Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1828

Search results for: living with HIV

1828 The Impact of a Living Wage on the UK Hotel Sector

Authors: Andreas Walmsley, Shobana Partington, Rebecca Armstrong, Harold Goodwin

Abstract:

In the UK, more than 1 in 5 workers earn less than a living wage. The hospitality sector is particularly affected where it has been claimed two thirds of workers earn less than the living wage. The UK Government is set to introduce (April 2016) a national living wage (NLW) which is therefore likely to have a significant impact on the hospitality sector. To date limited data exists that focus on how hotels are tackling the issue, what stakeholder perceptions are towards the change in legislation, and how the NLW may affect working patterns in the sector. This study draws on interviews with a range of key stakeholders such as hotel HR and general managers as well as industry representatives to explore these issues within the broader context of responsible tourism. Data collection is still ongoing and is scheduled to be completed by the end of June 2016.

Keywords: hospitality, living wage, responsible tourism, tourism employment

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1827 Marital Status and Happiness among Employed People in Thailand

Authors: Sirinan Kittisuksathit, Wannee Hutaphat

Abstract:

This paper investigates employed people in relation to family happiness, work-life balance, and individual happiness. The employed people in this study are categorized by their marital statuses namely, single, married and living together, married and living apart, cohabitation, and divorced. The 13,906 sample of employed people collected in 2015 by using the Self-Administered Questionnaire. The analysis utilizes ANOVA to analyze the differences between group means and their associated procedures. The findings show that two types of employed people are more likely to obtain the highest average happiness scores: married and living together, and cohabitation. The two groups are subsequently followed by single employed people, and divorced employed people. The lowest average happiness scores were achieved by employed people who are married and living apart.

Keywords: employed people, happiness, marital status, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
1826 Abnormality Detection of Persons Living Alone Using Daily Life Patterns Obtained from Sensors

Authors: Ippei Kamihira, Takashi Nakajima, Taiyo Matsumura, Hikaru Miura, Takashi Ono

Abstract:

In this research, the goal was construction of a system by which multiple sensors were used to observe the daily life behavior of persons living alone (while respecting their privacy). Using this information to judge such conditions as a bad physical condition or falling in the home, etc., so that these abnormal conditions can be made known to relatives and third parties. The daily life patterns of persons living alone are expressed by the number of responses of sensors each time that a set time period has elapsed. By comparing data for the prior two weeks, it was possible to judge a situation as 'normal' when the person was in a good physical condition or as 'abnormal' when the person was in a bad physical condition.

Keywords: sensors, elderly living alone, abnormality detection, iifestyle habit

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1825 Social Perspectives on Population of People Living Postively; An Indian Scenario, Evidence from Tiruchirappalli

Authors: Uwonkunda Jeanne, J. Godwin Prem Singh, Anjaneyalu Subbiah

Abstract:

HIV/AIDS is known to affect an individual not only physically but also mentally, socially, and financially. It is a syndrome that builds a vacuum in a person affecting his/her life as a whole.

Keywords: People living with HIV, social dysfunction, stigma, and Social support.

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1824 A Study on the Cultural Landscape of the Living Environment of Hoklo-Hakka: Case Study of Dacun

Authors: Meng-Li Lin, Shang-Hsuan Chiu

Abstract:

Taiwan is a country of diverse ethnic groups, the historical background of each ethnic group is different, and the conflict between them influence on each other, result in Taiwan's multi-culture. The Changhua County in Taiwan is the largest county of Hoklo-Hakka. Hakka people get along with Hoklo people for a long time. There are integration and conflict during that time and makes Hakka people gradually assimilated Hoklo-Hakka people. Today in Changhua Plain area, many Hoklo-Hakka people do not speak Hakka language. Therefore, it has been difficult to find information of Hakka from the Hakka language in the group of Hoklo-Hakka. But in the living space or culture to find relevant historical traces of life could be confirmed in Hakka Culture. In this paper, through the investigation of descent, life field, religion, language and other investigations of the Dacun, Changhua County residents to carry out the analysis of the process of assimilating Hoklo in living cultural landscape. First is through the local literature, the elderly and other oral history stories, to investigate the changes in Dacun field historical. Second, the comparison of collected traditional Hakka culture and the living cultural landscape of Hoklo-Haka are done to explore the differences between the living cultural landscape and the traditional Hakka culture. After analysis Hoklo-Hakka living cultural landscape, the significant differences, we proposed preservation strategy to provide recommendations to save the cultural life of Hoklo-Hakka landscape in future. Changhua Dacun traditional Hakka landscape is disappearing, in this study, we explore and investigate the data of Changhua Dacun Hoklo-Hakka living cultural landscape to analyze and to provide strategic advice to save. Here we have three study purposes. 1. Discuss the Hoklo-Hakka living cultural landscape of Changhua Dacun. 2. Investigate and record the Hoklo-Hakka living cultural landscape. 3. Propose a reserve strategy of the Hoklo-Hakka living cultural landscape in future.

Keywords: Hoklo-Hakka, Dacun, save policy, life Culture

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1823 Living Arrangement of Elderly in India: An Exploration from BKPAI Study

Authors: Jitendra Gouda, Chander Shekhar

Abstract:

With the addition of 27 million elderly in India in past census decade from 2001 to 2011, it is imperative to work towards exploring the issues and concerns of this increasingly aged population. In Indian society, the elderly person is assumed to be looked after by the family members, especially by children but with changing economy, society, and lifestyle, this assumption demands examining. This paper is an attempt to explore the living arrangement of the elderly and their perceptions about this in India. The findings are based on the BKPAI dataset of 2011, which was conducted in seven states – Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal. The result shows that three fourth of elderly lives with their children. Having son and staying with children is positively associated among elderly. More than 40 percent as compared to 37 percent of elderly feels comfortable living with sons and daughters respectively. Half of elderly across sexes viewed that sons are the best person to live with. The result of discriminant analysis suggest that health status and living arrangement of elderly are the good discriminators to ensure their importance in the family.

Keywords: discriminant analysis, elderly, India, living arrangment

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1822 Communal Shipping Container Home Design for Reducing Homelessness in Glasgow

Authors: Matthew Brady

Abstract:

Lack of affordable housing for individuals has the potential to create gaps in society, which result in thousands of people facing homelessness every year in some of the worlds most affluent cities. This paper examines strategies for providing a more economic living environment for single occupants. Focusing on comparisons of successful examples reducing homeless populations around the world, with an emphasis on social inclusion and community living. Practically exploring the architectural considerations of ensuring a suitable living environment for multiple single occupancy residents, as well as selecting the appropriate materials to ensure costs are kept to manageable level for investment from local governments. The aim of this paper is to make some practical recommendations for low cost communal living space, with particular reference to recycled shipping container homes on a potential unused site on the River Clyde in Glasgow. Ideally, the suggestions and recommendations put forward in this paper can be replicable or used for reference in other similar situations. The proposal explored in this paper is sensitive towards addressing people's standard of living and adapting homes to match may be one solution to reducing the number of people being evicted from unaffordable homes as the generally upward global trend for urbanization continues.

Keywords: affordable housing, community living, shipping container, urban regeneration

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1821 Self-reported Acute Pesticide Intoxication in Ethiopia

Authors: Amare Nigatu, Mågne Bratveit, Bente E. Moen

Abstract:

Background: Pesticide exposure is an important public health concern in Ethiopia, but there is limited information on pesticide intoxications. Residents may have an increased risk of pesticide exposure through proximity of their homes to farms using pesticides. Also the pesticide exposure might be related to employment at these farms. This study investigated the prevalence of acute pesticide intoxications (API) by residence proximity to a nearby flower farm and assessed if intoxications are related to working there or not. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 516 persons was conducted. Participants were grouped according to their residence proximity from a large flower farm; living within 5 kilometers and 5-12 kilometers away, respectively. In a structured interview, participants were asked if they had health symptoms within 48 hours of pesticide exposure in the past year. Those, who had experienced this and reported two or more typical pesticide intoxication symptoms, were considered as having had API. Chi-square and independent t-tests were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Confounding variables were adjusted by using binomial regression model. Results: The prevalence of API in the past year among the residents in the study area was 26%, and it was higher in the population living close to the flower farm (42%) compared to those living far away (11%), prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.2, 95% CI: 2.2-4.8, adjusted for age, gender & education. A subgroup living close to the farm & working there had significantly more API (56%) than those living close & did not work there (16%), adjusted PR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8-4.9. Flower farm workers reported more API (56%) than those not working there (13%,), adjusted PR = 4.0, 95% CI: 2.9-5.6. Conclusion: The residents living closer than 5 kilometers to the flower farm reported significantly higher prevalence of API than those living 5-12 kilometers away. This increased risk of API was associated with work at the flower farm.

Keywords: acute pesticide intoxications, self-reported symptoms, flower farm workers, living proximity

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1820 Urbanization and Built Environment: Impacts of Squatter Slums on Degeneration of Urban Built Environment, a Case Study of Karachi

Authors: Mansoor Imam, Amber Afshan, Sumbul Mujeeb, Kamran Gill

Abstract:

An investigative approach has been made to study the quality of living prevailing in the squatter slums of Karachi city that is influencing the urbanization trends and environmental degeneration of built environment. The paper identifies the issues and aspects that have directly and indirectly impacted the degeneration owing to inadequate basic infrastructural amenities, substandard housing, overcrowding, poor ventilation in homes and workplaces, and noncompliance with building bye-laws and regulations, etc. Primarily, secondary data has been critically examined and analyzed which was however not limited to census data, demographic / socioeconomic data, official documents and other relevant secondary data were obtained from existing literature and GIS. It is observed that the poor and sub-standard housing / living quality have serious adverse impacts on the environment and the health of city residents. Hence strategies for improving the quality of built environment for sustainable living are mandated. It is, therefore, imperative to check and prevent further degradation and promote harmonious living and sustainable urbanization.

Keywords: squatter slums, urbanization, degenerations, living quality, built environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
1819 Taxonomic Classification for Living Organisms Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Saed Khawaldeh, Mohamed Elsharnouby, Alaa Eddin Alchalabi, Usama Pervaiz, Tajwar Aleef, Vu Hoang Minh

Abstract:

Taxonomic classification has a wide-range of applications such as finding out more about the evolutionary history of organisms that can be done by making a comparison between species living now and species that lived in the past. This comparison can be made using different kinds of extracted species’ data which include DNA sequences. Compared to the estimated number of the organisms that nature harbours, humanity does not have a thorough comprehension of which specific species they all belong to, in spite of the significant development of science and scientific knowledge over many years. One of the methods that can be applied to extract information out of the study of organisms in this regard is to use the DNA sequence of a living organism as a marker, thus making it available to classify it into a taxonomy. The classification of living organisms can be done in many machine learning techniques including Neural Networks (NNs). In this study, DNA sequences classification is performed using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) which is a special type of NNs.

Keywords: deep networks, convolutional neural networks, taxonomic classification, DNA sequences classification

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1818 The Effect of Outliers on the Economic and Social Survey on Income and Living Conditions

Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda, Juan F. Muñoz

Abstract:

The European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) is a popular survey which provides information on income, poverty, social exclusion and living conditions of households and individuals in the European Union. The EUSILC contains variables which may contain outliers. The presence of outliers can have an impact on the measures and indicators used by the EU-SILC. In this paper, we used data sets from various countries to analyze the presence of outliers. In addition, we obtain some indicators after removing these outliers, and a comparison between both situations can be observed. Finally, some conclusions are obtained.

Keywords: poverty line, headcount index, risk of poverty, skewness coefficient

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1817 The Effects of Big 6+6 Skill Training on Daily Living Skills for an Adolescent with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Luca Vascelli, Silvia Iacomini, Giada Gueli, Francesca Cavallini, Carlo Cavallini, Federica Berardo

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of training on Big 6 + 6 motor skills to promote daily living skills. Precision teaching (PT) suggests that improved speed of the component behaviors can lead to better performance of composite skills. This study assessed the effects of the repeated timed practice of component motor skills on speed and accuracy of composite skills related to daily living skills. An 18 years old adolescent with intellectual disability participated. A pre post probe single-subject design was used. The results suggest that the participant was able to perform the component skills at his individual aims (endurance was assessed). The speed and accuracy of composite skills were increased; stability and retention were also measured for the composite skill after the training.

Keywords: big 6+6, daily living skills, intellectual disability, precision teaching

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1816 A Social Care Intervention for Improving the Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana

Authors: Tina Abrefa-Gyan

Abstract:

Background: In Ghana and the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is a public health threat and also causes medical crises for many who are infected with the virus. Objective: This study tested a social care intervention developed to help improve the quality of life of those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Method: Adult respondents (N = 248) were assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for six weeks. Results: Results of the study revealed significant differences between the treatment and control groups in their reports of quality of life. Respondents reported better quality of life upon receiving the intervention. Implication: This study sheds light on the positive relationship between the intervention and quality of life among those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Conclusion: The intervention is innovative and novel in the setting. It will, therefore, help to reduce the risks such as depression, low cognitive functioning, and low physical functioning associated with low quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana in specific, and in sub-Saharan Africa in general.

Keywords: social care intervention, HIV/AIDS, Ghana, quality of life

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1815 People Living with HIV/AIDS: In the Face of Social Stigma and the Role of Therapeutic Communication

Authors: Semiu Bello

Abstract:

Since the discovery of HIV/AIDS in 1981, it has been a major global challenge and its ravaging consequences have had negative imprints on both the affected and infected people. The challenge of HIV/AIDS does not only affect the developing countries of the world, the developed nations have had their share of the experiences. The disease has, therefore, attracted the attentions of national governments and international donor agencies with huge financial investments toward the eradication of the virus and its global menace. Socially, however, people living with HIV/AIDS have had to battle with an array of social challenges in regards to the infection; the social stigmas, which seem to be more prevalent in underdeveloped and developing societies. The social stigmas with which people living with HIV/AIDS have suffered from include, but not limited, to social isolation, group avoidance, loss of jobs, public ridicule and non-appointment to official and government positions. Given this background, this study examines the roles of therapeutic communication otherwise called patient-provider communication within a clinical environment, focusing on Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH) Sagamu, Nigeria as a case study. In other words, this study will investigate the level of interpersonal communication, interactions, and relationships that often take place between people living with HIV/AIDS and health care providers including doctors, nurses and social workers. This study will methodologically adopt the in-depth interview to interview six members of people living with HIV/AIDS at OOUTH. The dimensions of the data will determine the policy prescriptions of this study, which as envisage, may contribute to the improved use of therapeutic communication by health care providers and may thereof improve the psychology of people living with HIV/AIDS in the face of any social stigma.

Keywords: health care providers, people living with HIV/AIDS, social stigma, therapeutic communication

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1814 Green Walls and Living Facades: The Portuguese Experience

Authors: Andreia Cortes, Carla Pimentel-Rodrigues, Joao Almeida, Myriam Kanoun-Boule, Carla Carvalho, Antonio Tadeu, Armando Silva-Afonso

Abstract:

The adoption of green infrastructure is nowadays encouraged as an essential measure of urban planning and territorial development whenever it offers a better alternative, or is complementary, to current solutions. Green walls and living facades often provide healthy alternatives to traditional grey infrastructures, offering many benefits for both citizens and cities. Beyond the ability to improve environmental conditions and quality of life, they can augment the energy efficiency of buildings, enhance biodiversity and deliver a range of ecosystem services such as water purification, reduction of the urban heat island effect, improvement of air quality and climate change adaptation. For this communication, a systematic survey of the existing green walls and living facades in Portugal was carried out. Different systems were analyzed and compared in terms of dimensions, constructive solutions, vegetative species, maintenance necessities and environmental aspects.

Keywords: green buildings, green walls, living facades, sustainability construction

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1813 The Study of Self-Care Regarding to the Valuable Living in Thai Elderly

Authors: Pannathorn Chachvarat, Smarnjit Piromrun

Abstract:

Aging is the reality for the future world. An urgent priority for the development of the elderlies’ quality living is needed. The promotion of quality the elderly to live longer in their dignity and being independence are essential. The objective of this descriptive research was to study the self-care regarding to the valuable living in Thai elderly. The randomized sample was 100 elderly who live in Muang district of Phayao province. The tools included 2 parts; 1) Personal data (gender, age, income, occupation, marital status, living condition and disease), and 2) the self-care regarding to the valuable living questionnaire consisted of 3 domains, physical (21items), spiritual (13 items) and social domain (12 items). The content validity tool was tested the IOC ranged between 0.60 – 1.00 and the reliability test, Cronbach Alpha was 0.82. The research found that; The most participants were female (60 %), Farmer (37%), and underlying disease (65 %). The range of age was 68 years. Overall of the self-care regarding to the valuable living of physical, spiritual and social were at the high level.The highest level of physical activities was self-taking bath twice a day (morning and evening), and slept at least 5-6 hours at night time.The highest level of spirit activities was a good member of the family, contributions to persons in family, good emotion. Additionally were enjoyable, accepting changes in the body such as the dry skin and the blurred vision, accepting the roles and duties in taking care of house and grandchildren, selecting the applicable activities and practice according to religious Buddhateachingfor the happiness and meditated life.The highest of the social activities were the good relationship between other elderlies and family members, happy to help social activities as of their capacity, and being happy to help other people who have problems.

Keywords: self-care, valuable living, elderly, Thai

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1812 Role of Biotechnology on Pharmaceutical Inventions: An Analysis

Authors: E. Prema

Abstract:

Biotechnology is a study relating to the practical application of living beings in different fields. Generally, it is a study with regard to living organisms in the industrial utilization. It is the technology, which uses living organisms or its parts for specific commercial use. Modification and application of living beings for different practical purposes is possible through biotechnology. Furthermore, today biotechnology is being used in different fields for better results. It is worthwhile to note here that biotechnology is one of the most innovative and intensive industries. It has used the genetically based characteristics in microorganisms, plants and animals to create drugs and to develop drug therapies, which may prevent, cure or alleviate disease and their symptoms. Drugs are basically chemicals and while patenting drugs, the conditions of patentability of chemicals and the types that can be patented are equally applicable to drugs also. Nowadays, the role of biotechnology for manufacturing drugs has assumed much importance because of intellectual property rights. By way using biotechnology, most of the pharmaceutical inventions are getting protection for the period of 20 years as per the Patents Act, 1970 as amended in 2005. There is no doubt that biotechnology is serving the public at large with regard manufacturing drugs and helping the needy people on time.

Keywords: biotechnology, drugs, intellectual property rights, patents

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1811 An Application of Self-Health Risk Assessment among Populations Living in The Vicinity of a Fiber-Cement Roofing Factory

Authors: Phayong Thepaksorn

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to assess whether living in proximity to a roofing fiber cement factory in southern Thailand was associated with physical, mental, social, and spiritual health domains measured in a self-reported health risk assessment (HRA) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted among community members divided into two groups: near population (living within 0-2 km of factory) and far population (living within 2-5 km of factory)(N=198). A greater proportion of those living far from the factory (65.34%) reported physical health problems than the near group (51.04 %)(p=0.032). This study has demonstrated that the near population group had higher proportion of participants with positive ratings on mental assessment (30.34%) and social health impacts (28.42%) than far population group (10.59% and 16.67 %, respectively) (p<0.001). The near population group (29.79%) had similar proportion of participants with positive ratings in spiritual health impacts compared with far population group (27.08%). Among females, but not males, this study demonstrated that a higher proportion of the near population had a positive summative score for the self-HRA, which included all four health domain, compared to the far population (p <0.001 for females; p=0.154 for males). In conclusion, this self-HRA of physical, mental, social, and spiritual health domains reflected the risk perceptions of populations living in the vicinity of the roofing fiber cement factory. This type of tool can bring attention to population concerns and complaints in the factory’s surrounding community. Our findings may contribute to future development of self-HRA for HIA development procedure in Thailand.

Keywords: cement dust, health impact assessment, risk assessment, walk-though survey

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1810 Living Wall Systems: An Approach for Reducing Energy Consumption in Curtain Wall Façades

Authors: Salma Maher, Ahmed Elseragy, Sally Eldeeb

Abstract:

Nowadays, Urbanism and climate change lead to the rapid growth in energy consumption and the increase of using air-conditioning for cooling. In a hot climate area, there is a need for a new sustainable alternative that is more convenient for an existing situation. The Building envelope controls the heat transfer between the outside and inside the building. While the building façade is the most critical part, types of façade material play a vital role in influences of the energy demand for heating and cooling due to exposure to direct solar radiation throughout the day. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the use of curtain walls in office buildings façades started to increase rapidly, which lead to more cooling loads in energy consumption. Integrating the living wall system in urban areas as a sustainable renovation and energy-saving method for the built environment will reduce the energy demand of buildings and will also provide environmental benefits. Also, it will balance the urban ecology and enhance urban life quality. The results show that the living wall systems reduce the internal temperature up to 4.0 °C. This research carries on an analytical study by highlighting the different types of living wall systems and verifying their thermal performance, energy-saving, and life potential on the building. These assessing criteria include the reason for using the Living wall systems in the building façade as well as the effect it has upon the surrounding environment. Finally, the paper ends with concluding the effect of using living wall systems on building. And, it suggests a system as long-lasting, and energy-efficient solution to be applied in curtain wall façades in a hot climate area.

Keywords: living wall systems, energy consumption, curtain walls, energy-saving, sustainability, urban life quality

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1809 Family Planning Use among Women Living with HIV in Malawi: Analysis from Malawi DHS-2010 Data

Authors: Dereje Habte, Jane Namasasu

Abstract:

Background: The aim of the analysis was to assess the practice of family planning (FP) among HIV-infected women and the influence of women’s awareness of HIV-positive status in the practice of FP. Methods: The analysis was made among 489 non-pregnant, sexually active, fecund women living with HIV. Result: Of the 489 confirmed HIV positive women, 184 (37.6%) reported that they knew they are HIV positive. The number of women with current use and unmet need of any family planning method were found to be 251 (51.2%) and 107 (21.9%) respectively. Women’s knowledge of HIV-positive status (AOR: 2.32(1.54,3.50)), secondary and above education (AOR: 2.36(1.16,4.78)), presence of 3-4 (AOR: 2.60(1.08,6.28)) and more than four alive children (AOR: 3.03(1.18,7.82)) were significantly associated with current use of family planning. Conclusion: Women’s awareness of HIV-positive status was found to significantly predict family planning practice among women living with HIV.

Keywords: family planning, HIV, Malawi, women

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1808 A Phenomenological Inquiry on the Spirituality of Young Filipino Gay Men Living with HIV

Authors: Dela Cruz Abraham, Bachoco Janine

Abstract:

Spirituality plays a central role among patients dealing with HIV mostly on the LGBT community in the world today particularly in the Philippines. This study seeks to contribute to the growing body of knowledge in LGBT psychology particularly on gay men living with HIV and their spiritual aspect. In line with this, the researchers aim to describe (1) how young Filipino gay men relate their experiences as an HIV-positive in relations to their self and significant others (partners, family, friends and community); (2) how young Filipino gay men make sense of their experiences as an HIV-positive, in connection to God, this also includes their meaning making and purpose of their life experiences. To recruit participants, the researchers will employ purposive sampling using snowball technique, and conduct a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcriptions of the participant will be analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Keywords: interpretative phenomenological analysis, living with HIV, spirituality, young Filipino gay men

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1807 Elderly Home Care the Need of an Hour In India

Authors: Varsha Reddy Jayar

Abstract:

Background: Our elderly family members deserve our best care. It's our responsibility to ensure they're healthy and safe. The population of India is increasing rapidly. People are literally being born in the streets, and there is a high growth on taxes and healthcare costs. Indian families are challenged with taking care of everyone. When you have elderly parents and a demanding job, it can be difficult to take care of them. You might not have enough time to care for them when you're already working or dealing with emotional difficulties. Living alone in old age can cause older individuals to face many health risks. Many seniors find living and caring for themselves challenging when they live by themselves. This study explored the factors that affect whether or not elderly people choose to live in old age homes. Methods: This study was carried out on 123 elderly people living in different old age homes in Karnataka, India. The reason for their residence at the home was explored using an interview. Results: It was found that the most common reason for living in an old age home is due to abuse from children and grandchildren; the majority reported were Daughter in law issues in the family specific to the adjustment and understanding amongst them. Conclusion: More and more elderly people in India are choosing to stay in old age homes as they get older. The government and voluntary agencies must have some sort of arrangements for institutional support.

Keywords: old age home, elderly, Aging, challenges of aging

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1806 Existential Suffering in the Daily Lives of Those Living with Palliative Care Needs Arising from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Authors: Louise Elizabeth Bolton

Abstract:

Statement of the problem: There are an estimated 328 million cases of COPD worldwide. It is likely to become the third biggest cause of death by 2030. The impact of living with palliative care needs arising from COPD disrupts an individual’s existential situation. Understandings of individuals' existential situations within COPD are limited within the research literature and are rarely addressed within clinical practice, yet existential suffering has been linked to poor health-related quality of life for those living with other chronic conditions. The purpose of this integrative review is to provide a synthesis of existing evidence on existential suffering for those living with palliative care needs arising from COPD. Methods: This is an integrative review undertaken in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Nine electronic databases were searched from April 2019 to January 2021. Thirty-five empirical research papers of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, alongside systematic literature reviews, were included. Data analysis was undertaken using an integrative thematic analysis approach. Findings: Identified themes of existential suffering when living with palliative care needs arising from COPD are as follows: Liminality, Lamented Life, Loss of Personal Liberty, Life Meaning and Existential isolation. The absence of life meaning and purpose was of most importance to patients. Conclusion and Significance: This integrative review provides a synthesis of international evidence upon the presence of existential suffering. It is present and of significant impact within the daily lives of those living with palliative care needs arising from COPD. The absence of life meaning has the most significant impact, requiring further exploration of both its physical and psychological impact. Rediscovery of life meaning diminishes feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness in daily life and facilitates feelings of inner peace. For those with COPD living with such a relentless symptom burden, a positive existential situation is desirable.

Keywords: palliative care, COPD, existential suffering, end of life care

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1805 The Influence of Having Sons or Daughters on Rural Mothers Life Quality after Birth: A Sample from Hebei Province in China

Authors: Jin Liang, Q. Li, Yue Qi, Liying Wang, Wenhua Yu, Xun Liu

Abstract:

Fertility is very important for women. The gender role of women gives them the fertility ability. Giving birth to a boy or a girl might have effect on the mother’s life in the past in China. However, with the shifting of traditional attitudes and views, the women's social status and living situation have been transformed. Although the pregnancy and childbirth can still bring them a major impact on their lives, the form and content of the impact have changed. So we investigated the rural women of Hebei province after birth to reflect their living situation changes before and after birth and the differences of their living situation from women in the past by using a self-made rural women life situation change questionnaire, the index of well-being, and the index of general effect questionnaire. It has shown that women’s living situation after babybirth in Hebei province is well in general, and their mind and body, as well as their interpersonal relationships and social status, were all enhanced. The women’s living situation after babybirth was positively related to and could anticipate subjective happiness, and specifically, the rural women’s mind and body, their interpersonal relationship and social status in rural women life situation change questionnaire are the main predicted factors to subjective happiness. Furthermore, the women’s self-identification on female roles was influenced by the children’s gender. Specifically, women with only one daughter had highest self-identification on female roles, consisting with their families' concept about children’s gender, which indicated family values have a great effect on women’s self-identification on female roles in rural. Moreover, the women’s living situation and subjective happiness are both impacted by home incomes.

Keywords: rural women, parturition, well-being, life quality

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1804 Tetracycline as Chemosensor for Simultaneous Recognition of Al³⁺: Application to Bio-Imaging for Living Cells

Authors: Jesus Alfredo Ortega Granados, Pandiyan Thangarasu

Abstract:

Antibiotic tetracycline presents as a micro-contaminant in fresh water, wastewater and soils, causing environmental and health problems. In this work, tetracycline (TC) has been employed as chemo-sensor for the recognition of Al³⁺ without interring other ions, and the results show that it enhances the fluorescence intensity for Al³⁺ and there is no interference from other coexisting cation ions (Cd²⁺, Ni²⁺, Co²⁺, Sr²⁺, Mg²⁺, Fe³⁺, K⁺, Sm³⁺, Ag⁺, Na⁺, Ba²⁺, Zn²⁺, and Mn²⁺). For the addition of Cu²⁺ to [TET-Al³⁺], it appears that the intensity of fluorescence has been quenched. Other combinations of metal ions in addition to TC do not change the fluorescence behavior. The stoichiometry determined by Job´s plot for the interaction of TC with Al³⁺ was found to be 1:1. Importantly, the detection of Al³⁺⁺ successfully employed in the real samples like living cells, and it was found that TC efficiently performs as a fluorescent probe for Al³⁺ ion in living systems, especially in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; this is confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Keywords: chemo-sensor, recognition of Al³⁺ ion, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tetracycline,

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1803 Exploring Challenges Faced by People Living with HIV/AIDS After Disclosure in Sub-Saharan Countries

Authors: Veliswa Nonfundo Hoho, Jabulani Gilford Kheswa

Abstract:

HIV/AIDS has been a long-term condition worldwide, which does not only affect physical health but also causes psychological and social challenges in people living with this condition. In Sub-Saharan countries, namely; Nigeria, Uganda, Zimbabwe and South Africa, people living with HIV/AIDS come across different challenges especially after one has disclosed his/her status. They experience stigma and discrimination, isolation, lack of accessing and receiving treatment, lack of support and experience psychological distress. By using the evidence-based systematic review as a form of methodology, journal articles, dissertations, internet, and books were explored. This paper seeks to describe the challenges faced by people living with HIV/AIDS after disclosure, which forms a critical component of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment interventions. The disclosure process model is used to underpin the study. This theory allows one to understand when and why interpersonal and verbal self-disclosure is beneficial for individuals who live with concealable stigmatized identities such as HIV/AIDS. Literature findings advocate that both negative and positive results were noted after disclosing one’s HIV status and psychosocial well-being of the majority of people living with HIV/AIDS also get affected especially in societies which subscribe HIV/AIDS pandemic to witchcraft. As for the infected homosexuals, research indicates that they suffer in silence and to cover their emotional emptiness due to ostracism, they often report low- self-efficacy with regard to condom use and become susceptible to reinfections which further place their lives at heightened risk for low immune system. In this regard, this paper challenges the policies which protect the dignity of people living with HIV/AIDS and calls for unity and financial support in favour of psychoeducational programmes and support groups aimed at curbing discrimination.

Keywords: disclosure, discrimination, homosexuality, self-efficacy

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1802 Choice of Landscape Elements for Residents' Quality of Life Living in Apartment Housing: Case Study of Bhopal, India

Authors: Ankita Srivastava, Yogesh K. Garg

Abstract:

Housing provides comforts and well being leading towards the quality of life. Earlier research had established that landscape elements enhance the residents’ quality of life through its significant experiences occur due to their presence in the housing. This paper tries to identify the preference of landscape elements that enhance residents’ quality of life living in the apartment. Hence, landscape elements that can be planned in the open spaces of housing and quality of life components were identified from the secondary data sources. Experts’ were asked to identify the quality of life components with respect to landscape elements. A questionnaire survey of residents’ living in the apartment housing in Bhopal, India was conducted. The statistical analysis of survey data facilitated to explore the preference of landscape elements for the quality of life in the apartment housing. The final ranking compiled from the experts’ opinion, residents’ perception as well as factor analysis results to have an insight of the preference of landscape elements for the quality of life living in the apartment. Preference of landscape elements present in the paper may provide an overview of planning for apartment housing that may be used by architects, planners and developers for enhancing residents’ quality of life.

Keywords: landscape elements, quality of life, residents, housing

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1801 Impact of Lifestyle and User Expectations on the Demand of Compact Living Spaces in the Home Interiors in Indian Cities

Authors: Velly Kapadia, Reenu Singh

Abstract:

This report identifies the long-term driving forces behind urbanization and the impact of compact living on both society and the home and proposes a concept to create smarter and more sustainable homes. Compact living has been trending across India as a sustainable housing solution, and the reality is that India is currently facing a housing shortage in urban areas of around 10 million units. With the rising demand for housing, urban land prices have been rising and the cost of homes. The paper explores how and why the interior design of the homes can be improved to relieve the housing demand in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner. A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine living patterns, area requirements, ecological footprints, energy consumption, purchasing patterns, and various pro-environmental behaviors of people who downsize to compact homes. Quantitative research explores sustainable material choices, durability, functionality, cost, and reusability of furniture. Besides addressing the need for smart and sustainable designed compact homes, a conceptual model is proposed, including options of ideal schematic layouts for homes in urban areas. In the conclusions, suggestions to improve space planning and suitable interior entities have been made to support the fact that compact homes are an eminently practical and sensible solution for the urban citizen.

Keywords: compact living, housing shortage, lifestyle, sustainable interior design

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1800 MRCP as a Pre-Operative Tool for Predicting Variant Biliary Anatomy in Living Related Liver Donors

Authors: Awais Ahmed, Atif Rana, Haseeb Zia, Maham Jahangir, Rashed Nazir, Faisal Dar

Abstract:

Purpose: Biliary complications represent the most common cause of morbidity in living related liver donor transplantation and detailed preoperative evaluation of biliary anatomic variants is crucial for safe patient selection and improved surgical outcomes. Purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of preoperative MRCP in predicting biliary variations when compared to intraoperative cholangiography in living related liver donors. Materials and Methods: From 44 potential donors, 40 consecutive living related liver donors (13 females and 28 males) underwent donor hepatectomy at our centre from April 2012 to August 2013. MRCP and IOC of all patients were retrospectively reviewed separately by two radiologists and a transplant surgeon.MRCP was performed on 1.5 Tesla MR magnets using breath-hold heavily T2 weighted radial slab technique. One patient was excluded due to suboptimal MRCP. The accuracy of MRCP for variant biliary anatomy was calculated. Results: MRCP accurately predicted the biliary anatomy in 38 of 39 cases (97 %). Standard biliary anatomy was predicted by MRCP in 25 (64 %) donors (100% sensitivity). Variant biliary anatomy was noted in 14 (36 %) IOCs of which MRCP predicted precise anatomy of 13 variants (93 % sensitivity). The two most common variations were drainage of the RPSD into the LHD (50%) and the triple confluence of the RASD, RPSD and LHD (21%). Conclusion: MRCP is a sensitive imaging tool for precise pre-operative mapping of biliary variations which is critical to surgical decision making in living related liver transplantation.

Keywords: intraoperative cholangiogram, liver transplantation, living related donors, magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreaticogram (MRCP)

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1799 Efficient Delivery of Biomaterials into Living Organism by Using Noble Metal Nanowire Injector

Authors: Kkochorong Park, Keun Cheon Kim, Hyoban Lee, Eun Ju Lee, Bongsoo Kim

Abstract:

Introduction of biomaterials such as DNA, RNA, proteins is important for many research areas. There are many methods to introduce biomaterials into living organisms like tissue and cells. To introduce biomaterials, several indirect methods including virus‐mediated delivery, chemical reagent (i.e., lipofectamine), electrophoresis have been used. Such methods are passive delivery using an endocytosis process of cell, reducing an efficiency of delivery. Unlike the indirect delivery method, it has been reported that a direct delivery of exogenous biomolecules into nucleus have been more efficient to expression or integration of biomolecules. Nano-sized material is beneficial for detect signal from cell or deliver stimuli/materials into the cell at cellular and molecular levels, due to its similar physical scale. Especially, because 1 dimensional (1D) nanomaterials such as nanotube, nanorod and nanowire with high‐aspect ratio have nanoscale geometry and excellent mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties, they could play an important role in molecular and cellular biology. In this study, by using single crystalline 1D noble metal nanowire, we fabricated nano-sized 1D injector which can successfully interface with living cells and directly deliver biomolecules into several types of cell line (i.e., stem cell, mammalian embryo) without inducing detrimental damages on living cell. This nano-bio technology could be a promising and robust tool for introducing exogenous biomaterials into living organism.

Keywords: DNA, gene delivery, nanoinjector, nanowire

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