition of failed co-recovery, level of co-recovery has no effect on post-recovery satisfaction, while under the condition of successful co-recovery, high-level co-recovery causes significantly higher post-recovery satisfaction than low-level co-recovery. Moreover, post-recovery satisfaction has significantly positive impact on repurchase intent. In the system of service delivery, customers interact with other customers frequently. Therefore, comparing with the literature, this research focuses on the service failure caused by other customers. This research also supplies a better understanding of customers’ view on consequences of different levels of co-recovery, which is helpful for the practitioners to make use of co-recovery.

Keywords: service failure, service co-recovery, consequence of co-recovery, level of co-recovery, post-recovery satisfaction, repurchase intent

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
1251 Autonomic Recovery Plan with Server Virtualization

Authors: S. Hameed, S. Anwer, M. Saad, M. Saady

Abstract:

For autonomic recovery with server virtualization, a cogent plan that includes recovery techniques and backups with virtualized servers can be developed instead of assigning an idle server to backup operations. In addition to hardware cost reduction and data center trail, the disaster recovery plan can ensure system uptime and to meet objectives of high availability, recovery time, recovery point, server provisioning, and quality of services. This autonomic solution would also support disaster management, testing, and development of the recovery site. In this research, a workflow plan is proposed for supporting disaster recovery with virtualization providing virtual monitoring, requirements engineering, solution decision making, quality testing, and disaster management. This recovery model would make disaster recovery a lot easier, faster, and less error prone.

Keywords: autonomous intelligence, disaster recovery, cloud computing, server virtualization

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1250 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim

Abstract:

The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
1249 The Effect of Temperature, Contact Time and Agitation Speed During Pre-Treatment on Elution of Gold

Authors: T. P. Oladele, C. A. Snyders, S. M. Bradshaw, G. Akdogan

Abstract:

The effect of temperature, contact time and agitation during pre-treatment was investigated on the elution of gold from granular activated carbon at fixed caustic-cyanide concentration and elution conditions. It was shown that there are interactions between parameters during pre-treatment. At 80oC, recovery is independent of the contact time while the maximum recovery is obtained in the absence of agitation (0rpm). Increase in agitation speed from 0 rev/min to 1200 rev/min showed a decrease in recovery of approximately 20 percent at 80°C. Recovery with increased time from 15 minutes to 45 minutes is only pronounced at 25°C with approximately 4 percent increase at all agitation speeds. The results from elution recovery are aimed to give insight into the mechanisms of pre-treatment under the combinations of the chosen parameters.

Keywords: gold, temperature, contact time, agitation speed, recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1248 Energy and Economic Analysis of Heat Recovery from Boiler Exhaust Flue Gas

Authors: Kemal Comakli, Meryem Terhan

Abstract:

In this study, the potential of heat recovery from waste flue gas was examined in 60 MW district heating system of a university, and fuel saving was aimed by using the recovered heat in the system as a source again. Various scenarios are intended to make use of waste heat. For this purpose, actual operation data of the system were taken. Besides, the heat recovery units that consist of heat exchangers such as flue gas condensers, economizers or air pre-heaters were designed theoretically for each scenario. Energy analysis of natural gas-fired boiler’s exhaust flue gas in the system, and economic analysis of heat recovery units to predict payback periods were done. According to calculation results, the waste heat loss ratio from boiler flue gas in the system was obtained as average 16%. Thanks to the heat recovery units, thermal efficiency of the system can be increased, and fuel saving can be provided. At the same time, a huge amount of green gas emission can be decreased by installing the heat recovery units.

Keywords: heat recovery from flue gas, energy analysis of flue gas, economical analysis, payback period

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
1247 The Shape Memory Recovery Properties under Load of a Polymer Composite

Authors: Abdul Basit, Gildas Lhostis, Bernard Durand

Abstract:

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are replacing shape memory alloys (SMAs) in many applications as SMPs have certain superior properties than SMAs. However, SMAs possess some properties like recovery under stress that SMPs lack. SMPs cannot give complete recovery even under a small load. SMPs are initially heated close to their transition temperature (glass transition temperature or the melting temperature). Then force is applied to deform the heated SMP to a specific position. Subsequently, SMP is allowed to cool keeping it deformed. After cooling, SMP gets the temporary shape. This temporary shape can be recovered by heating it again at the same temperature that was given it while heating it initially. As a result, it will recover its original position. SMP can perform unconstrained recovery and constrained recovery, however; under the load, it only recovers partially. In this work, the recovery under the load of an asymmetrical shape memory composite called as CBCM-SMPC has been investigated. It is found that it has the ability to recover under different loads. Under different loads, it shows powerful complete recovery in reference to initial position. This property can be utilized in many applications.

Keywords: shape memory, polymer composite, thermo-mechanical testing, recovery under load

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
1246 Effects of the Different Recovery Durations on Some Physiological Parameters during 3 X 3 Small-Sided Games in Soccer

Authors: Samet Aktaş, Nurtekin Erkmen, Faruk Guven, Halil Taskin

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 versus 3 small-sided games (SSG) with different recovery times on soma physiological parameters in soccer players. Twelve soccer players from Regional Amateur League volunteered for this study (mean±SD age, 20.50±2.43 years; height, 177.73±4.13 cm; weight, 70.83±8.38 kg). Subjects were performing soccer training for five days per week. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethic committee in School of Physical Education and Sport, Selcuk University. The subjects were divided into teams with 3 players according to Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. The field dimension was 26 m wide and 34 m in length. Subjects performed two times in a random order a series of 3 bouts of 3-a-side SSGs with 3 min and 5 min recovery durations. In SSGs, each set were performed with 6 min duration. The percent of maximal heart rate (% HRmax), blood lactate concentration (LA) and Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale points were collected before the SSGs and at the end of each set. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Significant differences were found between %HRmax in before SSG and 1st set, 2nd set, and 3rd set in both SSG with 3 min recovery duration and SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). Means of %HRmax in SSG with 3 min recovery duration at both 1st and 2nd sets were significantly higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between sets of either SSGs in terms of LA (p>0.05). LA in SSG with 3 min recovery duration was higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration at 2nd sets (p<0.05). RPE in soccer players was not different between SSGs (p>0.05).In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exercise intensity in SSG with 3 min recovery durations is higher than SSG with 5 min recovery durations.

Keywords: small-sided games, soccer, heart rate, lactate

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
1245 Influence of Measurement System on Negative Bias Temperature Instability Characterization: Fast BTI vs Conventional BTI vs Fast Wafer Level Reliability

Authors: Vincent King Soon Wong, Hong Seng Ng, Florinna Sim

Abstract:

Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) is one of the critical degradation mechanisms in semiconductor device reliability that causes shift in the threshold voltage (Vth). However, thorough understanding of this reliability failure mechanism is still unachievable due to a recovery characteristic known as NBTI recovery. This paper will demonstrate the severity of NBTI recovery as well as one of the effective methods used to mitigate, which is the minimization of measurement system delays. Comparison was done in between two measurement systems that have significant differences in measurement delays to show how NBTI recovery causes result deviations and how fast measurement systems can mitigate NBTI recovery. Another method to minimize NBTI recovery without the influence of measurement system known as Fast Wafer Level Reliability (FWLR) NBTI was also done to be used as reference.

Keywords: fast vs slow BTI, fast wafer level reliability (FWLR), negative bias temperature instability (NBTI), NBTI measurement system, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), NBTI recovery, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
1244 Use of Microbial Fuel Cell for Metal Recovery from Wastewater

Authors: Surajbhan Sevda

Abstract:

Metal containing wastewater is generated in large quintiles due to rapid industrialization. Generally, the metal present in wastewater is not biodegradable and can be accumulated in living animals, humans and plant tissue, causing disorder and diseases. The conventional metal recovery methods include chemical, physical and biological methods, but these are chemical and energy intensive. The recent development in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology provides a new approach for metal recovery; this technology offers a flexible platform for both reduction and oxidation reaction oriented process. The use of MFCs will be a new platform for more efficient and low energy approach for metal recovery from the wastewater. So far metal recover was extensively studied using chemical, physical and biological methods. The MFCs present a new and efficient approach for removing and recovering metals from different wastewater, suggesting the use of different electrode for metal recovery can be a new efficient and effective approach.

Keywords: metal recovery, microbial fuel cell, wastewater, bioelectricity

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
1243 Metrics and Methods for Improving Resilience in Agribusiness Supply Chains

Authors: Golnar Behzadi, Michael O'Sullivan, Tava Olsen, Abraham Zhang

Abstract:

By definition, increasing supply chain resilience improves the supply chain’s ability to return to normal, or to an even more desirable situation, quickly and efficiently after being hit by a disruption. This is especially critical in agribusiness supply chains where the products are perishable and have a short life-cycle. In this paper, we propose a resilience metric to capture and improve the recovery process in terms of both performance and time, of an agribusiness supply chain following either supply or demand-side disruption. We build a model that determines optimal supply chain recovery planning decisions and selects the best resilient strategies that minimize the loss of profit during the recovery time window. The model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming problem and solved with a branch-and-cut algorithm. The results show that the optimal recovery schedule is highly dependent on the duration of the time-window allowed for recovery. In addition, the profit loss during recovery is reduced by utilizing the proposed resilient actions.

Keywords: agribusiness supply chain, recovery, resilience metric, risk management

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1242 Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels

Authors: Zakaria Hamdi, Mariyamni Awang

Abstract:

For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, CO₂ flooding, micromodel studies, miscible flooding

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1241 Simulation of Utility Accrual Scheduling and Recovery Algorithm in Multiprocessor Environment

Authors: A. Idawaty, O. Mohamed, A. Z. Zuriati

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of an event based Discrete Event Simulation (DES) for a recovery algorithm known Backward Recovery Global Preemptive Utility Accrual Scheduling (BR_GPUAS). This algorithm implements the Backward Recovery (BR) mechanism as a fault recovery solution under the existing Time/Utility Function/ Utility Accrual (TUF/UA) scheduling domain for multiprocessor environment. The BR mechanism attempts to take the faulty tasks back to its initial safe state and then proceeds to re-execute the affected section of the faulty tasks to enable recovery. Considering that faults may occur in the components of any system; a fault tolerance system that can nullify the erroneous effect is necessary to be developed. Current TUF/UA scheduling algorithm uses the abortion recovery mechanism and it simply aborts the erroneous task as their fault recovery solution. None of the existing algorithm in TUF/UA scheduling domain in multiprocessor scheduling environment have considered the transient fault and implement the BR mechanism as a fault recovery mechanism to nullify the erroneous effect and solve the recovery problem in this domain. The developed BR_GPUAS simulator has derived the set of parameter, events and performance metrics according to a detailed analysis of the base model. Simulation results revealed that BR_GPUAS algorithm can saved almost 20-30% of the accumulated utilities making it reliable and efficient for the real-time application in the multiprocessor scheduling environment.

Keywords: real-time system (RTS), time utility function/ utility accrual (TUF/UA) scheduling, backward recovery mechanism, multiprocessor, discrete event simulation (DES)

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1240 Recovery of Petroleum Reservoir by Waterflooding Technique

Authors: Zabihullah Mahdi, Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Shigeo Honma

Abstract:

Through many types of research and practical studies, it has been identified that the average oil recovery factor of a petroleum reservoir is about 30 to 35 %. This study is focused on enhanced oil recovery by laboratory experiment and graphical investigation based on Buckley-Leverett theory. Horizontal oil displacement by water, in a petroleum reservoir is analyzed under the Buckley-Leverett frontal displacement theory. The extraction and prerequisite of this theory are based and pursued focusing on the key factors that control displacement. The theory is executable to the waterflooding method, which is generally employed in petroleum engineering reservoirs to sustain oil production recovery, and the techniques for evaluating the average water saturation behind the water front and the oil recovery factors in the reservoirs are presented. In this paper, the Buckley-Leverett theory handled to an experimental model and the amount of recoverable oil are investigated to be over 35%. The irreducible water saturation, viz. connate water saturation, in the reservoir is also a significant inspiration for the recovery.

Keywords: Buckley-Leverett theory, waterflooding technique, petroleum engineering, immiscible displacement

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1239 Ultrasound Assisted Cooling Crystallization of Lactose Monohydrate

Authors: Sanjaykumar R. Patel, Parth R. Kayastha

Abstract:

α-lactose monohydrate is widely used in the pharmaceutical industries as an inactive substance that acts as a vehicle or a medium for a drug or other active substance. It is a byproduct of dairy industries, and the recovery of lactose from whey not only boosts the improvement of the economics of whey utilization but also causes a reduction in pollution as lactose recovery can reduce the BOD of whey by more than 80%. In the present study, levels of process parameters were kept as initial lactose concentration (30-50% w/w), sonication amplitude (20-40%), sonication time (2-6 hours), and crystallization temperature (10-20 oC) for the recovery of lactose in ultrasound assisted cooling crystallization. In comparison with cooling crystallization, the use of ultrasound enhanced the lactose recovery by 39.17% (w/w). The parameters were optimized for the lactose recovery using Taguchi Method. The optimum conditions found were initial lactose concentration at level 3 (50% w/w), amplitude of sonication at level 2 (40%), the sonication time at level 3 (6 hours), and crystallization temperature at level 1 (10 °C). The maximum recovery was found to be 85.85% at the optimum conditions. Sonication time and the initial lactose concentration were found to be significant parameters for the lactose recovery.

Keywords: crystallization, lactose, Taguchi method, ultrasound

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1238 Hydrogen Peroxide: A Future for Well Stimulation and Heavy Oil Recovery

Authors: Meet Bhatia

Abstract:

Well stimulation and heavy oil recovery continue to be a hot topic in our industry, particularly with formation damage and viscous oil respectively. Cyclic steam injection has been recognised for most of the operations related to heavy oil recovery. However, the cost of implementation is high and operation is time-consuming, moreover most of the viscous oil reservoirs such as oil sands, Bitumen deposits and oil shales require additional treatment of well stimulation. The use of hydrogen peroxide can efficiently replace the cyclic steam injection process as it can be used for both well stimulation and heavy oil recovery simultaneously. The decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide produces oxygen, superheated steam and heat. The increase in temperature causes clays to shrink, destroy carbonates and remove emulsion thus it can efficiently remove the near wellbore damage. The paper includes mechanisms, parameters to be considered and the challenges during the treatment for the effective hydrogen peroxide injection for both conventional and heavy oil reservoirs.

Keywords: hydrogen peroxide, well stimulation, heavy oil recovery, steam injection

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1237 Empirical Investigation of Antecedents of Perceived Recovery Service Quality: Evidence from Retail Banking in United Arab Emirates

Authors: Vimi Jham

Abstract:

The banking sector has undergone tremendous change in all forms of service it provides to its customers. The efforts of the banks is to avoid customer defection and lead to customer satisfaction. The purpose of the study was to examine the linkages among the constructs such as customer perceived service quality, perceived service recovery quality and customer satisfaction in the banking industry. The moderating effect of negative brand perception due to service failure on recovery satisfaction were investigated. Random sampling methods are used to draw the sample from the population. Data was collected from 262 banking customers and were analyzed with the help of structural equation modelling approach using Smart PLS to understand the relationship among variables being studied. The results of the study contribute to the research by proving that customer service recovery satisfaction is dependent on customer perceived service quality and the moderating effect of negative brand perception due to service failure was insignificant.

Keywords: service recovery satisfaction, perceived service recovery quality, perceived service quality, structural equation modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
1236 Investigation of Parameters Affecting Copper Recovery from Brass Melting Dross

Authors: Sercan Basit, Muhlis N. Sarıdede

Abstract:

Metal amounts of copper based compounds in the various wastes have been recovered successfully by hydrometallurgical treatment methods in the literature. X-ray diffraction pattern of the brass melting slag demonstrates that it contains sufficient amount of recoverable copper. Recovery of copper from brass melting dross by sulfuric acid leaching and the effect of temperature and acid and oxidant concentration on recovery rate of copper have been investigated in this study. Experiments were performed in a temperature-controlled reactor in sulfuric acid solution in different molarities using solid liquid ratio of 100 g/L, with leaching time of 300 min. Temperature was changed between 25 °C and 80 °C and molarity was between 0.5 and 3M. The results obtained showed that temperature has important positive effect on recovery whereas it decreases with time. Also copper was recovered in larger amounts from brass dross in the presence of H2O2 as an oxidant according to the case that oxidant was not used.

Keywords: brass dross, copper recovery, hydrogen peroxide, leaching

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1235 Development of Method for Recovery of Nickel from Aqueous Solution Using 2-Hydroxy-5-Nonyl- Acetophenone Oxime Impregnated on Activated Charcoal

Authors: A. O. Adebayo, G. A. Idowu, F. Odegbemi

Abstract:

Investigations on the recovery of nickel from aqueous solution using 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl- acetophenone oxime (LIX-84I) impregnated on activated charcoal was carried out. The LIX-84I was impregnated onto the pores of dried activated charcoal by dry method and optimum conditions for different equilibrium parameters (pH, adsorbent dosage, extractant concentration, agitation time and temperature) were determined using a simulated solution of nickel. The kinetics and adsorption isotherm studies were also evaluated. It was observed that the efficiency of recovery with LIX-84I impregnated on charcoal was dependent on the pH of the aqueous solution as there was little or no recovery at pH below 4. However, as the pH was raised, percentage recovery increases and peaked at pH 5.0. The recovery was found to increase with temperature up to 60ºC. Also it was observed that nickel adsorbed onto the loaded charcoal best at a lower concentration (0.1M) of the extractant when compared with higher concentrations. Similarly, a moderately low dosage (1 g) of the adsorbent showed better recovery than larger dosages. These optimum conditions were used to recover nickel from the leachate of Ni-MH batteries dissolved with sulphuric acid, and a 99.6% recovery was attained. Adsorption isotherm studies showed that the equilibrium data fitted best to Temkin model, with a negative value of constant, b (-1.017 J/mol) and a high correlation coefficient, R² of 0.9913. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second order model. Thermodynamic parameter values (∆G⁰, ∆H⁰, and ∆S⁰) showed that the adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous. The impregnated charcoal appreciably recovered nickel using a relatively smaller volume of extractant than what is required in solvent extraction. Desorption studies showed that the loaded charcoal is reusable for three times, and so might be economical for nickel recovery from waste battery.

Keywords: charcoal, impregnated, LIX-84I, nickel, recovery

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1234 Energy Recovery from Swell with a Height Inferior to 1.5 m

Authors: A. Errasti, F. Doffagne, O. Foucrier, S. Kao, A. Meigne, H. Pellae, T. Rouland

Abstract:

Renewable energy recovery is an important domain of research in past few years in view of protection of our ecosystem. Several industrial companies are setting up widespread recovery systems to exploit wave energy. Most of them have a large size, are implanted near the shores and exploit current flows. However, as oceans represent 70% of Earth surface, a huge space is still unexploited to produce energy. Present analysis focuses on surface small scale wave energy recovery. The principle is exactly the opposite of wheel damper for a car on a road. Instead of maintaining the car body as non-oscillatory as possible by adapted control, a system is designed so that its oscillation amplitude under wave action will be maximized with respect to a boat carrying it in view of differential potential energy recuperation. From parametric analysis of system equations, interesting domains have been selected and expected energy output has been evaluated.

Keywords: small scale wave, potential energy, optimized energy recovery, auto-adaptive system

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1233 The Beneficial Effects of Hydrotherapy for Recovery from Team Sport – A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Trevor R. Higgins

Abstract:

To speed/enhance recovery from sport, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) have become common practice within the high-level team sport. Initially, research into CWI and CWT protocols and recovery was sparse; athletes relied solely upon an anecdotal support. However, an increase into recovery research has occurred. A number of reviews have subsequently been conducted to clarify scientific evidence. However, as the nature of physiological stress and training status of participants will impact on results, an opportunity existed to narrow the focus to a more exacting review evaluating hydrotherapy for recovery in a team sport. A Boolean logic [AND] keyword search of databases was conducted: SPORTDiscus; AMED; CINAHL; MEDLINE. Data was extracted and the standardized mean differences were calculated with 95% CI. The analysis of pooled data was conducted using a random-effect model, with Heterogeneity assessed using I2. 23 peer reviewed papers (n=606) met the criteria. Meta-analyses results indicated CWI was likely beneficial for recovery at 24h (Countermovement Jump (CMJ): p= 0.05, CI -0.004 to 0.578; All-out sprint: p=0.02, -0.056 to 0.801; DOMS: p=0.08, CI -0.092 to 1.936) and at 72h (accumulated sprinting: p=0.07, CI -0.062 to 1.209; DOMS: p=0.09, CI -0.121 to 1.555) following team sport. Whereas CWT was likely beneficial for recovery at 1h (CMJ: p= 0.07, CI -0.004 to 0.863) and at 48h (fatigue: p=0.04, CI 0.013 to 0.942) following team sport. Athlete’s perceptions of muscle soreness and fatigue are enhanced with CWI and/or CWT, however even though CWI and CWT were beneficial in attenuating decrements in neuromuscular performance 24 hours following team sport, indications are those benefits were no longer Sydney evident 48 hours following team sport.

Keywords: cold water immersion, contrast water therapy, recovery, team sport

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1232 CO2 Sequestration for Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: A New Approach

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg

Abstract:

The global warming due to the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is the most prominent issue of environment that the world is facing today. To solve this problem at global level, sequestration of CO2 in deep and unmineable coal seams has come out as one of the attractive alternatives to reduce concentration in atmosphere. This sequestration technology is not only going to help in storage of CO2 beneath the sub-surface but is also playing a major role in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) by displacing the adsorbed methane. This paper provides the answers for the need of CO2 injection in coal seams and how recovery is enhanced. We have discussed the recent development in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery and the economic scenario of the same. The effect of injection on the coal reservoir has also been discussed. Coal is a good absorber of CO2. That is why the sequestration of CO2 is emerged out to be a great approach, not only for storage purpose but also for enhancing coal bed methane recovery.

Keywords: global warming, carbon dioxide (CO2), CO2 sequestration, enhance coal bed methane (ECBM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
1231 Colloidal Gas Aphron Generated by a Cationic Surfactant as an Alternative Technique to Recovery Natural Colorants from Fermented Broth

Authors: V. C. Santos-Ebinuma, J. F. B. Pereira, M. F. S. Teixeira, A. Pessoa Jr., P. Jauregi

Abstract:

There is worldwide interest in process development for colorants production from natural sources. Microorganisms provide an alternative source of natural colorants which can be produced by cultivation technology and extracted from fermented broth. The aim of the present work was to study the recovery of red colorants from fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275 using the technique of Colloidal Gas Aphrons (CGA); CGA are surfactant-stabilized microbubbles generated by intense stirring of a surfactant solution. CGA were generated by the cationic, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Firstly, experiments were carried out at different surfactant/fermented broth volumetric ratios (VCGA/VFB, VRATIO) varying between 3 and 18 at pH 6.9. Secondly, the experiments were carried out at VRATIO of 6 and 12 in different pH, namely, 6.9, 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0. The first results of recovery showed that an increase in the VRATIO from 3 to 6 and 12 promoted an increase as recovery as partition coefficient. However, at VRATIO of 18 the lowest partition coefficient was obtained. The best results were achieved at VRATIO of 6 and 12, namely recovery, Re, around 60% and partition coefficient, K, of 2.5 and 3.0 to 6 and 12 VRATIO, respectively. The second set of experiments showed that the pH 9.0 promoted the best results at VRATIO of 12 as follow: Re=70%, K=5.39, proteins and sugar selectivity (SePROT, 3.75 and SeSUGAR, 7.20, respectively). These results indicate that with CTAB the recovery is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions. In conclusion, the results above show that CGA employing a cationic surfactant is a promissory technique and it can be used as the first step of purification to recovery red colorants from fermented broth.

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, colloidal gas aphrons, recovery, natural colorants

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1230 Developing Alternative Recovery Technology of Waste Heat in Automobile Factory

Authors: Kun-Ping Cheng, Dong-Shang Chang, Rou-Wen Wang

Abstract:

Pre-treatment of automobile paint-shop procedures are the preparation of warm water rinsing tank, hot water rinsing tank, degreasing tank, phosphate tank. The conventional boiler steam fuel is natural gas, producing steam to supply the heat exchange of each tank sink. In this study, the high-frequency soldering economizer is developed for recovering waste heat in the automotive paint-shop (RTO, Regenerative Thermal Oxidation). The heat recovery rate of the new economizer is 20% to 30% higher than the conventional embedded heat pipe. The adaptive control system responded to both RTO furnace exhaust gas and heat demands. In order to maintain the temperature range of the tanks, pre-treatment tanks are directly heated by waste heat recovery device (gas-to-water heat exchanger) through the hot water cycle of heat transfer. The performance of developed waste heat recovery system shows the annual recovery achieved to 1,226,411,483 Kcal of heat (137.8 thousand cubic meters of natural gas). Boiler can reduce fuel consumption by 20 to 30 percent compared to without waste heat recovery. In order to alleviate environmental impacts, the temperature at the end of the flue is further reduced from 160 to 110°C. The innovative waste heat recovery is helpful to energy savings and sustainable environment.

Keywords: waste heat recovery system, sustainability, RTO (Regenerative Thermal Oxidation), economizer, automotive industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
1229 Towards Conservation and Recovery of Species at Risk in Ontario: Progress on Recovery Planning and Implementation and an Overview of Key Research Needs

Authors: Rachel deCatanzaro, Madeline Austen, Ken Tuininga, Kathy St. Laurent, Christina Rohe

Abstract:

In Canada, the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA) provides protection for wildlife species at risk and a national legislative framework for the conservation or recovery of species that are listed as endangered, threatened, or special concern under Schedule 1 of SARA. Key aspects of the federal species at risk program include the development of recovery documents (recovery strategies, action plans, and management plans) outlining threats, objectives, and broad strategies or measures for conservation or recovery of the species; the identification and protection of critical habitat for threatened and endangered species; and working with groups and organizations to implement on-the-ground recovery actions. Environment Canada’s progress on the development of recovery documents and on the identification and protection of critical habitat in Ontario will be presented, along with successes and challenges associated with on-the ground implementation of recovery actions. In Ontario, Environment Canada is currently involved in several recovery and monitoring programs for at-risk bird species such as the Loggerhead Shrike, Piping Plover, Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler and has provided funding for a wide variety of recovery actions targeting priority species at risk and geographic areas each year through stewardship programs including the Habitat Stewardship Program, Aboriginal Fund for Species at Risk, and the Interdepartmental Recovery Fund. Key research needs relevant to the recovery of species at risk have been identified, and include: surveys and monitoring of population sizes and threats, population viability analyses, and addressing knowledge gaps identified for individual species (e.g., species biology and habitat needs). The engagement of all levels of government, the local and international conservation communities, and the scientific research community plays an important role in the conservation and recovery of species at risk in Ontario– through surveying and monitoring, filling knowledge gaps, conducting public outreach, and restoring, protecting, or managing habitat – and will be critical to the continued success of the federal species at risk program.

Keywords: conservation biology, habitat protection, species at risk, wildlife recovery

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1228 Simulation Study on Effects of Surfactant Properties on Surfactant Enhanced Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs

Authors: Xiaoqian Cheng, Jon Kleppe, Ole Torsaeter

Abstract:

One objective of this work is to analyze the effects of surfactant properties (viscosity, concentration, and adsorption) on surfactant enhanced oil recovery at laboratory scale. The other objective is to obtain the functional relationships between surfactant properties and the ultimate oil recovery and oil recovery rate. A core is cut into two parts from the middle to imitate the matrix with a horizontal fracture. An injector and a producer are at the left and right sides of the fracture separately. The middle slice of the core is used as the model in this paper, whose size is 4cm x 0.1cm x 4.1cm, and the space of the fracture in the middle is 0.1 cm. The original properties of matrix, brine, oil in the base case are from Ekofisk Field. The properties of surfactant are from literature. Eclipse is used as the simulator. The results are followings: 1) The viscosity of surfactant solution has a positive linear relationship with surfactant oil recovery time. And the relationship between viscosity and oil production rate is an inverse function. The viscosity of surfactant solution has no obvious effect on ultimate oil recovery. Since most of the surfactant has no big effect on viscosity of brine, the viscosity of surfactant solution is not a key parameter of surfactant screening for surfactant flooding in fractured reservoirs. 2) The increase of surfactant concentration results a decrease of oil recovery rate and an increase of ultimate oil recovery. However, there are no functions could describe the relationships. Study on economy should be conducted because of the price of surfactant and oil. 3) In the study of surfactant adsorption, assume that the matrix wettability is changed to water-wet when the surfactant adsorption is to the maximum at all cases. And the ratio of surfactant adsorption and surfactant concentration (Cads/Csurf) is used to estimate the functional relationship. The results show that the relationship between ultimate oil recovery and Cads/Csurf is a logarithmic function. The oil production rate has a positive linear relationship with exp(Cads/Csurf). The work here could be used as a reference for the surfactant screening of surfactant enhanced oil recovery from fractured reservoirs. And the functional relationships between surfactant properties and the oil recovery rate and ultimate oil recovery help to improve upscaling methods.

Keywords: fractured reservoirs, surfactant adsorption, surfactant concentration, surfactant EOR, surfactant viscosity

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1227 Build Back Better Propositions for Disaster Risk Reduction in Natural Environment Recovery

Authors: Tinu Rose Francis, S. Wilkinson, Y. Chang-Richards, S. Mannakkara

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to assess the implementation of Build Back Better (BBB) propositions for disaster risk reduction in the natural environment with regard to greater Christchurch, New Zealand, after the 2010–2011 earthquakes in the region. A set of indicators was established to analyse the extent of recovery attained in Christchurch. Disaster recovery in the region is an ongoing process, which gives us the opportunity to rate the progress made so far. Disasters cause significant damage to the built, social and economic environments and also have severe consequences for the natural environment. Findings show that greater Christchurch has made important progress and implemented a comprehensive natural environment recovery plan. The plan addresses the restoration of biodiversity, natural resources, disaster waste management and amenity values in greater Christchurch. This paper also surveys the risk reduction actions being implemented with regard to the natural environment. The findings of this study will help governing bodies to identify and fill the gaps in their natural environment recovery plans.

Keywords: build back better (BBB), natural environment, planning, recovery, reconstruction, resilience, risk reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1226 Effects of Matrix Properties on Surfactant Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractured Reservoirs

Authors: Xiaoqian Cheng, Jon Kleppe, Ole Torsæter

Abstract:

The properties of rocks have effects on efficiency of surfactant. One objective of this study is to analyze the effects of rock properties (permeability, porosity, initial water saturation) on surfactant spontaneous imbibition at laboratory scale. The other objective is to evaluate existing upscaling methods and establish a modified upscaling method. A core is put in a container that is full of surfactant solution. Assume there is no space between the bottom of the core and the container. The core is modelled as a cuboid matrix with a length of 3.5 cm, a width of 3.5 cm, and a height of 5 cm. The initial matrix, brine and oil properties are set as the properties of Ekofisk Field. The simulation results of matrix permeability show that the oil recovery rate has a strong positive linear relationship with matrix permeability. Higher oil recovery is obtained from the matrix with higher permeability. One existing upscaling method is verified by this model. The study on matrix porosity shows that the relationship between oil recovery rate and matrix porosity is a negative power function. However, the relationship between ultimate oil recovery and matrix porosity is a positive power function. The initial water saturation of matrix has negative linear relationships with ultimate oil recovery and enhanced oil recovery. However, the relationship between oil recovery and initial water saturation is more complicated with the imbibition time because of the transition of dominating force from capillary force to gravity force. Modified upscaling methods are established. The work here could be used as a reference for the surfactant application in fractured reservoirs. And the description of the relationships between properties of matrix and the oil recovery rate and ultimate oil recovery helps to improve upscaling methods.

Keywords: initial water saturation, permeability, porosity, surfactant EOR

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1225 Islamic Banking Recovery Process and Its Parameters: A Practitioner’s Viewpoints in the Light of Humanising Financial Services

Authors: Muhammad Izzam Bin Mohd Khazar, Nur Adibah Binti Zainudin

Abstract:

Islamic banking as one of the financial institutions is highly required to maintain a prudent approach to ensure that any financing given is able to generate income to their respective shareholders. As the default payment of customers is probably occurred in the financing, having a prudent approach in the recovery process is a must to ensure that financing losses are within acceptable limits. The objective of this research is to provide the best practice of recovery which is anticipated to benefit both bank and customers. This study will address arising issue on the current practice of recovery process and followed by providing humanising recovery solutions in the light of the Maqasid Shariah. The study identified main issues pertaining to Islamic recovery process which can be categorized into knowledge crisis, process issues, specific treatment cases and system issues. Knowledge crisis is related to direct parties including judges, solicitors and salesperson, while the recovery process issues include the process of issuance of reminder, foreclosure and repossession of asset. Furthermore, special treatment for particular cases also should be observed since different contracts in Islamic banking products will need different treatment. Finally, issues in the system used in the recovery process are still unresolved since the existing technology is still young in this area to embraced Islamic finance requirements and nature of calculation. In order to humanize the financial services in Islamic banking recovery process, we have highlighted four main recommendation to be implemented by Islamic Financial Institutions namely; 1) early deterrent by improving the awareness, 2) improvement of the internal process, 3) reward mechanism, and 4) creative penalty to provide awareness to all stakeholders.

Keywords: humanizing financial services, Islamic Finance, Maqasid Syariah, recovery process

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1224 Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: Grand Challenges in Construction Recovery Process

Authors: Abioye A. Oyenuga, Rao Bhamidiarri

Abstract:

Hurling a successful Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) recycling operation around the globe is a challenge today, predominantly because secondary materials markets are yet to be integrated. Reducing, Reusing and recycling of (C&DW) have been employed over the years, and various techniques have been investigated. However, the economic and environmental viability of its application seems limited. This paper discusses the costs and benefits in using secondary materials and focus on investigating reuse and recycling process for five major types of construction materials: concrete, metal, wood, cardboard/paper, and plasterboard. Data obtained from demolition specialist and contractors are considered and evaluated. With the date source, the research paper found that construction material recovery process fully incorporate the 3R’s process and shows how energy recovery by means of 3R's principles can be evaluated. This scrutiny leads to the empathy of grand challenges in construction material recovery process. Recommendations to deepen material recovery process are also discussed.

Keywords: construction and demolition waste (C&DW), 3R concept, recycling, reuse, waste management, UK

Procedia PDF Downloads 315