Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4502

Search results for: natural ventilation

4502 CFD Simulations to Examine Natural Ventilation of a Work Area in a Public Building

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Jen-Hao Wu, Yu-Hsuan Juan

Abstract:

Natural ventilation has played an important role for many low energy-building designs. It has been also noticed as a essential subject to persistently bring the fresh cool air from the outside into a building. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to examine the natural ventilation development of a work area in a public building. The simulated results can be useful to better understand the indoor microclimate and the interaction of wind with buildings. Besides, this CFD simulation procedure can serve as an effective analysis tool to characterize the airing performance, and thereby optimize the building ventilation for strengthening the architects, planners and other decision makers on improving the natural ventilation design of public buildings.

Keywords: CFD simulations, natural ventilation, microclimate, wind environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
4501 The Assessment of Natural Ventilation Performance for Thermal Comfort in Educational Space: A Case Study of Design Studio in the Arab Academy for Science and Technology, Alexandria

Authors: Alaa Sarhan, Rania Abd El Gelil, Hana Awad

Abstract:

Through the last decades, the impact of thermal comfort on the working performance of users and occupants of an indoor space has been a concern. Research papers concluded that natural ventilation quality directly impacts the levels of thermal comfort. Natural ventilation must be put into account during the design process in order to improve the inhabitant's efficiency and productivity. One example of daily long-term occupancy spaces is educational facilities. Many individuals spend long times receiving a considerable amount of knowledge, and it takes additional time to apply this knowledge. Thus, this research is concerned with user's level of thermal comfort in design studios of educational facilities. The natural ventilation quality in spaces is affected by a number of parameters including orientation, opening design, and many other factors. This research aims to investigate the conscious manipulation of the physical parameters of the spaces and its impact on natural ventilation performance which subsequently affects thermal comfort of users. The current research uses inductive and deductive methods to define natural ventilation design considerations, which are used in a field study in a studio in the university building in Alexandria (AAST) to evaluate natural ventilation performance through analyzing and comparing the current case to the developed framework and conducting computational fluid dynamics simulation. Results have proved that natural ventilation performance is successful by only 50% of the natural ventilation design framework; these results are supported by CFD simulation.

Keywords: educational buildings, natural ventilation, , mediterranean climate, thermal comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
4500 Natural Ventilation around and through Building: A Numerical Study

Authors: A. Kaddour, S. M. A. Bekkouche

Abstract:

Limiting heat losses during ventilation of indoor building spaces has become a basic aim for architects. Much experience has been gained in terms of ventilation of indoor spaces. Nevertheless, due to the complex applications, attempts to create a theoretical base for solving the problems related to the issue are limited, especially determining the minimum ventilation period required within a designated space. In this paper we have approached this matter, both theoretically and computationally. The conclusion we reached was that controlled ventilation of spaces through vent holes that successively open and close at regular time intervals can limit the excessive circulation of air masses, which in turn limits heat losses. Air change rates through open and tilted windows in rooms of residential buildings driven by atmospheric motions are investigated to evaluate natural ventilation concepts. Model of thermal building simulations is used. A separated sample storey and a sample single room in larger scales were used to measure air transport through window openings under the influence of the external pressure distribution.

Keywords: natural ventilation, temperature factor, air change rates, air circulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
4499 Windphil Poetic in Architecture: Energy Efficient Strategies in Modern Buildings of Iran

Authors: Sepideh Samadzadehyazdi, Mohammad Javad Khalili, Sarvenaz Samadzadehyazdi, Mohammad Javad Mahdavinejad

Abstract:

The term ‘Windphil Architecture’ refers to the building that facilitates natural ventilation by architectural elements. Natural ventilation uses the natural forces of wind pressure and stacks effect to direct the movement of air through buildings. Natural ventilation is increasingly being used in contemporary buildings to minimize the consumption of non-renewable energy and it is an effective way to improve indoor air quality. The main objective of this paper is to identify the strategies of using natural ventilation in Iranian modern buildings. In this regard, the research method is ‘descriptive-analytical’ that is based on comparative techniques. To simulate wind flow in the interior spaces of case studies, FLUENT software has been used. Research achievements show that it is possible to use natural ventilation to create a thermally comfortable indoor environment. The natural ventilation strategies could be classified into two groups of environmental characteristics such as public space structure, and architectural characteristics including building form and orientation, openings, central courtyards, wind catchers, roof, wall wings, semi-open spaces and the heat capacity of materials. Having investigated modern buildings of Iran, innovative elements like wind catchers and wall wings are less used than the traditional architecture. Instead, passive ventilation strategies have been more considered in the building design as for the roof structure and openings.

Keywords: natural ventilation strategies, wind catchers, wind flow, Iranian modern buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
4498 Simulation of Natural Ventilation Strategies as a Comparison Method for Two Different Climates

Authors: Fulya Ozbey, Ecehan Ozmehmet

Abstract:

Health and living in a healthy environment are important for all the living creatures. Healthy buildings are the part of the healthy environment and the ones that people and sometimes the animals spend most of their times in it. Therefore, healthy buildings are important subject for everybody. There are many elements of the healthy buildings from material choice to the thermal comfort including indoor air quality. The aim of this study is, to simulate two natural ventilation strategies which are used as a cooling method in Mediterranean climate, by applying to a residential building and compare the results for Asian climate. Fulltime natural and night-time ventilation strategies are simulated for three days during the summertime in Mediterranean climate. The results show that one of the chosen passive cooling strategies worked on both climates good enough without using additional shading element and cooling device, however, the other ventilation strategy did not provide comfortable indoor temperature enough. Finally, both of the ventilation strategies worked better on the Asian climate than the Mediterranean in terms of the total overheating hours during the chosen period of year.

Keywords: Asian climate, indoor air quality, Mediterranean climate, natural ventilation simulation, thermal comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
4497 Cross Ventilation Potential in an Array of Building Blocks: The Case Study of Alexandria

Authors: Bakr Gomaa

Abstract:

Wind driven Cross ventilation is achieved when air moves indoors due to the pressure difference on the building envelope. This is especially important in breezy moderate to humid settings in which fast air flow can promote thermal comfort. Studies have shown that the use of simple building forms or ignoring the urban context when studying natural ventilation can lead to inaccurate results. In this paper, the impact of the urban form of a regular array of buildings is investigated to define the impact of this urban setting on cross ventilation potential. The objective of this paper is to provide the necessary tools to achieve natural ventilation for cooling purposes in an array of building blocks context. The array urban form has been studied before for natural ventilation purposes yet to the best of our knowledge no study has considered the relationship between the urban form and the pressure patterns that develop on the buildings envelope for cross ventilation. For this we use detailed weather data for a case study city of Alexandria (Egypt), as well as a validated CFD simulations to investigate the cross ventilation potential in terms of pressure patterns in waterfront as well as in-city wind flows perpendicular to the buildings array. it was found that for both waterfront and in-city wind speeds the windows needed for cross ventilation in rear raws of the array are significantly larger than those needed for front raw.

Keywords: Alexandria, CFD, cross ventilation, pressure coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
4496 Natural Ventilation for the Sustainable Tall Office Buildings of the Future

Authors: Ayşin Sev, Görkem Aslan

Abstract:

Sustainable tall buildings that provide comfortable, healthy and efficient indoor environments are clearly desirable as the densification of living and working space for the world’s increasing population proceeds. For environmental concerns, these buildings must also be energy efficient. One component of these tasks is the provision of indoor air quality and thermal comfort, which can be enhanced with natural ventilation by the supply of fresh air. Working spaces can only be naturally ventilated with connections to the outdoors utilizing operable windows, double facades, ventilation stacks, balconies, patios, terraces and skygardens. Large amounts of fresh air can be provided to the indoor spaces without mechanical air-conditioning systems, which are widely employed in contemporary tall buildings. This paper tends to present the concept of natural ventilation for sustainable tall office buildings in order to achieve healthy and comfortable working spaces, as well as energy efficient environments. Initially the historical evolution of ventilation strategies for tall buildings is presented, beginning with natural ventilation and continuing with the introduction of mechanical air-conditioning systems. Then the emergence of natural ventilation due to the health and environmental concerns in tall buildings is handled, and the strategies for implementing this strategy are revealed. In the next section, a number of case studies that utilize this strategy are investigated. Finally, how tall office buildings can benefit from this strategy is discussed.

Keywords: tall office building, energy efficiency, double-skin façade, stack ventilation, air conditioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
4495 Cross Ventilation in Waterfront Urban Canyons: The Case Study of Alexandria

Authors: Bakr Gomaa

Abstract:

Cross ventilation is an important and practical mean to achieve thermal comfort and conserve energy. This is especially true in the breezy waterfront settings. However, due to a number of factors, cross ventilation in buildings is usually studied by using oversimplified scenarios. It is then reasonable to study the impact of complex set of factors on the accuracy of predicting air flow rate because of wind driven cross ventilation. The objective of this paper is to provide architects with the tools necessary to achieve natural ventilation for cooling purposes in a waterfront urban canyon context. Also, urban canyons have not received much attention in terms of their impact on cross ventilation, and while we know how the wind flows between buildings in different urban canyon settings, the effect of the parallel-to-the-wind urban canyon on cross ventilation in buildings remains unclear. For this, we use detailed weather data, boundary layer correction factor, and CFD simulations to study the pressure patterns that form on the canyons surfaces in the case study of Alexandria. We found that the simplified numerical methods of calculating the cross ventilation in buildings can lead to inaccurate design decisions.

Keywords: cross ventilation, Alexandria, CFD, urban canyon

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
4494 An Innovative Approach to Solve Thermal Comfort Problem Related to the 100m2 Houses in Erbil

Authors: Haval Sami Ali, Hassan Majeed Hassoon Aldelfi

Abstract:

Due to the rapid growth of Erbil population and the resulting shortage of residential buildings, individuals actively utilized 5x20 m plots for two bedroom residential houses. Consequently, poor and unhealthy ventilation comes about. In this paper, the authors developed an old Barajeel (Wind Catchers) approach for natural ventilation. Two Barajeels (Wind Catchers) are designed and located at both extreme ends of the built unit. The two wind catchers are made as inlet and outlet for the air movement where the rate of air changes at its best. To validate the usage of the wind catchers a CFD Software was used to simulate the operation of the wind catchers for natural ventilations for average wind speed of 2 m/s. The results show a positive solution to solve the problem of the cramped such built units. It can be concluded that such solutions can be deployed by the local Kurdistan authorities.

Keywords: wind catcher, ventilation, natural, air changes, Barajeel, Erbil

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
4493 Measuring the Effect of Ventilation on Cooking in Indoor Air Quality by Low-Cost Air Sensors

Authors: Andres Gonzalez, Adam Boies, Jacob Swanson, David Kittelson

Abstract:

The concern of the indoor air quality (IAQ) has been increasing due to its risk to human health. The smoking, sweeping, and stove and stovetop use are the activities that have a major contribution to the indoor air pollution. Outdoor air pollution also affects IAQ. The most important factors over IAQ from cooking activities are the materials, fuels, foods, and ventilation. The low-cost, mobile air quality monitoring (LCMAQM) sensors, is reachable technology to assess the IAQ. This is because of the lower cost of LCMAQM compared to conventional instruments. The IAQ was assessed, using LCMAQM, during cooking activities in a University of Minnesota graduate-housing evaluating different ventilation systems. The gases measured are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The particles measured are particle matter (PM) 2.5 micrometer (µm) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA). The measurements are being conducted during April 2019 in Como Student Community Cooperative (CSCC) that is a graduate housing at the University of Minnesota. The measurements are conducted using an electric stove for cooking. The amount and type of food and oil using for cooking are the same for each measurement. There are six measurements: two experiments measure air quality without any ventilation, two using an extractor as mechanical ventilation, and two using the extractor and windows open as mechanical and natural ventilation. 3The results of experiments show that natural ventilation is most efficient system to control particles and CO2. The natural ventilation reduces the concentration in 79% for LDSA and 55% for PM2.5, compared to the no ventilation. In the same way, CO2 reduces its concentration in 35%. A well-mixed vessel model was implemented to assess particle the formation and decay rates. Removal rates by the extractor were significantly higher for LDSA, which is dominated by smaller particles, than for PM2.5, but in both cases much lower compared to the natural ventilation. There was significant day to day variation in particle concentrations under nominally identical conditions. This may be related to the fat content of the food. Further research is needed to assess the impact of the fat in food on particle generations.

Keywords: cooking, indoor air quality, low-cost sensor, ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
4492 Windcatcher as Sustainable Solution for Natural Ventilation in Hot Arid Regions: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Payam Nejat, Fatemeh Jomehzadeh, Muhamad Zaimi Abd. Majid, Mohd.Badruddin Yusof, Hasrul Haidar Ismail

Abstract:

Currently, building energy consumption has become an international issue especially in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia 14% of total final energy consumption is utilized in the building sector. Due to hot arid climate, 60% of total building energy consumption in this country is associated with cooling systems. In addition in 2011, this country was one of top ten CO2 emitting countries which illustrate the significance of renewable resources to sustaining the energy consumption. Wind as an important renewable energy can play a prominent role to supply natural ventilation inside the building and windcatcher as a traditional technique can be implemented for this purpose. In this paper the different types of windcatchers, its performance and function was reviewed. It can be concluded due high temperature and low humidity in most area of Saudi Arabia this technique can be successfully be employed and help to reduce fossil energy consumption and related CO2 emissions.

Keywords: natural ventilation, windcatcher, wind, badgir

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
4491 Effective Wind-Induced Natural Ventilation in a Residential Apartment Typology

Authors: Tanvi P. Medshinge, Prasad Vaidya, Monisha E. Royan

Abstract:

In India, cooling loads in residential sector is a major contributor to its total energy consumption. Due to the increasing cooling need, the market penetration of air-conditioners is further expected to rise. Natural Ventilation (NV), however, possesses great potential to save significant energy consumption especially for residential buildings in moderate climates. As multifamily residential apartment buildings are designed by repetitive use of prototype designs, deriving individual NV based design prototype solutions for a combination of different wind incidence angles and orientations would provide significant opportunity to address the rise in cooling loads by residential sector. This paper presents the results of NV performance of a selected prototype apartment design with a cluster of four units in Pune, India, and an attempt to improve the NV performance through design modifications. The water table apparatus, a physical modelling tool, is used to study the flow patterns and simulate wind-induced NV performance. Quantification of NV performance is done by post processing images captured from video recordings in terms of percentage of area with good and poor access to ventilation. NV performance of the existing design for eight wind incidence angles showed that of the cluster of four units, the windward units showed good access to ventilation for all rooms, and the leeward units had lower access to ventilation with the bedrooms in the leeward units having the least access. The results showed improved performance in all the units for all wind incidence angles to more than 80% good access to ventilation. Some units showed an additional improvement to more than 90% good access to ventilation. This process of design and performance evaluation improved some individual units from 0% to 100% for good access to ventilation. The results demonstrate the ease of use and the power of the water table apparatus for performance-based design to simulate wind induced NV.  

Keywords: fluid dynamics, prototype design, natural ventilation, simulations, water table apparatus, wind incidence angles

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
4490 A Study of New Window Typology for Palestinian Residential Building for More Sustainable Building

Authors: Nisreen Ardda

Abstract:

Fenestrations are one of the main building envelope elements that play an important role in home social-ecological l factors. They play a vital role in providing natural lighting and ventilation, visual, thermal, and acoustical comfort, and also provide weather-tightness, privacy, a feeling of openness. In most home buildings, fenestrations are controlled manually by the occupants, which significantly impacts occupants' comfort and energy use. Culture plays a central role in the Palestinians window operation behavior. Improved windows design that provides the desired privacy while maintaining the appropriate function of fenestration (natural lighting, thermal comfort, and visual openness) is becoming a necessity. Therefore, this paper proposes a window typology to achieve the social and environmental factors in residential buildings in the West Bank. The window typology and reference building were designed in Rivet 2021, and natural ventilation was carried out in Design Builder 4.3.0.039. The results showed that the proposed typology provides the desired privacy and the feeling of openness without compromising natural ventilation as the existing window did.

Keywords: window design, passive design, sustainable built environment, building material

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
4489 Utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Analysis of Natural Ventilation in Buildings

Authors: A. W. J. Wong, I. H. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Increasing urbanisation has driven building designers to incorporate natural ventilation in the designs of sustainable buildings. This project utilises Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to investigate the natural ventilation of an academic building, [email protected], using an assessment criterion based on daily mean temperature and mean velocity. The areas of interest are the pedestrian level of first and fourth levels of the building. A reference case recommended by the Architectural Institute of Japan was used to validate the simulation model. The validated simulation model was then used for coupled simulations on [email protected] and neighbouring geometries, under two wind speeds. Both steady and transient simulations were used to identify differences in results. Steady and transient results are agreeable with the transient simulation identifying peak velocities during flow development. Under a lower wind speed, the first level was sufficiently ventilated while the fourth level was not. The first level has excessive wind velocities in the higher wind speed and the fourth level was adequately ventilated. Fourth level flow velocity was consistently lower than those of the first level. This is attributed to either simulation model error or poor building design. [email protected] is concluded to have a sufficiently ventilated first level and insufficiently ventilated fourth level. Future works for this project extend to modifying the urban geometry, simulation model improvements, evaluation using other assessment metrics and extending the area of interest to the entire building.

Keywords: buildings, CFD Simulations, natural ventilation, urban airflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
4488 Numerical and Experimental Assessment of a PCM Integrated Solar Chimney

Authors: J. Carlos Frutos Dordelly, M. Coillot, M. El Mankibi, R. Enríquez Miranda, M. José Jimenez, J. Arce Landa

Abstract:

Natural ventilation systems have increasingly been the subject of research due to rising energetic consumption within the building sector and increased environmental awareness. In the last two decades, the mounting concern of greenhouse gas emissions and the need for an efficient passive ventilation system have driven the development of new alternative passive technologies such as ventilated facades, trombe walls or solar chimneys. The objective of the study is the assessment of PCM panels in an in situ solar chimney for the establishment of a numerical model. The PCM integrated solar chimney shows slight performance improvement in terms of mass flow rate and external temperature and outlet temperature difference. An increase of 11.3659 m3/h can be observed during low wind speed periods. Additionally, the surface temperature across the chimney goes beyond 45 °C and allows the activation of PCM panels.

Keywords: energy storage, natural ventilation, phase changing materials, solar chimney, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
4487 Study on the Impact of Windows Location on Occupancy Thermal Comfort by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Farhan E Shafrin, Khandaker Shabbir Ahmed

Abstract:

Natural ventilation strategies continue to be a key alternative to costly mechanical ventilation systems, especially in healthcare facilities, due to increasing energy issues in developing countries, including Bangladesh. Besides, overcrowding and insufficient ventilation strategies remain significant causes of thermal discomfort and hospital infection in Bangladesh. With the proper location of inlet and outlet windows, uniform flow is possible in the occupancy area to achieve thermal comfort. It also determines the airflow pattern of the ward that decreases the movement of the contaminated air. This paper aims to establish a relationship between the location of the windows and the thermal comfort of the occupants in a naturally ventilated hospital ward. It defines the openings and ventilation variables that are interrelated in a way that enhances or limits the health and thermal comfort of occupants. The study conducts a full-scale experiment in one of the naturally ventilated wards in a primary health care hospital in Manikganj, Dhaka. CFD simulation is used to explore the performance of various opening positions in ventilation efficiency and thermal comfort in the study area. The results indicate that the opening located in the hospital ward has a significant impact on the thermal comfort of the occupants and the airflow pattern inside the ward. The findings can contribute to design the naturally ventilated hospital wards by identifying and predicting future solutions when it comes to relationships with the occupants' thermal comforts.

Keywords: CFD simulation, hospital ward, natural ventilation, thermal comfort, window location

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
4486 Visualized Flow Patterns around and inside a Two-Sided Wind-Catcher in the Presence of Upstream Structures

Authors: M. Afshin, A. Sohankar, M. Dehghan Manshadi, M. R. Daneshgar, G. R. Dehghan Kamaragi

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of an upstream structure on the flow pattern within and around the wind-catcher is experimentally investigated by smoke flow visualization techniques. Wind-catchers are an important part of natural ventilation in residential buildings or public places such as shopping centers, libraries, etc. Wind-catchers might be also used in places of high urban densities; hence their potential to provide natural ventilation in this case is dependent on the presence of upstream objects. In this study, the two-sided wind-catcher model was based on a real wind-catcher observed in the city of Yazd, Iran. The present study focuses on the flow patterns inside and outside the isolated two-sided wind-catcher, and on a two-sided wind-catcher in the presence of an upstream structure. The results show that the presence of an upstream structure influences the airflow pattern force and direction. Placing a high upstream object reverses the airflow direction inside the wind-catcher.

Keywords: natural ventilation, smoke flow visualization, two-sided wind-catcher, flow patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
4485 The Role of Semi Open Spaces on Exploitation of Wind-Driven Ventilation

Authors: Paria Saadatjoo

Abstract:

Given that HVAC systems are the main sources of carbon dioxide producers, developing ways to reduce dependence on these systems and making use of natural resources is too important to achieve environmentally friendly buildings. A major part of building potential in terms of using natural energy resources depends on its physical features. So architectural decisions at the first step of the design process can influence the building's energy efficiency significantly. Implementation of semi-open spaces into solid apartment blocks inspired by the concept of courtyard in ancient buildings as a passive cooling strategy is currently enjoying great popularity. However, the analysis of these features and their effect on wind behavior at initial design steps is a difficult task for architects. The main objective of this research was to investigate the influence of semi-open to closed space ratio on airflow patterns in and around midrise buildings and introduce the best ratio in terms of harnessing natural ventilation. The main strategy of this paper was semi-experimental, and the research methodology was descriptive statistics. At the first step, by changing the terrace area, 6 models with various open to closed space ratios were created. These forms were then transferred to CFD software to calculate the primary indicators of natural ventilation potentials such as wind force coefficient, air flow rate, age of air distribution, etc. Investigations indicated that modifying the terrace area and, in other words, the open to closed space ratio influenced the wind force coefficient, airflow rate, and age of air distribution.

Keywords: natural ventilation, wind, midrise, open space, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
4484 CFD Analysis of a Two-Sided Windcatcher Inlet/Outlet Ducts’ Height in Ventilation Flow through a Three Dimensional Room

Authors: Amirreza Niktash, B. P. Huynh

Abstract:

A windcatcher is a structure fitted on the roof of a building for providing natural ventilation by using wind power; it exhausts the inside stale air to the outside and supplies the outside fresh air into the interior space of the building working by pressure difference between outside and inside of the building and using ventilation principles of passive stacks and wind tower, respectively. In this paper, the effect of different heights of inlet/outlets’ ducts of a two-sided windcatcher on the flow rate, flow velocity and flow pattern through a three-dimensional room fitted with the windcatcher are investigated and analysed by using RANS CFD technique and applying standard K-ε turbulence model via a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The achieved results show that the inlet/outlet ducts height strongly affects flow rate, flow velocity and flow pattern especially in the living area of the room when the wind velocity is not too low. The results are confirmed by the experimental test for constructed scaled model in the laboratory and it develops the two-sided windcatcher’s performance in ventilation applications.

Keywords: CFD, RANS, ventilation, windcatcher

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
4483 The Enlightenment of the Ventilation System in Chinese Traditional Residence to Architecture Design

Authors: Wu Xingchun, Chen Xi

Abstract:

Nowadays, China's building energy consumption constitutes 25% of the total energy consumption, half of which was caused by air conditioning in both summer and winter. The ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence, which is totally passive and environmentally friendly, works effectively to create comfortable indoor environment. The research on the ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence can provide advancements to architecture design and energy savings to the society. Through field investigation, case analysis, strategy proposing and other methods, it comes out that the location and layout, the structure system and the design of atrium are the most important elements for a good ventilation system. Taking every factor into consideration, techniques are deployed extensively such as the organization of draught, the design of the thermal pressure ventilation system and the application of modern materials. With the enlightenment of the ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence, we can take effective measures to achieve low energy consumption and sustainable architecture.

Keywords: ventilation system, chinese traditional residence, energy consumption, sustainable architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 570
4482 Deriving Framework for Slum Rehabilitation through Environmental Perspective: Case of Mumbai

Authors: Ashwini Bhosale, Yogesh Patil

Abstract:

Urban areas are extremely complicated environmental settings, where health and well-being of an individual and population are governed by a large number of bio-physical, socio-economical, and inclusive aspects. Although poverty and slums are the prime issues under UN-HABITAT agenda of environmental sustainability, slums, the inevitable part of urban environment, have not accounted for inclusive city planning. Developing nations, where about 60 % of world slum population resides, are increasingly under pressure to uplift the urban poor, particularly slum dwellers. From a point of advantage, these new slum redevelopment projects have succeeded in providing legitimized and more permanent and stable shelter for the low income people, as well as individualized sanitation and water supply. However, they unfortunately follow the “one type fits all" approach and exhibit no response to the climatic design needs on Mumbai. The thesis focuses on the study of environmental perspectives in the context of Daylight, natural ventilation and social aspects in the design process of Slum-Rehabilitation schemes (SRS) – case of Mumbai. It attempts to investigate into Indian approaches about SRS and concludes upon strategies to be incorporated in SRS to improve the overall SRS environment. The main objectives of this work have been to identify and study the spatial configuration and possibilities of daylight and natural ventilation in Slum Rehabilitated buildings. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by comparison with the daylight luminance simulated by lighting software, namely ECOTECT, and with measurements under real skies whereas for the ventilation study purpose, software named FLOW DESIGN was used.

Keywords: urban environment, slum-rehabilitation, daylight, natural-ventilation, architectural consequences

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
4481 CFD Analysis of Passive Cooling Building by Using Solar Chimney for Mild or Warm Climates

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

This research presents the design and analysis of solar air-conditioning systems particularly solar chimney which is a passive strategy for natural ventilation, and demonstrates the structures of these systems’ using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and finally compares the results with several examples, which have been studied experimentally and carried out previously. In order to improve the performance of solar chimney system, highly efficient sub-system components are considered for the design. The general purpose of the research is to understand how efficiently solar chimney systems generate cooling, and is to improve the efficient of such systems for integration with existing and future domestic buildings.

Keywords: active and passive solar technologies, solar cooling system, solar chimney, natural ventilation, cavity depth, CFD models for solar chimney

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
4480 Prediction of CO2 Concentration in the Korea Train Express (KTX) Cabins

Authors: Yong-Il Lee, Do-Yeon Hwang, Won-Seog Jeong, Duckshin Park

Abstract:

Recently, because of the high-speed trains forced ventilation, it is important to control the ventilation. The ventilation is for controlling various contaminants, temperature, and humidity. The high-speed train route is straight to a destination having a high speed. And there are many mountainous areas in Korea. So, tunnel rate is higher then other country. KTX HVAC block off the outdoor air, when entering tunnel. So the high tunnel rate is an effect of ventilation in the KTX cabin. It is important to reduction rate in CO2 concentration prediction. To meet the air quality of the public transport vehicles recommend standards, the KTX cabin of CO2 concentration should be managed. In this study, the concentration change was predicted by CO2 prediction simulation in route to be opened.

Keywords: CO2 prediction, KTX, ventilation, infrastructure and transportation engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
4479 Traditional Values and Their Adaptation in Social Housing Design: Towards a New Typology and Establishment of 'Airhouse' Standard in Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Firrdhaus Mohd Sahabuddin, Cristina Gonzalez-Longo

Abstract:

Large migration from rural areas to urban areas like Kuala Lumpur has led to some implications for economic, social and cultural development. This high population has placed enormous demand on the existing housing stocks, especially for low-income groups. However, some issues arise, one of which is overheated indoor air temperature. This problem contributes to the high-energy usage that forces huge sums of money to be spent on cooling the house by using mechanical equipment. Therefore, this study focuses on thermal comfort in social housing, and incorporates traditional values into its design to achieve a certain measurement of natural ventilation in a house. From the study, the carbon emission and energy consumption for an air-conditioned house is 67%, 66% higher than a naturally ventilated house. Therefore, this research has come up with a new typology design, which has a large exposed wall area and full-length openings on the opposite walls to increase cross ventilation. At the end of this research, the measurement of thermal comfort for a naturally ventilated building called ‘AirHouse’ has been identified.

Keywords: tropical architecture, natural ventilation, passive design, AirHouse, social housing design

Procedia PDF Downloads 547
4478 The Impact and Performances of Controlled Ventilation Strategy on Thermal Comfort and Indoor Atmosphere in Building

Authors: Selma Bouasria, Mahi Abdelkader, Abbès Azzi, Herouz Keltoum

Abstract:

Ventilation in buildings is a key element to provide high indoor air quality. Its efficiency appears as one of the most important factors in maintaining thermal comfort for occupants of buildings. Personal displacement ventilation is a new ventilation concept that combines the positive features of displacement ventilation with those of task conditioning or personalized ventilation. This work aims to study numerically the supply air flow in a room to optimize a comfortable microclimate for an occupant. The room is heated, and a dummy is designed to simulate the occupant. Two types of configurations were studied. The first consist of a room without windows; and the second one is a local equipped with a window. The influence of the blowing speed and the solar radiation coming from the window on the thermal comfort of the occupant is studied. To conduct this study we used the turbulence models, namely the high Reynolds k-e, the RNG and the SST models. The numerical tool used is based on the finite volume method. The numerical simulation of the supply air flow in a room can predict and provide a significant information about indoor comfort.

Keywords: local, comfort, thermique, ventilation, internal environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
4477 Improvement of Ventilation and Thermal Comfort Using the Atrium Design for Traditional Folk Houses-Fujian Earthen Building

Authors: Ying-Ming Su

Abstract:

Fujian earthen building which was known as a classic for ecological buildings was listed on the world heritage in 2008 (UNESCO) in China. Its design strategy can be applied to modern architecture planning and design. This study chose two different cases (Round Atrium: Er-Yi Building, Double Round Atrium: Zhen-Chen Building) of earthen building in Fu-Jian to compare the ventilation effects of different atrium forms. We adopt field measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of temperature, humidity, and wind environment to identify the relationship between external environment and atrium about comfort and to confirm the relationship about atrium H/W (height/width). Results indicate that, through the atrium convection effect, it makes the natural wind guides to each space surrounded and keeps indoor comfort. It illustrates that the smaller the ratio of the H/W which is the relationship between the height and the width of an atrium is, the greater the wind speed generated within the street valley. Moreover, the wind speed is very close to the reference wind speed. This field measurement verifies that the value of H/W has great influence of solar radiation heat and sunshine shadows. The ventilation efficiency is: Er-Yi Building (H/W =0.2778) > Zhen-Chen Building (H/W=0.3670). Comparing the cases with the same shape but with different H/W, through the different size patios, airflow revolves in the atriums and can be brought into each interior space. The atrium settings meet the need of building ventilation, and can adjust the humidity and temperature within the buildings. It also creates good ventilation effect.

Keywords: traditional folk houses, atrium, tulou, ventilation, building microclimate

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
4476 Optimal Trajectory Finding of IDP Ventilation Control with Outdoor Air Information and Indoor Health Risk Index

Authors: Minjeong Kim, Seungchul Lee, Iman Janghorban Esfahani, Jeong Tai Kim, ChangKyoo Yoo

Abstract:

A trajectory of set-point of ventilation control systems plays an important role for efficient ventilation inside subway stations since it affects the level of indoor air pollutants and ventilation energy consumption. To maintain indoor air quality (IAQ) at a comfortable range with lower ventilation energy consumption, the optimal trajectory of the ventilation control system needs to be determined. The concentration of air pollutants inside the station shows a diurnal variation in accordance with the variations in the number of passengers and subway frequency. To consider the diurnal variation of IAQ, an iterative dynamic programming (IDP) that searches for a piecewise control policy by separating whole duration into several stages is used. When outdoor air is contaminated by pollutants, it enters the subway station through the ventilation system, which results in the deteriorated IAQ and adverse effects on passenger health. In this study, to consider the influence of outdoor air quality (OAQ), a new performance index of the IDP with the passenger health risk and OAQ is proposed. This study was carried out for an underground subway station at Seoul Metro, Korea. The optimal set-points of the ventilation control system are determined every 3 hours, then, the ventilation controller adjusts the ventilation fan speed according to the optimal set-point changes. Compared to manual ventilation system which is operated irrespective of the OAQ, the IDP-based ventilation control system saves 3.7% of the energy consumption. Compared to the fixed set-point controller which is operated irrespective of the IAQ diurnal variation, the IDP-based controller shows better performance with a 2% decrease in energy consumption, maintaining the comfortable IAQ range inside the station.

Keywords: indoor air quality, iterative dynamic algorithm, outdoor air information, ventilation control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
4475 Using Dynamic Glazing to Eliminate Mechanical Cooling in Multi-family Highrise Buildings

Authors: Ranojoy Dutta, Adam Barker

Abstract:

Multifamily residential buildings are increasingly being built with large glazed areas to provide tenants with greater daylight and outdoor views. However, traditional double-glazed window assemblies can lead to significant thermal discomfort from high radiant temperatures as well as increased cooling energy use to address solar gains. Dynamic glazing provides an effective solution by actively controlling solar transmission to maintain indoor thermal comfort, without compromising the visual connection to outdoors. This study uses thermal simulations across three Canadian cities (Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal) to verify if dynamic glazing along with operable windows and ceiling fans can maintain the indoor operative temperature of a prototype southwest facing high-rise apartment unit within the ASHRAE 55 adaptive comfort range for a majority of the year, without any mechanical cooling. Since this study proposes the use of natural ventilation for cooling and the typical building life cycle is 30-40 years, the typical weather files have been modified based on accepted global warming projections for increased air temperatures by 2050. Results for the prototype apartment confirm that thermal discomfort with dynamic glazing occurs only for less than 0.7% of the year. However, in the baseline scenario with low-E glass there are up to 7% annual hours of discomfort despite natural ventilation with operable windows and improved air movement with ceiling fans.

Keywords: electrochromic glazing, multi-family housing, passive cooling, thermal comfort, natural ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
4474 Role of Adaptive Support Ventilation in Weaning of COPD Patients

Authors: A. Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed, B. Sameh Kamal el Maraghi

Abstract:

Introduction: Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is an improved closed-loop ventilation mode that provides both pressure-controlled ventilation and PSV according to the patient’s needs. Aim of the work: To compare the short-term effects of Adaptive support ventilation (ASV), with conventional Pressure support ventilation (PSV) in weaning of intubated COPD patients. Patients and methods: Fifty patients admitted in the intensive care with acute exacerbation of COPD and needing intubation were included in the study. All patients were initially ventilated with control/assist control mode, in a stepwise manner and were receiving standard medical therapy. Patients were randomized into two groups to receive either ASV or PSV. Results: Out of fifty patients included in the study forty one patients in both studied groups were weaned successfully according to their ABG data and weaning indices. APACHE II score showed no significant difference in both groups. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in term of, duration of mechanical ventilation, weaning hours and length of ICU stay being shorter in (group 1) weaned by ASV. Re-intubation and mortality rate were higher in (group 11) weaned by conventional PSV, however the differences were not significant. Conclusion: ASV can provide automated weaning and achieve shorter weaning time for COPD patients hence leading to reduction in the total duration of MV, length of stay, and hospital costs.

Keywords: COPD patients, ASV, PSV, mechanical ventilation (MV)

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
4473 Factors Associated with Commencement of Non-Invasive Ventilation

Authors: Manoj Kumar Reddy Pulim, Lakshmi Muthukrishnan, Geetha Jayapathy, Radhika Raman

Abstract:

Introduction: In the past two decades, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) emerged as one of the most important advances in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure in children. In the acute setting, it is an alternative to intubation with a goal to preserve normal physiologic functions, decrease airway injury, and prevent respiratory tract infections. There is a need to determine the clinical profile and parameters which point towards the need for NIV in the pediatric emergency setting. Objectives: i) To study the clinical profile of children who required non invasive ventilation and invasive ventilation, ii) To study the clinical parameters common to children who required non invasive ventilation. Methods: All children between one month to 18 years, who were intubated in the pediatric emergency department and those for whom decision to commence Non Invasive Ventilation was made in Emergency Room were included in the study. Children were transferred to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit and started on Non Invasive Ventilation as per our hospital policy and followed up in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit. Clinical profile of all children which included age, gender, diagnosis and indication for intubation were documented. Clinical parameters such as respiratory rate, heart rate, saturation, grunting were documented. Parameters obtained were subject to statistical analysis. Observations: Airway disease (Bronchiolitis 25%, Viral induced wheeze 22%) was a common diagnosis in 32 children who required Non Invasive Ventilation. Neuromuscular disorder was the common diagnosis in 27 children (78%) who were Intubated. 17 children commenced on Non Invasive Ventilation who later needed invasive ventilation had Neuromuscular disease. High frequency nasal cannula was used in 32, and mask ventilation in 17 children. Clinical parameters common to the Non Invasive Ventilation group were age < 1 year (17), tachycardia n = 7 (22%), tachypnea n = 23 (72%) and severe respiratory distress n = 9 (28%), grunt n = 7 (22%), SPO2 (80% to 90%) n = 16. Children in the Non Invasive Ventilation + INTUBATION group were > 3 years (9), had tachycardia 7 (41%), tachypnea 9(53%) with a male predominance n = 9. In statistical comparison among 3 groups,'p' value was significant for pH, saturation, and use of Ionotrope. Conclusion: Invasive ventilation can be avoided in the paediatric Emergency Department in children with airway disease, by commencing Non Invasive Ventilation early. Intubation in the pediatric emergency department has a higher association with neuromuscular disorders.

Keywords: clinical parameters, indications, non invasive ventilation, paediatric emergency room

Procedia PDF Downloads 201