Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10885

Search results for: information theory

10885 Policy Compliance in Information Security

Authors: R. Manjula, Kaustav Bagchi, Sushant Ramesh, Anush Baskaran

Abstract:

In the past century, the emergence of information technology has had a significant positive impact on human life. While companies tend to be more involved in the completion of projects, the turn of the century has seen importance being given to investment in information security policies. These policies are essential to protect important data from adversaries, and thus following these policies has become one of the most important attributes revolving around information security models. In this research, we have focussed on the factors affecting information security policy compliance in two models : The theory of planned behaviour and the integration of the social bond theory and the involvement theory into a single model. Finally, we have given a proposal of where these theories would be successful.

Keywords: information technology, information security, involvement theory, policies, social bond theory

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10884 Using Information Theory to Observe Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Lipeng Zhang, Limei Li, Yanming Pearl Zhang

Abstract:

This paper takes a philosophical view as axiom, and reveals the relationship between information theory and Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence under real world conditions. This paper also derives the relationship between natural intelligence and nature. According to communication principle of information theory, Natural Intelligence can be divided into real part and virtual part. Based on information theory principle that Information does not increase, the restriction mechanism of Natural Intelligence creativity is conducted. The restriction mechanism of creativity reveals the limit of natural intelligence and artificial intelligence. The paper provides a new angle to observe natural intelligence and artificial intelligence.

Keywords: natural intelligence, artificial intelligence, creativity, information theory, restriction of creativity

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10883 Sustainable Enterprise Theory: A Starting Point for Reporting Sustainable Business Values

Authors: Arne Fagerstrom, Gary Cunningham, Fredrik Hartwig

Abstract:

In this paper, a theory of sustainable enterprises, sustainable enterprise theory (SET), is developed. The sustainable enterprise theory can only be a valid theory if knowledge about life and nature is complete. Knowledge limitations should not stop enterprises from doing business with a goal of better long-term life on earth. Life demands stewardship of the resources used during one’s lifetime. This paper develops a model influenced by (the classical) enterprise theory and resource theory that includes more than money in the business activities of an enterprise. The sustainable enterprise theory is then used in an analysis of accountability and in discussions about sustainable businesses.

Keywords: sustainable business, sustainability reporting, sustainable values, theory of the firm

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10882 A Note on Decidability of the Theory of Natural Numbers

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami

Abstract:

The additive theory or (the multiplication theory) of a set of natural numbers is the first theory of the structure of that set with the addition or (multiplication) operation that set is taken be additive(multiplicative),i.e., closed under addition or (multiplication). In this paper, decidability (i.e.,there exists an algorithm that decides whether a given sentence is derivable from the theory )of the structures of natural numbers study in different languages and introduce ways that it allows quantifier elimination (for the theory ) and review some classical theorems and will give new proofs for old results.

Keywords: Decidability, Incompleteness, Number Structure, First Order Logic

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10881 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha

Abstract:

Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

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10880 Image Segmentation: New Methods

Authors: Flaurence Benjamain, Michel Casperance

Abstract:

We present in this paper, first, a comparative study of three mathematical theories to achieve the fusion of information sources. This study aims to identify the characteristics inherent in theories of possibilities, belief functions (DST) and plausible and paradoxical reasoning to establish a strategy of choice that allows us to adopt the most appropriate theory to solve a problem of fusion in order, taking into account the acquired information and imperfections that accompany them. Using the new theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning, also called Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), to fuse information multi-sources needs, at first step, the generation of the composites events witch is, in general, difficult. Thus, we present in this paper a new approach to construct pertinent paradoxical classes based on gray levels histograms, which also allows to reduce the cardinality of the hyper-powerset. Secondly, we developed a new technique for order and coding generalized focal elements. This method is exploited, in particular, to calculate the cardinality of Dezert and Smarandache. Then, we give an experimentation of classification of a remote sensing image that illustrates the given methods and we compared the result obtained by the DSmT with that resulting from the use of the DST and theory of possibilities.

Keywords: segmentation, image, approach, vision computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
10879 Extending Theory of Planned Behavior to Modelling Chronic Patients’ Acceptance of Health Information: An Information Overload Perspective

Authors: Shu-Lien Chou, Chung-Feng Liu

Abstract:

Self-health management of chronic illnesses plays an important part in chronic illness treatments. However, various kinds of health information (health education materials) which government or healthcare institutions provide for patients may not achieve the expected outcome. One of the critical reasons affecting patients’ use intention could be patients’ perceived Information overload regarding the health information. This study proposed an extended model of Theory of Planned Behavior, which integrating perceived information overload as another construct to explore patients’ use intention of the health information for self-health management. The independent variables are attitude, subject norm, perceived behavior control and perceived information overload while the dependent variable is behavior intention to use the health information. The cross-sectional study used a structured questionnaire for data collection, focusing on the chronic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), who are the potential users of the health information, in a medical center in Taiwan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of the basic information distribution of the questionnaire respondents, and the Partial Least Squares (PLS) structural equation model to study the reliability and construct validity for testing our hypotheses. A total of 110 patients were enrolled in this study and 106 valid questionnaires were collected. The PLS analysis result indicates that the patients’ perceived information overload of health information contributes the most critical factor influencing the behavioral intention. Subjective norm and perceived behavioral control of TPB constructs had significant effects on patients’ intentions to use health information also, whereas the attitude construct did not. This study demonstrated a comprehensive framework, which extending perceived information overload into TPB model to predict patients’ behavioral intention of using heath information. We expect that the results of this study will provide useful insights for studying health information from the perspectives of academia, governments, and healthcare providers.

Keywords: chronic patients, health information, information overload, theory of planned behavior

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10878 Application the Queuing Theory in the Warehouse Optimization

Authors: Jaroslav Masek, Juraj Camaj, Eva Nedeliakova

Abstract:

The aim of optimization of store management is not only designing the situation of store management itself including its equipment, technology and operation. In optimization of store management we need to consider also synchronizing of technological, transport, store and service operations throughout the whole process of logistic chain in such a way that a natural flow of material from provider to consumer will be achieved the shortest possible way, in the shortest possible time in requested quality and quantity and with minimum costs. The paper deals with the application of the queuing theory for optimization of warehouse processes. The first part refers to common information about the problematic of warehousing and using mathematical methods for logistics chains optimization. The second part refers to preparing a model of a warehouse within queuing theory. The conclusion of the paper includes two examples of using queuing theory in praxis.

Keywords: queuing theory, logistics system, mathematical methods, warehouse optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 476
10877 Converse to the Sherman Inequality with Applications in Information Theory

Authors: Ana Barbir, S. Ivelic Bradanovic, D. Pecaric, J. Pecaric

Abstract:

We proved a converse to Sherman's inequality. Using the concept of f-divergence we obtained some inequalities for the well-known entropies, such as Shannon entropies that have many applications in many applied sciences, for example, in information theory, biology and economics Zipf-Mandelbrot law gave improvement in account for the low-rankwords in corpus. Applications of Zipf-Mandelbrot law can be found in linguistics, information sciences and also mostly applicable in ecological eld studies. We also introduced an entropy by applying the Zipf-Mandelbrot law and derived some related inequalities.

Keywords: f-divergence, majorization inequality, Sherman inequality, Zipf-Mandelbrot entropy

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10876 Building a Model for Information Literacy Education in School Settings

Authors: Tibor Koltay

Abstract:

Among varied new literacies, information literacy is not only the best-known one but displays numerous models and frameworks. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of its complex theoretical model that could be applied to information literacy education in public (K12) education, which often makes use of constructivist approaches. This paper aims to present the main features of such a model. To develop a complex model, the literature and practice of phenomenographic and sociocultural theories, as well as discourse analytical approaches to information literacy, have been reviewed. Besides these constructivist and expressive based educational approaches, the new model is intended to include the innovation of coupling them with a cognitive model that takes developing informational and operational knowledge into account. The convergences between different literacies (information literacy, media literacy, media and information literacy, and data literacy) were taken into account, as well. The model will also make use of a three-country survey that examined secondary school teachers’ attitudes to information literacy. The results of this survey show that only a part of the respondents feel properly prepared to teach information literacy courses, and think that they can teach information literacy skills by themselves, while they see a librarian as an expert in educating information literacy. The use of the resulting model is not restricted to enhancing theory. It is meant to raise the level of awareness about information literacy and related literacies, and the next phase of the model’s development will be a pilot study that verifies the usefulness of the methodology for practical information literacy education in selected Hungarian secondary schools.

Keywords: communication, data literacy, discourse analysis, information literacy education, media and information literacy media literacy, phenomenography, public education, sociocultural theory

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10875 Research on the United Navigation Mechanism of Land, Sea and Air Targets under Multi-Sources Information Fusion

Authors: Rui Liu, Klaus Greve

Abstract:

The navigation information is a kind of dynamic geographic information, and the navigation information system is a kind of special geographic information system. At present, there are many researches on the application of centralized management and cross-integration application of basic geographic information. However, the idea of information integration and sharing is not deeply applied into the research of navigation information service. And the imperfection of navigation target coordination and navigation information sharing mechanism under certain navigation tasks has greatly affected the reliability and scientificity of navigation service such as path planning. Considering this, the project intends to study the multi-source information fusion and multi-objective united navigation information interaction mechanism: first of all, investigate the actual needs of navigation users in different areas, and establish the preliminary navigation information classification and importance level model; and then analyze the characteristics of the remote sensing and GIS vector data, and design the fusion algorithm from the aspect of improving the positioning accuracy and extracting the navigation environment data. At last, the project intends to analyze the feature of navigation information of the land, sea and air navigation targets, and design the united navigation data standard and navigation information sharing model under certain navigation tasks, and establish a test navigation system for united navigation simulation experiment. The aim of this study is to explore the theory of united navigation service and optimize the navigation information service model, which will lay the theory and technology foundation for the united navigation of land, sea and air targets.

Keywords: information fusion, united navigation, dynamic path planning, navigation information visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
10874 Personalized Learning: An Analysis Using Item Response Theory

Authors: A. Yacob, N. Hj. Ali, M. H. Yusoff, M. Y. MohdSaman, W. M. A. F. W. Hamzah

Abstract:

Personalized learning becomes increasingly popular which not is restricted by time, place or any other barriers. This study proposes an analysis of Personalized Learning using Item Response Theory which considers course material difficulty and learner ability. The study investigates twenty undergraduate students at TATI University College, who are taking programming subject. By using the IRT, it was found that, finding the most appropriate problem levels to each student include high and low level test items together is not a problem. Thus, the student abilities can be asses more accurately and fairly. Learners who experience more anxiety will affect a heavier cognitive load and receive lower test scores. Instructors are encouraged to provide a supportive learning environment to enhance learning effectiveness because Cognitive Load Theory concerns the limited capacity of the brain to absorb new information.

Keywords: assessment, item response theory, cognitive load theory, learning, motivation, performance

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10873 On the Use of Reliability Factors to Reduce Conflict between Information Sources in Dempster-Shafer Theory

Authors: A. Alem, Y. Dahmani, A. Hadjali, A. Boualem

Abstract:

Managing the problem of the conflict, either by using the Dempster-Shafer theory, or by the application of the fusion process to push researchers in recent years to find ways to get to make best decisions especially; for information systems, vision, robotic and wireless sensor networks. In this paper we are interested to take account of the conflict in the combination step that took the conflict into account and tries to manage such a way that it does not influence the decision step, the conflict what from reliable sources. According to [1], the conflict lead to erroneous decisions in cases where was with strong degrees between sources of information, if the conflict is more than the maximum of the functions of belief mass K > max1...n (mi (A)), then the decision becomes impossible. We will demonstrate in this paper that the multiplication of mass functions by coefficients of reliability is a decreasing function; it leads to the reduction of conflict and a good decision. The definition of reliability coefficients accurately and multiply them by the mass functions of each information source to resolve the conflict and allow deciding whether the degree of conflict. The evaluation of this technique is done by a use case; a comparison of the combination of springs with a maximum conflict without, and with reliability coefficients.

Keywords: Dempster-Shafer theory, fusion process, conflict managing, reliability factors, decision

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10872 Prospect Theory and Activation Functions

Authors: Harpreet S. Bedi

Abstract:

This paper builds a correspondence between the theory of behavioral economics and the theory of artificial neural networks. The connection between these two disparate branches of knowledge is concretely constructed by designing a dictionary between prospect theory and artificial neural networks. More specifically, the activation functions in neural networks can be converted to probability weighting functions in prospect theory and vice versa. This approach leads to infinitely many activation functions and allows for their psychological interpretation in terms of risk-seeking and risk-averse behavior.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, activation functions, prospect theory, probability weighting functions

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10871 Information Security Dilemma: Employees' Behaviour on Three-Dimensions to Failure

Authors: Dyana Zainudin, Atta Ur-Rahman, Thaier Hamed

Abstract:

This paper explains about human nature concept as to understand the significance of information security in employees’ mentality including leaders in an organisation. By studying on a theory concept of the latest Von Solms fourth waves, information security governance basically refers to the concept of a set of methods, techniques and tools that responsible for protecting resources of a computer system to ensure service availability, confidentiality and integrity of information. However, today’s information security dilemma relates to the acceptance of employees mentality. The major causes are a lack of communication and commitment. These types of management in an organisation are labelled as immoral/amoral management which effects on information security compliance. A recovery action is taken based on ‘learn a lesson from incident events’ rather than prevention. Therefore, the paper critically analysed the Von Solms fourth waves’ theory with current human events and its correlation by studying secondary data and also from qualitative analysis among employees in public sectors. ‘Three-dimensions to failure’ of information security dilemma are explained as deny, don’t know and don’t care. These three-dimensions are the most common vulnerable behaviour owned by employees. Therefore, by avoiding the three-dimensions to failure may improve the vulnerable behaviour of employees which is often related to immoral/amoral management.

Keywords: information security management system, information security behaviour, information security governance, information security culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
10870 Persuasive Communication on Social Egg Freezing in California from a Framing Theory Perspective

Authors: Leila Mohammadi

Abstract:

This paper presents the impact of persuasive communication implemented by fertility clinics websites, and how this information influences women at their decision-making for undertaking this procedure. The influential factors for women decisions to do social egg freezing (SEF) are analyzed from a framing theory perspective, with a specific focus on the impact of persuasive information on women’s decision making. This study follows a quantitative approach. A two-phase survey has been conducted to examine the interest rate to undertake SEF. In the first phase, a questionnaire was available during a month (May 2015) to women to answer whether or not they knew enough information of this process, with a total of 230 answers. The second phase took place in the two last weeks of July 2015. All the respondents were invited to a seminars called ‘All about egg freezing’ and afretwards they were requested to answer the second questionnaire. After the seminar, in which they were given an extensive amount of information about egg freezing, a total of 115 women replied the questionnaire. The collected data during this process were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Most of the respondents changed their opinion in the second questionaire which was after receiving information. Although in the first questionnaire their self-evaluation of having knowledge about this process and the implemented technologies was very high, they realized that they still need to access more information from different sources in order to be able to make a decision. The study reached the conclusion that persuasive and framed information by clinics would affect the decisions of these women. Despite the reasons women have to do egg freezing and their motivations behind it, providing people necessary information and unprejudiced data about this process (such as its positive and negative aspects, requirements, suppositions, possibilities and consequences) would help them to make a more precise and reasonable decision about what they are buying.

Keywords: decision making, fertility clinics, framing theory, persuasive information, social egg freezing

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10869 Multimedia Data Fusion for Event Detection in Twitter by Using Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory

Authors: Samar M. Alqhtani, Suhuai Luo, Brian Regan

Abstract:

Data fusion technology can be the best way to extract useful information from multiple sources of data. It has been widely applied in various applications. This paper presents a data fusion approach in multimedia data for event detection in twitter by using Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The methodology applies a mining algorithm to detect the event. There are two types of data in the fusion. The first is features extracted from text by using the bag-ofwords method which is calculated using the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF). The second is the visual features extracted by applying scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). The Dempster - Shafer theory of evidence is applied in order to fuse the information from these two sources. Our experiments have indicated that comparing to the approaches using individual data source, the proposed data fusion approach can increase the prediction accuracy for event detection. The experimental result showed that the proposed method achieved a high accuracy of 0.97, comparing with 0.93 with texts only, and 0.86 with images only.

Keywords: data fusion, Dempster-Shafer theory, data mining, event detection

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10868 Closed-Form Sharma-Mittal Entropy Rate for Gaussian Processes

Authors: Septimia Sarbu

Abstract:

The entropy rate of a stochastic process is a fundamental concept in information theory. It provides a limit to the amount of information that can be transmitted reliably over a communication channel, as stated by Shannon's coding theorems. Recently, researchers have focused on developing new measures of information that generalize Shannon's classical theory. The aim is to design more efficient information encoding and transmission schemes. This paper continues the study of generalized entropy rates, by deriving a closed-form solution to the Sharma-Mittal entropy rate for Gaussian processes. Using the squeeze theorem, we solve the limit in the definition of the entropy rate, for different values of alpha and beta, which are the parameters of the Sharma-Mittal entropy. In the end, we compare it with Shannon and Rényi's entropy rates for Gaussian processes.

Keywords: generalized entropies, Sharma-Mittal entropy rate, Gaussian processes, eigenvalues of the covariance matrix, squeeze theorem

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10867 A Study on Game Theory Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: M. Shoukath Ali, Rajendra Prasad Singh

Abstract:

Game Theory approaches and their application in improving the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are discussed in this paper. The mathematical modeling and analysis of WSNs may have low success rate due to the complexity of topology, modeling, link quality, etc. However, Game Theory is a field, which can efficiently use to analyze the WSNs. Game Theory is related to applied mathematics that describes and analyzes interactive decision situations. Game theory has the ability to model independent, individual decision makers whose actions affect the surrounding decision makers. The outcome of complex interactions among rational entities can be predicted by a set of analytical tools. However, the rationality demands a stringent observance to a strategy based on measured of perceived results. Researchers are adopting game theory approaches to model and analyze leading wireless communication networking issues, which includes QoS, power control, resource sharing, etc.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, game theory, cooperative game theory, non-cooperative game theory

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10866 Effect of Political and Social Context in Libya on Accounting Information System to Meet Development Needs

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia, Almuetaz R. Boubakr

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to show how Libya’s legal, economic, political, social, and cultural systems have shaped Libyan development. This will provide a background to develop an understanding of the current role of the accounting information system in Libya and the challenges facing the design of the aeronautical information system to meet the development needs of Libya. Our knowledge of the unified economic operating systems of the world paves the way for the economic development of every developing country. In order to achieve this understanding, every developing country should be provided with a high-efficiency communications system in order to be able to interact globally. From the point of view of the theory of globalization, Libya's understanding of its socio-economic and political systems is vital in order to be able to adopt and apply accounting techniques that will assist in the economic development of Libya.

Keywords: accounting, economic development, globalisation theory, information system

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10865 Implementation in Python of a Method to Transform One-Dimensional Signals in Graphs

Authors: Luis Andrey Fajardo Fajardo

Abstract:

We are immersed in complex systems. The human brain, the galaxies, the snowflakes are examples of complex systems. An area of interest in Complex systems is the chaos theory. This revolutionary field of science presents different ways of study than determinism and reductionism. Here is where in junction with the Nonlinear DSP, chaos theory offer valuable techniques that establish a link between time series and complex theory in terms of complex networks, so that, the study of signals can be explored from the graph theory. Recently, some people had purposed a method to transform time series in graphs, but no one had developed a suitable implementation in Python with signals extracted from Chaotic Systems or Complex systems. That’s why the implementation in Python of an existing method to transform one dimensional chaotic signals from time domain to graph domain and some measures that may reveal information not extracted in the time domain is proposed.

Keywords: Python, complex systems, graph theory, dynamical systems

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10864 Socio-Technical Systems: Transforming Theory into Practice

Authors: L. Ngowi, N. H. Mvungi

Abstract:

This paper critically examines the evolution of socio-technical systems theory, its practices, and challenges in system design and development. It examines concepts put forward by researchers focusing on the application of the theory in software engineering. There are various methods developed that use socio-technical concepts based on systems engineering without remarkable success. The main constraint is the large amount of data and inefficient techniques used in the application of the concepts in system engineering for developing time-bound systems and within a limited/controlled budget. This paper critically examines each of the methods, highlight bottlenecks and suggest the way forward. Since socio-technical systems theory only explains what to do, but not how doing it, hence engineers are not using the concept to save time, costs and reduce risks associated with new frameworks. Hence, a new framework, which can be considered as a practical approach is proposed that borrows concepts from soft systems method, agile systems development and object-oriented analysis and design to bridge the gap between theory and practice. The approach will enable the development of systems using socio-technical systems theory to attract/enable the system engineers/software developers to use socio-technical systems theory in building worthwhile information systems to avoid fragilities and hostilities in the work environment.

Keywords: socio-technical systems, human centered design, software engineering, cognitive engineering, soft systems, systems engineering

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10863 Identifying Chaotic Architecture: Origins of Nonlinear Design Theory

Authors: Mohammadsadegh Zanganehfar

Abstract:

Since the modernism, movement, and appearance of modern architecture, an aggressive desire for a general design theory in the theoretical works of architects in the form of books and essays emerges. Since Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown’s published complexity and contradiction in architecture in 1966, the discourse of complexity and volumetric composition has been an important and controversial issue in the discipline. Ever since various theories and essays were involved in this discourse, this paper attempt to identify chaos theory as a scientific model of complexity and its relation to architecture design theory by conducting a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary critical approach through architecture and basic sciences resources. As a result, we identify chaotic architecture as the correlation of chaos theory and architecture as an independent nonlinear design theory with specific characteristics and properties.

Keywords: architecture complexity, chaos theory, fractals, nonlinear dynamic systems, nonlinear ontology

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10862 Study of Evaluation Model Based on Information System Success Model and Flow Theory Using Web-scale Discovery System

Authors: June-Jei Kuo, Yi-Chuan Hsieh

Abstract:

Because of the rapid growth of information technology, more and more libraries introduce the new information retrieval systems to enhance the users’ experience, improve the retrieval efficiency, and increase the applicability of the library resources. Nevertheless, few of them are discussed the usability from the users’ aspect. The aims of this study are to understand that the scenario of the information retrieval system utilization, and to know why users are willing to continuously use the web-scale discovery system to improve the web-scale discovery system and promote their use of university libraries. Besides of questionnaires, observations and interviews, this study employs both Information System Success Model introduced by DeLone and McLean in 2003 and the flow theory to evaluate the system quality, information quality, service quality, use, user satisfaction, flow, and continuing to use web-scale discovery system of students from National Chung Hsing University. Then, the results are analyzed through descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling using AMOS. The results reveal that in web-scale discovery system, the user’s evaluation of system quality, information quality, and service quality is positively related to the use and satisfaction; however, the service quality only affects user satisfaction. User satisfaction and the flow show a significant impact on continuing to use. Moreover, user satisfaction has a significant impact on user flow. According to the results of this study, to maintain the stability of the information retrieval system, to improve the information content quality, and to enhance the relationship between subject librarians and students are recommended for the academic libraries. Meanwhile, to improve the system user interface, to minimize layer from system-level, to strengthen the data accuracy and relevance, to modify the sorting criteria of the data, and to support the auto-correct function are required for system provider. Finally, to establish better communication with librariana commended for all users.

Keywords: web-scale discovery system, discovery system, information system success model, flow theory, academic library

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10861 Analysis of Preferences in Decision Making in a Bilateral Negotiation Context: An Experimental Approach from Game Theory

Authors: Laura V. Gonzalez, Juan B. Duarte, Luis A. Palacio

Abstract:

Decision making can be conditioned by factors such as the environments, circumstances, behavioral biases, emotions, beliefs and preferences of the participants. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect ‘amount of information’ and ‘number of options’, on the behavior of competitors under a bilateral negotiation context. For the above, it has been designed an experiment as a classroom game where they negotiate goods, under the condition that none of the players knows exactly the real value of the asset. The game is designed under the concept of zero-sum (non-cooperative game) and focuses on the fact that agents must anticipate the strategies of their opponent to improve their chances of winning in the negotiation. The empirical results show that, contrary to the traditional view of expected utility theory, players prefer to obtain low profits and losses, when faced with a higher expectation of losses, using sub-optimal strategies not in accordance with game theory.

Keywords: bilateral negotiation, classroom game, decision making, game theory

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10860 Inverse Matrix in the Theory of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Renata Masarova, Bohuslava Juhasova, Martin Juhas, Zuzana Sutova

Abstract:

In dynamic system theory a mathematical model is often used to describe their properties. In order to find a transfer matrix of a dynamic system we need to calculate an inverse matrix. The paper contains the fusion of the classical theory and the procedures used in the theory of automated control for calculating the inverse matrix. The final part of the paper models the given problem by the Matlab.

Keywords: dynamic system, transfer matrix, inverse matrix, modeling

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10859 A PROMETHEE-BELIEF Approach for Multi-Criteria Decision Making Problems with Incomplete Information

Authors: H. Moalla, A. Frikha

Abstract:

Multi-criteria decision aid methods consider decision problems where numerous alternatives are evaluated on several criteria. These methods are used to deal with perfect information. However, in practice, it is obvious that this information requirement is too much strict. In fact, the imperfect data provided by more or less reliable decision makers usually affect decision results since any decision is closely linked to the quality and availability of information. In this paper, a PROMETHEE-BELIEF approach is proposed to help multi-criteria decisions based on incomplete information. This approach solves problems with incomplete decision matrix and unknown weights within PROMETHEE method. On the base of belief function theory, our approach first determines the distributions of belief masses based on PROMETHEE’s net flows and then calculates weights. Subsequently, it aggregates the distribution masses associated to each criterion using Murphy’s modified combination rule in order to infer a global belief structure. The final action ranking is obtained via pignistic probability transformation. A case study of real-world application concerning the location of a waste treatment center from healthcare activities with infectious risk in the center of Tunisia is studied to illustrate the detailed process of the BELIEF-PROMETHEE approach.

Keywords: belief function theory, incomplete information, multiple criteria analysis, PROMETHEE method

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10858 Mitigating the Unwillingness of e-Forums Members to Engage in Information Exchange

Authors: Dora Triki, Irena Vida, Claude Obadia

Abstract:

Social networks such as e-Forums or dating sites often face the reluctance of key members to participate. Relying on the conation theory, this study investigates this phenomenon and proposes solutions to mitigate the issue. We show that highly experienced e-Forum members refuse to share business information in a peer to peer information exchange forums. However, forums managers can mitigate this behavior by developing a sentiment of belongingness to the network. Furthermore, by selecting only elite forum participants with ample experience, they can reduce the reluctance of key information providers to engage in information exchange. Our hypotheses are tested with PLS structural equations modeling using survey data from members of a French e-Forum dedicated to the exchange of business information about exporting.

Keywords: conation, e-Forum, information exchange, members participation

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10857 Chinese Fantasy Novel: New Word Teaching for Non-Native Learners

Authors: Bok Check Meng, Goh Ying Soon

Abstract:

Giving additional learning materials such as Chinese fantasy novel to non-native learners can be strenuous. Instructors have to understand the underpinning theories about cognitive theory for new word instruction. This paper discusses the underpinning theories. Relevant literature reviews are given. There are basically five major areas of cognitive related theories mentioned in this article. These include motivational learning theory, Affective theory of learning, Cognitive psychology theory, Vocabulary acquisition theory and Bloom’s cognitive levels theory. A theoretical framework has been constructed. Thus, this will give a hand in ensuring non-native learners might gain positive outcomes in the instruction process. Instructors who are interested in teaching new word from Chinese fantasy novel in specific to support additional learning might be able to get insights from this article.

Keywords: Chinese fantasy novel, new word teaching, non-native learners, cognitive theory, bloom

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10856 Decision Making Approach through Generalized Fuzzy Entropy Measure

Authors: H. D. Arora, Anjali Dhiman

Abstract:

Uncertainty is found everywhere and its understanding is central to decision making. Uncertainty emerges as one has less information than the total information required describing a system and its environment. Uncertainty and information are so closely associated that the information provided by an experiment for example, is equal to the amount of uncertainty removed. It may be pertinent to point out that uncertainty manifests itself in several forms and various kinds of uncertainties may arise from random fluctuations, incomplete information, imprecise perception, vagueness etc. For instance, one encounters uncertainty due to vagueness in communication through natural language. Uncertainty in this sense is represented by fuzziness resulting from imprecision of meaning of a concept expressed by linguistic terms. Fuzzy set concept provides an appropriate mathematical framework for dealing with the vagueness. Both information theory, proposed by Shannon (1948) and fuzzy set theory given by Zadeh (1965) plays an important role in human intelligence and various practical problems such as image segmentation, medical diagnosis etc. Numerous approaches and theories dealing with inaccuracy and uncertainty have been proposed by different researcher. In the present communication, we generalize fuzzy entropy proposed by De Luca and Termini (1972) corresponding to Shannon entropy(1948). Further, some of the basic properties of the proposed measure were examined. We also applied the proposed measure to the real life decision making problem.

Keywords: entropy, fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, generalized fuzzy entropy, decision making

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