Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Amalia Zuhra

30 Redefining Problems and Challenges of Natural Resource Management in Indonesia

Authors: Amalia Zuhra

Abstract:

Indonesia is very rich with its natural resources. Natural resource management becomes a challenge for Indonesia. Improper management will make the natural resources run out and future generations will not be able to enjoy the natural wealth. A good rule of law and proper implementation determines the success of the management of a country's natural resources. This paper examines the need to redefine problems and challenges in the management of natural resources in Indonesia in the context of law. The purpose of this article is to overview the latest issues and challenges in natural resource management and to redefine legal provisions related to environmental management and human rights protection so that the management of natural resources in the present and future will be more sustainable. This paper finds that sustainable management of natural resources is absolutely essential. The aspect of environmental protection and human rights must be elaborated more deeply so that the management of natural resources can be done maximally without harming not only people but also the environment.

Keywords: international environmental law, human rights law, natural resource management, sustainable development

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29 The Role of Online Deliberation on Citizens’ Attitudes

Authors: Amalia Triantafillidoy, Georgios Lappas, Prodromos Yannas, Alexandros Kleftodimos

Abstract:

In this paper an experiment was conducted to assess the impact of online deliberation on citizens’ attitudes. Specifically, this research compared pre and post deliberation opinions of participants who deliberated online via an asynchronous platform regarding the issue of political opinion polls. Results indicate that online deliberation had a positive effect on citizens’ attitudes since it was found that following deliberation participants changed their views regarding public opinion polls. Specifically, online deliberation improved discussants perceptions regarding the reliability of polls, while suppressing their negative views about the misuse of polls by media, polling organizations and politicians.

Keywords: attitudes change, e-democracy, online deliberation, opinion polls

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28 Strategic Environmental Assessment and Climate Change: From European Experiences to Brazilian Needs

Authors: Amália S. Botter Fabbri

Abstract:

This paper proposes the analysis of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in relation to the three pillars of the sustainable development, highlighting its particular importance to combat climate change. Theoretical and practical examples from Europe show how SEA has been implemented under the SEA Directive in the recent years, while the Brazilian case study shows a situation in which no regulation on SEA was implemented, despite the strong demand for it, as revealed by past experiences and future planning needs. In the end, some aspects to the formulation of a SEA Act are suggested, in an attempt to contribute to a better Brazilian environmental governance in relation to the future plans, programmes and policies required to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions.

Keywords: Brazil, climate change, Europe, strategic environmental assessment

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27 A Cloud-Based Mobile Auditing Tools for Muslim-Friendly Hospitality Services

Authors: Mohd Iskandar Illyas Tan, Zuhra Junaida Mohamad Husny, Farawahida Mohd Yusof

Abstract:

The potentials of Muslim-friendly hospitality services bring huge opportunities to operators (hoteliers, tourist guides, and travel agents), especially among the Muslim countries. In order to provide guidelines that facilitate the operations among these operators, standards and manuals have been developing by the authorities. Among the challenges is the applicability and complexity of the standard to be adopted in the real world. Mobile digital technology can be implemented to overcome those challenges. A prototype has been developed to help operators and authorities to assess their readiness in complying with MS2610:2015. This study analyzes the of mobile digital technology characteristics that are suitable for the user in conducting sharia’ compliant hospitality audit. A focus group study was conducted in the state of Penang, Malaysia that involves operators (hoteliers, tourist guide, and travel agents) as well as agencies (Islamic Tourism Center, Penang Islamic Affairs Department, Malaysian Standard) that involved directly in the implementation of the certification. Both groups were given the 3 weeks to test and provide feedback on the usability of the mobile applications in order to conduct an audit on their readiness towards the Muslim-friendly hospitality services standard developed by the Malaysian Standard. The feedbacks were analyzed and the overall results show that three criteria (ease of use, completeness and fast to complete) show the highest responses among both groups for the mobile application. This study provides the evidence that the mobile application development has huge potentials to be implemented by the Muslim-friendly hospitality services operator and agencies.

Keywords: hospitality, innovation, audit, compliance, mobile application

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26 Electrochemical Biosensor for Rutin Detection with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Stephen Rathinaraj Benjamin, Flavio Colmati Junior, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes, Rosa Amalia Fireman Dutra

Abstract:

A new enzymatic electrochemical biosensor based on multiwall carbon nanotubes and cerium oxide nanoparticles for the detection of rutin has been developed. The cerium oxide nanoparticles /HRP/ multiwall carbon nanotubes/ carbon paste electrode (HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE) was prepared by ensuing addition of MWCNTs and HRP on the CPE, followed by the mixing with cerium oxide nanoparticles. Surface physical characteristics of the modified electrode and the electrochemical properties of the composite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cylic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE showed good selectivity, stability and reproducibility, which was further applied to detect rutin tablet and capsule samples with satisfactory results.

Keywords: cerium dioxide nanoparticles, horseradish peroxidase, multiwall carbon nanotubes, rutin

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25 The MSC-MCF-7 Duet Playing Tumor Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis Onto the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane

Authors: Serban Comsa, Amalia-Raluca Ceausu, Roxana Popescu, Simona Sarb, Anca-Maria Cimpean, Marius Raica

Abstract:

Background/Aim: The human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) represent a versatile cell population, able to modulate the tumor microenvironment Our aim was to recreate an open scene for the in vivo interaction between hMSC and the MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7), in order to enlighten the intimate involvement of hMSC in tumor vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Materials and Methods: hMSC and MCF-7 were seeded onto the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and incubated for seven days. Consecutively, the morphology and the immunohistochemical profile of CAM were assessed. Results: Following this complex interaction, MCF-7 acquired a more aggressive phenotype, hMSC switched to a vascular precursor phenotype whileCAM underwent a major reset to an earlier stage, with hotspots of angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and hematopoiesis. Conclusion: The hallmark of this study was the establishment of a veritable in vivo experimental model of MSC involvement in tumor vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, allowing further analysis in the field.

Keywords: angiogenesis, chorioallantoic membrane, MCF-7, mesenchymal stem cells, vasculogenesis

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24 The Effect of Different Composition of Dairy Cattle Feces Briquette on Moisture and Briquette Density

Authors: Dita Aviana Dewi, Heri Muji, Dian Nur Amalia, Nanung Agus Fitriyanto

Abstract:

Utilization of cow feces as a source of alternative energy can be done with turn it as briquettes. Cow feces generate heat around 4000 Cal/g and the methane gas (CH4) are quite high. Methane gas is one of the essential elements in briquettes which serve as the ignition, so that is resulting briquettes combustible. This study aims to know the difference of the composition of the constituents of briquette moisture content and density. Dairy cattle feces used as the main ingredient with additional material from the waste of the agricultural industry in the form of husk. This study was conducted with three treatments, namely T0= feces 1: husk 1, T1= feces 2: husk 1, and T2= feces 3: husk 1. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experimental design used was Complete Random Design Pattern in line with testing of Dunnet. The observed variables are moisture content and density of the briquettes. Results of this study showed an average moisture content of T0 is 31,17%, T1 is 28,14%, and T2 is 49.95%. The average density of briquettes at T0 is 1,0787 g/cm3, T1 is 1,1448 g/cm3, and T2 is 1,1133 g/cm3. Summary of the study is to take the difference of the composition of the feces and the husk do not have significant effects on moisture content and density of briquettes (p < 0.05).

Keywords: dairy cattle feces, briquette, moisture, density

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23 Design and Implementation Guidance System of Guided Rocket RKX-200 Using Optimal Guidance Law

Authors: Amalia Sholihati, Bambang Riyanto Trilaksono

Abstract:

As an island nation, is a necessity for the Republic of Indonesia to have a capable military defense on land, sea or air that the development of military weapons such as rockets for air defense becomes very important. RKX rocket-200 is one of the guided missiles which are developed by consortium Indonesia and coordinated by LAPAN that serve to intercept the target. RKX-200 is designed to have the speed of Mach 0.5-0.9. RKX rocket-200 belongs to the category two-stage rocket that control is carried out on the second stage when the rocket has separated from the booster. The requirement for better performance to intercept missiles with higher maneuverability continues to push optimal guidance law development, which is derived from non-linear equations. This research focused on the design and implementation of a guidance system based OGL on the rocket RKX-200 while considering the limitation of rockets such as aerodynamic rocket and actuator. Guided missile control system has three main parts, namely, guidance system, navigation system and autopilot systems. As for other parts such as navigation systems and other supporting simulated on MATLAB based on the results of previous studies. In addition to using the MATLAB simulation also conducted testing with hardware-based ARM TWR-K60D100M conjunction with a navigation system and nonlinear models in MATLAB using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (HILS).

Keywords: RKX-200, guidance system, optimal guidance law, Hils

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22 Determinant Factor Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment in Asean-6 Countries Period 2004-2012

Authors: Eleonora Sofilda, Ria Amalia, Muhammad Zilal Hamzah

Abstract:

Foreign direct investment is one of the sources of financing or capital that important for a country, especially for developing countries. This investment also provides a great contribution to development through the transfer of assets, management improving, and transfer of technology in enhancing the economy of a country. In the other side currently in ASEAN countries emerge the interesting phenomenon where some big producers are re-locate their basic production among those countries. This research is aimed to analyze the factors that affect capital inflows of foreign direct investment into the 6 ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, and Vietnam) in period 2004-2012. This study uses panel data analysis to determine the factors that affect of foreign direct investment in 6 ASEAN. The factors that affect of foreign direct investment (FDI) are the gross domestic product (GDP), global competitiveness (GCI), interest rate, exchange rate and trade openness (TO). Result of panel data analysis show that three independent variables (GCI, GDP, and TO) have a significant effect to the FDI in 6 ASEAN Countries.

Keywords: foreign direct investment, the gross domestic product, global competitiveness, interest rate, exchange rate, trade openness, panel data analysis

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21 E-Vet Smart Rapid System: Detection of Farm Disease Based on Expert System as Supporting to Epidemic Disesase Control

Authors: Malik Abdul Jabbar Zen, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Azisya Amalia Karimasari, Novita Priandini

Abstract:

Zoonos is as an infectiontransmitted froma nimals to human sand vice versa currently having increased in the last 20 years. The experts/scientists predict that zoonosis will be a threat to the community in the future since it leads on 70% emerging infectious diseases (EID) and the high mortality of 50%-90%. The zoonosis’ spread from animal to human is caused by contaminated food known as foodborne disease. One World One Health, as the conceptual prevention toward zoonosis, requires the crossed disciplines cooperation to accelerate and streamlinethe handling ofanimal-based disease. E-Vet Smart Rapid System is an integrated innovation in the veterinary expertise application is able to facilitate the prevention, treatment, and educationagainst pandemic diseases and zoonosis. This system is constructed by Decision Support System (DSS) method provides a database of knowledge that is expected to facilitate the identification of disease rapidly, precisely, and accurately as well as to identify the deduction. The testingis conducted through a black box test case and questionnaire (N=30) by validity and reliability approach. Based on the black box test case reveals that E-Vet Rapid System is able to deliver the results in accordance with system design, and questionnaire shows that this system is valid (r > 0.361) and has a reliability (α > 0.3610).

Keywords: diagnosis, disease, expert systems, livestock, zoonosis

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20 Yoghurt Kepel Stelechocarpus burahol as an Effort of Functional Food Diversification from Region of Yogyakarta

Authors: Dian Nur Amalia, Rifqi Dhiemas Aji, Tri Septa Wahyuningsih, Endang Wahyuni

Abstract:

Kepel fruit (Stelechocarpus burahol) is a scarce fruit that belongs as a logogram of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Kepel fruit can be used as substance of beauty treatment product, such as deodorant and good for skin health, and also contains antioxidant compound. Otherwise, this fruit is scarcely cultivated by people because of its image as a palace fruit and also the flesh percentage just a little, so it has low economic value. The flesh of kepel fruit is about 49% of its whole fruit. This little part as supporting point why kepel fruit has to be extracted and processed with the other product. Yoghurt is milk processing product that also have a role as functional food. Economically, the price of yoghurt is higher than whole milk or other milk processing product. Yoghurt is usually added with flavor of dye from plant or from chemical substance. Kepel fruit has a role as flavor in yoghurt, besides as product that good for digestion, yoghurt with kepel also has function as “beauty” food. Writing method that used is literature study by looking for the potential of kepel fruit as a local fruit of Yogyakarta and yoghurt as milk processing product. The process just like making common yoghurt because kepel fruit just have a role as flavor substance, so it does not affect to the other processing of yoghurt. Food diversification can be done as an effort to increase the value of local resources that proper to compete in Asean Economic Community (AEC), one of the way is producing kepel yoghurt.

Keywords: kepel, yoghurt, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, functional food

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19 Mothwash Formulation of Moringa Leaf (Moringa Oleifera) and Its Activity as an Antibacterial for Streptococcus Mutans

Authors: Amalia Dwi Berliyanti Amel

Abstract:

Streptococcus mutants bacteria are bacteria that are believed to be the cause of the growth of dental plaque which can further adversely affect dental caries if left unchecked. Previous research has shown that Moringa leaf extract can slow down the growth rate of this bacterium. This study aims to make the best formulation of mouthwash with the active ingredient of Moringa leaf extract based on its antibacterial and organoleptic test results. Nine mouthwash variations were carried out with two factors and three levels, namely a comparison of the concentration of sorbitol (A) with three levels namely 15% (A1), 20% (A2), and 25% (A3), and peppermint added (B) with three levels, namely 0.2% (B1), 0.25% (B2), and 0.3% (B3). The test parameters performed as the determination of the best mouthwash are based on physicochemical properties which include pH and viscosity as well as organoleptic test results which include color, viscosity, aroma, taste, sensation in the mouth, and general appearance. The results showed that the bright zone as a test for the antibacterial activity of Streptococcus mutants began to be seen at a concentration of 5%. Moringa leaf mouthwash formulation has a pH value between 6 - 7, with a control of 6. Whereas the mucosa leaf mouthwash vascularity produced between 1.1 - 1.7 cP with a control of 1.1 cP. Moringa leaf mouthwash and control have the same total number of microbes, namely 0 colonies / mL. Based on organoleptic tests performed with 20 panelists, it was shown that the best mouthwash formulation was formulation A1B3 with sorbitol composition 15% and peppermint 0.3%.

Keywords: antibasteria, formula, moringa leaf, mouthwash

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18 Phytoremediation Aeration System by Using Water Lettuce (Pistia Stratiotes I) Based on Zero Waste to Reduce the Impact of Industrial Liquid Waste in Jember, Indonesia

Authors: Wahyu Eko Diyanto, Amalia Dyah Arumsari, Ulfatu Layinatinnahdiyah Arrosyadi

Abstract:

Tofu industry is one of the local food industry which is can being competitive industry in the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). However, a lot of tofu entrepreneurs just thinking how to produce good quality product without considering the impact of environmental conditions from the production process. Production of tofu per day requires a number of 15 kg with liquid waste generated is 652.5 liters. That liquid waste is discharged directly into waterways, whereas tofu liquid waste contains organic compounds that quickly unraveled, so it can pollute waterways. In addition, tofu liquid waste is high in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorus. This research is aim to create a method of handling liquid waste effectively and efficiently by using water lettuce. The method is done by observation and experiment by using phytoremediation method in the tofu liquid waste using water lettuce and adding aeration to reduce the concentration of contaminants. The results of the research analyzed the waste quality standard parameters based on SNI (National Standardization Agency of Indonesia). The efficiency concentration and parameters average of tofu liquid waste are obtained pH 3,42% (from 4,0 to be 3,3), COD 76,13% (from 3579 ppm to be 854 ppm), BOD 55 % (from 11600 ppm to be 5242 ppm), TSS 93,6% (from 3174 ppm to be 203 ppm), turbidity is 64,8% (from 977 NTU to be 1013 NTU), and temperature 36oC (from 45oC to be 40oC). The efficiency of these parameters indicates a safe value for the effluent to be channeled in waterways. Water lettuce and tofu liquid waste phytoremediation result will be used as biogas as renewable energy.

Keywords: aeration, phytoremediation, water letuce, tofu liquid waste

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17 A Literature Review: The Anti-Obesity Effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extraction as a Potential Adjuvant Therapy for Management Obesity

Authors: Nunuy Nuraeni, Vera Amalia Lestari, Atri Laranova, Viena Nissa Mien Fadhillah, Mutia, Muhammad Ikhlas Abdian Putra

Abstract:

Introduction: Obesity is a common disease with high prevalence especially in developing countries including Indonesia. The obesitygenic lifestyle such as excessive intake of food, sedentary lifestyle is the major environmental etiologies of obesity. Obesity is also as one of burden disease with high morbidity due to its complication, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The objective of this literature review is to know how the Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis effect as anti-obesity agent and reduce the complication of obesity. Material and Methods: This study based on the secondary data analysis complemented by primary data collection from several journal and textbook. We identified the effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis as adjuvant therapy for management obesity and to prevent the complications of obesity. Results: Based on the result, Green tea or Camellia sinensis contain Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate (EGCG) that has anti-obesity effect such as induce apoptosis, inhibit adipogenesis, increasing lipolytic activity, increasing fat oxidation and thermogenesis. Discussion: EGCG are naturally distributed in green tea, that contains a biological activity that has a potential effect to treat obesity. Conclusion: EGCG are capable to treat obesity. By consuming EGCG can prevent obesity in normal health person and prevent complication in patient with obesity.

Keywords: adjuvant therapy, anti-obesity effect, complication, epigallocathecin-3-gallate, obesity

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16 Long Wavelength Coherent Pulse of Sound Propagating in Granular Media

Authors: Rohit Kumar Shrivastava, Amalia Thomas, Nathalie Vriend, Stefan Luding

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A mechanical wave or vibration propagating through granular media exhibits a specific signature in time. A coherent pulse or wavefront arrives first with multiply scattered waves (coda) arriving later. The coherent pulse is micro-structure independent i.e. it depends only on the bulk properties of the disordered granular sample, the sound wave velocity of the granular sample and hence bulk and shear moduli. The coherent wavefront attenuates (decreases in amplitude) and broadens with distance from its source. The pulse attenuation and broadening effects are affected by disorder (polydispersity; contrast in size of the granules) and have often been attributed to dispersion and scattering. To study the effect of disorder and initial amplitude (non-linearity) of the pulse imparted to the system on the coherent wavefront, numerical simulations have been carried out on one-dimensional sets of particles (granular chains). The interaction force between the particles is given by a Hertzian contact model. The sizes of particles have been selected randomly from a Gaussian distribution, where the standard deviation of this distribution is the relevant parameter that quantifies the effect of disorder on the coherent wavefront. Since, the coherent wavefront is system configuration independent, ensemble averaging has been used for improving the signal quality of the coherent pulse and removing the multiply scattered waves. The results concerning the width of the coherent wavefront have been formulated in terms of scaling laws. An experimental set-up of photoelastic particles constituting a granular chain is proposed to validate the numerical results.

Keywords: discrete elements, Hertzian contact, polydispersity, weakly nonlinear, wave propagation

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15 The Role Previous Cytomegalovirus Infection in Subsequent Lymphoma Develompment

Authors: Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Divesh Manjani, Gabriela Santizo, Maximillian Guerra, Omar Rashid

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Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a widespread infection affecting between 60-70% of people in industrialized countries. CMV has been previously correlated with a higher incidence of Hodgkin Lymphoma compared to noninfected persons. Research regarding prior CMV infection and subsequent lymphoma development is still controversial. With limited evidence, further research is needed in order to understand the relationship between previous CMV infection and subsequent lymphoma development. This study assessed the effect of CMV infection and the incidence of lymphoma afterward. Methods: A retrospective cohort study (2010-2019) was conducted through a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database and conducted using International Classification of Disease (ICD) 9th,10th codes, and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. These were used to identify lymphoma diagnosis in a previously CMV infected population. Patients were matched for age range and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). A chi-squared test was used to assess statistical significance. Results: A total number of 14,303 patients was obtained in the CMV infected group as well as in the control population (matched by age range and CCI score). Subsequent lymphoma development was seen at a rate of 11.44% (1,637) in the CMV group and 5.74% (822) in the control group, respectively. The difference was statistically significant by p= 2.2x10-16, odds ratio = 2.696 (95% CI 2.483- 2.927). In an attempt to stratify the population by antiviral medication exposure, the outcomes were limited by the decreased number of members exposed to antiviral medication in the control population. Conclusion: This study shows a statistically significant correlation between prior CMV infection and an increased incidence of lymphoma afterward. Further exploration is needed to identify the potential carcinogenic mechanism of CMV and whether the results are attributed to a confounding bias.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, lymphoma, cancer, microbiology

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14 Association of Clostridium difficile Infection and Bone Cancer

Authors: Daniela Prado, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Lokesh Manjani, Matthew Cardeiro, Omar Rashid

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Background: Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is a gram-positive bacterium that is known to cause life-threatening diarrhea and severe inflammation of the colon. It originates as an alteration of the gut microbiome and can be transmitted through spores. Recent studies have shown a high association between the development of C. diff in cancer patients due to extensive hospitalization. However, research is lacking regarding C. diff’s association in the causation or prevention of cancer. The objective of this study was to therefore assess the correlation between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the incidence of bone cancer. Methods: This retrospective analysis used data provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to evaluate the patients infected versus patients not infected with C. diff using ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes. Access to the database was granted by the Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale, for the purpose of academic research. Standard statistical methods were used. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 78863 patients in both the infected and control group, respectively. The two groups were matched by age range and CCI score. The incidence of bone cancer was 659 patients (0.835%) in the C. diff group compared to 1941 patients (2.461%) in the control group. The difference was statistically significant by a P-value < 2.2x10^-16 with an odds ratio (OR)= 0.33 (0.31-0.37) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Treatment for CDI was analyzed for both C. diff infected and noninfected populations. 91 out of 16,676 (0.55%) patients with a prior C. diff infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to the control group were 275 out of 16,676 (1.65%) patients with no history of CDI and received antibiotic treatment. Results remained statistically significant by P-value <2.2x10-16 with an OR= 0.42 (0.37, 0.48). and a 95% CI. Conclusion: The study shows a statistically significant correlation between C. diff and a reduced incidence of bone cancer. Further evaluation is recommended to assess the potential of C. difficile in reducing bone cancer incidence.

Keywords: bone cancer, colitis, clostridium difficile, microbiome

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13 The Correlation between Clostridium Difficile Infection and Bronchial Lung Cancer Occurrence

Authors: Molnar Catalina, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Enoch Kim, Marissa Dallara, Omar Rashid

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Introduction: Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is a toxin-producing bacteria that can cause diarrhea and colitis. U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that C. difficile infection (CDI) has increased from 31 cases per 100,000 persons per year in 1996 to 61 per 100,000 in 2003. Approximately 500,000 cases per year occur in the United States. After exposure, the bacteria colonize the colon, where it adheres to the intestinal epithelium where it produces two toxins: TcdA and TcdB. TcdA affects the intestinal epithelium, causing fluid secretion, inflammation, and tissue necrosis, while TcdB acts as a cytotoxin purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between C diff infection and bronchial lung cancer development. Methods: Using ICD- 9 and ICD-10 codes, the data was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to assess the patients infected with C diff as opposed to the non-infected patients. The Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale, granted access to the database for the purpose of academic research. Patients were matched for age and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Standard statistical methods were used. Results: Bronchial lung cancer occurrence in the population not infected with C diff infection was 4741, as opposed to the population infected with C. diff, where 2039 cases of lung cancer were observed. The difference was statistically significant (p-value < 2.2x10^e-16), which reveals that C diff might be protective against bronchial lung cancer. The data was then matched by treatment to create to minimize the effect of treatment bias. Bronchial cancer incidence was 422 and 861 in infected vs. non-infected (p-value of < 2.2x10^e-16), which once more indicates that C diff infection could be beneficial in diminishing bronchial cancer development. Conclusion: This retrospective study conveys a statistical correlation between C diff infection and decreased incidence of lung bronchial cancer. Further studies are needed to comprehend the protective mechanisms of C. Diff infection on lung cancer.

Keywords: C. diff, lung cancer, protective, microbiology

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12 Incidence of Lymphoma and Gonorrhea Infection: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Diya Kohli, Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Jose Garcia, Lokesh Manjani, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Gonorrhea is the second most common sexually transmitted disease (STDs) in the United States of America. Gonorrhea affects the urethra, rectum, or throat and the cervix in females. Lymphoma is a cancer of the immune network called the lymphatic system that includes the lymph nodes/glands, spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow. Lymphoma can affect many organs in the body. When a lymphocyte develops a genetic mutation, it signals other cells into rapid proliferation that causes many mutated lymphocytes. Multiple studies have explored the incidence of cancer in people infected with STDs such as Gonorrhea. For instance, the studies conducted by Wang Y-C and Co., as well as Caini, S and Co. established a direct co-relationship between Gonorrhea infection and incidence of prostate cancer. We hypothesize that Gonorrhea infection also increases the incidence of Lymphoma in patients. This research study aimed to evaluate the correlation between Gonorrhea infection and the incidence of Lymphoma. The data for the research was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database. This database was utilized to evaluate patients infected with Gonorrhea versus the ones who were not infected to establish a correlation with the prevalence of Lymphoma using ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes. Access to the database was granted by the Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for academic research. Standard statistical methods were applied throughout. Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 254 and 808 patients in both the infected and control group, respectively. The two groups were matched by Age Range and CCI score. The incidence of Lymphoma was 0.998% (254 patients out of 25455) in the Gonorrhea group (patients infected with Gonorrhea that was Lymphoma Positive) compared to 3.174% and 808 patients in the control group (Patients negative for Gonorrhea but with Lymphoma). This was statistically significant by a p-value < 2.210-16 with an OR= 0.431 (95% CI 0.381-0.487). The patients were then matched by antibiotic treatment to avoid treatment bias. The incidence of Lymphoma was 1.215% (82 patients out of 6,748) in the Gonorrhea group compared to 2.949% (199 patients out of 6748) in the control group. This was statistically significant by a p-value <5.410-10 with an OR= 0.468 (95% CI 0.367-0.596). The study shows a statistically significant correlation between Gonorrhea and a reduced incidence of Lymphoma. Further evaluation is recommended to assess the potential of Gonorrhea in reducing Lymphoma.

Keywords: gonorrhea, lymphoma, STDs, cancer, ICD

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11 Microbial Inoculants to Increase the Biomass and Nutrient Uptake of Tithonia Cultivated as Hedgerow Plants to Control Erosion in Ultisols

Authors: Nurhajati Hakim, Kiki Amalia, A. Agustian, H. Hermansah, Y. Yulnafatmawita

Abstract:

Ultisols require greater amounts of fertilizer application compared to other soils and susceptible to erosion. Unfortunately, the price of synthetic fertilizers has increased over time during the years, making them unaffordable for most Indonesian farmers. While terrace technique to control erosion very costly.Over the last century, efforts to reduce reliance on synthetic agro-chemicals fertilizers and erosion control have recently focused on Tithonia diversifolia as a fertilizer alternative, and as hedgerow plant to control erosion. Generally known by its common name of tree marigold or Mexican sunflower, this plant has attracted considerable attention for its prolific production of green biomass, rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (NPK). In pot experiments has founded some microbial such as Mycorrhizal, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB) and fungi (PSF) are expected to play an important role in biomass production and high nutrient uptake of this plant. This issue of importance was pursued further in the following investigation in field condition. The aim of this study was to determine the type of microbial combination suitable for Tithonia cultivation as hedgerow plants in Ultisols which have higher biomass production and nutrient content, and decline soil erosion. The field experiment was conducted with 6 treatments in a randomized block design (RBD) using 3 replications. The treatments were: Tithonia rhizosphere without microbial inoculated (A); Inokulanted by Mycorrhizal + Azotobacter + Azospirillium (B); Mycorrhizal + PSF (C); Mycorrhizal + PSB(D); Mycorrhizal + PSB + PSF(E);and without hedgerow Tithonia (F).The microbial substrates were inoculated into the Tithonia rhizosphere in the nursery. The young Tithonia plants were then planted as hedgerow on Ultisols in the experimental field for 8 months, and pruned once every 2 months. Soil erosion were collected every rainy time. The differences between treatments were statistically significant by HSD test at the 95% level of probability. The result showed that treatment C (mycorrhizal + PSB) was the most effective, and followed by treatment D (mycorrhizal + PSF) in producing higher Tithonia biomass about 8 t dry matter 2000 m-2 ha-1 y-1 and declined soil erosion 71-75%.

Keywords: hedgerow tithonia, microbial inoculants, organic fertilizer, soil erosion control

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10 Implications of Human Cytomegalovirus as a Protective Factor in the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer

Authors: Marissa Dallara, Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Nadia Obaed, Naureen Rashid, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that remains latent in approximately 60% of individuals in developed countries. Viral load is kept at a minimum due to a robust immune response that is produced in most individuals who remain asymptomatic. HCMV has been recently implicated in cancer research because it may impose oncomodulatory effects on tumor cells of which it infects, which could have an impact on the progression of cancer. HCMV has been implicated in increased pathogenicity of certain cancers such as gliomas, but in contrast, it can also exhibit anti-tumor activity. HCMV seropositivity has been recorded in tumor cells, but this may also have implications in decreased pathogenesis of certain forms of cancer such as leukemia as well as increased pathogenesis in others. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between cytomegalovirus and the incidence of breast cancer. Methods The data used in this project was extracted from a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to analyze the patients infected versus patients not infection with cytomegalovirus using ICD-10, ICD-9 codes. Permission to utilize the database was given by Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale, for the purpose of academic research. Data analysis was conducted using standard statistical methods. Results The query was analyzed for dates ranging from January 2010 to December 2019, which resulted in 14,309 patients in both the infected and control groups, respectively. The two groups were matched by age range and CCI score. The incidence of breast cancer was 1.642% and 235 patients in the cytomegalovirus group compared to 4.752% and 680 patients in the control group. The difference was statistically significant by a p-value of less than 2.2x 10^-16 with an odds ratio of 0.43 (0.4 to 0.48) with a 95% confidence interval. Investigation into the effects of HCMV treatment modalities, including Valganciclovir, Cidofovir, and Foscarnet, on breast cancer in both groups was conducted, but the numbers were insufficient to yield any statistically significant correlations. Conclusion This study demonstrates a statistically significant correlation between cytomegalovirus and a reduced incidence of breast cancer. If HCMV can exert anti-tumor effects on breast cancer and inhibit growth, it could potentially be used to formulate immunotherapy that targets various types of breast cancer. Further evaluation is warranted to assess the implications of cytomegalovirus in reducing the incidence of breast cancer.

Keywords: human cytomegalovirus, breast cancer, immunotherapy, anti-tumor

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9 The Impact of a Prior Haemophilus influenzae Infection in the Incidence of Prostate Cancer

Authors: Maximiliano Guerra, Lexi Frankel, Amalia D. Ardeljan, Sarah Ghali, Diya Kohli, Omar M. Rashid.

Abstract:

Introduction/Background: Haemophilus influenzae is present as a commensal organism in the nasopharynx of most healthy adults from where it can spread to cause both systemic and respiratory tract infection. Pathogenic properties of this bacterium as well as defects in host defense may result in the spread of these bacteria throughout the body. This can result in a proinflammatory state and colonization particularly in the lungs. Recent studies have failed to determine a link between H. Influenzae colonization and prostate cancer, despite previous research demonstrating the presence of proinflammatory states in preneoplastic and neoplastic prostate lesions. Given these contradictory findings, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between H. Influenzae infection and the incidence of prostate cancer. Methods: To evaluate the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae infection and the development of prostate cancer in the future we used data provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database. We were afforded access to this database by Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for the express purpose of academic research. Standard statistical methods were employed in this study including Pearson’s chi-square tests. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 13, 691 patients in both the control and C. difficile infected groups, respectively. The two groups were matched by age range and CCI score. In the Haemophilus influenzae infected group, the incidence of prostate cancer was 1.46%, while the incidence of the prostate cancer control group was 4.56%. The observed difference in cancer incidence was determined to be a statistically significant p-value (< 2.2x10^-16). This suggests that patients with a history of C. difficile have less risk of developing prostate cancer (OR 0.425, 95% CI: 0.382 - 0.472). Treatment bias was considered, the data was analyzed and resulted in two groups matched groups of 3,208 patients in both the infected with H. Influenzae treated group and the control who used the same medications for a different cause. Patients infected with H. Influenzae and treated had an incidence of prostate cancer of 2.49% whereas the control group incidence of prostate cancer was 4.92% with a p-value (< 2.2x10^-16) OR 0.455 CI 95% (0.526 -0.754), proving that the initial results were not due to the use of medications. Conclusion: The findings of our study reveal a statistically significant correlation between H. Influenzae infection and a decreased incidence of prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that prior infection with H. Influenzae may confer some degree of protection to patients and reduce their risk for developing prostate cancer. Future research is recommended to further characterize the potential role of Haemophilus influenzae in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.

Keywords: Haemophilus Influenzae, incidence, prostate cancer, risk.

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8 Incidence of Breast Cancer and Enterococcus Infection: A Retrospective Analysis

Authors: Matthew Cardeiro, Amalia D. Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Dianela Prado Escobar, Catalina Molnar, Omar M. Rashid

Abstract:

Introduction: Enterococci comprise the natural flora of nearly all animals and are ubiquitous in food manufacturing and probiotics. However, its role in the microbiome remains controversial. The gut microbiome has shown to play an important role in immunology and cancer. Further, recent data has suggested a relationship between gut microbiota and breast cancer. These studies have shown that the gut microbiome of patients with breast cancer differs from that of healthy patients. Research regarding enterococcus infection and its sequala is limited, and further research is needed in order to understand the relationship between infection and cancer. Enterococcus may prevent the development of breast cancer (BC) through complex immunologic and microbiotic adaptations following an enterococcus infection. This study investigated the effect of enterococcus infection and the incidence of BC. Methods: A retrospective study (January 2010- December 2019) was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database and conducted using a Humans Health Insurance Database. International Classification of Disease (ICD) 9th and 10th codes, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), and National Drug Codes were used to identify BC diagnosis and enterococcus infection. Patients were matched for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), antibiotic treatment, and region of residence. Chi-squared, logistic regression, and odds ratio were implemented to assess the significance and estimate relative risk. Results: 671 out of 28,518 (2.35%) patients with a prior enterococcus infection and 1,459 out of 28,518 (5.12%) patients without enterococcus infection subsequently developed BC, and the difference was statistically significant (p<2.2x10⁻¹⁶). Logistic regression also indicated enterococcus infection was associated with a decreased incidence of BC (RR=0.60, 95% CI [0.57, 0.63]). Treatment for enterococcus infection was analyzed and controlled for in both enterococcus infected and noninfected populations. 398 out of 11,523 (3.34%) patients with a prior enterococcus infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to 624 out of 11,523 (5.41%) patients with no history of enterococcus infection (control) and received antibiotic treatment. Both populations subsequently developed BC. Results remained statistically significant (p<2.2x10-16) with a relative risk of 0.57 (95% CI [0.54, 0.60]). Conclusion & Discussion: This study shows a statistically significant correlation between enterococcus infection and a decrease incidence of breast cancer. Further exploration is needed to identify and understand not only the role of enterococcus in the microbiome but also the protective mechanism(s) and impact enterococcus infection may have on breast cancer development. Ultimately, further research is needed in order to understand the complex and intricate relationship between the microbiome, immunology, bacterial infections, and carcinogenesis.

Keywords: breast cancer, enterococcus, immunology, infection, microbiome

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7 The Incidence of Prostate Cancer in Previous Infected E. Coli Population

Authors: Andreea Molnar, Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Marissa Dallara, Brittany Nagel, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Background: Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae and resides in the intestinal tracts of individuals. E.Coli has numerous strains grouped into serogroups and serotypes based on differences in antigens in their cell walls (somatic, or “O” antigens) and flagella (“H” antigens). More than 700 serotypes of E. coli have been identified. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, a few strains, such as E. coli O157:H7 which produces Shiga toxin, can cause intestinal infection with symptoms of severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. Infection with E. Coli can lead to the development of systemic inflammation as the toxin exerts its effects. Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to cancer development in several organs, including the prostate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between E. Coli and the incidence of prostate cancer. Methods: Data collected in this cohort study was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to evaluate patients infected with E.Coli infection and prostate cancer using the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes). Permission to use the database was granted by Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for the purpose of academic research. Data analysis was conducted through the use of standard statistical methods. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 81, 037 patients after matching in both infected and control groups, respectively. The two groups were matched by Age Range and CCI score. The incidence of prostate cancer was 2.07% and 1,680 patients in the E. Coli group compared to 5.19% and 4,206 patients in the control group. The difference was statistically significant by a p-value p<2.2x10-16 with an Odds Ratio of 0.53 and a 95% CI. Based on the specific treatment for E.Coli, the infected group vs control group were matched again with a result of 31,696 patients in each group. 827 out of 31,696 (2.60%) patients with a prior E.coli infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to 1634 out of 31,696 (5.15%) patients with no history of E.coli infection (control) and received antibiotic treatment. Both populations subsequently developed prostate carcinoma. Results remained statistically significant (p<2.2x10-16), Odds Ratio=0.55 (95% CI 0.51-0.59). Conclusion: This retrospective study shows a statistically significant correlation between E.Coli infection and a decreased incidence of prostate cancer. Further evaluation is needed in order to identify the impact of E.Coli infection and prostate cancer development.

Keywords: E. Coli, prostate cancer, protective, microbiology

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6 Exploring the Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and the Incidence of Bronchogenic Carcinoma

Authors: Jose R. Garcia, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Sergio Medina, Ali Yasback, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that affects nearly half of the population worldwide and humans serve as the principal reservoir. Infection rates usually follow an inverse relationship with hygiene practices and are higher in developing countries than developed countries. Incidence varies significantly by geographic area, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status. H. pylori is primarily associated with conditions of the gastrointestinal tract such as atrophic gastritis and duodenal peptic ulcers. Infection is also associated with an increased risk of carcinogenesis as there is evidence to show that H. pylori infection may lead to gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. It is suggested that H. pylori infection may be considered as a systemic condition, leading to various novel associations with several different neoplasms such as colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer, although further research is needed. Emerging evidence suggests that H. pylori infection may offer protective effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a result of non-specific induction of interferon- γ (IFN- γ). Similar methods of enhanced immunity may affect the development of bronchogenic carcinoma due to the antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and cytostatic functions of IFN- γ. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma. Methods: The data was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to evaluate the patients infected versus patients not infected with H. pylori using ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes. Access to the database was granted by the Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for the purpose of academic research. Standard statistical methods were used. Results:-Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 163,224 in both the infected and control group, respectively. The two groups were matched by age range and CCI score. The incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma was 1.853% with 3,024 patients in the H. pylori group compared to 4.785% with 7,810 patients in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (p < 2.22x10-16) with an odds ratio of 0.367 (0.353 - 0.383) with a confidence interval of 95%. The two groups were matched by treatment and incidence of cancer, which resulted in a total of 101,739 patients analyzed after this match. The incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma was 1.929% with 1,962 patients in the H. pylori and treatment group compared to 4.618% with 4,698 patients in the control group with treatment. The difference was statistically significant (p < 2.22x10-16) with an odds ratio of 0.403 (0.383 - 0.425) with a confidence interval of 95%.

Keywords: bronchogenic carcinoma, helicobacter pylori, lung cancer, pathogen-associated molecular patterns

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5 Consumer Utility Analysis of Halal Certification on Beef Using Discrete Choice Experiment: A Case Study in the Netherlands

Authors: Rosa Amalia Safitri, Ine van der Fels-Klerx, Henk Hogeveen

Abstract:

Halal is a dietary law observed by people following Islamic faith. It is considered as a type of credence food quality which cannot be easily assured by consumers even upon and after consumption. Therefore, Halal certification takes place as a practical tool for the consumers to make an informed choice particularly in a non-Muslim majority country, including the Netherlands. Discrete choice experiment (DCE) was employed in this study for its ability to assess the importance of attributes attached to Halal beef in the Dutch market and to investigate consumer utilities. Furthermore, willingness to pay (WTP) for the desired Halal certification was estimated. Four most relevant attributes were selected, i.e., the slaughter method, traceability information, place of purchase, and Halal certification. Price was incorporated as an attribute to allow estimation of willingness to pay for Halal certification. There were 242 Muslim respondents who regularly consumed Halal beef completed the survey, from Dutch (53%) and non-Dutch consumers living in the Netherlands (47%). The vast majority of the respondents (95%) were within the age of 18-45 years old, with the largest group being student (43%) followed by employee (30%) and housewife (12%). Majority of the respondents (76%) had disposable monthly income less than € 2,500, while the rest earned more than € 2,500. The respondents assessed themselves of having good knowledge of the studied attributes, except for traceability information with 62% of the respondents considered themselves not knowledgeable. The findings indicated that slaughter method was valued as the most important attribute, followed by Halal certificate, place of purchase, price, and traceability information. This order of importance varied across sociodemographic variables, except for the slaughter method. Both Dutch and non-Dutch subgroups valued Halal certification as the third most important attributes. However, non-Dutch respondents valued it with higher importance (0,20) than their Dutch counterparts (0,16). For non-Dutch, the price was more important than Halal certification. The ideal product preferred by the consumers indicated the product serving the highest utilities for consumers, and characterized by beef obtained without pre-slaughtering stunning, with traceability info, available at Halal store, certified by an official certifier, and sold at 2.75 € per 500 gr. In general, an official Halal certifier was mostly preferred. However, consumers were not willing to pay for premium for any type of Halal certifiers, indicated by negative WTP of -0.73 €, -0.93 €, and -1,03€ for small, official, and international certifiers, respectively. This finding indicated that consumers tend to lose their utility when confronted with price. WTP estimates differ across socio-demographic variables with male and non-Dutch respondents had the lowest WTP. The unfamiliarity to traceability information might cause respondents to perceive it as the least important attribute. In the context of Halal certified meat, adding traceability information into meat packaging can serve two functions, first consumers can justify for themselves whether the processes comply with Halal requirements, for example, the use of pre-slaughtering stunning, and secondly to assure its safety. Therefore, integrating traceability info into meat packaging can help to make informed decision for both Halal status and food safety.

Keywords: consumer utilities, discrete choice experiments, Halal certification, willingness to pay

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4 Vitamin B9 Separation by Synergic Pertraction

Authors: Blaga Alexandra Cristina, Kloetzer Lenuta, Bompa Amalia Stela, Galaction Anca Irina, Cascaval Dan

Abstract:

Vitamin B9 is an important member of vitamins B group, being a growth factor, important for making genetic material as DNA and RNA, red blood cells, for building muscle tissues, especially during periods of infancy, adolescence and pregnancy. Its production by biosynthesis is based on the high metabolic potential of mutant Bacillus subtilis, due to a superior biodisponibility compared to that obtained by chemical pathways. Pertraction, defined as the extraction and transport through liquid membranes consists in the transfer of a solute between two aqueous phases of different pH-values, phases that are separated by a solvent layer of various sizes. The pertraction efficiency and selectivity could be significantly enhanced by adding a carrier in the liquid membrane, such as organophosphoric compounds, long chain amines or crown-ethers etc., the separation process being called facilitated pertraction. The aim of the work is to determine the impact of the presence of two extractants/carriers in the bulk liquid membrane, i.e. di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and lauryltrialkylmetilamine (Amberlite LA2) on the transport kinetics of vitamin B9. The experiments have been carried out using two pertraction equipments for a free liquid membrane or bulk liquid membrane. One pertraction cell consists on a U-shaped glass pipe (used for the dichloromethane membrane) and the second one is an H-shaped glass pipe (used for h-heptane), having 45 mm inner diameter of the total volume of 450 mL, the volume of each compartment being of 150 mL. The aqueous solutions are independently mixed by means of double blade stirrers with 6 mm diameter and 3 mm height, having the rotation speed of 500 rpm. In order to reach high diffusional rates through the solvent layer, the organic phase has been mixed with a similar stirrer, at a similar rotation speed (500 rpm). The area of mass transfer surface, both for extraction and for reextraction, was of 1.59x10-³ m2. The study on facilitated pertraction with the mixture of two carriers, namely D2EHPA and Amberlite LA-2, dissolved in two solvents with different polarities: n-heptane and dichloromethane, indicated the possibility to obtain the synergic effect. The synergism has been analyzed by considering the vitamin initial and final mass flows, as well as the permeability factors through liquid membrane. The synergic effect has been observed at low D2EHPA concentrations and high Amberlite LA-2 concentrations, being more important for the low-polar solvent (n-heptane). The results suggest that the mechanism of synergic pertraction consists on the reaction between the organophosphoric carrier and vitamin B9 at the interface between the feed and membrane phases, while the aminic carrier enhances the hydrophobicity of this compound by solvation. However, the formation of this complex reduced the reextraction rate and, consequently, affects the synergism related to the final mass flows and permeability factor. For describing the influences of carriers concentrations on the synergistic coefficients, some equations have been proposed by taking into account the vitamin mass flows or permeability factors, with an average deviations between 4.85% and 10.73%.

Keywords: pertraction, synergism, vitamin B9, Amberlite LA-2, di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

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3 A Retrospective Study: Correlation between Enterococcus Infections and Bone Carcinoma Incidence

Authors: Sonia A. Stoica, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Selena Rashid, Ali Yasback, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Introduction Enterococcus is a vast genus of lactic acid bacteria, gram-positivecocci species. They are common commensal organisms in the intestines of humans: E. faecalis (90–95%) and E. faecium (5–10%). Rare groups of infections can occur with other species, including E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, and E. raffinosus. The most common infections caused by Enterococcus include urinary tract infections, biliary tract infections, subacute endocarditis, diverticulitis, meningitis, septicemia, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The treatment for sensitive strains of these bacteria includes ampicillin, penicillin, cephalosporins, or vancomycin, while the treatment for resistant strains includes daptomycin, linezolid, tygecycline, or streptogramine. Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 is an encouraging nominee for being considered as a probiotic strain. E. faecalis CECT7121 enhances and skews the profile of cytokines to the Th1 phenotype in situations such as vaccination, anti-tumoral immunity, and allergic reactions. It also enhances the secretion of high levels of IL-12, IL-6, TNF alpha, and IL-10. Cytokines have been previously associated with the development of cancer. The intention of this study was to therefore evaluate the correlation between Enterococcus infections and incidence of bone carcinoma. Methods A retrospective cohort study (2010-2019) was conducted through a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database and conducted using International Classification of Disease (ICD) 9th and 10th codes for bone carcinoma diagnosis in a previously Enterococcus infected population. Patients were matched for age range and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Access to the database was granted by Holy Cross Health for academic research. Chi-squared test was used to assess statistical significance. Results A total number of 17,056 patients was obtained in Enterococcus infected group as well as in the control population (matched by Age range and CCI score). Subsequent bone carcinoma development was seen at a rate of 1.07% (184) in the Enterococcal infectious group and 3.42% (584) in the control group, respectively. The difference was statistically significant by p= 2.2x10-¹⁶, Odds Ratio = 0.355 (95% CI 0.311 - 0.404) Treatment for enterococcus infection was analyzed and controlled for in both enterococcus infected and noninfected populations. 78 out of 6,624 (1.17%) patients with a prior enterococcus infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to 202 out of 6,624 (3.04%) patients with no history of enterococcus infection (control) and received antibiotic treatment. Both populations subsequently developed bone carcinoma. Results remained statistically significant (p<2.2x10-), Odds Ratio=0.456 (95% CI 0.396-0.525). Conclusion This study shows a statistically significant correlation between Enterococcus infection and a decreased incidence of bone carcinoma. The immunologic response of the organism to Enterococcus infection may exert a protecting mechanism from developing bone carcinoma. Further exploration is needed to identify the potential mechanism of Enterococcus in reducing bone carcinoma incidence.

Keywords: anti-tumoral immunity, bone carcinoma, enterococcus, immunologic response

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2 Investigating the Association between Escherichia Coli Infection and Breast Cancer Incidence: A Retrospective Analysis and Literature Review

Authors: Nadia Obaed, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Denis Nigel, Anniki Witter, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, with a lifetime risk of one in eight of all women in the United States. Although breast cancer is prevalent throughout the world, the uneven distribution in incidence and mortality rates is shaped by the variation in population structure, environment, genetics and known lifestyle risk factors. Furthermore, the bacterial profile in healthy and cancerous breast tissue differs with a higher relative abundance of bacteria capable of causing DNA damage in breast cancer patients. Previous bacterial infections may change the composition of the microbiome and partially account for the environmental factors promoting breast cancer. One study found that higher amounts of Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Enterobacteriaceae, of which Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a part, were present in breast tumor tissue. Based on E. coli’s ability to damage DNA, it is hypothesized that there is an increased risk of breast cancer associated with previous E. coli infection. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between E. coli infection and the incidence of breast cancer. Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale, provided access to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability (HIPAA) compliant national database for the purpose of academic research. International Classification of Disease 9th and 10th Codes (ICD-9, ICD-10) was then used to conduct a retrospective analysis using data from January 2010 to December 2019. All breast cancer diagnoses and all patients infected versus not infected with E. coli that underwent typical E. coli treatment were investigated. The obtained data were matched for age, Charlson Comorbidity Score (CCI score), and antibiotic treatment. Standard statistical methods were applied to determine statistical significance and an odds ratio was used to estimate the relative risk. A total of 81286 patients were identified and analyzed from the initial query and then reduced to 31894 antibiotic-specific treated patients in both the infected and control group, respectively. The incidence of breast cancer was 2.51% and present in 2043 patients in the E. coli group compared to 5.996% and present in 4874 patients in the control group. The incidence of breast cancer was 3.84% and present in 1223 patients in the treated E. coli group compared to 6.38% and present in 2034 patients in the treated control group. The decreased incidence of breast cancer in the E. coli and treated E. coli groups was statistically significant with a p-value of 2.2x10-16 and 2.264x10-16, respectively. The odds ratio in the E. coli and treated E. coli groups was 0.784 and 0.787 with a 95% confidence interval, respectively (0.756-0.813; 0.743-0.833). The current study shows a statistically significant decrease in breast cancer incidence in association with previous Escherichia coli infection. Researching the relationship between single bacterial species is important as only up to 10% of breast cancer risk is attributable to genetics, while the contribution of environmental factors including previous infections potentially accounts for a majority of the preventable risk. Further evaluation is recommended to assess the potential and mechanism of E. coli in decreasing the risk of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, escherichia coli, incidence, infection, microbiome, risk

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1 Estimated Heat Production, Blood Parameters and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number of Nellore Bulls with High and Low Residual Feed Intake

Authors: Welder A. Baldassini, Jon J. Ramsey, Marcos R. Chiaratti, Amália S. Chaves, Renata H. Branco, Sarah F. M. Bonilha, Dante P. D. Lanna

Abstract:

With increased production costs there is a need for animals that are more efficient in terms of meat production. In this context, the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on physiological processes in liver, muscle and adipose tissues may account for inter-animal variation in energy expenditures and heat production. The purpose this study was to investigate if the amounts of mtDNA in liver, muscle and adipose tissue (subcutaneous and visceral depots) of Nellore bulls are associated with residual feed intake (RFI) and estimated heat production (EHP). Eighteen animals were individually fed in a feedlot for 90 days. RFI values were obtained by regression of dry matter intake (DMI) in relation to average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight (BW). The animals were classified into low (more efficient) and high (less efficient) RFI groups. The bulls were then randomly distributed in individual pens where they were given excess feed twice daily to result in 5 to 10% orts for 90 d with diet containing 15% crude protein and 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM. The heart rate (HR) of bulls was monitored for 4 consecutive days and used for calculation of EHP. Electrodes were fitted to bulls with stretch belts (POLAR RS400; Kempele, Finland). To calculate oxygen pulse (O2P), oxygen consumption was obtained using a facemask connected to the gas analyzer (EXHALYZER, ECOMedics, Zurich, Switzerland) and HR were simultaneously measured for 15 minutes period. Daily oxygen (O2) consumption was calculated by multiplying the volume of O2 per beat by total daily beats. EHP was calculated multiplying O2P by the average HR obtained during the 4 days, assuming 4.89 kcal/L of O2 to measure daily EHP that was expressed in kilocalories/day/kilogram metabolic BW (kcal/day/kg BW0.75). Blood samples were collected between days 45 and 90th after the beginning of the trial period in order to measure the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit. The bulls were slaughtered in an experimental slaughter house in accordance with current guidelines. Immediately after slaughter, a section of liver, a portion of longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle, plus a portion of subcutaneous fat (surrounding LT muscle) and portions of visceral fat (kidney, pelvis and inguinal fat) were collected. Samples of liver, muscle and adipose tissues were used to quantify mtDNA copy number per cell. The number of mtDNA copies was determined by normalization of mtDNA amount against a single copy nuclear gene (B2M). Mean of EHP, hemoglobin and hematocrit of high and low RFI bulls were compared using two-sample t-tests. Additionally, the one-way ANOVA was used to compare mtDNA quantification considering the mains effects of RFI groups. We found lower EHP (83.047 vs. 97.590 kcal/day/kgBW0.75; P < 0.10), hemoglobin concentration (13.533 vs. 15.108 g/dL; P < 0.10) and hematocrit percentage (39.3 vs. 43.6 %; P < 0.05) in low compared to high RFI bulls, respectively, which may be useful traits to identify efficient animals. However, no differences were observed between the mtDNA content in liver, muscle and adipose tissue of Nellore bulls with high and low RFI.

Keywords: bioenergetics, Bos indicus, feed efficiency, mitochondria

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