Search results for: COVID-19
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: COVID-19

36 Digital Twin Technology: A Solution for Remote Operation and Productivity Improvement During Covid-19 Era and Future

Authors: Muhamad Sahir Bin Ahmad Shatiry, Wan Normeza Wan Zakaria, Mohamad Zaki Hassan


The pandemic Covid19 has significantly impacted the world; the spreading of the Covid19 virus initially from China has dramatically impacted the world's economy. Therefore, the world reacts with establishing the new way or norm in daily life. The rapid rise of the latest technology has been seen by introducing many technologies to ease human life to have a minor contract between humans and avoid spreading the virus Covid19. Digital twin technologies are one of the technologies created before the pandemic Covid19 but slow adoption in the industry. Throughout the Covid19, most of the companies in the world started to explore to use it. The digital twin technology provides the virtual platform to replicate the existing condition or setup for anything such as office, manufacturing line, factories' machine, building, and many more. This study investigates the effect on the economic perspective after the companies use the Digital Twin technology in the industry. To minimize the contact between humans and to have the ability to operate the system digitally remotely. In this study, the explanation of the digital twin technology impacts the world's microeconomic and macroeconomic.

Keywords: productivity, artificially intelligence, IoT, digital twin

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35 Using Information and Communication Technologies in Teaching Translation: Students of English as a Case Study

Authors: Guessabi Fatiha


Nowadays, there is no sphere of human life that does not use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in practice. This type of development grew widely in the last years of the 20th century and impacted many fields such as education, health, financing, job markets, communication, governments, industrial productivity, etc. Recently, in higher education, the use of ICTs has been essential and significant during the Covid19 pandemic. Thanks to technology, although the universities in Algeria were locked down during the period of covid19, learning was easily continued, and students were collaborating, communicating, socializing, and learning at a distance. Therefore, ICT tools are required in translation courses to enhance and improve translation teaching. This research explores the use of ICT in teaching and learning translation. The research comes along with a theoretical framework; the literature review is produced to highlight some essential ICT concepts and translation teaching. In order to achieve the study objective, a questionnaire is distributed to the third-year English LMD students at Tahri Mohamed University, and an interview is addressed to the translation teacher. The results and discussion obtained from this investigation confirmed the hypothesis and revealed that the use of ICT is essential in translation courses and it improves translation teaching. Hence, by using ICT in the classroom, the students become more active, and the teachers of translation become knowledge facilitators and leaders.

Keywords: COVID19, ICT, learning, students, teaching, TMU, translation

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34 Future Student Service Organization - Road Map

Authors: Michael Postert


The Studierendenwerke are legally independent public foundations with a one-century-old history in the German university community. Like the French CROUS, the Italian ANDISU or the Japanese University COOPs, they are set-up to serve the university and student needs. They are legally independent of their client institutions and student stakeholders. Initially set up as a support organization by students for students they have evolved to public business institutions with an annual turnover of EUR 100 Million or more. They are usually engaged in business areas such as student housing, restaurants, student grants, governmental scholarships and counselling services. These institutions are facing major changes over the next few years. The COVID19 pandemic and its impact on the educational system will unavoidably have an immense impact on the German student service organizations (Studierendenwerke). Issues such as digitalization and sustainability will have a huge impact on how the future business model of the Studierendenwerke will look like. The paper will discuss the aims and challenges of this development that started already before the COVID19 pandemic. In light of the way the educational system of the future will look like, the Studierendenwerke have to develop as well.

Keywords: business model, digitalization, education, student services

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
33 Children Beliefs about Illness, Treatments and Vaccines after the Experience of Covid 19 Pandemic

Authors: Margarida Maria Cabugueira Csutódio dos Santos, Joana Filipa Pintéus Pereira


The way children understand the concept of health and illness influences their reaction in contexts where these concepts are present (e.g.,illness; vaccination). The recognition of the importance of children's beliefs/representations about health and disease has led to the development of models that seek to explain the development process of these concepts. In the construction of their representations, children are influenced not only by their cognitive competence but also by their life experiences. In the last 3 years, children have experienced a pandemic health crisis that has exposed them to anomalous and stressful situations. Objective: the aim of this study was (1) to identify children’s representations about disease (including symptoms, causes, control/treatment) and prevention (including health procedures and vaccines) and (2) whether COVID19 is mentioned and influences their representations. Methodology: a qualitative study in which 67 children with 7 to 10 years old (mean 8,8) participated. A semi-structured interview was used following the Bibace and Walsh model, focusing on the representation of the disease and its prevention. Results show a marked influence of the lived experience with regard to causes of the disease, disease control and treatment, and adherence to vaccination. Age-dependent differences were found with older children being able to talk about illness and contamination process and younger displaying more basic, concrete and rigid representations. Conclusions: The results of this study bring clues to the adequacy of communication with the child in the context of health and illness and discriminately in a future health pandemic crisis.

Keywords: childen, health beliefs, pediatrics, covid19, vaccines

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
32 Predicting College Students’ Happiness During COVID-19 Pandemic; Be optimistic and Well in College!

Authors: Michiko Iwasaki, Jane M. Endres, Julia Y. Richards, Andrew Futterman


The present study aimed to examine college students’ happiness during COVID19-pandemic. Using the online survey data from 96 college students in the U.S., a regression analysis was conducted to predict college students’ happiness. The results indicated that a four-predictor model (optimism, college students’ subjective wellbeing, coronavirus stress, and spirituality) explained 57.9% of the variance in student’s subjective happiness, F(4,77)=26.428, p<.001, R2=.579, 95% CI [.41,.66]. The study suggests the importance of learned optimism among college students.

Keywords: COVID-19, optimism, spirituality, well-being

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31 Pros and Cons of Teaching/Learning Online during COVID-19: English Department at Tahri Muhammed University of Bechar as a Case Study

Authors: Fatiha Guessabi


Students of the Tahri Muhammed University of Bechar shifted to the virtual platform using E-learning platforms when the lockdown started due to the Coronavirus. This paper aims to explore the advantages and inconveniences of online learning and teaching in EFL classes at Tahri Mohammed University. For this investigation, a questionnaire was addressed to EFL students and an interview was arranged with EFL teachers. Data analysis was obtained from 09 teachers and 70 students. After the investigation, the results show that some of the most applied educational technologies and applications are used to turn online EFL classes effectively exciting. Thus, EFL classes became more interactive. Although learners give positive viewpoints about online learning/teaching, they prefer to learn in the classroom.

Keywords: advantages, disadvantages, COVID19, EFL, online learning/teaching, university of Bechar

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30 Possibility of Prediction of Death in SARS-Cov-2 Patients Using Coagulogram Analysis

Authors: Omonov Jahongir Mahmatkulovic


Purpose: To study the significance of D-dimer (DD), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen coagulation parameters (Fg) in predicting the course, severity and prognosis of COVID-19. Source and method of research: From September 15, 2021, to November 5, 2021, 93 patients aged 25 to 60 with suspected COVID-19, who are under inpatient treatment at the multidisciplinary clinic of the Tashkent Medical Academy, were retrospectively examined. DD, PT, APTT, and Fg were studied in dynamics and studied changes. Results: Coagulation disorders occurred in the early stages of COVID-19 infection with an increase in DD in 54 (58%) patients and an increase in Fg in 93 (100%) patients. DD and Fg levels are associated with the clinical classification. Of the 33 patients who died, 21 had an increase in DD in the first laboratory study, 27 had an increase in DD in the second and third laboratory studies, and 15 had an increase in PT in the third test. The results of the ROC analysis of mortality showed that the AUC DD was three times 0.721, 0.801, and 0.844, respectively; PT was 0.703, 0.845, and 0.972. (P<0:01). Conclusion”: Coagulation dysfunction is more common in patients with severe and critical conditions. DD and PT can be used as important predictors of mortality from COVID-19.

Keywords: Covid19, DD, PT, Coagulogram analysis, APTT

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29 In-Silico Investigation of Phytochemicals from Ocimum Sanctum as Plausible Antiviral Agent in COVID-19

Authors: Dileep Kumar, Janhavi Ramchandra Rao Kumar, Rao


COVID-19 has ravaged the globe, and it is spreading its Spectre day by day. In the absence of established drugs, this disease has created havoc. Some of the infected persons are symptomatic or asymptomatic. The respiratory system, cardiac system, digestive system, etc. in human beings are affected by this virus. In our present investigation, we have undertaken a study of the Indian Ayurvedic herb, Ocimum sanctum against SARS-CoV-2 using molecular docking and dynamics studies. The docking analysis was performed on the Glide module of Schrödinger suite on two different proteins from SARS-CoV-2 viz. NSP15 Endoribonuclease and spike receptor-binding domain. MM-GBSA based binding free energy calculations also suggest the most favorable binding affinities of carvacrol, β elemene, and β caryophyllene with binding energies of −61.61, 58.23, and −54.19 Kcal/mol respectively with spike receptor-binding domain and NSP15 Endoribonuclease. It rekindles our hope for the design and development of new drug candidates for the treatment of COVID19.

Keywords: molecular docking, COVID-19, ocimum sanctum, binding energy

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28 Examining the Behavioral, Hygienic and Expectational Changes in Adolescents and Young Women during COVID-19 Quarantine in Colombia

Authors: Rocio Murad, Marcela Sanchez, Mariana Calderon Jaramillo, Danny Rivera, Angela Cifuentes, Daniela Roldán, Juan Carlos Rivillas


Women and girls have specific health needs, but during health pandemics such as COVID19 they are less likely to have access to quality essential health information, commodities and services, or insurance coverage for routine and catastrophic health expenses, especially in rural and marginalized communities. This is compounded by multiple or intersecting inequalities, such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability, age, geographic location, and sexual orientation, among others. Despite concerted collective action, there is a lack of information on the situation of women, adolescents and youth, including gender inequalities exacerbated by the pandemic. Much more needs to be done to amplify the lived realities of women and adolescents in global and national advocacy and policy responses. The COVID 19 pandemic reflects the need for systematic advocacy policies based on the lived experiences of women and adolescents, underpinned by human rights. This research is part of the initiative of Profamilia Association (Solidarity Study), and its objective is twofold: i) to analyze the behavioral changes and immediate expectations of Colombians during the stage of relaxation of the confinement measures decreed by the national government; and ii) to identify the needs, experiences and resilient practices of adolescents and young women during the COVID-19 crisis in Colombia. Descriptive analysis of data collected by Profamilia through the Solidaridad study, an exploratory cross-sectional descriptive study that used subnational level data from a nonprobabilistic sample survey conducted to 1735 adults, between September 01 and 11, 2020. Interviews were conducted with key stakeholders about their experiences during COVID19, under three key axes: i) main challenges for adolescents and young women; ii) examples of what has worked well in responding to the challenge; and iii) how/what services are/should be provided during COVID-19 (and beyond) to address the challenge. Interviewees were selected based on prior mapping of social groups of interest. In total, 23 adolescents and young women participated in the interviews. The results show that people adopted behavioral changes such as wearing masks, avoiding people with symptoms, and reducing mobility, but there was also a doubling of concerns for many reasons, from effects on mental health, sexual health, and unattended reproductive health to the burden of care and working at home. The favorable perception that people had at the beginning of the quarantine about the response and actions of the national and local government to control Covid-19 decreased over the course of the quarantine. The challenges and needs of adolescents and young women were highlighted during the most restrictive measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in disruptions to daily activities, education and work, as well as restrictions to mobility and social interaction. Concerns raised by participants included: impact on mental health and wellbeing due to disruption of daily life; limitations in access to formal and informal education; food insecurity; migration; loss of livelihoods; lack of access to health information and services; limitations to sexual and reproductive health and rights; insecurity problems; and problems in communication and treatment among household members.

Keywords: COVID-19, changes in behavior, adolescents, women

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27 New Opportunities in Business as a Result of the Corona Virus

Authors: Lasha Kamashidze


COVID19 has already become one of the biggest challenges in the modern world. The virus has also had a significant impact on the world economy, which has faced a major crisis. Each crisis and challenge creates new opportunities. Changes in the world have allowed us to see business in a new light. The aim of the article is to explore new opportunities in the business that have arisen as a result of the Corona virus. Now, organizations with a service profile are working to meet the rapidly changing needs of their staff and customers. Due to the situation created by the pandemic, it became necessary to make some changes in people's daily lives. It became necessary to adapt to the new reality. The changes caused by Coronavirus require in-depth research and analysis in the world economy, as the current situation is not ruled out to be repeated in the future. Many companies have resorted to remote work methods, which require organizational changes. The form of remote work is not new to the Georgian reality. In Georgia, as well as in the rest of the world, the business sector has undergone changes. It will be beneficial for many Georgian companies to make organizational changes that will allow them to work remotely. The current situation has shown the managers of both Georgian and other companies to have "weak points" in organizing modern business. A survey was conducted (online survey), as a result of which it received important information about the problems of remote work in Georgia.

Keywords: organizational change, coronomics, remote work, management

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26 Lessons Learned from Covid19 - Related ERT in Universities

Authors: Sean Gay, Cristina Tat


This presentation will detail how a university in Western Japan has implemented its English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program during the onset of CoViD-19 in the spring semester of 2020. In the spring semester of 2020, after a 2 week delay, all courses within the School of Policy Studies EAP Program at Kwansei Gakuin University were offered in an online asynchronous format. The rationale for this decision was not to disadvantage students who might not have access to devices necessary for taking part in synchronous online lessons. The course coordinators were tasked with consolidating the materials originally designed for face-to-face14 week courses for a 12 week asynchronous online semester and with uploading the modified course materials to Luna, the university’s network, which is a modified version of Blackboard. Based on research to determine the social and academic impacts of this CoViD-19 ERT approach on the students who took part in this EAP program, this presentation explains how future curriculum design and implementation can be managed in a post-CoViD world. There are a wide variety of lessons that were salient. The role of the classroom as a social institution was very prominent; however, awareness of cognitive burdens and strategies to mitigate that burden may be more valuable for teachers. The lessons learned during this period of ERT can help teachers moving forward.

Keywords: asynchronous online learning, emergency remote teaching (ERT), online curriculum design, synchronous online learning

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25 The Development of Crisis Distance Education at Kuwait University During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Waleed Alanzi


The purpose of this qualitative study was to add to the existing literature and provide a more detailed understanding of the individual experiences and perceptions of 15 Deans at the University of Kuwait regarding their first year of planning, developing, and implementing crisis distance education (CDE) in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. An interpretative phenomenological approach was applied, using the thematic analysis of interview transcripts to describe the challenging journeys taken by each of the Deans from the first-person point of view. There was objective evidence, manifested by four primary themes (“Obstacles to the implementation of CDE”; “Planning for CDE”; “Training for CDE,” and “Future Directions”) to conclude that the faculty members, technical staff, administrative staff, and students generally helped each other to overcome the obstacles associated with planning and implementing CDE. The idea that CDE may turn homes into schools and parents into teachers was supported. The planning and implementation of CDE were inevitably associated with a certain amount of confusion, as well as disruptions in the daily routines of staff and students, as well as significant changes in their responsibilities. There were contradictory ideas about the future directions of distance education after the pandemic. Previous qualitative research on the implementation of CDE at higher education institutions in the Arab world has focused mainly on the experiences and perceptions of students; however, little is known about the experiences and perceptions of the students at the University of Kuwait during the COVID19 pandemic, providing a rationale and direction for future research.

Keywords: distance learning, qualitative research, COVID-19 epidemic, Kuwait university

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24 Theoretical Lens Driven Strategies for Emotional Wellbeing of Parents and Children in COVID-19 Era

Authors: Anamika Devi


Based on Vygotsky’s cultural, historical theory and Hedegaard’s concept of transition, this study aims to investigate to propose strategies to maintain digital wellbeing of children and parents during and post COVID pandemic. Due COVID 19 pandemic, children and families have been facing new challenges and sudden changes in their everyday life. While children are juggling to adjust themselves in new circumstance of onsite and online learning settings, parents are juggling with their work-life balance. A number of papers have identified that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of many families around the world in many ways, for example, the stress level of many parents increased, families faced financial difficulties, uncertainty impacted on long term effects on their emotional and social wellbeing. After searching and doing an intensive literature review from 2020 and 2021, this study has found some scholarly articles provided solution or strategies of reducing stress levels of parents and children in this unprecedented time. However, most of them are not underpinned by proper theoretical lens to ensure they validity and success. Therefore, this study has proposed strategies that are underpinned by theoretical lens to ensure their impact on children’s and parents' emotional wellbeing during and post COVID-19 era. The strategies will highlight on activities for positive coping strategies to the best use of family values and digital technologies.

Keywords: onsite and online learning, strategies, emotional wellbeing, tips, and strategies, COVID19

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23 The Impact of Social Media Exposure on COVID- 19 Vaccine Hesitancy “A Comparative Study on the Public in Egypt and the United Arab Emirates”

Authors: Lamiaa Shehata


The current (COVID-19) pandemic is one of the international crises, and a lot of efforts have been directed toward the improvement of efficient vaccines, however vaccine hesitancy is one of the universal menaces that make the fulfillment of society immunity very hard. The World Health Organization acknowledges vaccine hesitancy as the society’s maximum risk to people's health protection, especially in little and moderate-revenue nations. Social media is strong in observing audience behaviors and evaluating the circulation, which would supply useful data for strategy makers. It has a significant function in spreading facts during the pandemic, it could assist to boost protective manners. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of social media exposure on vaccine hesitancy. Data were collected using a survey in a form of a structured questionnaire conducted during December 2021- January 2022 using convenient sampling techniques (680) in Egypt and the United Arab Emirates. The results revealed that there was a significant relationship between the high exposure to social media and the refusal of the Covid19 vaccine also, the percentage of the refusal of the vaccine is higher in Egypt, however, UAE forced people to take the vaccine. Furthermore, public attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination vary from gender and region. In conclusion, policymakers must adjust their policies through the use of social media to immediate actions to vaccine-related news to support vaccination approval.

Keywords: COVID-19, hesitancy, social media, vaccine

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22 Indian Diplomacy in a Post Pandemic World

Authors: Esha Banerji


This paper attempts an assessment of India's behaviour as a foreign policy actor amidst the COVID 19 pandemic by briefly surveying the various introductions and alterations made to India's foreign policy. First, the paper attempts to establish the key strategic pillars of Indian foreign policy after reviewing the existing works. It then proceeds to assess the prominent part played by Health Diplomacy ("Vaccine Maitri") in India's bilateral and multilateral relations during the pandemic and the role of the Indian diaspora in shaping India's foreign policy. This is followed by examining "India's Neighbourhood First policy" and the way it's been employed by the Indian government to extend India’s strategic influence during the pandemic. An empirical assessment will be done to examine the changing dynamics of India's relation with different regional groupings like SAARC, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, etc. The paper also explores the new alliances formed post-pandemic and India's role in them. This paper analyses the contemporary challenges that the largest nation in South Asia faces with the onset of a global pandemic and how Ancient Indian values like "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam" have influenced India's foreign policy, especially during the pandemic. It also attempts to grasp the changes within the negotiation style of the Indian government, and the role played by various stakeholders in shaping India's position in the present geopolitical landscape. The study has been conducted using data collected from government records, External Affairs Ministry database, and other available literature. The paper concludes with an attempt to predict the far-reaching strategic implications that the policy, as mentioned above, may have for India.

Keywords: Indian foreign policy, COVID19, diplomacy, post pandemic world

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21 Impressions of HyFlex in an Engineering Technology Program in an Undergraduate Urban Commuter Institution

Authors: Zory Marantz


Hybrid flexible (HyFlex) is a pedagogical methodology whereby an instructor delivers content in three modalities, i.e. live in-person (LIP), live online synchronous (LOS), and non-live online asynchronous (nLOaS). HyFlex is focused on providing the largest level of flexibility needed to achieve a cohesive environment across all modalities and incorporating four basic principles – learner’s choice, reusability, accessibility, and equivalency. Much literature has focused on the advantages of this methodology in providing students with the flexibility to choose their learning modality as best suits their schedules and learning styles. Initially geared toward graduate-level students, the concept has been applied to undergraduate studies, particularly during our national pedagogical response to the COVID19 pandemic. There is still little literature about the practicality and feasibility of HyFlex for hardware laboratory intensive engineering technology programs, particularly in dense, urban commuter institutions of higher learning. During a semester of engineering, a lab-based course was taught in the HyFlex modality, and students were asked to complete a survey about their experience. The data demonstrated that there is no single mode that is preferred by a majority of students and the usefulness of any modality is limited to how familiar the student and instructor are with the technology being applied. The technology is only as effective as our understanding and comfort with its functionality. For HyFlex to succeed in its implementation in an engineering technology environment within an urban commuter institution, faculty and students must be properly introduced to the technology being used.

Keywords: education, HyFlex, technology, urban, commuter, pedagogy

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20 A Machine Learning Approach for Performance Prediction Based on User Behavioral Factors in E-Learning Environments

Authors: Naduni Ranasinghe


E-learning environments are getting more popular than any other due to the impact of COVID19. Even though e-learning is one of the best solutions for the teaching-learning process in the academic process, it’s not without major challenges. Nowadays, machine learning approaches are utilized in the analysis of how behavioral factors lead to better adoption and how they related to better performance of the students in eLearning environments. During the pandemic, we realized the academic process in the eLearning approach had a major issue, especially for the performance of the students. Therefore, an approach that investigates student behaviors in eLearning environments using a data-intensive machine learning approach is appreciated. A hybrid approach was used to understand how each previously told variables are related to the other. A more quantitative approach was used referred to literature to understand the weights of each factor for adoption and in terms of performance. The data set was collected from previously done research to help the training and testing process in ML. Special attention was made to incorporating different dimensionality of the data to understand the dependency levels of each. Five independent variables out of twelve variables were chosen based on their impact on the dependent variable, and by considering the descriptive statistics, out of three models developed (Random Forest classifier, SVM, and Decision tree classifier), random forest Classifier (Accuracy – 0.8542) gave the highest value for accuracy. Overall, this work met its goals of improving student performance by identifying students who are at-risk and dropout, emphasizing the necessity of using both static and dynamic data.

Keywords: academic performance prediction, e learning, learning analytics, machine learning, predictive model

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19 Visualisation in Health Communication: Taking Weibo Interaction in COVD19 as the Example

Authors: Zicheng Zhang, Linli Zhang


As China's biggest social media platform, Weibo has taken on essential health communication responsibilities during the pandemic. This research takes 105 posters in 15 health-related official Weibo accounts as the analysis objects to explore COVID19 health information communication and visualisation. First, the interaction between the audiences and Weibo, including forwarding, comments, and likes, is statistically analysed. The comments about the information design are extracted manually, and then the sentiment analysis is carried out to verdict audiences' views about the poster's design. The forwarding and comments are quantified as the attention index for a reference to the degree of likes. In addition, this study also designed an evaluation scale based on the standards of Health Literacy Resource by the Centers for Medicare& Medicaid Services (US). Then designers scored all selected posters one by one. Finally, combining the data of the two parts, concluded that: 1. To a certain extent, people think that the posters do not deliver substantive and practical information; 2. Non-knowledge posters(i.e., cartoon posters) gained more Forwarding and Likes, such as Go, Wuhan poster; 3. The analysis of COVID posters is still mainly picture-oriented, mainly about encouraging people to overcome difficulties; 4. Posters for pandemic prevention usually contain more text and fewer illustrations and do not clearly show cultural differences. In conclusion, health communication usually involves a lot of professional knowledge, so visualising that knowledge in an accessible way for the general public is challenging. The relevant posters still have the problems of lack of effective communication, superficial design, and insufficient content accessibility.

Keywords: weibo, visualisation, covid posters, poster design

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18 The Effects of Covid-19 on Oral Health among 19 to 29 Years Old - A Cross-sectional Study in Albania

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Alketa Qafmolla, Vergjini Mulo, Irene Malagnino


Aim: Assessment of oral health in young people aged 18-29 years after the Covid-19 pandemic in Albania. Materials and methods: The present study was conducted at the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania, from March 2023 to September 2023. This is s cross-sectional study. In our research, 104 students participated, of which 64 were females (61.5%) and 40 were males (38.5%). In the present survey, the participants were divided into four age groups: 18-20, 21-23, 24-26, and 27-29 years old. Majority of the sample (69%) were 18-20 years. Participants were instructed to complete the questionnaire. The study had no dropouts. The current study was conducted in accordance to Helsinki declaration. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23.0, Microsoft Windows Linux, Chicago, IL, USA. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: This study reported that 80 (76.9%) of the participants had passed Covid-19, while 24 (23.1%) of them had not passed Covid-19. Based on our data analysis, 70 (67.3%) of the participants had symptoms such as of fever 38°C- 40.5°C and headache. They stated that were treated with Azithromycin 500 mg tablets, Augmentin 625 mg tablets, Vitamin C 1000 mg, Magnesium, and Vitamin D. 40(38.4%) of the participants noticed hypersensitivity in gums (p = 0.004) and sensitive teeth (p = 0.001) after having passed Covid-19 compared to pre-pandemic. Nearly 40 (38.4%) of the participants who passed Covid-19 were treated with painful relievers for the gums and teeth, such as ibuprofen (Advil), used Sensodyne Toothpaste for sensitive teeth and Clove oil. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study conducted in Albania, can concluded that Covid-19 has a direct impact on oral health.

Keywords: albania, Covid19, cross-sectional study, oral health

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17 Potential Usefulness of Video Lectures as a Tool to Improve Synchronous and Asynchronous the Online Education

Authors: Omer Shujat Bhatti, Afshan Huma


Online educational system were considered a great opportunity for distance learning. In recent days of COVID19 pandemic, it enable the continuation of educational activities at all levels of education, from primary school to the top level universities. One of the key considered element in supporting the online educational system is video lectures. The current research explored the usefulness of the video lectures delivered to technical students of masters level with a focus on MSc Sustainable Environmental design students who have diverse backgrounds in the formal educational system. Hence they were unable to cope right away with the online system and faced communication and understanding issues in the lecture session due to internet and allied connectivity issues. Researcher used self prepared video lectures for respective subjects and provided them to the students using Youtube channel and subject based Whatsapp groups. Later, students were asked about the usefulness of the lectures towards a better understanding of the subject and an overall enhanced learning experience. More than 80% of the students appreciated the effort and requested it to be part of the overall system. Data collection was done using an online questionnaire which was prior briefed to the students with the purpose of research. It was concluded that video lectures should be considered an integral part of the lecture sessions and must be provided prior to the lecture session, ensuring a better quality of delivery. It was also recommended that the existing system must be upgraded to support the availability of these video lectures through the portal. Teachers training must be provided to help develop quality video content ensuring that is able to cover the content and courses taught.

Keywords: video lectures, online distance education, synchronous instruction, asynchronous communication

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16 Aberrant Genome‐Wide DNA Methylation Profiles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19

Authors: Inam Ridha, Christine L. Kuryla, Madhuranga Thilakasiri Madugoda Ralalage Don, Norman J. Kleiman, Yunro Chung, Jin Park, Vel Murugan, Joshua LaBaer


To date, more than 275 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with COVID-19 and the rapid spread of the omicron variant suggests many millions more will soon become infected. Many infections are asymptomatic, while others result in mild to moderate illness. Unfortunately, some infected individuals exhibit more serious symptoms including respiratory distress, thrombosis, cardiovascular disease, multi-organ failure, cognitive difficulties, and, in roughly 2% of cases, death. Studies indicate other coronaviruses can alter the host cell's epigenetic profile and lead to alterations in the immune response. To better understand the mechanism(s) by which SARS-CoV-2 infection causes serious illness, DNA methylation profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 90 hospitalized severely ill COVID-19 patients were compared to profiles from uninfected control subjects. Exploratory epigenome-wide DNA methylation analyses were performed using multiplexed methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by pathway enrichment analysis. The findings demonstrated significant DNA methylation changes in infected individuals as compared to uninfected controls. Pathway analysis indicated that apoptosis, cell cycle control, Toll-like receptors (TLR), cytokine interactions, and T cell differentiation were among the most affected metabolic processes. In addition, changes in specific gene methylation were compared to SARS-CoV-2 induced changes in RNA expression using published RNA-seq data from 3 patients with severe COVID-19. These findings demonstrate significant correlations between differentially methylated and differentially expressed genes in a number of critical pathways.

Keywords: COVID19, epigenetics, DNA mathylation, viral infection

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15 The Psychology of Virtual Relationships Provides Solutions to the Challenges of Online Learning: A Pragmatic Review and Case Study from the University of Birmingham, UK

Authors: Catherine Mangan, Beth Anderson


There has been a significant drive to use online or hybrid learning in Higher Education (HE) over recent years. HEs with a virtual presence offer their communities a range of benefits, including the potential for greater inclusivity, diversity, and collaboration; more flexible learning packages; and more engaging, dynamic content. Institutions can also experience significant challenges when seeking to extend learning spaces in this way, as can learners themselves. For example, staff members’ and learners’ digital literacy varies (as do their perceptions of technologies in use), and there can be confusion about optimal approaches to implementation. Furthermore, the speed with which HE institutions have needed to shift to fully online or hybrid models, owing to the COVID19 pandemic, has highlighted the significant barriers to successful implementation. HE environments have been shown to predict a range of organisational, academic, and experiential outcomes, both positive and negative. Much research has focused on the social aspect of virtual platforms, as well as the nature and effectiveness of the technologies themselves. There remains, however, a relative paucity of synthesised knowledge on the psychology of learners’ relationships with their institutions; specifically, how individual difference and interpersonal factors predict students’ ability and willingness to engage with novel virtual learning spaces. Accordingly, extending learning spaces remains challenging for institutions, and wholly remote courses, in particular, can experience high attrition rates. Focusing on the last five years, this pragmatic review summarises evidence from the psychological and pedagogical literature. In particular, the review highlights the importance of addressing the psychological and relational complexities of students’ shift from offline to online engagement. In doing so, it identifies considerations for HE institutions looking to deliver in this way.

Keywords: higher education, individual differences, interpersonal relationships, online learning, virtual environment

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14 The Impact of the Atypical Crisis on Educational Migration: Economic and Policy Challenges

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze, Marine Kobalava, Lali Chikviladze


The global pandemic crisis has had a significant impact on educational migration, substantially limiting young people’s access to education abroad. Therefore, it became necessary to study the economic, demographic, social, cultural and other factors associated with educational migration, to identify the economic and political challenges of educational migration and to develop recommendations. The aim of the research is to study the effects of the atypical crisis on educational migration and to make recommendations on effective migration opportunities based on the identification of economic and policy challenges in this area. Bibliographic research is used to assess the effects of the impact of the atypical crisis on educational migration presented in the papers of various scholars. Against the background of the restrictions imposed during the COVID19 pandemic, migration rates have been analyzed, endogenous and exogenous factors affecting educational migration have been identified. Quantitative and qualitative research of students and graduates of TSU Economics and Business Faculty is conducted, the results have been processed by SPSS program, the factors hindering educational migration and the challenges have been identified. The Internet and digital technologies have been shown to play a vital role in alleviating the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, however, lack of Internet access and limited financial resources have played a disruptive role in the educational migration process. The analysis of quantitative research materials revealed the problems of educational migration caused by the atypical crisis, while some issues were clarified during the focus group meetings. The following theoretical-methodological approaches were used during the research: a bibliographic research, analysis, synthesis, comparison, selection-grouping are used; Quantitative and qualitative research has been carried out, the results have been processed by SPSS program. The article presents the consequences of the atypical crisis for educational migration, identifies the main economic and policy challenges in the field of educational migration, and develops appropriate recommendations to overcome them.

Keywords: educational migration, atypical crisis, economic-political challenges, educational migration factors

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13 Identifying Indicative Health Behaviours and Psychosocial Factors Affecting Multi-morbidity Conditions in Ageing Populations: Preliminary Results from the ELSA study of Ageing

Authors: Briony Gray, Glenn Simpson, Hajira Dambha-Miller, Andrew Farmer


Multimorbidity may be strongly affected by a variety of conditions, factors, and variables requiring higher demands on health and social care services, infrastructure, and expenses. Holding one or more conditions increases one’s risk for development of future conditions; with patients over 65 years old at highest risk. Psychosocial factors such as anxiety and depression are rising exponentially globally, which has been amplified by the COVID19 pandemic. These are highly correlated and predict poorer outcomes when held in coexistence and increase the likelihood of comorbid physical health conditions. While possible future reform of social and healthcare systems may help to alleviate some of these mounting pressures, there remains an urgent need to better understand the potential role health behaviours and psychosocial conditions - such as anxiety and depression – may have on aging populations. Using the UK healthcare scene as a lens for analysis, this study uses big data collected in the UK Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) to examine the role of anxiety and depression in ageing populations (65yrs+). Using logistic regression modelling, results identify the 10 most significant variables correlated with both anxiety and depression from data categorised into the areas of health behaviour, psychosocial, socioeconomic, and life satisfaction (each demonstrated through literature review to be of significance). These are compared with wider global research findings with the aim of better understanding the areas in which social and healthcare reform can support multimorbidity interventions, making suggestions for improved patient-centred care. Scope of future research is outlined, which includes analysis of 59 total multimorbidity variables from the ELSA dataset, going beyond anxiety and depression.

Keywords: multimorbidity, health behaviours, patient centred care, psychosocial factors

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12 Resale Housing Development Board Price Prediction Considering Covid-19 through Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Srinaath Anbu Durai, Wang Zhaoxia


Twitter sentiment has been used as a predictor to predict price values or trends in both the stock market and housing market. The pioneering works in this stream of research drew upon works in behavioural economics to show that sentiment or emotions impact economic decisions. Latest works in this stream focus on the algorithm used as opposed to the data used. A literature review of works in this stream through the lens of data used shows that there is a paucity of work that considers the impact of sentiments caused due to an external factor on either the stock or the housing market. This is despite an abundance of works in behavioural economics that show that sentiment or emotions caused due to an external factor impact economic decisions. To address this gap, this research studies the impact of Twitter sentiment pertaining to the Covid-19 pandemic on resale Housing Development Board (HDB) apartment prices in Singapore. It leverages SNSCRAPE to collect tweets pertaining to Covid-19 for sentiment analysis, lexicon based tools VADER and TextBlob are used for sentiment analysis, Granger Causality is used to examine the relationship between Covid-19 cases and the sentiment score, and neural networks are leveraged as prediction models. Twitter sentiment pertaining to Covid-19 as a predictor of HDB price in Singapore is studied in comparison with the traditional predictors of housing prices i.e., the structural and neighbourhood characteristics. The results indicate that using Twitter sentiment pertaining to Covid19 leads to better prediction than using only the traditional predictors and performs better as a predictor compared to two of the traditional predictors. Hence, Twitter sentiment pertaining to an external factor should be considered as important as traditional predictors. This paper demonstrates the real world economic applications of sentiment analysis of Twitter data.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, Covid-19, housing price prediction, tweets, social media, Singapore HDB, behavioral economics, neural networks

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11 The Effect of Newspaper Reporting on COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Anna Rinaldi, Pierfrancesco Dellino


COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy can be observed at different rates in different countries. In June 2021, 1,068 people were surveyed in France and Italy to inquire about individual potential acceptance, focusing on time preferences in a risk-return framework: having the vaccination today, in a month, and in 3 months; perceived risks of vaccination and COVID-19; and expected benefit of the vaccine. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to understand how everyday stimuli like fact-based news about vaccines impact an audience's acceptance of vaccination. The main experiment involved two groups of participants and two different articles about vaccine-related thrombosis taken from two Italian newspapers. One article used a more abstract description and language, and the other used a more anecdotal description and concrete language; each group read only one of these articles. Two other groups were assigned categorization tasks; one was asked to complete a concrete categorization task, and the other an abstract categorization task. Individual preferences for vaccination were found to be variable and unstable over time, and individual choices of accepting, refusing, or delaying could be affected by the way news is written. In order to understand these dynamic preferences, the present work proposes a new model based on seven categories of human behaviors that were validated by a neural network. A treatment effect was observed: participants who read the articles shifted to vaccine hesitancy categories more than participants assigned to other treatments and control. Furthermore, there was a significant gender effect, showing that the type of language leading to a lower hesitancy rate for men is correlated with a higher hesitancy rate for women and vice versa. This outcome should be taken into consideration for an appropriate gender-based communication campaign aimed at achieving herd immunity. The trial was registered at NCT05582564 (17/10/2022).

Keywords: vaccine hesitancy, risk elicitation, neural network, covid19

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10 Evaluating the Efficacy of Tasquinimod in Covid-19

Authors: Raphael Udeh, Luis García De Guadiana Romualdo, Xenia Dolje-Gore


Background: Quite disturbing is the huge public health impact of COVID-19: As at today [25th March 2021, the COVID-19 global burden shows over 123 million cases and over 2.7 million deaths worldwide. Rationale: Recent evidence shows calprotectin’s potential as a therapeutic target, stating that tasquinimod, from the Quinoline-3-Carboxamide family is capable of blocking the interaction between calprotectin and TLR4. Hence preventing the cytokine release syndrome, that heralds the functional exhaustion in COVID-19. Early preclinical studies showed that tasquinimod inhibit tumor growth and prevent angiogenesis/cytokine storm. Phase I – III clinical studies in prostate cancer showed it has a good safety profile with good radiologic progression free survival but no effect on overall survival. Rationale/hypothesis: Strategic endeavors have been amplified globally to assess new therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 management – thus the clinical and antiviral efficacy of tasquinimod in COVID-19 remains to be explored. Hence the primary objective of this trial will be to evaluate the efficacy of tasquinimod in the treatment of adult patients with severe COVID-19 infections. Therefore, I hypothesise that among adults with COVID19 infection, tasquinimod will reduce the severe respiratory distress associated with COVID-19 compared to placebo, over a 28-day study period. Method: The setting is in Europe. Design – a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II double-blinded trial. Trial lasts for 28 days from randomization, Tasquinimod capsule given as 0.5mg daily 1st fortnight, then 1mg daily 2nd fortnight. I0 outcome - assessed using six-point ordinal scale alongside eight 20 outcomes. 125 participants to be enrolled, data collection at baseline and subsequent data points, and safety reporting monitored via serological profile. Significance: This work could potentially establish tasquinimod as an effective and safe therapeutic agent for COVID-19 by reducing the severe respiratory distress, related time to recovery, time on oxygen/admission. It will also drive future research – as in larger multi-centre RCT.

Keywords: Calprotectin, COVID-19, Phase II Trial, Tasquinimod

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9 Doing Durable Organisational Identity Work in the Transforming World of Work: Meeting the Challenge of Different Workplace Strategies

Authors: Theo Heyns Veldsman, Dieter Veldsman


Organisational Identity (OI) refers to who and what the organisation is, what it stands for and does, and what it aspires to become. OI explores the perspectives of how we see ourselves, are seen by others and aspire to be seen. It provides as rationale the ‘why’ for the organisation’s continued existence. The most widely accepted differentiating features of OI are encapsulated in the organisation’s core, distinctive, differentiating, and enduring attributes. OI finds its concrete expression in the organisation’s Purpose, Vision, Strategy, Core Ideology, and Legacy. In the emerging new order infused by hyper-turbulence and hyper-fluidity, the VICCAS world, OI provides a secure anchor and steady reference point for the organisation, particularly the growing widespread focus on Purpose, which is indicative of the organisation’s sense of social citizenship. However, the transforming world of work (TWOW) - particularly the potent mix of ongoing disruptive innovation, the 4th Industrial Revolution, and the gig economy with the totally unpredicted COVID19 pandemic - has resulted in the consequential adoption of different workplace strategies by organisations in terms of how, where, and when work takes place. Different employment relations (transient to permanent); work locations (on-site to remote); work time arrangements (full-time at work to flexible work schedules); and technology enablement (face-to-face to virtual) now form the basis of the employer/employee relationship. The different workplace strategies, fueled by the demands of TWOW, pose a substantive challenge to organisations of doing durable OI work, able to fulfill OI’s critical attributes of core, distinctive, differentiating, and enduring. OI work is contained in the ongoing, reciprocally interdependent stages of sense-breaking, sense-giving, internalisation, enactment, and affirmation. The objective of our paper is to explore how to do durable OI work relative to different workplace strategies in the TWOW. Using a conceptual-theoretical approach from a practice-based orientation, the paper addresses the following topics: distinguishes different workplace strategies based upon a time/place continuum; explicates stage-wise the differential organisational content and process consequences of these strategies for durable OI work; indicates the critical success factors of durable OI work under these differential conditions; recommends guidelines for OI work relative to TWOW; and points out ethical implications of all of the above.

Keywords: organisational identity, workplace strategies, new world of work, durable organisational identity work

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8 DenseNet and Autoencoder Architecture for COVID-19 Chest X-Ray Image Classification and Improved U-Net Lung X-Ray Segmentation

Authors: Jonathan Gong


Purpose AI-driven solutions are at the forefront of many pathology and medical imaging methods. Using algorithms designed to better the experience of medical professionals within their respective fields, the efficiency and accuracy of diagnosis can improve. In particular, X-rays are a fast and relatively inexpensive test that can diagnose diseases. In recent years, X-rays have not been widely used to detect and diagnose COVID-19. The under use of Xrays is mainly due to the low diagnostic accuracy and confounding with pneumonia, another respiratory disease. However, research in this field has expressed a possibility that artificial neural networks can successfully diagnose COVID-19 with high accuracy. Models and Data The dataset used is the COVID-19 Radiography Database. This dataset includes images and masks of chest X-rays under the labels of COVID-19, normal, and pneumonia. The classification model developed uses an autoencoder and a pre-trained convolutional neural network (DenseNet201) to provide transfer learning to the model. The model then uses a deep neural network to finalize the feature extraction and predict the diagnosis for the input image. This model was trained on 4035 images and validated on 807 separate images from the ones used for training. The images used to train the classification model include an important feature: the pictures are cropped beforehand to eliminate distractions when training the model. The image segmentation model uses an improved U-Net architecture. This model is used to extract the lung mask from the chest X-ray image. The model is trained on 8577 images and validated on a validation split of 20%. These models are calculated using the external dataset for validation. The models’ accuracy, precision, recall, f1-score, IOU, and loss are calculated. Results The classification model achieved an accuracy of 97.65% and a loss of 0.1234 when differentiating COVID19-infected, pneumonia-infected, and normal lung X-rays. The segmentation model achieved an accuracy of 97.31% and an IOU of 0.928. Conclusion The models proposed can detect COVID-19, pneumonia, and normal lungs with high accuracy and derive the lung mask from a chest X-ray with similarly high accuracy. The hope is for these models to elevate the experience of medical professionals and provide insight into the future of the methods used.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, image processing, machine learning

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7 Tagging a corpus of Media Interviews with Diplomats: Challenges and Solutions

Authors: Roberta Facchinetti, Sara Corrizzato, Silvia Cavalieri


Increasing interconnection between data digitalization and linguistic investigation has given rise to unprecedented potentialities and challenges for corpus linguists, who need to master IT tools for data analysis and text processing, as well as to develop techniques for efficient and reliable annotation in specific mark-up languages that encode documents in a format that is both human and machine-readable. In the present paper, the challenges emerging from the compilation of a linguistic corpus will be taken into consideration, focusing on the English language in particular. To do so, the case study of the InterDiplo corpus will be illustrated. The corpus, currently under development at the University of Verona (Italy), represents a novelty in terms both of the data included and of the tag set used for its annotation. The corpus covers media interviews and debates with diplomats and international operators conversing in English with journalists who do not share the same lingua-cultural background as their interviewees. To date, this appears to be the first tagged corpus of international institutional spoken discourse and will be an important database not only for linguists interested in corpus analysis but also for experts operating in international relations. In the present paper, special attention will be dedicated to the structural mark-up, parts of speech annotation, and tagging of discursive traits, that are the innovational parts of the project being the result of a thorough study to find the best solution to suit the analytical needs of the data. Several aspects will be addressed, with special attention to the tagging of the speakers’ identity, the communicative events, and anthropophagic. Prominence will be given to the annotation of question/answer exchanges to investigate the interlocutors’ choices and how such choices impact communication. Indeed, the automated identification of questions, in relation to the expected answers, is functional to understand how interviewers elicit information as well as how interviewees provide their answers to fulfill their respective communicative aims. A detailed description of the aforementioned elements will be given using the InterDiplo-Covid19 pilot corpus. The data yielded by our preliminary analysis of the data will highlight the viable solutions found in the construction of the corpus in terms of XML conversion, metadata definition, tagging system, and discursive-pragmatic annotation to be included via Oxygen.

Keywords: spoken corpus, diplomats’ interviews, tagging system, discursive-pragmatic annotation, english linguistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 152