Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 887

Search results for: expansion

887 Durability and Early-Age Behavior of Sprayed Concrete with an Expansion Admixture

Authors: Kyong-Ku Yun, Kyeo-Re Lee, Kyong Namkung, Seung-Yeon Han, Pan-Gil Choi

Abstract:

Sprayed concrete is a way to spray a concrete using a machinery with high air pressure. There are insufficient studies on the durability and early-age behavior of sprayed concrete using high quality expansion agent. A series of an experiment were executed with 5 varying expansion agent replacement rates, while all the other conditions were kept constant, including cement binder content and water-cement ratio. The tests includes early-age shrinkage test, rapid chloride permeability test, and image analysis of air void structure. The early-age expansion test with the variation of expansion agent show that the expansion strain increases as the ratio of expansion agent increases. The rapid chloride permeability test shows that it decrease as the expansion agent increase. Therefore, expansion agent affects into the rapid chloride permeability in a better way. As expansion agent content increased, spacing factor slightly decreased while specific surface kept relatively stable. As a results, the optimum ratio of expansion agent would be selected between 7 % and 11%.

Keywords: sprayed concrete, durability, early-age behavior, expansion admixture

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886 A Summary of the Research on the Driving Mechanism of Space Expansion in China's National New District

Authors: Qin Xia

Abstract:

’National New District’ as a regional overall promotion of strategic thinking has become increasingly mature, but its spatial expansion is still chaotic and disorderly, so it is urgent to summarize the complex and unique driving mechanism contained in its spatial expansion to formulate sustainable urban expansion plan. Under the understanding of the general laws of the driving mechanism of China's space expansion, it is found that the existing research on the driving mechanism of the space expansion of national new districts is insufficient. The research area focuses on the research of the driving mechanism of the space expansion of a single new area. In terms of research methods, qualitative description is the main focus. In terms of research content, it is limited to the expansion speed, intensity, and area of the new district itself and does not involve the expansion and utilization efficiency of space and the spillover efficiency to surrounding cities. The specific connotations of social, economic, political, and geographical categories are not thoroughly explored. It is often a general explanation that a certain factor has promoted it. The logic is not rigorous and convincing, and the description is relatively static, with different time and space. There is less literature on scale interaction. Through the reflection on the key and difficult points of the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area, it is clear that the existing research on the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area should be continued to drive the sustainable expansion of space.

Keywords: national new district, space expansion, driving mechanism, existing research

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885 Evaluating Urban Land Expansion Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

With massive population expansion and fast economic development in last decade, urban land has increasingly expanded and formed high informal development territory in Kabul city. This paper investigates integrated urbanization trends in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the present city using GIS and remote sensing. This study explores the spatial and temporal difference of urban land expansion and land use categories among different time intervals, 1964-1978 and 1978-2008 from 1964 to 2008 in Kabul city. Furthermore, the goal of this paper is to understand the extent of urban land expansion and the factors driving urban land expansion in Kabul city. Many factors like population expansion, the return of refugees from neighboring countries and significant economic growth of the city affected urban land expansion. Across all the study area urban land expansion rate, population expansion rate and economic growth rate have been compared to analyze the relationship of driving forces with urban land expansion. Based on urban land change data detected by interpreting land use maps, it was found that in the entire study area the urban territory has been expanded by 14 times between 1964 and 2008.

Keywords: GIS, Kabul city, land use, urban land expansion, urbanization

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884 A Generalization of Planar Pascal’s Triangle to Polynomial Expansion and Connection with Sierpinski Patterns

Authors: Wajdi Mohamed Ratemi

Abstract:

The very well-known stacked sets of numbers referred to as Pascal’s triangle present the coefficients of the binomial expansion of the form (x+y)n. This paper presents an approach (the Staircase Horizontal Vertical, SHV-method) to the generalization of planar Pascal’s triangle for polynomial expansion of the form (x+y+z+w+r+⋯)n. The presented generalization of Pascal’s triangle is different from other generalizations of Pascal’s triangles given in the literature. The coefficients of the generalized Pascal’s triangles, presented in this work, are generated by inspection, using embedded Pascal’s triangles. The coefficients of I-variables expansion are generated by horizontally laying out the Pascal’s elements of (I-1) variables expansion, in a staircase manner, and multiplying them with the relevant columns of vertically laid out classical Pascal’s elements, hence avoiding factorial calculations for generating the coefficients of the polynomial expansion. Furthermore, the classical Pascal’s triangle has some pattern built into it regarding its odd and even numbers. Such pattern is known as the Sierpinski’s triangle. In this study, a presentation of Sierpinski-like patterns of the generalized Pascal’s triangles is given. Applications related to those coefficients of the binomial expansion (Pascal’s triangle), or polynomial expansion (generalized Pascal’s triangles) can be in areas of combinatorics, and probabilities.

Keywords: pascal’s triangle, generalized pascal’s triangle, polynomial expansion, sierpinski’s triangle, combinatorics, probabilities

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883 Grating Scale Thermal Expansion Error Compensation for Large Machine Tools Based on Multiple Temperature Detection

Authors: Wenlong Feng, Zhenchun Du, Jianguo Yang

Abstract:

To decrease the grating scale thermal expansion error, a novel method which based on multiple temperature detections is proposed. Several temperature sensors are installed on the grating scale and the temperatures of these sensors are recorded. The temperatures of every point on the grating scale are calculated by interpolating between adjacent sensors. According to the thermal expansion principle, the grating scale thermal expansion error model can be established by doing the integral for the variations of position and temperature. A novel compensation method is proposed in this paper. By applying the established error model, the grating scale thermal expansion error is decreased by 90% compared with no compensation. The residual positioning error of the grating scale is less than 15um/10m and the accuracy of the machine tool is significant improved.

Keywords: thermal expansion error of grating scale, error compensation, machine tools, integral method

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882 Effect of Texture of Orthorhombic Martensite on Thermal Expansion of Metastable Titanium Alloy

Authors: E. Stepanova, N. Popov, S. Demakov, S. Stepanov

Abstract:

This paper examines the so-called invar-type behavior of metastable titanium alloy subjected to cold rolling. The effect was shown to occur due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion of titanium orthorhombic martensite. By means of X-ray diffraction analysis and dilatometry analyses, the influence of crystallographic texture of orthorhombic martensite on the coefficient of thermal expansion of sheets of metastable titanium alloy VT23 was examined. Anisotropy of the coefficient of thermal expansion has been revealed. It was lower in the rolling plane and higher along the transverse direction of the cold-rolled sheet comparing to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the unprocessed alloy.

Keywords: invar-type, cold rolling, metastable titanium alloy, texture

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881 A Study on Explicitation Strategies Employed in Persian Subtitling of English Crime Movies

Authors: Hossein Heidari Tabrizi, Azizeh Chalak, Hossein Enayat

Abstract:

The present study seeks to investigate the application of expansion strategy in Persian subtitles of English crime movies. More precisely, this study aims at classifying the different types of expansion used in subtitles as well as investigating the appropriateness or inappropriateness of the application of each type. To achieve this end, three English movies; namely, The Net (1995), Contact (1997) and Mission Impossible 2 (2000), available with Persian subtitles, were selected for the study. To collect the data, the above mentioned movies were watched and those parts of the Persian subtitles in which expansion had been used were identified and extracted along with their English dialogs. Then, the extracted Persian subtitles were classified based on the reason that led to expansion in each case. Next, the appropriateness or inappropriateness of using expansion in the extracted Persian subtitles was descriptively investigated. Finally, an equivalent not containing any expansion was proposed for those cases in which the meaning could be fully transferred without this strategy. The findings of the study indicated that the reasons range from explicitation (explicitation of visual, co-textual and contextual information), mistranslation and paraphrasing to the preferences of subtitlers. Furthermore, it was found that the employment of expansion strategy was inappropriate in all cases except for those caused by explicitation of contextual information since correct and shorter equivalents which were equally capable of conveying the intended meaning could be posited for the original dialogs.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, English crime movies, expansion strategies, Persian subtitles

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880 Hybrid Finite Element Analysis of Expansion Joints for Piping Systems in Aircraft Engine External Configurations and Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Dong Wook Lee

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to analyze the stiffness of the expansion joint with structural support using a hybrid method combining computational and analytical methods. Many expansion joints found in tubes and ducts of mechanical structures are designed to absorb thermal expansion mismatch between their structural members and deal with misalignments introduced from the assembly/manufacturing processes. One of the important design perspectives is the system’s vibrational characteristics. We calculate the stiffness as a characterization parameter for structural joint systems using a combined Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and an analytical method. We apply the methods to two sample applications: external configurations of aircraft engines and nuclear power plant structures.

Keywords: expansion joint, expansion joint stiffness, finite element analysis, nuclear power plants, aircraft engine external configurations

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879 Urban Land Expansion Impact Assessment on Agriculture Land in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

Kabul city is experiencing urban land expansion in an unprecedented scale, especially since the last decade. With massive population expansion and fast economic development, urban land has increasingly expanded and encroached upon agriculture land during the urbanization history of the city. This paper evaluates the integrated urban land expansion impact on agriculture land in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the city between 1962-1964. The paper studies the temporal and spatial characteristic of agriculture land and agriculture land loss in Kabul city using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing till 2008. Many temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imageries were interpreted to detect the temporal and spatial characteristics of agriculture land loss. Different interval study periods, however, had vast difference in the agriculture land loss which is due to the urban land expansion trends in the city. the high number of Agriculture land adjacent to the city center and urban fringe have been converted into urban land during the study period in the city, as the agriculture land is highly correlated with the urban land.

Keywords: agriculture land, agriculture land loss, Kabul city, urban land expansion, urbanization

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878 Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage and Expansion Assessment of Rice Husk Ash Concrete and Its Comparison with the Control Concrete

Authors: Hamed Ahmadi Moghadam, Omolbanin Arasteh Khoshbin

Abstract:

The possibility of using of rice husk ash (RHA) of Guilan (a province located in the north of Iran) (RHA) in concrete was studied by performing experiments. Mechanical properties and shrinkage and expansion of concrete containing different percentage of RHA and the control concrete consisting of cement type II were investigated. For studying, a number of cube and prism concrete specimens containing of 5 to 30% of RHA with constant water to binder ratio of 0.4 were casted and the compressive strength, tensile strength, shrinkage and expansion for water curing conditions up to 360 days were measured. The tests results show that the cement replacement of rice husk ash (RHA) caused both the quality and mechanical properties alterations. It is shown that the compressive strength, tensile strength increase also shrinkage and expansion of specimens were increased that should be controlled in mass concrete structures.

Keywords: rice husk ash, mechanical properties, shrinkage and expansion, Pozzolan

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877 Evaluation of Spatial Correlation Length and Karhunen-Loeve Expansion Terms for Predicting Reliability Level of Long-Term Settlement in Soft Soils

Authors: Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hadi Khabbaz, Behzad Fatahi

Abstract:

The spectral random field method is one of the widely used methods to obtain more reliable and accurate results in geotechnical problems involving material variability. Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) expansion method was applied to perform random field discretization of cross-correlated creep parameters. Karhunen-Loeve expansion method is based on eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of covariance function adopting Kernel integral solution. In this paper, the accuracy of Karhunen-Loeve expansion was investigated to predict long-term settlement of soft soils adopting elastic visco-plastic creep model. For this purpose, a parametric study was carried to evaluate the effect of K-L expansion terms and spatial correlation length on the reliability of results. The results indicate that small values of spatial correlation length require more K-L expansion terms. Moreover, by increasing spatial correlation length, the coefficient of variation (COV) of creep settlement increases, confirming more conservative and safer prediction.

Keywords: Karhunen-Loeve expansion, long-term settlement, reliability analysis, spatial correlation length

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876 Transmission Network Expansion Planning in Deregulated Power Systems to Facilitate Competition under Uncertainties

Authors: Hooshang Mohammad Alikhani, Javad Nikoukar

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Restructuring and deregulation of power industry have changed the objectives of transmission expansion planning and increased the uncertainties. Due to these changes, new approaches and criteria are needed for transmission planning in deregulated power systems. The objective of this research work is to present a new approach for transmission expansion planning with considering new objectives and uncertainties in deregulated power systems. The approach must take into account the desires of all stakeholders in transmission expansion planning. Market based criteria must be defined to achieve the new objectives. Combination of market based criteria, technical criteria and economical criteria must be used for measuring the goodness of expansion plans to achieve market requirements, technical requirements, and economical requirements altogether.

Keywords: deregulated power systems, transmission network, stakeholder, energy systems

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875 Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Young’s Modulus of Silica-Reinforced Epoxy Composite

Authors: Hyu Sang Jo, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the evaluation of thermal stability of the micrometer-sized silica particle reinforced epoxy composite was carried out through the measurement of thermal expansion coefficient and Young’s modulus of the specimens. For all the specimens in this study from the baseline to those containing 50 wt% silica filler, the thermal expansion coefficients and the Young’s moduli were gradually decreased down to 20% and increased up to 41%, respectively. The experimental results were compared with filler-volume-based simple empirical relations. The experimental results of thermal expansion coefficients correspond with those of Thomas’s model which is modified from the rule of mixture. However, the measured result for Young’s modulus tends to be increased slightly. The differences in increments of the moduli between experimental and numerical model data are quite large.

Keywords: thermal stability, silica-reinforced, epoxy composite, coefficient of thermal expansion, empirical model

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874 Difference Expansion Based Reversible Data Hiding Scheme Using Edge Directions

Authors: Toshanlal Meenpal, Ankita Meenpal

Abstract:

A very important technique in reversible data hiding field is Difference expansion. Secret message as well as the cover image may be completely recovered without any distortion after data extraction process due to reversibility feature. In general, in any difference expansion scheme embedding is performed by integer transform in the difference image acquired by grouping two neighboring pixel values. This paper proposes an improved reversible difference expansion embedding scheme. We mainly consider edge direction for embedding by modifying the difference of two neighboring pixels values. In general, the larger difference tends to bring a degraded stego image quality than the smaller difference. Image quality in the range of 0.5 to 3.7 dB in average is achieved by the proposed scheme, which is shown through the experimental results. However payload wise it achieves almost similar capacity in comparisons with previous method.

Keywords: information hiding, wedge direction, difference expansion, integer transform

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873 Conversion of HVAC Lines into HVDC in Transmission Expansion Planning

Authors: Juan P. Novoa, Mario A. Rios

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This paper presents a transmission planning methodology that considers the conversion of HVAC transmission lines to HVDC as an alternative of expansion of power systems, as a consequence of restrictions for the construction of new lines. The transmission expansion planning problem formulates an optimization problem that minimizes the total cost that includes the investment cost to convert lines from HVAC to HVDC and possible required reinforcements of the power system prior to the conversion. The costs analysis assesses the impact of the conversion on the reliability because transmission lines are out of service during the conversion work. The presented methodology is applied to a test system considering a planning a horizon of 10 years.

Keywords: transmission expansion planning, HVDC, cost optimization, energy non-supplied

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872 Modeling Studies on the Elevated Temperatures Formability of Tube Ends Using RSM

Authors: M. J. Davidson, N. Selvaraj, L. Venugopal

Abstract:

The elevated temperature forming studies on the expansion of thin walled tubes have been studied in the present work. The influence of process parameters namely the die angle, the die ratio and the operating temperatures on the expansion of tube ends at elevated temperatures is carried out. The range of operating parameters have been identified by perfoming extensive simulation studies. The hot forming parameters have been evaluated for AA2014 alloy for performing the simulation studies. Experimental matrix has been developed from the feasible range got from the simulation results. The design of experiments is used for the optimization of process parameters. Response Surface Method’s (RSM) and Box-Behenken design (BBD) is used for developing the mathematical model for expansion. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to analyze the influence of process parameters on the expansion of tube ends. The effect of various process combinations of expansion are analyzed through graphical representations. The developed model is found to be appropriate as the coefficient of determination value is very high and is equal to 0.9726. The predicted values are found to coincide well with the experimental results, within acceptable error limits.

Keywords: expansion, optimization, Response Surface Method (RSM), ANOVA, bbd, residuals, regression, tube

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871 Asymptotic Expansion of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers Equation

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu

Abstract:

It is common knowledge that many physical problems (such as non-linear shallow-water waves and wave motion in plasmas) can be described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, which possesses certain special solutions, known as solitary waves or solitons. As a marriage of the KdV equation and the classical Burgers (KdVB) equation, the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation is a mathematical model of waves on shallow water surfaces in the presence of viscous dissipation. Asymptotic analysis is a method of describing limiting behavior and is a key tool for exploring the differential equations which arise in the mathematical modeling of real-world phenomena. By using variable transformations, the asymptotic expansion of the KdVB equation is presented in this paper. The asymptotic expansion may provide a good gauge on the validation of the corresponding numerical scheme.

Keywords: asymptotic expansion, differential equation, Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation, soliton

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870 Effect of Addition Rate of Expansive Additive on Autogenous Shrinkage and Delayed Expansion of Ultra-High Strength Mortar

Authors: Yulu Zhang, Atushi Teramoto, Taka-Aki Ohkubo

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of expansive additives on autogenous shrinkage and delayed expansion of ultra-high strength mortar was explored. The specimens made for the study were composed of ultra-high strength mortar, which was mixed with ettringite-lime composite type expansive additive. Two series of experiments were conducted with the specimens. The experimental results confirmed that the autogenous shrinkage of specimens was effectively decreased by increasing the proportion of the expansive additive. On the other hand, for the specimens, which had 7% expansive additive, and were cured for seven days at a constant temperature of 20°C, and then cured for a long time in either in an underwater, moist (Relative humidity: 100%) or dry air (Relative humidity: 60%) environment, excessively large expansion strain occurred. Specifically, typical turtle shell-like swelling expansion cracks were confirmed in the specimens that underwent long-term curing in an underwater and moist environment. According to the result of hydration analysis, the formation of expansive substances, calcium hydroxide and alumina, ferric oxide, tri-sulfate contribute to the occurrence of delayed expansion.

Keywords: ultra-high strength mortar, expansive additive, autogenous shrinkage, delayed expansion

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869 Thermal Radiation Effect on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Plate with Varying Density and Volumetric Expansion Coefficient

Authors: Sadia Siddiqa, Z. Khan, M. A. Hossain

Abstract:

In this article, the effect of thermal radiation on mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid along a highly heated vertical flat plate is considered with varying density and volumetric expansion coefficient. The density of the fluid is assumed to vary exponentially with temperature, however; volumetric expansion coefficient depends linearly on temperature. Boundary layer equations are transformed into convenient form by introducing primitive variable formulations. Solutions of transformed system of equations are obtained numerically through implicit finite difference method along with Gaussian elimination technique. Results are discussed in view of various parameters, like thermal radiation parameter, volumetric expansion parameter and density variation parameter on the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate. It is concluded from the present investigation that increase in volumetric expansion parameter decreases wall shear stress and enhances heat transfer rate.

Keywords: thermal radiation, mixed convection, variable density, variable volumetric expansion coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
868 Design of Tube Expanders with Groove Shapes to Reduce Deformation of Tube Inner Grooves in Copper Tube Expansion

Authors: I. Sin, H. Kim, S. Park

Abstract:

Fin-tube heat exchangers have grooves inside tubes to improve heat exchange performance. However, during the tube expansion process, heat exchange efficiency is decreased due to large deformation of tube inner grooves. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a tube expander with groove shapes on its outer surface to minimize deformation of the inner grooves in copper tube expansion for fin-tube heat exchangers. In order to achieve this goal, first, we have tried to calculate tube inner groove deformation by the currently used tube expander without groove shapes on its surface. The tube inner groove deformation was acquired by elastoplastic finite element analysis from the boundary conditions with one tube end fixed and friction between the tube and tube expander (friction coefficient: 0.15). The tube expansion process was simulated by inserting the tube expander into the tube with a speed of 90 mm/s. The analysis results showed that tube inner groove heights were decreased by approximately 8 % from 0.15 mm to 0.138 mm with stress concentrations observed at the groove end, consistent with experimental results. Based on the current results, we are trying to design a novel shape of the tube expander with grooves to further reduce deformation tube inner grooves in copper tube expansion. For this, we will select major design variables of tube expander groove shapes by conducting sensitivity analysis and then optimize the design variables using the Taguchi method.

Keywords: tube expansion, tube expander, heat exchanger, finite element

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867 Numerical Investigation of the Diffuser: Geometrical Parameters Effect on Flow Characteristics for Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine

Authors: Hany El Said Fawaz

Abstract:

This study deals with numerical simulation using a commercial package 'ANSYS FLUENT 14.5' for flow characteristics of a flanged diffuser wind turbine. Influence of geometrical parameters such as flange height, diffuser length, and expansion angle on the lift and drag performance were investigated. As the angle of expansion increases, a considerable flow acceleration through the diffuser occur at expansion angle ranged from 0° and 12° due to the presence of undisturbed streamlines. after that flow circulation is developed near the diffuser outlet and increase with increasing expansion angle which causes a negligible effect of expansion angle. The effect of diffuser length on flow behavior shows that when the diffuser length ratio is less than 1.25, flow acceleration is observed and increased with diffuser length ratio. After this value, the flow field at diffuser outlet is characterized by a recirculation zone. The diffuser flange has an impact effect of the flow behavior as a low pressure zone is developed behind the flange, while a high pressure zone is generated in front of it. As the flange height increase, the intensity of both low and high pressure regions increase which tend to accelerate the flow inside the diffuser till flange height ratio reaches to 0.75.

Keywords: wind turbine, flanged diffuser, expansion angle, diffuser length

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866 Development of Materials Based on Phosphates of NaZr2(PO4)3 with Low Thermal Expansion

Authors: V. Yu. Volgutov, A. I. Orlova, S. A. Khainakov

Abstract:

NaZr2(PO4)3 (NZP) and their structural analogues are characterized by a peculiar behaviors on heating – they have different expansion and contraction along different crystallographic directions due to specific arrangements of crystal structure in these compounds. An important feature of such structures is the ability to incorporate into their structural analogues wide variety of metal cations having different size and oxidation states, with different combinations and concentrations. These cations are located in different crystallographic non-equivalent positions of octahedral tetrahedral crystal framework as well as in inter-framework cavities. Through, due to iso- and hetero-valent isomorphism of the cations (and the anions) in NZP, it becomes possible to tuning the compositions and to obtain the compounds with ‘on a plan’ properties. For the design of compounds with low and ultra-low thermal expansion including those with tailored thermal expansion properties, the following crystallochemical principles it seems are promising: 1) Insertion into crystal M1 position the cations having different sizes and, 2) the variation in the composition of compounds, providing different occupation of crystal M1 position. Following these principles we have designed and synthesized the next NZP-type phosphates series: a) where radii of the cations in the M1 crystal position was varied: Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3 - Th1/4Zr2(PO4)3 (series I); R1/3Zr2(PO4)3 where R= Nd, Eu, Er (series II), b) where the occupation of M1 crystal position was varied: Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3-Er1/3Zr2(PO4)3 (series III) and Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3-Sr1/2Zr2(PO4)3 (series IV). The thermal expansion parameters were determined over the range of 25-800ºC. For each series the minimum axial coefficient of thermal expansion αa = αb, αc and their anisotropy Δα = Iαa - αcI, 10-6 K-1 was found as next: -1.51, 1.07, 2.58 for Th1/4Zr2(PO4)3 (series I); -0.72, 0.10, 0.81 for Nd1/3Zr2(PO4)3 (series II); -2.78, 1.35, 4.12 for Er1/6Zr1/8Zr2(PO4)3 (series III); 2.23, 1.32, 0.91 for Sr1/2Zr2(PO4)3 (series IV). The measured tendencies of the thermal expansion of crystals were in good agreement with predicted ones. For one of the members from the studied phosphates namely Th1/16Zr3/16Zr2(PO4)3 structural refinement have been carried out at 25, 200, 600, and 800°C. The dependencies of the structural parameters with the temperature have been determined.

Keywords: high-temperature crystallography, NaZr2(PO4)3, (NZP) analogs, structural-chemical principles, tuning thermal expansion

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865 Research on Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique with Multi-Rolls

Authors: Soon Ok Jo, Han Kyu Jeung, Si Woo Park

Abstract:

With the process of consistent expansion of carbon fiber in width (Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique), it can be expected that such process can enhance the production of carbon fiber reinforced composite material and quality of the product. In this research, the method of mechanically expanding carbon fiber and increasing its width was investigated by using various geometric rolls. In addition, experimental type of carbon fiber expansion device was developed and tested using 12K carbon fiber. As a result, the effects of expansion of such fiber under optimized operating conditions and geometric structure of an elliptical roll, were analyzed.

Keywords: carbon fiber, tow spreading fiber, pre-preg, roll structure

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864 Methodology for the Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Pneumatics Systems

Authors: Mario Lupaca, Karol Munoz, Victor De Negri

Abstract:

The present article presents a methodology for the improvement of the energy efficiency in pneumatic systems through the restoring of air. In this way, three techniques of expansion of a cylinder are identified: Expansion using the air of the compressor (conventional), restoring the air (efficient), and combining the air of the compressor and the restored air (hybrid). The methodology starts with the development of the GRAFCET of the system so that it can be decided whether to expand the cylinder in a conventional, efficient, or hybrid way. The methodology can be applied to any case. Finally, graphs of comparison between the three methods of expansion with certain cylinder strokes and workloads are presented, to facilitate the subsequent selection of one system or another.

Keywords: energetic, efficiency, GRAFCET, methodology, pneumatic

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
863 Smart Online Library Catalog System with Query Expansion for the University of the Cordilleras

Authors: Vincent Ballola, Raymund Dilan, Thelma Palaoag

Abstract:

The Smart Online Library Catalog System with Query Expansion seeks to address the low usage of the library because of the emergence of the Internet. Library users are not accustomed to catalog systems that need a query to have the exact words without any mistakes for decent results to appear. The graphical user interface of the current system has a rather skewed learning curve for users to adapt with. With a simple graphical user interface inspired by Google, users can search quickly just by inputting their query and hitting the search button. Because of the query expansion techniques incorporated into the new system such as stemming, thesaurus search, and weighted search, users can have more efficient results from their query. The system will be adding the root words of the user's query to the query itself which will then be cross-referenced to a thesaurus database to search for any synonyms that will be added to the query. The results will then be arranged by the number of times the word has been searched. Online queries will also be added to the results for additional references. Users showed notable increases in efficiency and usability due to the familiar interface and query expansion techniques incorporated in the system. The simple yet familiar design led to a better user experience. Users also said that they would be more inclined in using the library because of the new system. The incorporation of query expansion techniques gives a notable increase of results to users that in turn gives them a wider range of resources found in the library. Used books mean more knowledge imparted to the users.

Keywords: query expansion, catalog system, stemming, weighted search, usability, thesaurus search

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862 Modeling of Oxygen Supply Profiles in Stirred-Tank Aggregated Stem Cells Cultivation Process

Authors: Vytautas Galvanauskas, Vykantas Grincas, Rimvydas Simutis

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This paper investigates a possible practical solution for reasonable oxygen supply during the pluripotent stem cells expansion processes, where the stem cells propagate as aggregates in stirred-suspension bioreactors. Low glucose and low oxygen concentrations are preferred for efficient proliferation of pluripotent stem cells. However, strong oxygen limitation, especially inside of cell aggregates, can lead to cell starvation and death. In this research, the oxygen concentration profile inside of stem cell aggregates in a stem cell expansion process was predicted using a modified oxygen diffusion model. This profile can be realized during the stem cells cultivation process by manipulating the oxygen concentration in inlet gas or inlet gas flow. The proposed approach is relatively simple and may be attractive for installation in a real pluripotent stem cell expansion processes.

Keywords: aggregated stem cells, dissolved oxygen profiles, modeling, stirred-tank, 3D expansion

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
861 First Earth Size

Authors: Ibrahim M. Metwally

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Have you ever thought that earth was not the same earth we live on? Was it bigger or smaller? Was it a great continent surrounded by huge ocean as Alfred Wegener (1912) claimed? Earth is the most amazing planet in our Milky Way galaxy and may be in the universe. It is the only deformed planet that has a variable orbit around the sun and the only planet that has water on its surface. How did earth deformation take place? What does cause earth to deform? What are the results of earth deformation? How does its orbit around the sun change? First earth size computation can be achieved only considering the quantum of iron and nickel rested into earth core. This paper introduces a new theory “Earth expansion Theory”. The principles of “Earth Expansion Theory” are leading to new approaches and concepts to interpret whole earth dynamics and its geological and environmental changes. This theory is not an attempt to unify the two divergent dominant theories of continental drift, plate tectonic theory and earth expansion theory. The new theory is unique since it has a mathematical derivation, explains all the change to and around earth in terms of geological and environmental changes, and answers all unanswered questions in other theories. This paper presents the basic of the introduced theory and discusses the mechanism of earth expansion and how it took place, the forces that made the expansion. The mechanisms of earth size change from its spherical shape with radius about 3447.6 km to an elliptic shape of major radius about 6378.1 km and minor radius of about 6356.8 km and how it took place, are introduced and discussed. This article also introduces, in a more realistic explanation the formation of oceans and seas, the preparation of river formation. It also addresses the role of iron in earth size enlargement process within the continuum mechanics framework.

Keywords: earth size, earth expansion, continuum mechanics, continental and ocean formation

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860 Analytical Solution for Stellar Distance Based on Photon Dominated Cosmic Expansion Model

Authors: Xiaoyun Li, Suoang Longzhou

Abstract:

This paper derives the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift based on the photon-dominated universe expansion model. Firstly, it calculates stellar separation speed and the farthest distance of observable stars via simulation. Then the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift is derived. It shows that when the redshift is large, the stellar distance (and its separation speed) is not proportional to its redshift due to the relativity effect. It also reveals the relationship between stellar age and its redshift. The correctness of the analytical solution is verified by the latest astronomic observations of Ia supernovas in 2020.

Keywords: redshift, cosmic expansion model, analytical solution, stellar distance

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859 Using Geopolymer Technology on Stabilization and Reutilization the Expansion Behavior Slag

Authors: W. H. Lee, T. W. Cheng, K. Y. Lin, S. W. Huang, Y. C. Ding

Abstract:

Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Slag and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag is the by-product of iron making and steel making. Each of slag with produced over 100 million tons annually in Taiwan. The type of slag has great engineering properties, such as, high hardness and density, high compressive strength, low abrasion ratio, and can replace natural aggregate for building materials. However, no matter BOF or EAF slag, both have the expansion problem, due to it contains free lime. The purpose of this study was to stabilize the BOF and EAF slag by using geopolymer technology, hoping can prevent and solve the expansion problem. The experimental results showed that using geopolymer technology can successfully solve and prevent the expansion problem. Their main properties are analyzed with regard to their use as building materials. Autoclave is used to study the volume stability of these specimens. Finally, the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar with BOF/FAF slag can be reached over 21MPa after curing for 28 days. After autoclave testing, the volume expansion does not exceed 0.2%. Even after the autoclave test, the compressive strength can be grown to over 35MPa. In this study have success using these results on ready-mixed concrete plant, and have the same experimental results as laboratory scale. These results gave encouragement that the stabilized and reutilized BOF/EAF slag could be replaced as a feasible natural fine aggregate by using geopolymer technology.

Keywords: BOF slag, EAF slag, autoclave test, geopolymer

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858 Single-Crystal Kerfless 2D Array Transducer for Volumetric Medical Imaging: Theoretical Study

Authors: Jurij Tasinkiewicz

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to present a theoretical analysis of a 2D ultrasound transducer comprised of crossed arrays of metal strips placed on both sides of thin piezoelectric layer (a). Such a structure is capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wave beam both in elevation and azimuth. In this paper, a semi-analytical model of the considered transducer is developed. It is based on generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. Specifically, applying the electrostatic approximation, the electric field components on the surface of the layer are expanded into fast converging series of double periodic spatial harmonics with corresponding amplitudes represented by the properly chosen Legendre polynomials. The problem is reduced to numerical solving of certain system of linear equations for unknown expansion coefficients.

Keywords: beamforming, transducer array, BIS-expansion, piezoelectric layer

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