Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: hanna arendt

43 Hanna Arendt and Al-Farabi’s Non-Naturalistic Political Philosophy

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Badamchi

Abstract:

As Leo Strauss demonstrates in his works, Political Philosophy in the western tradition is an epistemic-naturalistic tradition insofar Hanna Arendt mentioning the deep conflict between philosophy and politics, opposed to be named “political philosopher” prefer the title “political thinker” for herself. In fact, the Western political philosophy’s tendency to derive politics from natural law and epistemic argumentations makes a paradox between the actual “the political” and the theoretical “natural politics” in the western tradition. In this paper, we want to show that Hanna Arendt, in her exploration to find a new realm of the non-naturalistic way of thinking about the political is walking on a completely different tradition of political philosophy which was first established by Al-Farabi, the founder of Islamic political philosophy around thousand years after Greek Philosophy. Despite Aristotelian Polis which is a Natural community based on true natural rationality to reach the natural purposes of mankind, Al-Farabi’s Madine (his reconstructed concept of Aristotelian Polis) is completely constructed against natural cities, which are formulated by necessity logic of natural arguments and natural deception of humanity. In fact, Farabi considers the natural understanding of politics as Ignorant ideologies used by governments to suppress people. Madine in Farabi’s work is not a natural institution but is a collaborative constitution founded by citizens. So despite Aristotelian thinking, here we don’t have just A Polis that is the one true polis, but we have various multiple Madines among one, is virtuous not by definition but by real action of citizens and civil relations. Al-Farabi’s political philosophy is not a Naturalistic-epistemic Political Philosophy but is a Phronetic Political Philosophy which Hanna Arendt wants to establish outside of western contemplative anti-active political philosophy tradition.

Keywords: al-farabi, hanna arendt, natural politics, the political, political philosophy

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42 The Burmese Exodus of 1942: Towards Evolving Policy Protocols for a Refugee Archive

Authors: Vinod Balakrishnan, Chrisalice Ela Joseph

Abstract:

The Burmese Exodus of 1942, which left more than 4 lakh as refugees and thousands dead, is one of the worst forced migrations in recorded history. Adding to the woes of the refugees is the lack of credible documentation of their lived experiences, trauma, and stories and their erasure from recorded history. Media reports, national records, and mainstream narratives that have registered the exodus provide sanitized versions which have reduced the refugees to a nameless, faceless mass of travelers and obliterated their lived experiences, trauma, and sufferings. This attitudinal problem compels the need to stem the insensitivity that accompanies institutional memory by making a case for a more humanistically evolved policy that puts in place protocols for the way the humanities would voice the concern for the refugee. A definite step in this direction and a far more relevant project in our times is the need to build a comprehensive refugee archive that can be a repository of the refugee experiences and perspectives. The paper draws on Hannah Arendt’s position on the Jewish refugee crisis, Agamben’s work on statelessness and citizenship, Foucault’s notion of governmentality and biopolitics, Edward Said’s concepts on Exile, Fanon’s work on the dispossessed, Derrida’s work on ‘the foreigner and hospitality’ in order to conceptualize the refugee condition which will form the theoretical framework for the paper. It also refers to the existing scholarship in the field of refugee studies such as Roger Zetter’s work on the ‘refugee label’, Philip Marfleet’s work on ‘refugees and history’, Lisa Malkki’s research on the anthropological discourse of the refugee and refugee studies. The paper is also informed by the work that has been done by the international organizations to address the refugee crisis. The emphasis is on building a strong argument for the establishment of the refugee archive that finds but a passing and a none too convincing reference in refugee studies in order to enable a multi-dimensional understanding of the refugee crisis. Some of the old questions cannot be dismissed as outdated as the continuing travails of the refugees in different parts of the world only remind us that they are still, largely, unanswered. The questions are -What is the nature of a Refugee Archive? How is it different from the existing historical and political archives? What are the implications of the refugee archive? What is its contribution to refugee studies? The paper draws on Diana Taylor’s concept of the archive and the repertoire to theorize the refugee archive as a repository that has the documentary function of the ‘archive’ and the ‘agency’ function of the repertoire. It then reads Ayya’s Accounts- a memoir by Anand Pandian -in the light of Hannah Arendt’s concepts of the ‘refugee as vanguard’ and ‘story telling as political action’- to illustrate how the memoir contributes to the refugee archive that provides the refugee a place and agency in history. The paper argues for a refugee archive that has implications for the formulation of inclusive refugee policies.

Keywords: Ayya’s Accounts, Burmese Exodus, policy protocol, refugee archive

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41 Composite Components Manufacturing in SAE Formula Student, a Case Study of AGH Racing

Authors: Hanna Faron, Wojciech Marcinkowski, Daniel Prusak, Władysław Hamiga

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Interest in composite materials comes out of two basic premises: their supreme mechanical and strength properties,combined with a small specific weight. Origin and evolution of modern composite materials bonds with development of manufacturing of synthetic fibers, which have begun during Second World War. Main condition to achieve intended properties of composite materials is proper bonding of reinforcing layer with appropriate adhesive in manufacturing process. It is one of the fundamental quality evaluation criterion of fabrication processes.

Keywords: SAE, formula student, composite materials, carbon fiber, Aramid fiber, hot wire cutter

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40 Kant’s Conception of Human Dignity and the Importance of Singularity within Commonality

Authors: Francisco Lobo

Abstract:

Kant’s household theory of human dignity as a common feature of all rational beings is the starting point of any intellectual endeavor to unravel the implications of this normative notion. Yet, it is incomplete, as it neglects considering the importance of the singularity or uniqueness of the individual. In a first, deconstructive stage, this paper describes the Kantian account of human dignity as one among many conceptions of human dignity. It reads carefully into the original wording used by Kant in German and its English translations, as well as the works of modern commentators, to identify its shortcomings. In a second, constructive stage, it then draws on the theories of Aristotle, Alexis de Tocqueville, John Stuart Mill, and Hannah Arendt to try and enhance the Kantian conception, in the sense that these authors give major importance to the singularity of the individual. The Kantian theory can be perfected by including elements from the works of these authors, while at the same time being mindful of the dangers entailed in focusing too much on singularity. The conclusion of this paper is that the Kantian conception of human dignity can be enhanced if it acknowledges that not only morality has dignity, but also the irreplaceable human individual to the extent that she is a narrative, original creature with the potential to act morally.

Keywords: commonality, dignity, Kant, singularity

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39 Re-Reading the Impossibility of Identity: Modeling Gender Pluralism in Curriculum and Instruction

Authors: A. K. O’Loughlin

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Identity doesn’t exist in discrete categories as it is defined. Kevin Kumashiro reveals the phrase 'an impossibility of identity' in Troubling Education (2000), an investigation of the intersections of culture and gender and the impact of erasure for queer POC identity. This underscores the essentiality of an insider or an outsider identity and the appearance of 'contradiction' or impossibility of these identities. The contradictions between us as subject in our own stories and in the stories of others are often silenced. This silencing of complex, 'contradicting' identity has unmissable implications in the classroom; the developing student in question is done a serious disservice, from which they may never recover. There is no more important point of contact than the teacher, for willingness to encounter a developing person as they are, not as we already think they are, or 'know' them to be, or think they should be. To decide how to regard them based on our own unilateral identity and its associated exhortations and injunctions is, as Hannah Arendt writes in The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), to sell off our ability to rise, human-like, to the challenge of investigating things as they are. A re-reading of Kumashiro’s impossibility of identity becomes possible through the investigation of pluralism. Identities become possible and un-paradoxical by the notion that contradictions are not problems that an individual is not unilateral, but plural. In this paper, we investigate how philosophies of pluralism can inform our understanding of impossibility of identity in classroom curriculum and pedagogy.

Keywords: identity, gender, culture, pluralism, education, philosophy of education, queer theory, philosophy of mind, adolescent development

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38 Settlement of Group of Stone Columns

Authors: Adel Hanna, Tahar Ayadat, Mohammad Etezad, Cyrille Cros

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A number of theoretical methods have been developed over the years to calculate the amount settlement of the soil reinforced with group of stone columns. The results deduced from these methods sometimes show large disagreement with the experimental observations. The reason of this divergence might be due to the fact that many of the previous methods assumed the deform shape of the columns which is different with the actual case. A new method to calculate settlement of the ground reinforced with group of stone columns is presented in this paper which overcomes the restrictions made by previous theories. This method is based on results deduced from numerical modeling. Results obtained from the model are validated.

Keywords: stone columns, group, soft soil, settlement, prediction

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37 Attractiveness of Cafeteria Systems as Viewed by Generation Z

Authors: Joanna Nieżurawska, Hanna Karaszewska, Anna Dziadkiewicz

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Contemporary conditions force companies to constantly implement changes and improvements, which is connected with plasticization of their activity in all spheres. Cafeteria systems are a good example of flexible remuneration systems. Cafeteria systems are well-known and often used in the United States, Great Britain and in Western Europe. In Poland, they are hardly ever used and greater flexibility in remuneration packages refers mainly to senior managers and executives. The main aim of this article is to research the attractiveness of the cafeteria system as viewed by generation Z. The additional aim of the article is to prioritize using the importance index of particular types of cafeteria systems from the generation Z’s perspective, as well as to identify the factors which determine the development of cafeteria systems in Poland. The research was conducted in June 2015 among 185 young employees (generation Z). The paper presents some of the results.

Keywords: cafeteria, generation X, generation Y, generation Z, flexible remuneration systems, plasticization of remuneration

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36 In silico Analysis of Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: A. Nusrath Unissa, Sameer Hassan, Luke Elizabeth Hanna

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Altered drug binding may be an important factor in isoniazid (INH) resistance, rather than major changes in the enzyme’s activity as a catalase or peroxidase (KatG). The identification of structural or functional defects in the mutant KatGs responsible for INH resistance remains as an area to be explored. In this connection, the differences in the binding affinity between wild-type (WT) and mutants of KatG were investigated, through the generation of three mutants of KatG, Ser315Thr [S315T], Ser315Asn [S315N], Ser315Arg [S315R] and a WT [S315]) with the help of software-MODELLER. The mutants were docked with INH using the software-GOLD. The affinity is lower for WT than mutant, suggesting the tight binding of INH with the mutant protein compared to WT type. These models provide the in silico evidence for the binding interaction of KatG with INH and implicate the basis for rationalization of INH resistance in naturally occurring KatG mutant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, KatG, INH resistance, mutants, modelling, docking

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35 Logistics Support as a Key Success Factor in Gastronomy

Authors: Hanna Zietara

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Gastronomy is one of the oldest forms of commercial activity. It is currently one of the most popular and still dynamically developing branches of business. Socio-economic changes, its widespread occurrence, new techniques, or culinary styles affect the almost unlimited possibilities of its development. Importantly, regardless of the form of business adopted, food service is strongly related to logistics processes, and areas of food service that are closely linked to logistics are of strategic importance. Any inefficiency in logistics processes results in reduced chances for success and achieving competitive advantage by companies belonging to the catering industry. The aim of the paper is to identify the areas of logistic support occurring in the catering business, affecting the scope of the logistic processes implemented. The aim of the paper is realized through a plural homogeneous approach, based on: direct observation, text analysis of current documents, in-depth free targeted interviews.

Keywords: gastronomy, competitive advantage, logistics, logistics support

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34 Using Construction Wastes and Recyclable Materials in Sustainable Concrete Manufacture

Authors: Mohamed T. El-Hawary, Carsten Koenke, Amr M. El-Nemr, Nagy F. Hanna

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Sustainable construction materials using solid construction wastes are of great environmental and economic significance. Construction wastes, demolishing wastes, and wastes coming out from the preparation of traditional materials could be used in sustainable concrete manufacture, which is the main scope of this paper. Ceramics, clay bricks, marble, recycled concrete, and many other materials should be tested and validated for use in the manufacture of green concrete. Introducing waste materials in concrete helps in reducing the required landfills, leaving more space for land investments, and decrease the environmental impact of the concrete buildings industry in both stages -construction and demolition-. In this paper, marble aggregate is used as a replacement for the natural aggregate in sustainable green concrete production. The results showed that marble aggregates can be used as a full replacement for the natural aggregates in eco-friendly green concrete.

Keywords: coarse aggregate replacement, economical designs, green concrete, marble aggregates, sustainability, waste management

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33 Would Intra-Individual Variability in Attention to Be the Indicator of Impending the Senior Adults at Risk of Cognitive Decline: Evidence from Attention Network Test(ANT)

Authors: Hanna Lu, Sandra S. M. Chan, Linda C. W. Lam

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Objectives: Intra-individual variability (IIV) has been considered as a biomarker of healthy ageing. However, the composite role of IIV in attention, as an impending indicator for neurocognitive disorders warrants further exploration. This study aims to investigate the IIV, as well as their relationships with attention network functions in adults with neurocognitive disorders (NCD). Methods: 36adults with NCD due to Alzheimer’s disease(NCD-AD), 31adults with NCD due to vascular disease (NCD-vascular), and 137 healthy controls were recruited. Intraindividual standard deviations (iSD) and intraindividual coefficient of variation of reaction time (ICV-RT) were used to evaluate the IIV. Results: NCD groups showed greater IIV (iSD: F= 11.803, p < 0.001; ICV-RT:F= 9.07, p < 0.001). In ROC analyses, the indices of IIV could differentiateNCD-AD (iSD: AUC value = 0.687, p= 0.001; ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.677, p= 0.001) and NCD-vascular (iSD: AUC value = 0.631, p= 0.023;ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.615, p= 0.045) from healthy controls. Moreover, the processing speed could distinguish NCD-AD from NCD-vascular (AUC value = 0.647, p= 0.040). Discussion: Intra-individual variability in attention provides a stable measure of cognitive performance, and seems to help distinguish the senior adults with different cognitive status.

Keywords: intra-individual variability, attention network, neurocognitive disorders, ageing

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32 Reconciling the Modern Standard Arabic with the Local Dialects in Writing Literary Texts

Authors: Ahmed M. Ghaleb, Ehab S. Al-Nuzaili

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This paper attempts to shed light on the question of the choice between standard Arabic and the vernacular in writing literary texts. Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) has long been the formal language of writing education, administration, and media, shred across the Arab countries. In the mid-20th century, some writers have begun to write their literary works in local dialects claiming that they can be more realistic. On the other hand, other writers have opposed this new trend as it can be a threat to the Standard Arabic or MSA that unify all Arabs. However, some other writers, like Tawfiq al-Hakim, Hamed Damanhouri, Najib Mahfouz, and Hanna Mineh, attempted to solve this problem by using what W. M. Hutchins called a 'hybrid language', a middle language between the standard and the vernacular. It is also termed 'a third language'. The paper attempts to examine some of the literary texts in which a combination of the standard and the colloquial is employed. Thus, the paper attempts to find out a solution by proposing a third language, a form that can combine the MSA and the colloquial, and the possibility of using it in writing literary texts. Therefore, the paper can bridge the gap between the different levels of Arabic.

Keywords: modern standard arabic, dialect or vernacular, diglossia, third language

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31 Modelling of Aerosols in Absorption Column

Authors: Hammad Majeed, Hanna Knuutila, Magne Hillestad, Hallvard F. Svendsen

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Formation of aerosols can cause serious complications in industrial exhaust gas cleaning processes. Small mist droplets and fog formed can normally not be removed in conventional demisting equipment because their submicron size allows the particles or droplets to follow the gas flow. As a consequence of this, aerosol based emissions in the order of grams per Nm3 have been identified from PCCC plants. The model predicts the droplet size, the droplet internal variable profiles, and the mass transfer fluxes as function of position in the absorber. The Matlab model is based on a subclass method of weighted residuals for boundary value problems named, orthogonal collocation method. This paper presents results describing the basic simulation tool for the characterization of aerosols formed in CO2 absorption columns and describes how various entering droplets grow or shrink through an absorber and how their composition changes with respect to time. Below are given some preliminary simulation results for an aerosol droplet composition and temperature profiles.

Keywords: absorption columns, aerosol formation, amine emissions, internal droplet profiles, monoethanolamine (MEA), post combustion CO2 capture, simulation

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30 The Study of Wetting Properties of Silica-Poly (Acrylic Acid) Thin Film Coatings

Authors: Sevil Kaynar Turkoglu, Jinde Zhang, Jo Ann Ratto, Hanna Dodiuk, Samuel Kenig, Joey Mead

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Superhydrophilic, crack-free thin film coatings based on silica nanoparticles were fabricated by dip-coating method. Both thermodynamic and dynamic effects on the wetting properties of the thin films were investigated by modifying the coating formulation via changing the particle-to-binder ratio and weight % of silica in solution. The formulated coatings were characterized by a number of analyses. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements were conducted for all coatings to characterize the surface wetting properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken to examine the morphology of the coating surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis was done to study surface topography. The presence of hydrophilic functional groups and nano-scale roughness were found to be responsible for the superhydrophilic behavior of the films. In addition, surface chemistry, compared to surface roughness, was found to be a primary factor affecting the wetting properties of the thin film coatings.

Keywords: poly (acrylic acid), silica nanoparticles, superhydrophilic coatings, surface wetting

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29 The Role of Gender and Socio-Demographics Variables on Food Safety Perceptions of Lebanese University Students

Authors: Lara Hanna-Wakim, Carine El Sokhn

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The perception of the consumer in food safety plays an important role in reducing the incidence of foodborne diseases. Studies show that young adults aged between 18 and 25 years are more prone to foodborne illnesses than adults because of their lack of food safety knowledge. The aim of this study was to measure the degree of university students' awareness in food safety, as well as to explore whether there is a relationship or not between the demographic characteristics of university students and their knowledge and practices. A valid questionnaire divided into three parts was distributed to 938 university students, aged between 18-25 years, living alone or with their parents, from different majors and years of study. The data collected was analyzed using the SPSS program. The total scores of the students surveyed were 47.95% on their food safety knowledge and 56.45% on their practices in the matter. The final score of the food safety perception of university students in both genders was 52.2%. Female students scored higher (63.14%) than male students (39.69%), and students majoring in health related fields (67.45%) scored higher than those majoring in areas not related to public health (49.21%). These results showed an overall low level of food safety perception of university students. Educational interventions are needed to improve their food safety knowledge and practices as they will be responsible for their own family one day.

Keywords: food safety, gender, perception, practices, knowledge, lebanese university students

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28 Cardenolides from the Egyptian Cultivar: Acokanthera spectabilis Leaves Inducing Apoptosis through Arresting Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth at G2/M

Authors: Maha Soltan, Amal Z. Hassan, Howaida I. Abd-Alla, Atef G. Hanna

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Two naturally known cardenolides; acovenoside A and acobioside A were isolated from the Egyptian cultivar; Acokanthera spectabilis leaves. It is an ornamental and poisonous plant that has been traditionally claimed for their medicinal properties against infectious microbes, killing worms and curing some inflammations at little amounts. We examined the growth inhibition effects of both cardenolides against four types of human cancer cell lines using Sulphorhodamine B assay. In addition, the clonogenic assay was also performed for testing the growth inhibiting power of the isolated compounds. An in vitro mechanistic investigation was further accomplished against hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Microscopic examination, colorimetric ELISA and flow cytometry techniques were our tools of proving at least part of the anticancer pathway of the tested compounds. Both compounds were able to inhibit the growth of 4 human cancer cell lines at less than 100 nM. In addition, they were able to activate the executioner Caspase-3 and apoptosis was then induced as a consequence of cell growth arrest at G2/M. An attention must be payed to those bioactive agents particularly when giving their activity against cancer cells at considerable small values while presenting safe therapeutic margins as indicated by literature.

Keywords: anticancer, cardenolides, Caspase-3, apoptosis

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27 The Development of a Miniaturized Raman Instrument Optimized for the Detection of Biosignatures on Europa

Authors: Aria Vitkova, Hanna Sykulska-Lawrence

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In recent years, Europa has been one of the major focus points in astrobiology due to its high potential of harbouring life in the vast ocean underneath its icy crust. However, the detection of life on Europa faces many challenges due to the harsh environmental conditions and mission constraints. Raman spectroscopy is a highly capable and versatile in-situ characterisation technique that does not require any sample preparation. It has only been used on Earth to date; however, recent advances in optical and laser technology have also allowed it to be considered for extraterrestrial exploration. So far, most efforts have been focused on the exploration of Mars, the most imminent planetary target. However, as an emerging technology with high miniaturization potential, Raman spectroscopy also represents a promising tool for the exploration of Europa. In this study, the capabilities of Raman technology in terms of life detection on Europa are explored and assessed. Spectra of biosignatures identified as high priority molecular targets for life detection on Europa were acquired at various excitation wavelengths and conditions analogous to Europa. The effects of extremely low temperatures and low concentrations in water ice were explored and evaluated in terms of the effectiveness of various configurations of Raman instruments. Based on the findings, a design of a miniaturized Raman instrument optimized for in-situ detection of life on Europa is proposed.

Keywords: astrobiology, biosignatures, Europa, life detection, Raman Spectroscopy

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26 Comparison between Pushover Analysis Techniques and Validation of the Simplified Modal Pushover Analysis

Authors: N. F. Hanna, A. M. Haridy

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One of the main drawbacks of the Modal Pushover Analysis (MPA) is the need to perform nonlinear time-history analysis, which complicates the analysis method and time. A simplified version of the MPA has been proposed based on the concept of the inelastic deformation ratio. Furthermore, the effect of the higher modes of vibration is considered by assuming linearly-elastic responses, which enables the use of standard elastic response spectrum analysis. In this thesis, the simplified MPA (SMPA) method is applied to determine the target global drift and the inter-story drifts of steel frame building. The effect of the higher vibration modes is considered within the framework of the SMPA. A comprehensive survey about the inelastic deformation ratio is presented. After that, a suitable expression from literature is selected for the inelastic deformation ratio and then implemented in the SMPA. The estimated seismic demands using the SMPA, such as target drift, base shear, and the inter-story drifts, are compared with the seismic responses determined by applying the standard MPA. The accuracy of the estimated seismic demands is validated by comparing with the results obtained by the nonlinear time-history analysis using real earthquake records.

Keywords: modal analysis, pushover analysis, seismic performance, target displacement

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25 Counter-Hegemonic Movements and Their Consequences at the International Level: Transposing Gramsci to the 21st Century

Authors: Hanna Corsini

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This article provides an analysis of counter-hegemonic movements and their consequences for the neoliberal world order at the international level. Even if calls for change are becoming louder, current research on populist forces at the domestic level in comparative politics is lacking an investigation of the international dimensions of the rise of such movements. At the same time, in the International Relations field, the focus still remains on the surge of challengers at the global level, while the national one stays neglected. This paper argues that to fill this gap as identified in the academic literature, the concept of hegemony, and more precisely, as deployed by Antonio Gramsci, can bear some interesting insights. An adaptation to the 21st century of Gramsci’s concept is proposed, highlighting the explanatory power that key concepts of his theoretical framework have. Transposing it to contemporary politics provides precious elements for an in-depth understanding of counter-hegemonic movements and the consequences of their rise for the neoliberal world order. In an era of disruption and turmoil in national politics, International Relations theory cannot avoid to engage with this dimension. However, populism as a theoretical concept lacks the capacity to go beyond the domestic border. It is therefore essential to create a dialogue between these two fields. Ultimately, the paper claims that (counter-)hegemony is crucial to build a bridge between the international and the domestic level.

Keywords: counter-hegemonic movements, Gramsci, hegemony, international relations

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24 Analyzing Façade Scenarios and Daylight Levels in the Reid Building: A Reflective Case Study on the Designed Daylight under Overcast Sky

Authors: Eman Mayah, Raid Hanna

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This study presents the use of daylight in the case study of the Reid building at the Glasgow School of Art in the city of Glasgow, UK. In Nordic countries, daylight is one of the main considerations within building design, especially in the face of long, lightless winters. A shortage of daylight, contributing to dark and gloomy conditions, necessitates that designs incorporate strong daylight performance. As such, the building in question is designed to capture natural light for varying needs, where studios are located on the North and South façades. The study’s approach presents an analysis of different façade scenarios, where daylight from the North is observed, analyzed and compared with the daylight from the South façade for various design studios in the building. The findings then are correlated with the results of daylight levels from the daylight simulation program (Autodesk Ecotect Analysis) for the investigated studios. The study finds there to be a dramatic difference in daylight nature and levels between the North and South façades, where orientation, obstructions and designed façade fenestrations have major effects on the findings. The study concludes that some of the studios positioned on the North façade do not have a desirable quality of diffused northern light, due to the outside building’s obstructions, area and volume of the studio and the shadow effect of the designed mezzanine floor in the studios.

Keywords: daylight levels, educational building, Façade fenestration, overcast weather

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23 An Innovative Use of Flow Columns in Electrocoagulation Reactor to Control Water Temperature

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, David Phipps, Ortoneda Pedrola

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Temperature is an essential parameter in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it governs the solubility of electrodes and the precipitates and the collision rate of particles in water being treated. Although it has been about 100 years since the EC technology was invented and applied in water and wastewater treatment, the effects of temperature on the its performance were insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container supplied with a flow column consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. The flow column has been installed vertically, half submerged in the water being treated, inside a plastic cylinder. The unsubmerged part of the flow column works as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with different initial temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) to the ECR1 for 20 min. Temperature of effluent water samples were measured using Hanna meter (Model: HI 98130). The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 reduced water temperature from 35, 30, and 25 °C to 24.6, 23.8, and 21.8 °C respectively. While low water temperature, 15 °C, increased slowly to reach 19.1 °C after 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment period. At the same time, water sample with initial temperature of 20 °C showed almost a steady level of temperature along the treatment process, where the temperature increased negligibly from 20 to 20.1 °C after 20 minutes of treatment. In conclusion, ECR1 is able to control the temperature of water being treated around the room temperature even when the initial temperature was high (35 °C) or low (15 °C).

Keywords: electrocoagulation, flow column, treatment, water temperature

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22 Functionalized Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles for Targeting and Disrupting Amyloid Fibrils

Authors: Elad Arad, Raz Jelinek, Hanna Rapaport

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Amyloidoses are a family of diseases characterized by abnormal protein folding that leads to aggregation. They accumulate to form fibrillar plaques which are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer, prion, diabetes type II and other diseases. To the best of our knowledge, despite extensive research efforts devoted to plaque aggregates inhibition, there is yet no cure for this phenomenon. Titanium and its alloys are found in growing interest for biomedical applications. Variety of surface modifications enable porous, adhesive, bioactive coatings for its surface. Titanium oxides (titania) are also being developed for photothermal and photodynamic treatments. Inspired by this, we set to explore the effect of functionalized titania nanoparticles in combination with external stimuli, as potential photothermal ablating agents against amyloids. Titania nanoparticles were coated with bi-functional catechol derivatives (dihydroxy-phenylalanine propanoic acid, noted DPA) to gain targeting properties. In conjunction with UV-radiation, these nanoparticles may selectively destroy the vicinity of their target. Titania modified 5 nm nanoparticles coated with DPA were further conjugated to the amyloid-targeting Congo Red (CR). These Titania-DPA-CR nanoparticles were found to target mature amyloid fibril of both amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42 a.a). Moreover, irradiation of the peptides in presence of the modified nanoparticles decreased the aggregate content and oligomer fraction. This work provides insights into the use of modified titania nanoparticles for amyloid plaque targeting and photothermal destruction. It may shed light on future modifications and functionalization of titania nanoparticles for different applications.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, amyloids, photothermal treatment, catechol, Congo-red

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21 Event Related Brain Potentials Evoked by Carmen in Musicians and Dancers

Authors: Hanna Poikonen, Petri Toiviainen, Mari Tervaniemi

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Event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by simple tones in the brain have been extensively studied. However, in reality the music surrounding us is spectrally and temporally complex and dynamic. Thus, the research using natural sounds is crucial in understanding the operation of the brain in its natural environment. Music is an excellent example of natural stimulation, which, in various forms, has always been an essential part of different cultures. In addition to sensory responses, music elicits vast cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. When compared to laymen, professional musicians have stronger ERP responses in processing individual musical features in simple tone sequences, such as changes in pitch, timbre and harmony. Here we show that the ERP responses evoked by rapid changes in individual musical features are more intense in musicians than in laymen, also while listening to long excerpts of the composition Carmen. Interestingly, for professional dancers, the amplitudes of the cognitive P300 response are weaker than for musicians but still stronger than for laymen. Also, the cognitive P300 latencies of musicians are significantly shorter whereas the latencies of laymen are significantly longer. In contrast, sensory N100 do not differ in amplitude or latency between musicians and laymen. These results, acquired from a novel ERP methodology for natural music, suggest that we can take the leap of studying the brain with long pieces of natural music also with the ERP method of electroencephalography (EEG), as has already been made with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), as these two brain imaging devices complement each other.

Keywords: electroencephalography, expertise, musical features, real-life music

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20 The Instablity of TetM Gene Encode Tetracycline Resistance Gene in Lactobacillus casei FNCC 0090

Authors: Sarah Devi Silvian, Hanna Shobrina Iqomatul Haq, Fara Cholidatun Nabila, Agustin Krisna Wardani

Abstract:

Bacteria ability to survive in antibiotic is controlled by the presence of gene that encodes the antibiotic resistance protein. The instability of the antibiotic resistance gene can be observed by exposing the bacteria under the lethal dose of antibiotic. Low concentration of antibiotic can induce mutation, which may take a role in bacterial adaptation through the antibiotic concentration. Lactobacillus casei FNCC 0090 is one of the probiotic bacteria that has an ability to survive in tetracycline by expressing the tetM gene. The aims of this study are to observe the possibilities of mutation happened in L.casei FNCC 0090 by exposing in sub-lethal dose of tetracycline and also observing the instability of the tetM gene by comparing the sequence between the wild type and mutant. L.casei FNCC 0090 has a lethal dose in 60 µg/ml, low concentration is applied to induce the mutation, the range from 10 µg/ml, 15 µg/ml, 30 µg/ml, 45 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml. L.casei FNCC 0090 is exposed to the low concentration from lowest to the highest concentration to induce the adaptation. Plasmid is isolated from the highest concentration culture which is 50 µg/ml by using modified alkali lysis method with the addition of lysozyme. The tetM gene is isolated by using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method, then PCR amplicon is purified and sequenced. Sequencing is done on both samples, wild type and mutant. Both sequences are compared and the mutations can be traced in the presence of nucleotides changes. The changing of the nucleotides means that the tetM gene is instable.

Keywords: L. casei FNCC 0090, probiotic, tetM, tetracycline

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19 Simplified Stress Gradient Method for Stress-Intensity Factor Determination

Authors: Jeries J. Abou-Hanna

Abstract:

Several techniques exist for determining stress-intensity factors in linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis. These techniques are based on analytical, numerical, and empirical approaches that have been well documented in literature and engineering handbooks. However, not all techniques share the same merit. In addition to overly-conservative results, the numerical methods that require extensive computational effort, and those requiring copious user parameters hinder practicing engineers from efficiently evaluating stress-intensity factors. This paper investigates the prospects of reducing the complexity and required variables to determine stress-intensity factors through the utilization of the stress gradient and a weighting function. The heart of this work resides in the understanding that fracture emanating from stress concentration locations cannot be explained by a single maximum stress value approach, but requires use of a critical volume in which the crack exists. In order to understand the effectiveness of this technique, this study investigated components of different notch geometry and varying levels of stress gradients. Two forms of weighting functions were employed to determine stress-intensity factors and results were compared to analytical exact methods. The results indicated that the “exponential” weighting function was superior to the “absolute” weighting function. An error band +/- 10% was met for cases ranging from a steep stress gradient in a sharp v-notch to the less severe stress transitions of a large circular notch. The incorporation of the proposed method has shown to be a worthwhile consideration.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, finite element method, stress intensity factor, stress gradient

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18 Manufacturing of Race Car Case Study AGH Racing

Authors: Hanna Faron, Wojciech Marcinkowski, Daniel Prusak

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to familiarize with the activity of AGH Racing scientific circle, pertaining to the international project -Formula Student, giving the opportunity to young engineers from all around the world to validate their talent and knowledge in the real world conditions, under the pressure of time, and the design requirements. Every year, the team begins the process of building a race car from the formation of human resources. In case of the public sector, to which public universities can be included, the scientific circles represent the structure uniting students with the common interests and level of determination. Due to the scientific nature of the project which simulates the market conditions, they have a chance to verify previously acquired knowledge in practice. High level of the innovation and competitiveness of participating in the project Formula Student teams, requires an intelligent organizational system, which is characterized by a high dynamics. It is connected with the necessity of separation of duties, setting priorities, selecting optimal solutions which is often a compromise between the available technology and a limited budget. Proper selection of the adequate guidelines in the design phase allows an efficient transition to the implementation stage, which is process-oriented implementation of the project. Four dynamic and three static competitions are the main verification and evaluation of year-round work and effort put into the process of building a race car. Acquired feedback flowing during the race is a very important part while monitoring the effectiveness of AGH Racing scientific circle, as well as the main criterion while determining long-term goals and all the necessary improvements in the team.

Keywords: SAE, formula student, race car, public sector, automotive industry

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17 Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities of Acovenoside A: A Cardenolide Isolated from an Egyptian Cultivar of Acokanthera spectabilis Leaves

Authors: Howaida I. Abd-Alla, Amal Z. Hassan, Maha Soltan, Atef G. Hanna, Mounir M. El-Safty

Abstract:

Acokanthera oblongifolia (Apocynaceae) is used for treatment of several infection diseases and is a well-known cardiac glycoside-containing plant. The infusion of their leaves is gargled to treat tonsillitis and is used medicinally to treat snakebites. The total cardiac glycosides content in the leaves was determined by referring to gitoxigenin as a reference compound. Two triterpenes, lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (1) and oleanolic acid (2); two cardenolides, acovenoside A (3) and acobioside A (4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral analysis. Major constituents isolated from this species were evaluated for cytotoxicity against normal lung cell line (Wi38) and antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive (two strains) and Gram-negative bacteria (four strains), yeast-like fungi (two strains) and fungi (five strains). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds was determined using broth microdilution method. Their viral inhibitory effects against avian influenza virus type A (AI-H5N1) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs (ECE), chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) and Vero cells were evaluated. The cardenolide (3) showed viral inhibitory effects against AI-H5N1 and NDV in SPF ECE. The two cardenolides isolated have shown potent cytotoxicity against Vero cells. Compound (3) showed potent anti-Gram-negative bacteria activity. These results suggested that acovenoside A might be promising for future antiviral and antimicrobial drug design.

Keywords: Acokanthera, AI-H5N1, Cardenolides, NDV, SPF-ECE, VERO, Wi38 , Microbe

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16 Properties Soft Cheese as Diversification of Dangke: A Natural Cheese of South Sulawesi Indonesia

Authors: Ratmawati Malaka, Effendi Abustam, Kusumandari Indah Prahesti, Sudirman Baco

Abstract:

Dangke is natural cheese from Enrekang South Sulawesi, Indonesia produced through aglutination buffalo milk, cow, goat or sheep using the sap of papaya (Carica papaya). Dangke has been widely known in South Sulawesi but this soft cheese product diversification by using passion fruit juice as milk clotting agents has not been used. Passion fruit juice has a high acidity with a pH of around 4 - 4.5 and has a proteolytic enzyme, so that it can be used to agglutinate milk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature Dangke using passion fruit juice as coagulate milk. Dangke made by 10 lt of raw milk by heating at a temperature of 73oC with coagulant passion fruit juice (7.5% and 10%), and added 1% salt. Curd clot and then be formed using a coconut shell, is then pressed until the cheese is compact. The cheese is then observed for 28 days ripening at a temperature of about 5 ° C. Dangke then studied to violence, pH, fat levels and microstructure. Hardness is determined using CD-shear Force, pH is measured using a pH meter Hanna, and fat concentrations were analyzed with methods of proximate. Microstructure viewed using a light microscope with magnification 1000 x. The results showed that the levels of clotting material very significant influence on hardness, pH, and lipid levels. Maturation increase the hardness but lower the pH, the level of fat soft cheese with an average Dangke respectively 21.4% and 30.5% on 7.5% addition of passion fruit juice and 10%. Dangke violence is increasing with the increasing maturation time (1.38 to 3.73 kg / cm), but Dangke pH was decreased by the increase in storage maturation (5.34 to 4.1). Microktrukture cheeses coagulated with 10% of the passion fruit are very firmer and compact with a full globular fat of 7.5%. But the sensory properties of the soft cheese similar in both treatment. The manufacturing process with the addition of coagulant passion fruit juice on making Dangke affect hardness, pH, fat content and microstructure during storage at 5 ° C for 1 d - 28 d.

Keywords: dangke, passion fruits, microstructure, cheese

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15 Systematic Analysis of Immune Response to Biomaterial Surface Characteristics

Authors: Florian Billing, Soren Segan, Meike Jakobi, Elsa Arefaine, Aliki Jerch, Xin Xiong, Matthias Becker, Thomas Joos, Burkhard Schlosshauer, Ulrich Rothbauer, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Hanna Hartmann, Christopher Shipp

Abstract:

The immune response plays a major role in implant biocompatibility, but an understanding of how to design biomaterials for specific immune responses is yet to be achieved. We aimed to better understand how changing certain material properties can drive immune responses. To this end, we tested immune response to experimental implant coatings that vary in specific characteristics. A layer-by-layer approach was employed to vary surface charge and wettability. Human-based in vitro models (THP-1 macrophages and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS)) were used to assess immune responses using multiplex cytokine analysis, flow cytometry (CD molecule expression) and microscopy (cell morphology). We observed dramatic differences in immune response due to specific alterations in coating properties. For example altering the surface charge of coating A from anionic to cationic resulted in the substantial elevation of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MIP-1beta, while the pro-wound healing factor VEGF was significantly down-regulated. We also observed changes in cell surface marker expression in relation to altered coating properties, such as CD16 on NK Cells and HLA-DR on monocytes. We furthermore observed changes in the morphology of THP-1 macrophages following cultivation on different coatings. A correlation between these morphological changes and the cytokine expression profile is ongoing. Targeted changes in biomaterial properties can produce vast differences in immune response. The properties of the coatings examined here may, therefore, be a method to direct specific biological responses in order to improve implant biocompatibility.

Keywords: biomaterials, coatings, immune system, implants

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14 Prolonging Late Career Phase - a Sustainable Career Perspective

Authors: Hanna Salminen

Abstract:

Due to the large societal changes in working life, such as retirement reforms, globalization and technological changes, careers are becoming longer, more varied and unpredictable than before. Similar to other new career concepts, such as protean and boundaryless career, a sustainable career concept emphasizes an individual’s active role and agency in managing his/her own career in changing working life. However, the sustainable career concept also underlines the importance of safeguarding and developing human capital over time and thereby fostering continuity. Especially, the theoretical discussion around sustainable careers stresses flexible career choices that meet an individual’s own personal needs, allow work-family balance and promotes continuous learning. Although sustainable careers concern employees at all ages, this study focuses on older employees (aged 50+). So far, the changing nature of careers has been mainly investigated among younger generations, and the changing and prolonging late career phase has received less attention among career scholars. In other words, there is lack of knowledge regarding what constitutes a sustainable career in the late career phase and how the individual, organizational, and societal levels of sustainable career ecosystem are interconnected. The theoretical discussion around sustainable careers is closely linked to the sustainable management of human resources in organizations. In the field of human resource management (HRM), sustainable HRM has received more attention in recent years and it has been seen as a step forward from strategic HRM approach. As a concept, sustainable HRM stresses the long-term focus on organizations’ social, economic, and ecological resources, and the benefits of HRM practices for employees, organizations, and the society at large. However, some HRM scholars argue that the ecological and financial matters have overshadowed the social aspect of sustainability. In this study, the sustainable career and sustainable HRM literature are combined. As a result of an integrative literature review, this study provides new insight, how sustainable late career phase has been understood and conceptualized in sustainable career and sustainable HRM literature.

Keywords: sustainability, career, human resource management, ageing

Procedia PDF Downloads 15