Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21743

Search results for: interpretative phenomenological analysis

21743 Detention Experiences of Asylum Seeking Children in Canada: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Zohra Faize


Globalization has expanded the mobility privileges of the Global North population while simultaneously, those in the Global South, namely poor, and racialized minorities are increasingly criminalized for crossing international borders. As part of this global trend, Canada also engages in tight border control practices, which often result in marginalization and criminalization of asylum seekers, including children. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis as a theoretical framework and methodology, this research explores the effects of tight border control practices on children asylum-seekers; with a specific focus on detention experiences in Canadian prisons and immigration Holding Centers. The preliminary results of interviews with 8 participants confirm the violations of child rights that stem from the detention practice. Children also report that they find immigration detention to be a stressful and a confusing experience, often resulting in feeling of shame and guilt after their release into the community.

Keywords: border control, crimmigration, Canada, children asylum seekers, immcarceration, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)

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21742 A Phenomenological Inquiry on the Spirituality of Young Filipino Gay Men Living with HIV

Authors: Dela Cruz Abraham, Bachoco Janine


Spirituality plays a central role among patients dealing with HIV mostly on the LGBT community in the world today particularly in the Philippines. This study seeks to contribute to the growing body of knowledge in LGBT psychology particularly on gay men living with HIV and their spiritual aspect. In line with this, the researchers aim to describe (1) how young Filipino gay men relate their experiences as an HIV-positive in relations to their self and significant others (partners, family, friends and community); (2) how young Filipino gay men make sense of their experiences as an HIV-positive, in connection to God, this also includes their meaning making and purpose of their life experiences. To recruit participants, the researchers will employ purposive sampling using snowball technique, and conduct a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcriptions of the participant will be analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Keywords: interpretative phenomenological analysis, living with HIV, spirituality, young Filipino gay men

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21741 Relationship Financing: A Process of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Y. Fandja, O. Colot, M. Croquet


Small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) face difficulties in accessing bank credit. Bank credit is actually the main source of external financing for SMEs. In general, SMEs are risky businesses because of the potential opacity maintained by the leader in the management of affairs, the agency conflicts between business owners and third-party funders and the potential opportunism of the leader due to the incompleteness of the contracts. These elements accentuate the problems of information asymmetries between SMEs and bankers leading to capital rationing. Moreover, the last economic crisis reinforced this rationing of capital. However, a long-term relationship between SMEs and their bank would enable the latter to accumulate a set of relevant information allowing the reduction of information asymmetry and, consequently, the reduction of credit rationing. The objective of this research is to investigate the lived experience of SMEs loan officers in their relationships with their clients in order to understand how these relationships can affect the financing structure of these SMEs. To carry out this research, an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis is implemented. This approach is part of the constructivist paradigm and refers to the subjective narratives of the individual rather than to an objective description of the facts. The role of the researcher is to explore the lived experience of the interviewees and to try to understand the meaning they give to this experience. Currently, several sixty-minute semi-structured interviews with loan officers for SMEs have been conducted. The analysis of the content of these interviews brought out three main themes. First, the relationship between the credit officer and the company manager is complex because the credit officer is not aware of establishing a personal relationship with his client. Second; the emotional involvement in the bank financing decision is present and third, the trust in the relationship between the credit officer and his client is very important. The originality of this research is to use the interpretative phenomenological analysis more specific to psychology and sociology in order to approach in a different way the problem of the financing of SMEs through their particular relations with the bankers.

Keywords: financing structure, interpretative phenomenological analysis, relationship financing, SME

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21740 There's No End in Sight: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Quality of Life in Burning Syndrome Sufferers

Authors: R. McGrath, A. Trace, S. Curtin, C. McCreary


Introduction: Although, in relation to Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS), much energy has been expended on its definition and etiology, it still remains a contentious issue. There is agreement on the symptoms, but on little else; and approaches to treatment vary widely. However, it has been established that the condition has a detrimental effect on the sufferer’s quality of life. Much research focus has been put on the physical impact of the syndrome. Recently, some literature has turned the focus to social, functional, and psychological factors. However, there is very little qualitative research on how burning mouth syndrome affects the lives of sufferer’s and the present study seeks to remedy this. Method: The study recruited five male participants who took part in semi-structured interviews lasting between 30 and 50 minutes. Data was analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results: The study identified four super-ordinate themes: Lack of Control due to Uncertainty about Condition; Disruption to Internal Sense of Self; Negative Future Expectation due to Chronic Symptoms; and Sense of BMS as an Intrusive Force. Aspects of these themes reflect areas of reduction in quality of life. Conclusion: BMS damages an individual’s quality of life in ways that have not been reflected in self-report surveys of health-related quality of life. The condition has serious implications for the individual's sense of self, identity, and future. The study recommends that further qualitative research be carried out in this area. Also, the use of therapeutic interventions with sufferers from BMS is recommended, which would help not only sufferers but best practice in relation to their treatment.

Keywords: burning mouth syndrome, interpretative phenomenological analysis, qualitative research, quality of life

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21739 An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis on the Concept of Friends of Children in Conflict with the Law

Authors: Karla Kristine Bay, Jovie Ann Gabin, Allana Joyce Sasotona


This research employed an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the experiences of Children in Conflict with the Law (CICL) which gave light to their concept of ‘friends’. Derived from this context are the following objectives of the study: 1) determining the differentiation of the forms of friends of the CICL; 2) presenting the process of attachment towards detachment in the formation of friendship; and 3) discussing the experiences, and reflections of the CICL on the ‘self’ out of their encounter with friendship. Using the data gathered from the individual drawings of the CICL of their representations of the self, family, friends, community, and Bahay Kalinga as subjects in the meaning-making process utilizing Filipino Psychology methods of pagtatanong-tanong (interview), and pakikipagkwentuhan (conversation), data analysis produced a synthesis of seventeen individual cases. Overall results generated three superordinate themes on the differentiation of the forms of friends which include friends with good influences, friends with bad influences, and friends within the family. While two superordinate themes were produced on the process of attachment towards detachment, namely social, emotional, and psychological experiences on the process of attachment, and emotional and psychological experiences on the process of detachment. Lastly, two superordinate themes were created on the experiences, and reflections of the CICL on the ‘self’ out of their encounter with friendship. This consists of the recognition of the ‘self’ as a responsible agent in developing healthy relationships between the self and others, and reconstruction of the self from the collective experiences of healing, forgiveness, and acceptance. These findings, together with supporting theories discussed the impact of friendship on the emergence of criminal behavior and other dispositions; springing from the child’s dissociation from the family that led to finding belongingness from an external group called friends.

Keywords: children in conflict with the law, criminal behavior, friends, interpretative phenomenological analysis

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21738 An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Death Practices and Rituals of the Isneg People in Apayao

Authors: Ivy Angelique Malit, Marion Nicole Dela Vega, Marjorie Mae Mendoza


Death practices and rituals of the Philippines is rich with facts about our history mostly on our beliefs of the afterlife before the arrival of the western culture which is still being practiced by the indigenous people of the Philippines. The death practices and rituals are acts of showing the inner thoughts, and feelings towards the person who died. The meanings behind those practices and rituals become the reason why the indigenous people still treasure these death practices and rituals as a part of their culture. This study seeks to know the experiences of the death practices and rituals of one of the Indigenous groups in Apayao, the Isnegs and the meaning of those experiences. The researchers aimed to look at it on a psychological lens. In which the researchers aim (1) to know their experiences of their death practices from the perspective of their thoughts, feelings and actions, and (2) to seek the meaning behind their death rituals. The design used in the research is a qualitative design and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The participants were gathered by using purposive sampling. The researchers gathered the data from a form of a semi-structured interview with guide questions. The researchers used Thematic Analysis to analyze the verbatim transcriptions from the interview. The experiences of death practices and rituals of the Isneg people have been presented in the aspects of their thoughts, feelings and behavior. The experiences were presented with 7 superordinate themes namely, (1) Refusal of Reality (2) Feelings of mixed emotions (3) Oblivious Acts of the participants (4) Conflict with self and culture (5) Negative thinking of the participants (6) Process of Acceptance (8) Act of Love. The make meaning behind the death practices and rituals of the Isneg people have been presented with 2 superordinate themes, (1) Act of Respect and (2) Act of Loyalty. The results of the research show that the experiences and meaning behind their death practices and burials were being based more by their own beliefs. In their culture, which has been passed through by their ancestors and becomes the foundation of their beliefs and their newly found religion which was introduced by the travelling missionaries. Doing those death practices and rituals is their way to show their affections, like respect and loyalty towards the person who died.

Keywords: death practices, interpretative phenomenological analysis, isneg people, rituals, theory of grieving

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21737 The Experience of Middle Grade Teachers in a Culture of Collaboration

Authors: Tamara Tallman


Collaboration is a powerful tool for professional development and central for creating opportunities for teachers to reflect on their practice. However, school districts continue to have difficulty both implementing and sustaining collaboration. The purpose of this research was to investigate the experience of the teacher in a creative, instructional collaboration. The teachers in this study found that teacher-initiated collaboration offered them trust and they were more open with their partners. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was used for this study as it told the story of the teacher’s experience. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was chosen for this study to capture the complex and contextual nature of the teacher experience from a creative, instructional collaborative experience. This study sought to answer the question of how teachers in a private, faith-based school experience collaboration. In particular, the researcher engaged the study’s participants in interviews where they shared their unique perspectives on their experiences in relation to this phenomenon. Through the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis, the researcher interpreted the experiences of each participant in an attempt to gain deeper insight into how teachers made sense of their understanding of collaboration. In addition to the researcher’s interpreting the meaning of this construct for each research participant, this study gave a voice to the individual experiences and positionality of each participant at the research site. Moreover, the key findings presented in this study shed light on how teachers within this particular context participated in and made sense of their experience of creating an instructional collaborative. The research presented the findings that speak to the meaning that each research participant experienced in their relation to participating in building a collaborative culture and its effect on professional and personal growth. The researcher provided recommendations for future practice and research possibilities. The research findings demonstrated the unique experiences of each participant as well as a connection to the literature within the field of teacher professional development. The results also supported the claim that teacher collaboration can facilitate school reform. Participating teachers felt less isolation and developed more teacher knowledge.

Keywords: collaboration, personal grwoth, professional development, teachers

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21736 Mediatization of Politics and Democracy in Pakistan: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Shahid Imran


'Mediatization' has influenced the politics by shaping and transforming the attitudes and practices of political actors. It is a serious challenge to democracy in today’s era. This study aims to analyze the dynamics of media politics interplay in Pakistan and the contextual factors which govern this interplay. It will also address the perceived influence of media on the practices of politicians from the perspectives of the actors. The objectives have been achieved qualitatively through Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The phenomenological data have been collected using semi-structured interviews of journalists and politicians of Pakistan. The findings depict that politics in Pakistan is more driven by media logic than political or democratic logic. Media and politics have a ‘Tom and Jerry’ relationship. Political ecology is highly media-induced: politicians strategically adopt and adapt the media logic to be in the ‘media spotlight’; journalists, on the other hands, do not practice ‘fair journalism rather a more politically parallelized. The mediatized political communication behaviours of the actors are the undermining the public service logic and affecting the spirit of democracy in Pakistan. The study offers some valued implications for media, politicians and policy makers.

Keywords: medialization, media logic, politics, political logic

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21735 Making Sense of Cyber Pornography among Young Adult Couples

Authors: Marianne Lumacang, Jessarine Dultra, Joana Fenol


Filipinos are known to be conservative, sex or pornography is not discussed openly in the Philippines, topic of sex, when raised, will most likely elicit snickers, jokes, and blushes in most Filipino or expressions of disgust. However, a lot of Filipinos are still engaging into this kind of activity for some reasons. The study aims to determine young adult’s point of view about cyber pornography viewing, as well as their reasons for engagement, and its effects on them and their relationship with their partner. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to explore how young adults make sense of cyber pornography viewing. The study focused on Filipino young adults who are in a romantic or married relationship, engage in cyber pornography viewing, and currently residing in Cavite, Philippines. A total of four young adult couples, four females and four males participated in the study as research participants. Data gathered from a total of four young adult couples resulted to a total of nine superordinate themes focusing on (1) exploring young adult couple’s rationales for cyber pornography viewing, (2) experiences of positive effects in engaging to cyber pornography viewing, (3) experiences of negative effects in engaging to cyber pornography viewing, (4) experience of infidelity, (5) experience of necessity, (6) females perception about cyber pornography viewing towards self, (7) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards self, (8) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards romantic partner, and (9) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards others.

Keywords: cyberpornography, Filipino, interpretative phenomenological analysis, making sense of cyberpornography, young adult

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21734 The Lived Experiences of Fathers with Children Who Have Cerebral Palsy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Krizette Ladera


Fathers are there not only to provide the financial stability of a family but a father is also there to provide the love and support that usually people would see as the mother’s responsibility. To describe the lived experiences and how fathers make sense of their lived experiences with their children who have cerebral palsy is the main objective of the study. A qualitative research using a thematic analysis was used for the study. The qualitative research focused on the personal narratives, self-report and expression of the participant’s memory in terms of how they tell their stories. The interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to focus on the experience of the participants on how they will describe their experiences, and to also add on that the IPA will also attempt to describe and explain the meaning of human experiences using interview, specifically on the father who have a child that suffers from cerebral palsy. For the sampling technique, the snowball technique was used to gather participants from the referral of other participants. The five non-randomly selected fathers will be served as the participants for the research. A self-made interview with an open-ended question was used as the research instrument; it includes profiling of the respondent as well as their experiences in taking care of their child that suffers from cerebral palsy. In analyzing a data, the researcher used the thematic analysis where in the interview was made into a transcript, then it was organized and divided themes. After that, the relations of each themes, was identified and it was later documented and translated into written text format using thematic grouping. Finally, the researcher analyzed each data according to its themes and put it in a table to be presented in the result section of the study And as for the result of the study, the researcher was able to come up with the four (4) main themes that most of the participants experienced and those are: The experiences in finding out about the condition of the Child, disclosing the condition of the child to the family and its emotional effect, The experiences of living the day of day realities in providing the physical, financial, emotional and a well balanced environment to the child, and the religious perspectives of the fathers. Along with those four (4) themes comes the subtheme which explains the themes in a more detailed explanation.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, children, fathers, lived experiences

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21733 Malaysian Knowledge, Belief and Attitude towards Hypnosis as a Health Intervention: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Ying Chern Yeoh, Mark J. Forshaw


Although hypnosis has been widely endorsed in Europe since 1950s, it was still viewed as a typically new therapy in Asia. There are very little findings regarding hypnosis in Asian countries, especially in culturally diverse countries such as Malaysia. The knowledge of the beneficial effects of hypnosis was not widespread to the public, however knowledge of the negative effects was frequently being highlighted. Therefore, the acceptance of hypnosis as a new effective health treatment can be a challenge in Malaysia. Recognising Malaysian’s perception, belief and attitude towards hypnosis could increase the public awareness of hypnosis, which in turn will alter their misconception and increase acceptance of hypnosis as an effective therapy. Eight individuals (N = 8) from the general public with different background, ethnicity (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and religion (Islamic, Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Christianity, free-thinker) and two local experienced practitioners with minimum of five years experiences (N = 2) were being interviewed to determine their views, beliefs and level of acceptance towards hypnosis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, transcribed with pseudonyms and analyzed by using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The three emergent themes were illustrated under the captions of ‘traditional vs mainstream’, ‘myths vs truth’, and ‘dissemination and public awareness’. The finding suggested that individual knowledge and personal experience primarily influenced people’s level of acceptance towards hypnosis as a beneficial health treatment, rather than the diversity of cultural and religious background. Subsequent findings regarding hypnosis and the effort of promoting it will provide the society an opportunity to increase public education and health awareness. Several associations had started to advance its development by organizing conferences and setting up therapeutic centers. However, health promotion on hypnosis is yet to be conducted to raise public awareness of its beneficial effects. By requesting for hypnosis to be included as a subject in medical education and psychology curriculum and formatting it under Ministry of Health’s legislation body might enhance the knowledge of hypnosis for Malaysian as one of the health intervention in the future.

Keywords: awareness, hypnosis, intervention, Malaysian, promotion

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21732 Positive Shock: The PhD Journey of International Students at UK Universities: A Qualitative Interpretative Phenomenological Study

Authors: Dounyazad Sour


This research examines international doctoral students’ reflections on their journey and experiences of studying for a PhD in the UK. Since the early 1990s, the international students’ number in the UK has increased. The significant contribution of these international students to the cultural and academic diversity of the UK universities’ doctoral programmes is widely acknowledged. The substantial fees these students bring to British Higher Education institutions is also much appreciated. The rationale for undertaking this study grew from personal experience of studying in the UK. Through membership in different groups both online and, when regulations permitted it, face to face social groups, it quickly became apparent that among all students, there were both shared and individual experiences of struggles and triumphs. This insight led to the decision to investigate these matters in greater detail. This in-depth qualitative interpretative study, inspired by a phenomenological approach, offers fresh insights into academic, social and cultural experiences of international PhD students in the UK. Data collection was carried out in the UK over a period of three months, deploying focus groups, individual semi-structured interviews, and images selected by participants that represent their feelings towards their experiences. The ten participants are attending different UK universities, studying a range of disciplines and have diverse backgrounds. Interviews and discussions took place in the participants' preferred languages; Arabic, English and French. The analysis shows that the participants had experienced two types of shock: negative and positive. Negative shocks, which have seen considerable attention in the field of international students’ experiences, relate to unexpected incidents that happened to the participants in relation to their interactions with others: people from different backgrounds and people from the same background. This impacted their experience negatively through experiencing feelings of anxiety, stress, low self-esteem and xenophobia, all these hindering factors contribute to make international students struggle to adapt to the new environment. Positive shocks, which have remained largely under-researched in the field of international students’ experiences, refer to all the positive occurrences that participants experienced. For instance, a shop assistant saying: “do you need any help, honey?” which brought a sense of belonging, feeling home, safety, and satisfaction to the respondents, and made their experiences less challenging. This investigation will offer insights into the PhD international students’ experiences and shed new light on the shocks that can work as facilitators, rather than as inhibitors.

Keywords: international students, PhD journey, phenomenological approach, positive shock

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21731 An Interaction between Human and Animal through the Death Experience

Authors: Mindaugas Kazlauskas


In this paper, it is presupposed that the description of the relationship between animal and human should begin with a description of the direct experience of the animal and how, in this experience, the human experiences itself (a self awareness mode). A human is concerned first and foremost with himself as a human through the experience of another as an animal. The questionsare: In the encounter with an animal, how is the animal constituted in the acts of human experience? How does human-animal interaction influence human behavioral patterns, and how does the human identifies itself in this interaction? The paper will present the results of interpretative phenomenological descriptions (IPA) of the relationship between human and animal in the face of death phenomenon through the experience of pet owners who lost their beloved companions and hunters, veterinatians, and farmers who face animal death. The results of IPA analysis reveal different relations such as the identification with an animal, the alienation experience, the experience of resistance, and an experience of detachment. Within these themes, IPA qualitative research results will be presented by highlighting patterns of human behavior, following Friedrich Schlachermacher's hermeneutics methodological principles, and reflecting on changes in value and attitude within society during daily interaction with the animal.

Keywords: animal human interaction, phenomenology, philosophy, death phenomenon

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21730 Phenomenological Study on the Counseling Stress Experience of School Counselors

Authors: Park Jin Hee


The purpose of this research is to analyze the meaning and essence of stress experiences school counselors experience while providing counseling. For this research, interviews were conducted with ten school counselors and analyze the interview findings by using phenomenological method of Colaizzi. As for the conclusion in this research, several of types of emotions and mindset of school counselors were examined, and the positive and negative effects of such emotions and mindset on counseling process were shown.

Keywords: counseling stress experience, meaning, school counselors, phenomenological study

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21729 Digital Female Entrepreneurs in South Africa: Drivers and Relationship to Economic Development

Authors: C. van den Berg, C. Pokpas


Popular discourse touts entrepreneurship as a universal solution for underdevelopment, unemployment, and poverty. Moreover, claims are made that women and other disadvantaged groups can achieve material and personal success through digital entrepreneurship. This paper examines the potential of digital technology in entrepreneurial ventures to stimulate economic growth for marginalized groups and communities. Although digital entrepreneurship is hailed as a means to empower under-resourced and socially marginalized people, these opportunities still exist within the confines of existing social and cultural practices. The perspectives of female digital entrepreneurs in developing countries are sorely understudied, particularly concerning an understanding of the complex underlying socio-cultural factors impeding women’s entrepreneurial behaviors. This qualitative study, guided by a feminist phenomenological perspective, focused on the experiences of digital female entrepreneurs in the Western Cape of South Africa. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and analyzed through the interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach to determine the relationships between digital entrepreneurship and structural and agential enabling conditions. Findings show that digital entrepreneurship is not a panacea for economic growth in marginalized groups and communities and highlight the importance of addressing socio-cultural gender inequality to enable successful entrepreneurial activity. The paper concludes with recommendations for specialized training initiatives aimed at female entrepreneurs that address internalized constraints and barriers that keep women subservient and measures to shift gender and power beliefs. The outcome will benefit the stimulation of gender-specific public policies to develop a successful digital start-up ecosystem further.

Keywords: digital innovation, female digital entrepreneurs, feminist phenomenology, gender, marginalised communities

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21728 Using a Phenomenological Approach to Explore the Experiences of Nursing Students in Coping with Their Emotional Responses in Caring for End-Of-Life Patients

Authors: Yun Chan Lee


Background: End-of-life care is a large area of all nursing practice and student nurses are likely to meet dying patients in many placement areas. It is therefore important to understand the emotional responses and coping strategies of student nurses in order for nursing education systems to have some appreciation of how nursing students might be supported in the future. Methodology: This research used a qualitative phenomenological approach. Six student nurses understanding a degree-level adult nursing course were interviewed. Their responses to questions were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Finding: The findings identified 3 main themes. First, the common experience of ‘unpreparedness’. A very small number of participants felt that this was unavoidable and that ‘no preparation is possible’, the majority felt that they were unprepared because of ‘insufficient input’ from the university and as a result of wider ‘social taboos’ around death and dying. The second theme showed that emotions were affected by ‘the personal connection to the patient’ and the important sub-themes of ‘the evoking of memories’, ‘involvement in care’ and ‘sense of responsibility’. The third theme, the coping strategies used by students, seemed to fall into two broad areas those ‘internal’ with the student and those ‘external’. In terms of the internal coping strategies, ‘detachment’, ‘faith’, ‘rationalization’ and ‘reflective skills’ are the important components of this part. Regarding the external coping strategies, ‘clinical staff’ and ‘the importance of family and friends’ are the importance of accessing external forms of support. Implication: It is clear that student nurses are affected emotionally by caring for dying patients and many of them have apprehension even before they begin on their placements but very often this is unspoken. Those anxieties before the placement become more pronounced during and continue after the placements. This has implications for when support is offered and possibly its duration. Another significant point of the study is that participants often highlighted their wish to speak to qualified nurses after their experiences of being involved in end-of-life care and especially when they had been present at the time of death. Many of the students spoke that qualified nurses were not available to them. This seemed to be due to a number of reasons. Because the qualified nurses were not available, students had to make use of family members and friends to talk to. Consequently, the implication of this study is not only to educate student nurses but also to educate the qualified mentors on the importance of providing emotional support to students.

Keywords: nursing students, coping strategies, end-of-life care, emotional responses

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21727 Experiencing the Shattered: Managing Countertransference Experiences with Anorexia Patients in Psychotherapy

Authors: M. Card


Working with anorexia patients can be a challenging experience for mental and health care professionals. The reasons for not wanting to work with this patient population stems from the numerous concerns surrounding the patient’s health – physically and mentally. Many health care professionals reported having strong negative feelings, such as; anger, hopelessness and helplessness when working with anorexia patients. These feelings often impaired their judgement to treatment and affected how they related to the patient. This research focused on psychotherapists who preferred to work with anorexia patients; what countertransference feelings were evoked in them during sessions with patients and most importantly, how they managed the feelings. The research used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) as the theoretical framework and data analysis method. Semi-structured interviews were used with ten experienced psychotherapists to obtain their countertransference experiences with anorexia patients and how they manage it. There were three main themes discovered; (1) the use of supervision, (2) their own personal therapy and finally (3) experience and evolution. The research unearthed that experienced psychotherapists also experienced strong countertransference feelings towards their patients; some positive and some negative. However, these feelings could actually be interpreted as co-transference with their anorexia patients. The psychotherapists were able to own their part in the evocative unconscious nature of a relational therapeutic space, where their personal issues may be entangled in their anorexia patient’s symptomatology.

Keywords: anorexia nervosa, countertransference, co-transference, psychotherapy, relational psychotherapy

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21726 A Comparative Analysis of Courtship among Non-Mainstream Gays and Lesbians

Authors: Marian Ubaldo, Venise Gonzales, Aileen Lovendino


In response to an identified need in the psychological literature for current research on topics related to same-sex lived experiences, the study aims to give knowledge about Non-mainstream Gay and Non-mainstream Lesbian, or those homosexuals who do not conform with norms, in relation to courtship than to focus on heterosexuals’ courtship. Moreover, the aim of this study is to explore the experience of courtship as it is mediated by the personal meanings that Non-mainstream Homosexuals attribute to it. Also, a comparison of courtship between Non-mainstream Gays and Non-mainstream Lesbians covers the study. A total of ten self-identified Non-mainstream gay and lesbian participated in the study and was interviewed with an open ended question. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used in the study to capture the quality and texture of individual lived experiences. The results revealed similarities and differences in the lived experiences of Non-mainstream Gays and Lesbians when compared. The research findings have found that the research participants lived experiences in relation with Courtship are somehow similar and only differ in terms of sexual attraction. Non-mainstream Gays tend to follow a more sexual dating script while Non-mainstream Lesbians builds relationship through friendship or follows a ‘friendship’ script. Findings were compared with literature on dating and relationships with a large population of Gays and Lesbians to identify points of consistency and inconsistency. The implication of the results and recommendation for future researcher were given.

Keywords: non-mainstream gays, non-mainstream lesbian, courtship, heteronormativity, dating script

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21725 A Phenomenological Framework of Unconscious Cognition on Judicial Decision Making

Authors: Mariam Shah


This paper will examine the potential influence and role of unconscious cognition on judicial decision making. The theoretical underpinnings of this paper rest on phenomenological theory grounded predominantly in Schutzian phenomenology. Aspects of Husserlian and Gadamerian phenomenology will be included within the phenomenological framework put forward in this paper, in an attempt to provide a more complete and thorough account of how unconscious cognition can influence judicial decision making. This paper has far reaching implications, as the framework provides a foundation for unconscious cognitive factors which can work to influence decision making more generally.

Keywords: decision making, Gadamer, Gadamerian, Husserl, Husserlian, judicial decision making, phenomenology, Schutz, Schutzian

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21724 The Single-Level Structure in Lucid Dreams

Authors: Jinshuo Zhang


Lucid dreams(LD) are the mental states in which people are aware that they are dreaming, which is a rising interdisciplinary topic among psychologists, neuroscientists and spiritual practitioners. From a phenomenological perspective, this research explores the self-consciousness structure in lucid dreams, particularly focusing on the self-reference structure between lucidity(the observer) and the dream ego(the observed). The main argument of this paper is that the self-structure in lucid dreams is a single-level paradigm. In this paper, the phenomenological characteristics of lucidity in LD are carefully unfolded. The appearance of lucidity is the most significant part of understanding the self-structure and the consciousness in dreams, which is also related to the “Six Bardos practices” in Tibetan Buddhism. In the second section, this research investigates the referential relationship between"lucidity" and "the dream ego" using the phenomenological resource of subjectivity theory, as well as referring to many cases in the psychological labs. Despite the appearance of various consciousness layers in lucid dreams, according to this paper, they are all part of a single-level consciousness paradigm. Dream ego is transparent, and dream lucidity can grasp it directly and thoroughly during LD. This research also responds to some potential criticisms and engages in current debates about the self-structure issue in lucid dreams, as well as discussing some future research prospects for dreams and lucid dreams.

Keywords: lucid dream, self-awareness, phenomenological perspective, high-order theory, one-level consciousness

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21723 Architectural Experience of the Everyday in Bangkok CBD

Authors: Thirayu Jumsai Na Ayudhya


The attempt to understand about what architecture means to people as they go about their everyday life revealed that knowledge such as environmental psychology, environmental perception, environmental aesthetics, inadequately address the contextualized and holistic theoretical framework. In my previous research, it was found that people’s making senses of their everyday architecture can be addressed in terms of four super‐ordinate themes; (1) building in urban (text), (2) building in (text), (3) building in human (text), (4) and building in time (text). In this research, Bangkok CBD was selected as the focal urban context that the integrated style of architecture is noticeable. It is expected that in a unique urban context like Bangkok CBD unprecedented super-ordinate themes will be unveiled through the reflection of people’s everyday experiences. In this research, people’s architectural experience conducted in Bangkok CBD, Thailand, will be presented succinctly. The research addresses the question of how do people make sense of their everyday architecture/buildings especially in a unique urban context, Bangkok CBD, and identifies ways in which people make sense of their everyday architecture. Two key methodologies are adopted. First, Participant-Produced-Photograph (PPP) allows people to express their experiences of the everyday urban context freely without any interference or forced-data generating by researchers. Second, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) are also applied as main methodologies. With IPA methodology, a small pool of participants is considered giving the detailed level of analysis and its potential to produce a meaningful outcome.

Keywords: architectural experience, building appreciation, design psychology, environmental psychology, sense-making, the everyday experience, transactional theory

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21722 Exploring the Illness Experience of Fibromyalgia Patients Using Identity Boxes

Authors: Nicole Brown


This study considers the illness experience of fibromyalgia patients by using identity boxes. The results improve health care professionals' understanding of patient experiences. Additionally, the concept of the identity boxes may offer a practical solution for helping patients accept the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia research traditionally refers to pain experiences and relies on questionnaires, surveys, interviews and some narrative analysis. However, due to the variability in symptoms, symptom levels, and locations, these methods may not be best suited to provide an insight into the patient experience. On the other hand, lengthy interview processes are not easily accessible for sufferers of fibromyalgia. In addition to timelines and diary extracts, this study uses identity boxes as its main data collection method. Participants are asked to find items in response to specific questions and to arrange them in their box. The objects represent the patients' experiences holistically. Participants provide photographs of their identity box at each stage of the process and explain their chosen items. The photographs of the identity boxes and the patients' explanations of their objects and their boxes are subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Despite the unique forms of the completed boxes, common experiences are described: the need for comfort, the role of spirituality and the impact of fibromyalgia on everyday life, that it plays a significant role but those patients are determined not to let it rule their lives. The work with the identity boxes has shown beneficial impact due to the reflective nature involved in the tasks. Further investigations will be needed to identify the long-term impact of identity work using such boxes.

Keywords: biographical disruption, fibromyalgia, illness experience, illness narrative

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21721 Social Consequences of Male Migration on Women: An Evidence from Gujrat-Pakistan

Authors: Shahid Iqbal


It is observed that international migration is increased over a time period in all over the world counties and Pakistan is not escaped. It played a pivotal role in household economy and affecting the gender roles both positive and negative in the developing countries. A vast majority of males from Pakistan migrate to other countries in search of employment and income generating activities and their families left behind, particularly nuclear families are subjected to different social problems. In this scenario, most of the responsibilities lie on the female partners as they have to play the role of male as well as female for their children and household chores. Wives of some males feel loneliness, isolation and a sense of insecurity. Keeping in mind, these realities, this study aims to explore the social impact of husbands’ absentee ship on the lives of families left behind. Particularly, wives’ own experiences will be analyzed. This study will be carried out in the District Gujrat of Punjab Pakistan. Since this study will focus on observing the social impact of male’s migration on families, so, all the households that had at least one member abroad will be the potential respondents of the study. Purposes sampling technique will be used as method to locate the respondents. A focus group discussion will be conducted as a tool for the collection of data. Those women will be approached who are taking care of their families in the absence of their husbands for last three years. For the sake of analysis Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) will be applied and researcher will explore how participants make sense of their personal experience and social world.

Keywords: social consequences, male migration, left behind, absentee ship, Pakistan

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21720 Architectural Experience of the Everyday in Phuket Old Town

Authors: Thirayu Jumsai na Ayudhya


Initial attempts to understand about what architecture means to people as they go about their everyday life through my previous research revealed that knowledge such as environmental psychology, environmental perception, environmental aesthetics, did not adequately address a perceived need for the contextualized and holistic theoretical framework. In my previous research, it is found that people’s making senses of their everyday architecture can be described in terms of four super‐ordinate themes; (1) building in urban (text), (2) building in (text), (3) building in human (text), (4) and building in time (text). For more comprehensively understanding of how people make sense of their everyday architectural experience, in this ongoing research Phuket Old town was selected as the focal urban context where the distinguish character of Chino-Portuguese is remarkable. It is expected that in a unique urban context like Phuket old town unprecedented super-ordinate themes will be unveiled through the reflection of people’s everyday experiences. The ongoing research of people’s architectural experience conducted in Phuket Island, Thailand, will be presented succinctly. The research will address the question of how do people make sense of their everyday architecture/buildings especially in a unique urban context, Phuket Old town, and identify ways in which people make sense of their everyday architecture. Participant-Produced-Photograph (PPP) and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) are adopted as main methodologies. PPP allows people to express experiences of their everyday urban context freely without any interference or forced-data generating by researchers. With IPA methodology a small pool of participants is considered desirable given the detailed level of analysis required and its potential to produce a meaningful outcome.

Keywords: architectural experience, the everyday architecture, Phuket, Thailand

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21719 Making Sense of Places: A Comparative Study of Three Contexts in Thailand

Authors: Thirayu Jumsai Na Ayudhya


The study of what architecture means to people in their everyday lives inadequately addresses the contextualized and holistic theoretical framework. This article succinctly presents theoretical framework obtained from the comparative study of how people experience the everyday architecture in three different contexts including 1) Bangkok CBD, 2) Phuket island old-town, and 3) Nan province old-town. The way people make sense of the everyday architecture can be addressed in four super-ordinate themes; (1) building in urban (text), (2) building in (text), (3) building in human (text), (4) and building in time (text). In this article, these super-ordinate themes were verified whether they recur in three studied-contexts. In each studied-context, the participants were divided into two groups, 1) local people, 2) visitors. Participants were asked to take photographs of the everyday architecture during the everyday routine and to participate the elicit-interview with photographs produced by themselves. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was adopted to interpret elicit-interview data. Sub-themes emerging in each studied-context were brought into the cross-comparison among three studied- contexts. It is found that four super-ordinate themes recur with additional distinctive sub-themes. Further studies in other different contexts, such as socio-political, economic, cultural differences, are recommended to complete the theoretical framework.

Keywords: sense of place, the everyday architecture, architectural experience, the everyday

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21718 Phenomenological Ductile Fracture Criteria Applied to the Cutting Process

Authors: František Šebek, Petr Kubík, Jindřich Petruška, Jiří Hůlka


Present study is aimed on the cutting process of circular cross-section rods where the fracture is used to separate one rod into two pieces. Incorporating the phenomenological ductile fracture model into the explicit formulation of finite element method, the process can be analyzed without the necessity of realizing too many real experiments which could be expensive in case of repetitive testing in different conditions. In the present paper, the steel AISI 1045 was examined and the tensile tests of smooth and notched cylindrical bars were conducted together with biaxial testing of the notched tube specimens to calibrate material constants of selected phenomenological ductile fracture models. These were implemented into the Abaqus/Explicit through user subroutine VUMAT and used for cutting process simulation. As the calibration process is based on variables which cannot be obtained directly from experiments, numerical simulations of fracture tests are inevitable part of the calibration. Finally, experiments regarding the cutting process were carried out and predictive capability of selected fracture models is discussed. Concluding remarks then make the summary of gained experience both with the calibration and application of particular ductile fracture criteria.

Keywords: ductile fracture, phenomenological criteria, cutting process, explicit formulation, AISI 1045 steel

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21717 Interactions within the School Setting and Their Potential Impact on the Wellbeing or Educational Success of High Ability Students: A Literature Review

Authors: Susan Burkett-McKee, Bruce Knight, Michelle Vanderburg


The wellbeing and educational success of high ability students are interrelated concepts with each potentially hindering or enhancing the other. A student’s well-being and educational success are also influenced by intrapersonal and interpersonal factors. This presentation begins with an exploration of the literature pertinent to the wellbeing and educational success of this cohort before an ecological perspective is taken to discuss research into the impact of interactions within the school context. While the literature consistently states that interactions exchanged between high ability students and school community members impact the students’ wellbeing or educational success, no consensus has been reached about whether the impact is positive or negative. Findings from the review shared in this presentation inform an interpretative phenomenological study involving senior secondary students enrolled in inclusive Australian schools to highlight, from the students’ perspective, the ways school-based interactions impact their wellbeing or educational success.

Keywords: educational success, interactions, literature review, wellbeing

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21716 Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of One Dimensional Shape Memory Alloy Constitutive Models

Authors: A. B. M. Rezaul Islam, Ernur Karadogan


Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are known for their shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity behavior. Their thermomechanical behaviors are modeled by numerous researchers using microscopic thermodynamic and macroscopic phenomenological point of view. Tanaka, Liang-Rogers and Ivshin-Pence models are some of the most popular SMA macroscopic phenomenological constitutive models. They describe SMA behavior in terms of stress, strain and temperature. These models involve material parameters and they have associated uncertainty present in them. At different operating temperatures, the uncertainty propagates to the output when the material is subjected to loading followed by unloading. The propagation of uncertainty while utilizing these models in real-life application can result in performance discrepancies or failure at extreme conditions. To resolve this, we used probabilistic approach to perform the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of Tanaka, Liang-Rogers, and Ivshin-Pence models. Sobol and extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (eFAST) methods have been used to perform the sensitivity analysis for simulated isothermal loading/unloading at various operating temperatures. As per the results, it is evident that the models vary due to the change in operating temperature and loading condition. The average and stress-dependent sensitivity indices present the most significant parameters at several temperatures. This work highlights the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis results and shows comparison of them at different temperatures and loading conditions for all these models. The analysis presented will aid in designing engineering applications by eliminating the probability of model failure due to the uncertainty in the input parameters. Thus, it is recommended to have a proper understanding of sensitive parameters and the uncertainty propagation at several operating temperatures and loading conditions as per Tanaka, Liang-Rogers, and Ivshin-Pence model.

Keywords: constitutive models, FAST sensitivity analysis, sensitivity analysis, sobol, shape memory alloy, uncertainty analysis

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21715 Reorientation Orphanage in Muhammadiyah as Strength Effort for Islamic-Based Human Services Organization: Phenomenology Study on Muhammadiyah Orphanages in Malang Raya

Authors: Fauzik Lendriyono, Isbandi Rukminto Adi


Muhammadiyah is an Islamic-based organization taking care to human suffering. The existence of Muhammadiyah organization is strong supported by its members. Muhammadiyah as the oldest Islamic organization in Indonesia, since its establishment has had main activities, such as in the fields of education, health, and social services, one of the form is Orphanage. However, at present, Muhammadiyah orphanage was in a dilemma because of differences in orientation and commitment of the caretaker-managers. This research on Muhammadiyah orphanage is very important because it is able to know the problem identification and to find the ideal concept for the better management of an orphanage in Muhammadiyah. This research is a phenomenology study by research subjects: caretaker of the orphanage in Muhammadiyah at Great Malang. The research data was obtained after the observation, in-depth interviews, review of documentation and the discussion focused. Data were analyzed with interpretative phenomenological analysis. Basic problems for causes of differences in orientation and commitment administrators of Muhammadiyah orphanage is the influence of organizational culture and organizational environment factors. Organizational culture factors include the Islamic-based value and organization ideology, so that the Islamic values and the values of Muhammadiyah are used as guidelines in the orphanage. Environmental factors include the demand for its organization sustainability as characterized by economically productive activities organized by Orphanage and a program to produce a cadre of Muhammadiyah. To support the social welfare of Muhammadiyah, the ideal Orphanage concept for Muhammadiyah is a missionary and self-sufficient orphanage.

Keywords: orphanage, Muhammadiyah, misionary, Great Malang

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21714 Siblings of People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Influence of Culture on Their Identity and Quality of Life

Authors: Olga Muries-Cantan, Alice Schippers, Climent Gine, Noelle van den Heuvel


A systematic review of the literature about the quality of life perceptions of siblings of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) has shown differences and similarities among siblings’ perceptions around the world. Some of these differences might be explained by the influence of cultural and religious backgrounds on siblings’ quality of life through values, beliefs, and perceptions of ‘normalcy’ and stigma. The main goal of the multiple case study that we present, is to explore the quality of life perceptions of two adolescent siblings of individuals with ID/DD in order to identify the role cultural influence has played in their perceptions of quality of life. Two siblings from different European regions will participate in the study: one from a Southern European country (Spain) and the other one from a Western European country (The Netherlands). Taking a cross-cultural perspective, concepts such as values, cultural beliefs regarding disability, expectations, identity, supports, desires, and sibling relationships, will be discussed in a semi-structured interview with each sibling. Data will be analysed following an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). It is expected that findings will show the particularities of the experience of having a brother or a sister with ID/DD and the singular influence of the culture on siblings’ perceptions of quality of life. The results of this study will help to spread awareness around the necessity that researchers, practitioners, and policymakers take into account the cultural background of the individuals in order to provide them with better services and support. In this line, more culturally situated research is required to enlarge the knowledge in this field.

Keywords: culture, intellectual disability, quality of life, siblings

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