Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1405

Search results for: particulate matter

1405 Comparative Studies on the Concentration of Some Heavy Metal in Urban Particulate Matter, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Sivapan Choo-In


The main objective of this study was investigate particulate matter concentration on main and secondary roadside in urban area. And studied on the concentration of some heavy metal including lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in particulate matter in Bangkok area. The averaged particle concentration for main roadside are higher than secondary roadside. The particulate matter less than 10 micron concentration contribute the majority of the Total Suspended Particulate for main road and zinc concentration were higher than copper and lead for both site.

Keywords: air pollution, air quality, polution, monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
1404 Zinc Contaminate on Urban Roadside in Rush Hour, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Sivapan Choo-In


This research aims to study the Zinc (Zn) concentration in fine particulate matter on Rajchawithee roadside in rush hour. 30 Samples were collected in Jun to August 2013 by 8 stage non-avaible cascade impactor. Each samples (filter paper) were digest with nitric acid and analyed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Zinc determination. The highest value for the mean fraction (18.00 ± 9.28 %) is the size 9.0 – 110.0 micron follow by the range 3.3 – 4.7 micron (14.77 ± 14.66 %) and 1.1 – 2.1 micron (14.01 ± 11.77 %) .The concentration of Zn in the particulate matter of range 0.43 – 0.7 μm, 0.7 – 1.1 μm, 1.1 – 2.1 μm, 2.1 – 3.3 μm, 3.3 – 4.7 μm, 4.7 – 5.8 μm, 5.8 – 9.0 μm, 9.0 – 10.0 μm, were 41.56 – 217.62 μg/m3 (175.86 ± 32.25 μg/m3), 152.60 – 217.24 μg/m3 (187.71 ± 17.42 μg/m3), 142.90 – 214.67 μg/m3 (180.95 ± 18.71 μg/m3), 155.48 – 218.19 μg/m3 (183.22 ± 19.94 μg/m3), 151.72 – 217.39 μg/m3 (181.85 ± 17.57 μg/m3), 133.86 – 220.17 μg/m3 (178.78 ± 23.45 μg/m3), 160.00 – 220.35 μg/m3 (182.58 ± 18.08 μg/m3), 153.30 – 226.70 μg/m3 (181.52 ± 20.05 μg/m3), repectively. The Zn concentration in each size of particulate matter was not statistically significant different (p > .005)

Keywords: air pollution, particulate matter, size distribution, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
1403 Evaluation of the Impact of Green Infrastructure on Dispersion and Deposition of Particulate Matter in Near-Roadway Areas

Authors: Deeksha Chauhan, Kamal Jain


Pollutant concentration is high in near-road environments, and vegetation is an effective measure to mitigate urban air quality problems. This paper presents the influence of roadside green infrastructure in dispersion and Deposition of Particulate matter (PM) by the ENVI-met Simulations. Six green infrastructure configurations were specified (i) hedges only, (ii) trees only, (iii) a mix of trees and shrubs (iv) green barrier (v) green wall, and (vi) no tree buffer were placed on both sides of the road. The changes in concentrations at all six scenarios were estimated to identify the best barrier to reduce the dispersion and deposition of PM10 and PM2.5 in an urban environment.

Keywords: barrier, concentration, dispersion, deposition, Particulate matter, pollutant

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
1402 Indoor Emissions Produced by Kerosene Heating, Determining Its Formation Potential of Secondary Particulate Matter and Transport

Authors: J. M. Muñoz, Y. Vasquez, P. Oyola, M. Rubio


All emissions of contaminants inside of homes, offices, school and another enclosure closer that affect the health of those who inhabit or use them are cataloged how indoor pollution. The importance of this study is because individuals spend most of their time in indoors ambient. The main indoor pollutants are oxides of nitrogen (NOₓ), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). Combustion heaters are an important source of pollution indoors. It will be measured: NOₓ, SO₂, CO, PM₂,₅ y PM₁₀ continuous and discreet form at indoor and outdoor of two households with different heating energy; kerosene and electricity (control home) respectively, in addition to environmental parameters such as temperature. With the values obtained in the 'control home' it will be possible estimate the contaminants transport from outside to inside of the household and later the contribution generated by kerosene heating. Transporting the emissions from burning kerosene to a photochemical chamber coupled to a continuous and discreet measuring system of contaminants it will be evaluated the oxidation of the emissions and formation of secondary particulate matter. It will be expected watch a contaminants transport from outside to inside of the household and the kerosene emissions present a high potential of formation secondary particulate matter.

Keywords: heating, indoor pollution, kerosene, secondary particulate matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
1401 Exposure to Particulate Matter Taking Various Transportation Modes in Cebu City, Philippines

Authors: Mona Loraine M. Barabad, Duckshin Park, Michael E. Versoza


This study gives a comparison of the commuters’ exposure to particulate matter while taking different transportation mode (jeepney, motorcycle and taxi) in Cebu City, Philippines. A personal aerosol monitor (Sidepak AM510) was used for data collection; in addition, both temperature and humidity were also documented. Analysis was done and showed that Jeepney, which is the most commonly used mode in the country, has the highest PM collected having an average of 358.0μg/m^3, followed by the motorcycle with an average of 244.6 μg/m^3. The taxi recorded to have an average of 50.0 μg/m^3 and the lowest between the microenvironments sampled. The outcome was greatly significant to the traffic volume together with several factors that could possibly affect the result. However, due to the lack of time and resources, the data collected was limited. Further and thorough investigation should be implemented to provide more essential information regarding the subject.

Keywords: air quality, particulate matter, Philippines, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1400 Permeodynamic Particulate Matter Filtration for Improved Air Quality

Authors: Hamad M. Alnagran, Mohammed S. Imbabi


Particulate matter (PM) in the air we breathe is detrimental to health. Overcoming this problem has attracted interest and prompted research on the use of PM filtration in commercial buildings and homes to be carried out. The consensus is that tangible health benefits can result from the use of PM filters in most urban environments, to clean up the building’s fresh air supply and thereby reduce exposure of residents to airborne PM. The authors have investigated and are developing a new large-scale Permeodynamic Filtration Technology (PFT) capable of permanently filtering and removing airborne PMs from outdoor spaces, thus also benefiting internal spaces such as the interiors of buildings. Theoretical models were developed, and laboratory trials carried out to determine, and validate through measurement permeodynamic filtration efficiency and pressure drop as functions of PM particle size distributions. The conclusion is that PFT offers a potentially viable, cost effective end of pipe solution to the problem of airborne PM.

Keywords: air filtration, particulate matter, particle size distribution, permeodynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
1399 Measuring and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mobile High Efficiency Particulate Air Filtering on Particulate Matter within the Road Traffic Network of a Sample of Non-Sparse and Sparse Urban Environments in the UK

Authors: Richard Maguire


This research evaluates the efficiency of using mobile HEPA filters to reduce localized Particulate Matter (PM), Total Volatile Organic Chemical (TVOC) and Formaldehyde (HCHO) Air Pollution. The research is being performed using a standard HEPA filter that is tube fitted and attached to a motor vehicle. The velocity of the vehicle is used to generate the pressure difference that allows the filter to remove PM, VOC and HCOC pollution from the localized atmosphere of a road transport traffic route. The testing has been performed on a sample of traffic routes in Non-Sparse and Sparse urban environments within the UK. Pre and Post filter measuring of the PM2.5 Air Quality has been carried out along with demographics of the climate environment, including live filming of the traffic conditions. This provides a base line for future national and international research. The effectiveness measurement is generated through evaluating the difference in PM2.5 Air Quality measured pre- and post- the mobile filter test equipment. A series of further research opportunities and future exploitation options are made based on the results of the research.

Keywords: high efficiency particulate air, HEPA filter, particulate matter, traffic pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1398 Analysis of Particulate Matter Concentration, EC, OC Emission and Elemental Composition for Biodiesel-Fuelled Diesel Engine

Authors: A. M. Ashraful, H .H. Masjuki, M. A. Kalam


Comparative investigations were performed on the particles matter emitted from a DI diesel engine utilizing palm biodiesel. In this experiment, palm biodiesel PB10 (90% diesel and 10% palm biodiesel), PB20 (80% diesel, 20% palm biodiesel) and diesel fuel samples exhaust were investigated at different working condition (25% and 50% load at 1500 rpm constant speed). Observation of this experiment it clearly seen that at low load condition particle matter concentration of palm biodiesel exhaust were de-creased than that of diesel fuel. At no load and 25% load condition PB10 biodiesel blend exhibited 2.2 times lower PM concentration than that of diesel fuel. On the other hand, elemental carbon (EC) and organic emission for PB10 showed decreases trend as varies 4.2% to 6.6% and 32 to 39% respectively, while elemental carbon percentage increased by 0.85 to 10% respectively. Similarly, metal composition of PB10 biodiesel blend increased by 4.8 to 26.5% respectively. SEM images for B10 and B20 demonstrated granular structure particulates with greater grain sizes compared with diesel fuel. Finally, the experimental outcomes showed that the blend composition and degree of unsaturation of the methyl ester present in biodiesel influence on the particulate matter formation.

Keywords: particulate matter, elemental carbon, organic carbon, biodiesel

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
1397 Estimation of Exhaust and Non-Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions’ Share from On-Road Vehicles in Addis Ababa City

Authors: Solomon Neway Jida, Jean-Francois Hetet, Pascal Chesse


Vehicular emission is the key source of air pollution in the urban environment. This includes both fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matters (PM10). However, particulate matter emissions from road traffic comprise emissions from exhaust tailpipe and emissions due to wear and tear of the vehicle part such as brake, tire and clutch and re-suspension of dust (non-exhaust emission). This study estimates the share of the two sources of pollutant particle emissions from on-roadside vehicles in the Addis Ababa municipality, Ethiopia. To calculate its share, two methods were applied; the exhaust-tailpipe emissions were calculated using the Europeans emission inventory Tier II method and Tier I for the non-exhaust emissions (like vehicle tire wear, brake, and road surface wear). The results show that of the total traffic-related particulate emissions in the city, 63% emitted from vehicle exhaust and the remaining 37% from non-exhaust sources. The annual roads transport exhaust emission shares around 2394 tons of particles from all vehicle categories. However, from the total yearly non-exhaust particulate matter emissions’ contribution, tire and brake wear shared around 65% and 35% emanated by road-surface wear. Furthermore, vehicle tire and brake wear were responsible for annual 584.8 tons of coarse particles (PM10) and 314.4 tons of fine particle matter (PM2.5) emissions in the city whereas surface wear emissions were responsible for around 313.7 tons of PM10 and 169.9 tons of PM2.5 pollutant emissions in the city. This suggests that non-exhaust sources might be as significant as exhaust sources and have a considerable contribution to the impact on air quality.

Keywords: Addis Ababa, automotive emission, emission estimation, particulate matters

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
1396 Identifying Knowledge Gaps in Incorporating Toxicity of Particulate Matter Constituents for Developing Regulatory Limits on Particulate Matter

Authors: Ananya Das, Arun Kumar, Gazala Habib, Vivekanandan Perumal


Regulatory bodies has proposed limits on Particulate Matter (PM) concentration in air; however, it does not explicitly indicate the incorporation of effects of toxicities of constituents of PM in developing regulatory limits. This study aimed to provide a structured approach to incorporate toxic effects of components in developing regulatory limits on PM. A four-step human health risk assessment framework consists of - (1) hazard identification (parameters: PM and its constituents and their associated toxic effects on health), (2) exposure assessment (parameters: concentrations of PM and constituents, information on size and shape of PM; fate and transport of PM and constituents in respiratory system), (3) dose-response assessment (parameters: reference dose or target toxicity dose of PM and its constituents), and (4) risk estimation (metric: hazard quotient and/or lifetime incremental risk of cancer as applicable). Then parameters required at every step were obtained from literature. Using this information, an attempt has been made to determine limits on PM using component-specific information. An example calculation was conducted for exposures of PM2.5 and its metal constituents from Indian ambient environment to determine limit on PM values. Identified data gaps were: (1) concentrations of PM and its constituents and their relationship with sampling regions, (2) relationship of toxicity of PM with its components.

Keywords: air, component-specific toxicity, human health risks, particulate matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1395 Analysis and Prediction of Fine Particulate Matter in the Air Environment for 2007-2020 in Bangkok Thailand

Authors: Phawichsak Prapassornpitaya, Wanida Jinsart


Daily monitoring PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ data from 2007 to 2017 were analyzed to provide baseline data for prediction of the air pollution in Bangkok in the period of 2018 -2020. Two statistical models, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (ARIMA) were used to evaluate the trends of pollutions. The prediction concentrations were tested by root means square error (RMSE) and index of agreement (IOA). This evaluation of the traffic PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ were studied in association with the regulatory control and emission standard changes. The emission factors of particulate matter from diesel vehicles were decreased when applied higher number of euro standard. The trends of ambient air pollutions were expected to decrease. However, the Bangkok smog episode in February 2018 with temperature inversion caused high concentration of PM₂.₅ in the air environment of Bangkok. The impact of traffic pollutants was depended upon the emission sources, temperature variations, and metrological conditions.

Keywords: fine particulate matter, ARIMA, RMSE, Bangkok

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1394 Daily Variations of Particulate Matter (PM10) in Industrial Sites in an Suburban Area of Sour El Ghozlane, Algeria

Authors: Sidali Khedidji, Riad Ladji, Noureddine Yassaa


In this study, particulate matter (PM10) which are hazardous for environment and human health were investigated in Sour El Ghozlane suburban atmosphere at a sampling point from March 2013 to April 2013. Ambient concentration measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were carried out at a regional study of the cement industry in Sour El Ghozlane. During sampling, the airborne particulate matter was enriched onto PTFE filters by using a two medium volume samplers with or without a size-selective inlet for PM10 and TSP were used and each sampling period lasted approximately 24 h. The organic compounds were characterized using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MSD). Total concentrations for PAHs recorded in sour el ghozlane suburban ranged from 101 to 204 ng m-3. Gravimeter method was applied to the black smoke concentration data for Springer seasons. The 24 h average concentrations of PM10 and TSP of Sour El Ghozlane suburban atmosphere were found in the range 4.76–165.76 μg/m3 and 28.63–800.14 μg/m3, respectively, in the sampling period. Meteorological factors, such as (relative humidity and temperature) were typically found to be affecting PMs, especially PM10. Air temperature did not seem to be significantly affecting TSP and PM10 mass concentrations.The guide value fixed by the European Community «40 μg/m3» not to exceed 35 days, were exceeded in some samples. However, it should be noted that the value limit fixed by the Algerian regulations «80 μg/m3» has been exceeded in 3 samplers during the period study.

Keywords: PAHs, PM10, TSP, particulate matter, cement industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
1393 A Wireless Sensor System for Continuous Monitoring of Particulate Air Pollution

Authors: A. Yawootti, P. Intra, P. Sardyoung, P. Phoosomma, R. Puttipattanasak, S. Leeragreephol, N. Tippayawong


The aim of this work is to design, develop and test the low-cost implementation of a particulate air pollution sensor system for continuous monitoring of outdoors and indoors particulate air pollution at a lower cost than existing instruments. In this study, measuring electrostatic charge of particles technique via high efficiency particulate-free air filter was carried out. The developed detector consists of a PM10 impactor, a particle charger, a Faraday cup electrometer, a flow meter and controller, a vacuum pump, a DC high voltage power supply and a data processing and control unit. It was reported that the developed detector was capable of measuring mass concentration of particulate ranging from 0 to 500 µg/m3 corresponding to number concentration of particulate ranging from 106 to 1012 particles/m3 with measurement time less than 1 sec. The measurement data of the sensor connects to the internet through a GSM connection to a public cellular network. In this development, the apparatus was applied the energy by a 12 V, 7 A internal battery for continuous measurement of about 20 hours. Finally, the developed apparatus was found to be close agreement with the import standard instrument, portable and benefit for air pollution and particulate matter measurements.

Keywords: particulate, air pollution, wireless communication, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1392 Developing Emission Factors of Fugitive Particulate Matter Emissions for Construction Sites in the Middle East Area

Authors: Hala A. Hassan, Vasiliki K. Tsiouri, Konstantinos E. Konstantinos


Fugitive particulate matter (PM) is a major source of airborne pollution in the Middle East countries. The meteorological conditions and topography of the area make it highly susceptible to wind-blown particles which raise many air quality concerns. Air quality tools such as field monitoring, emission factors, and dispersion modeling have been used in previous research studies to analyze the release and impacts of fugitive PM in the region. However, these tools have been originally developed based on experiments made for European and North American regions. In this work, an experimental campaign was conducted on April-May 2014 in a construction site in Doha city, Qatar. The ultimate goal is to evaluate the applicability of the existing emission factors for construction sites in dry and arid areas like the Middle East. This publication was made possible by a NPRP award [NPRP 7-649-2-241] from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

Keywords: particulate matter, emissions, fugitive, construction, air pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
1391 Analysis of the Air Pollution Behavior Registered at MACAM Net Using DOAS, Associated with High Pollution Episodes

Authors: Francisca Rojas Martínez, T. Pedro Oyola


The combination of the geographical and meteorological conditions of the Santiago basin are unfavorable for the circulation of atmospheric pollution, especially in the autumn and winter months. The problem of environmental pollution in the Metropolitan Region has been studied since the 1960s because the city has presented high pollution levels for most of the year, levels that have even been compared with those in cities in developed countries, This implies serious consequences for the health of the population. Two of the most important gasses present in the contamination are NO2, and O3, the highest concentrations of nitrogen dioxide are measured during the winter, in addition, it is considered as a great contribution to the fine fraction of particulate matter and as a precursor of tropospheric ozone. On the other hand, tropospheric ozone is a pollutant of photochemical origin and is strongly enhanced by solar radiation, which is why its presence in the atmosphere is more significant in the spring and summer. The measurements were made at 3 different places in Santiago, and were used different equipment; a DOAS for gasses measures, SIMCA for Black Carbon Measure and the MACAM net for particulate matter and meteorological condition. The results shows an important relation between height and presence of pollution gasses, and additionally, pollution episodes are in common low temperature (< 10 °C) and high relative humidity (> 80%), which are factors that allows the air suspension of particulate matter and focus NH4+ and NO3-.

Keywords: black carbon, DOAS, episodes, high pollution, simca

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
1390 Exposure Assessment to Airborne Particulate Matter in Agriculture

Authors: K. Rumchev, S. Gilbey


Airborne particulate matter is a known hazard to human health, with a considerable body of evidence linking agricultural dust exposures to adverse human health effects in exposed populations. It is also known that agricultural workers are exposed to high levels of soil dust and other types of airborne particulate matter within the farming environment. The aim of this study was to examine exposure to agricultural dust among farm workers during the seeding season. Twenty-one wheat-belt farms consented to participate in the study with 30 workers being monitored for dust exposure whilst seeding or undertaking seeding associated tasks. Each farm was visited once and farmers’ were asked to wear a personal air sampler for a 4-hour sampling period. Simultaneous, real-time, tractor cabin air quality monitoring was also undertaken. Data for this study was collected using real-time aerosol dust monitors to determine in-tractor cabin PM exposure to five size fractions (total, PM10, respirable, PM2.5 and PM1), and personal sampling was undertaken to establish individual exposure to inhalable and respirable dust concentrations. The study established a significant difference between personal exposures and simultaneous real-time in-cabin exposures for both inhalable and respirable fractions. No significant difference was shown between in-cabin and personal inhalable dust concentrations during seeding and spraying tasks, although both in-cabin and personal concentrations were two times greater for seeding than spraying. Future research should focus on educating and providing farm owners and workers with more information on adopting safe work practices to minimise harmful exposures to agricultural dust.

Keywords: agriculture, air quality, Australia, particulate matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
1389 Meta-Analysis of Particulate Matter Production in Developing and Developed Countries

Authors: Hafiz Mehtab Gull Nasir


Industrial development and urbanization have significant impacts on air emissions, and their relationship diverges at different stages of economic progress. The revolution further propelled these activities as principal paths to economic and social transformation; nevertheless, the paths also promoted environmental degradation. Resultantly, both developed and developing countries undergone through fast-paced development; in which developed countries implemented legislation towards environmental pollution control however developing countries took the advantage of technology without caring about the environment. In this study, meta-analysis is performed on production of particulate matter (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5) from urbanized cities of first, second and third world countries to assess the air quality. The cities were selected based on ranked set principles. In case of PM10, third world countries showed highest PM level (~95% confidence interval of 0.74-1.86) followed by second world countries but with managed situation. Besides, first, world countries indicated the lowest pollution (~95% confidence interval of 0.12-0.2). Similarly, highest level of PM2.5 was produced by third world countries followed by the second and first world countries. Hereby, level of PM2.5 was not significantly different for both second and third world countries; however, first world countries showed minimum PM load. Finally, the study revealed different that levels of pollution status exist among different countries; whereas developed countries also devised better strategies towards pollution control while developing countries are least caring about their environmental resources. It is suggested that although industrialization and urbanization are directly involved with interference in natural elements, however, production of nature appears to be more societal rather hermetical.

Keywords: meta-analysis, particulate matter, developing countries, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
1388 Investigation of Soot Regeneration Behavior in the DPF Cleaning Device

Authors: Won Jun Jo, Man Young Kim


To meet stringent diesel particulate matter regulations, DPF system is essential after treatment technology providing exceptional reliability and filtration performance. At low load driving conditions, the passive type of DPF system is ineffective for regeneration method due to the inadequate of engine exhaust heat in removing accumulated soot from the filter. Therefore, DPF cleaning device is necessary to remove the soot particles. In this work, the numerical analysis on the active regeneration of DPF in DPF cleaning device is performed to find the optimum operating conditions. In order to find the DPF regeneration characteristics during active regeneration, 5 different initial soot loading condition are investigated. As the initial soot mass increases, the maximum temperature of DPF and regeneration rate also increase.

Keywords: active regeneration, DPF cleaning device, pressure drop, Diesel Particulate Filter, particulate matters, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
1387 The Assessment of Particulate Matter Pollution in Kaunas Districts

Authors: Audrius Dedele, Aukse Miskinyte


Air pollution is a major problem, especially in large cities, causing a variety of environmental issues and a risk to human health effects. In order to observe air quality, to reduce and control air pollution in the city, municipalities are responsible for the creation of air quality management plans, air quality monitoring and emission inventories. Atmospheric dispersion modelling systems, along with monitoring, are powerful tools, which can be used not only for air quality management, but for the assessment of human exposure to air pollution. These models are widely used in epidemiological studies, which try to determine the associations between exposure to air pollution and the adverse health effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of particulate matter smaller than 10 μm (PM10) in different districts of Kaunas city during winter season. ADMS-Urban dispersion model was used for the simulation of PM10 pollution. The inputs of the model were the characteristics of stationary, traffic and domestic sources, emission data, meteorology and background concentrations were entered in the model. To assess the modelled concentrations of PM10 in Kaunas districts, geographic information system (GIS) was used. More detailed analysis was made using Spatial Analyst tools. The modelling results showed that the average concentration of PM10 during winter season in Kaunas city was 24.8 µg/m3. The highest PM10 levels were determined in Zaliakalnis and Aleksotas districts with are the highest number of individual residential properties, 32.0±5.2 and 28.7±8.2 µg/m3, respectively. The lowest pollution of PM10 was modelled in Petrasiunai district (18.4 µg/m3), which is characterized as commercial and industrial neighbourhood.

Keywords: air pollution, dispersion model, GIS, Particulate matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
1386 Estimating Air Particulate Matter 10 Using Satellite Data and Analyzing Its Annual Temporal Pattern over Gaza Strip, Palestine

Authors: ِAbdallah A. A. Shaheen


Gaza Strip faces economic and political issues such as conflict, siege and urbanization; all these have led to an increase in the air pollution over Gaza Strip. In this study, Particulate matter 10 (PM10) concentration over Gaza Strip has been estimated by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, based on a multispectral algorithm. Simultaneously, in-situ measurements for the corresponding particulate are acquired for selected time period. Landsat and ground data for eleven years are used to develop the algorithm while four years data (2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014) have been used to validate the results of algorithm. The developed algorithm gives highest regression, R coefficient value i.e. 0.86; RMSE value as 9.71 µg/m³; P values as 0. Average validation of algorithm show that calculated PM10 strongly correlates with measured PM10, indicating high efficiency of algorithm for the mapping of PM10 concentration during the years 2000 to 2014. Overall results show increase in minimum, maximum and average yearly PM10 concentrations, also presents similar trend over urban area. The rate of urbanization has been evaluated by supervised classification of the Landsat image. Urban sprawl from year 2000 to 2014 results in a high concentration of PM10 in the study area.

Keywords: PM10, landsat, atmospheric reflectance, Gaza strip, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
1385 Investigating of the Fuel Consumption in Construction Machinery and Ways to Reduce Fuel Consumption

Authors: Reza Bahboodian


One of the most important factors in the use of construction machinery is the fuel consumption cost of this equipment. The use of diesel engines in off-road vehicles is an important source of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter 10 in off-road vehicles (construction and mining) may be high. Due to the high cost of fuel, it is necessary to minimize fuel consumption. Factors affecting the fuel consumption of these cars are very diverse. Climate changes such as changes in pressure, temperature, humidity, fuel type selection, type of gearbox used in the car are effective in fuel consumption and pollution, and engine efficiency. In this paper, methods for reducing fuel consumption and pollutants by considering valid European and European standards are examined based on new methods such as hybridization, optimal gear change, adding hydrogen to diesel fuel, determining optimal working fluids, and using oxidation catalysts.

Keywords: improve fuel consumption, construction machinery, pollutant reduction, determining the optimal working cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1384 Experimental Research of Smoke Impact on the Performance of Cylindrical Eight Channel Cyclone

Authors: Pranas Baltrėnas, Dainius Paliulis


Cyclones are widely used for separating particles from gas in energy production objects. Efficiency of normal centrifugal air cleaning devices ranges from 85 to 90%, but weakness of many cyclones is low collection efficiency of particles less than 10 μm in diameter. Many factors have impact on cyclone efficiency – humidity, temperature, gas (air) composition, airflow velocity and etc. Many scientists evaluated only effect of origin and size of PM on cyclone efficiency. Effect of gas (air) composition and temperature on cyclone efficiency still demands contributions. Complex experimental research on efficiency of cylindrical eight-channel system with adjustable half-rings for removing fine dispersive particles (< 20 μm) was carried out. The impact of gaseous smoke components on removal of wood ashes was analyzed. Gaseous components, present in the smoke mixture, with the dynamic viscosity lower than that of same temperature air, decrease the d50 value, simultaneously increasing the overall particulate matter removal efficiency in the cyclone, i.e. this effect is attributed to CO2 and CO, while O2 and NO have the opposite effect. Air temperature influences the d50 value, an increase in air temperature yields an increase in d50 value, i.e. the overall particulate matter removal efficiency declines, the reason for this being an increasing dynamic air viscosity. At 120 °C temperature the d50 value is approximately 11.8 % higher than at air temperature of 20 °C. With an increase in smoke (gas) temperature from 20 °C to 50 °C, the aerodynamic resistance in a 1-tier eight-channel cylindrical cyclone drops from 1605 to 1380 Pa, from 1660 to 1420 Pa in a 2-tier eight-channel cylindrical cyclone, from 1715 to 1450 Pa in a 3-tier eight-channel cylindrical cyclone. The reason for a decline in aerodynamic resistance is the declining gas density. The aim of the paper is to analyze the impact of gaseous smoke components on the eight–channel cyclone with tangential inlet.

Keywords: cyclone, adjustable half-rings, particulate matter, efficiency, gaseous compounds, smoke

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
1383 PM₁₀ and PM2.5 Concentrations in Bangkok over Last 10 Years: Implications for Air Quality and Health

Authors: Tin Thongthammachart, Wanida Jinsart


Atmospheric particulate matter particles with a diameter less than 10 microns (PM₁₀) and less than 2.5 microns (PM₂.₅) have adverse health effect. The impact from PM was studied from both health and regulatory perspective. Ambient PM data was collected over ten years in Bangkok and vicinity areas of Thailand from 2007 to 2017. Statistical models were used to forecast PM concentrations from 2018 to 2020. Monitoring monthly data averaged concentration of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were used as input to forecast the monthly average concentration of PM. The forecasting results were validated by root means square error (RMSE). The predicted results were used to determine hazard risk for the carcinogenic disease. The health risk values were interpolated with GIS with ordinary kriging technique to create hazard maps in Bangkok and vicinity area. GIS-based maps illustrated the variability of PM distribution and high-risk locations. These evaluated results could support national policy for the sake of human health.

Keywords: PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, statistical models, atmospheric particulate matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
1382 Risk Assessment of Particulate Matter (PM10) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Atef M. F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy


In recent decades, particulate matter (PM10) have received much attention due to its potential adverse health impact and the subsequent need to better control or regulate these pollutants. The aim of this paper is focused on study risk assessment of PM10 in four different districts (Shebikah, Masfalah, Aziziyah, Awali) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the period from 1 Ramadan 1434 AH - 27 Safar 1435 AH. samples was collected by using Low Volume Sampler (LVS Low Volume Sampler) device and filtration method for estimating the total concentration of PM10. The study indicated that the mean PM10 concentrations were 254.6 (186.1 - 343.2) µg/m3 in Shebikah, 184.9 (145.6 - 271.4) µg/m3 in Masfalah, 162.4 (92.4 - 253.8) µg/m3 in Aziziyah, and 56.0 (44.5 - 119.8) µg/m3 in Awali. These values did not exceed the permissible limits in PME (340 µg/m3 as daily average). Furthermore, health assessment is carried out using AirQ2.2.3 model to estimate the number of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases. The cumulative number of cases per 100,000 were 1534 (18-3050 case), which lower than that recorded in the United States, Malaysia. The concentration response coefficient was 0.49 (95% CI 0.05 - 0.70) per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10.

Keywords: air pollution, respiratory diseases, airQ2.2.3, Makkah

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
1381 Assessment of Metal Dynamics in Dissolved and Particulate Phase in Human Impacted Hooghly River Estuary, India

Authors: Soumita Mitra, Santosh Kumar Sarkar


Hooghly river estuary (HRE), situated at the north eastern part of Bay of Bengal has global significance due to its holiness. It is of immense importance to the local population as it gives perpetual water supply for various activities such as transportation, fishing, boating, bathing etc. to the local people who settled on both the banks of this estuary. This study was done to assess the dissolved and particulate trace metal in the estuary covering a stretch of about 175 Km. The water samples were collected from the surface (0-5 cm) along the salinity gradient and metal concentration were studied both in dissolved and particulate phase using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GF-AAS) along some physical characteristics such as water temperature, salinity, pH, turbidity and total dissolved solids. Although much significant spatial variation was noticed but little enrichment was found along the downstream of the estuary. The mean concentration of the metals in the dissolved and particulate phase followed the same trend and as follows: Fe>Mn>Cr>Zn>Cu>Ni>Pb. The concentration of the metals in the particulate phase were much greater than that in dissolved phase which was also depicted from the values of the partition coefficient (Kd)(ml mg-1). The Kdvalues ranged from 1.5x105 (in case of Pb) to 4.29x106 (in case of Cr). The high value of Kd for Cr denoted that the metal Cr is mostly bounded with the suspended particulate matter while the least value for Pb signified it presence more in dissolved phase. Moreover, the concentrations of all the studied metals in the dissolved phase were many folds higher than their respective permissible limits assested by WHO 2008, 2009 and 2011. On the other hand, according to Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), Zn, Cu and Ni in the particulate phase lied between ERL and ERM values but Cr exceeded ERM values at all the stations confirming that the estuary is mostly contaminated with the particulate Cr and it might cause frequent adverse effects on the aquatic life. Multivariate statistics Cluster analysis was also performed which separated the stations according to the level of contamination from several point and nonpoint sources. Thus, it is found that the estuarine system is much polluted by the toxic metals and further investigation, toxicological studies should be implemented for full risk assessment of this system, better management and restoration of the water quality of this globally significant aquatic system.

Keywords: dissolved and particulate phase, Hooghly river estuary, partition coefficient, surface water, toxic metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
1380 Experimental Study of Water Injection into Manifold on Engine Performance and Emissions in Compression Ignition Engine

Authors: N. Rajmohan, M. R. Swaminathan


The performance of a diesel engine depends mainly on mixing of the fuel and air in the combustion chamber. The diesel engine suffers from significant generation of nitric oxide and particulate matter emission due to incomplete combustion. As the fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber in conventional diesel engines, spatial distributions of air-fuel ratio vary widely from rich to lean in combustion chamber. The NOx is formed in stoichiometric zone and smoke is generated during diffusion combustion period where the combustion rate becomes slower. One of the effective methods to reduce oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter emissions simultaneously is to reduce the intake charge temperature in diesel engines. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of water injection into intake air on performance and emission characteristic of single cylinder CI engine are carried out at different load and constant speed, with variable water to diesel ratio by mass. The water is injected into intake air by an elementary carburetor.

Keywords: engine emission control, oxides of nitrogen, diesel engine, ignition engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1379 Improving Indoor Air Quality by Increasing Bio-Based Negative Air Ion Release

Authors: Shuye Jiang, Ali Ma, Srinivasan Ramachandran


Indoor air quality could be improved through traditional air purifiers. However, they may not be environmental products. Here, a bio-based method was employed to improve indoor air quality by increasing negative air ion (NAI) release from ornamental plants. A total of 60 plant species has been screened by evaluating their ability to release NAIs, from which four candidates were selected to further study. All of them are from the Dracaena or fabids clade. These four candidates were then subjected to survey their ability to reduce the concentration of particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 or 10 microns (PM2.5 and PM10) in the growth chamber. High concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were artificially generated by burning a stick of incense for 2 minutes in the closed growth chamber (80cm length × 80cm width × 80cm height), in which the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were generally around 500 µg/m3 and 1500 µg/m3, respectively. Both PM2.5 and PM10 were naturally reduced to 410 and 670, respectively after two hours in case that no plants were placed inside the chamber. Interestingly, these two sizes of particulars were reduced to 170 µg/m3 and 210 µg/m3, respectively after two hours when plants were placed to the chamber. It took 4 hours for the plants to reduce particular concentration to acceptable level at less than 55 µg/m3 for both PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. However, the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were still above 200 µg/m3 and 300 µg/m3, respectively after 4 hours in the growth chamber without any plants. These results suggest the contribution of plants to the particulate deposition. However, all of these data are preliminary and the results may be updated by further studies. In addition, the roles of plants in absorbing indoor formaldehyde have also been explored and their absorbing ability is being improved by optimizing their growth conditions and treating with various exogenous agents. Thus, our preliminary studies provide an alternative strategy to improve indoor air quality.

Keywords: bio-based method, indoor air, negative air ion, particulate matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1378 System Devices to Reduce Particulate Matter Concentrations in Railway Metro Systems

Authors: Armando Cartenì


Within the design of sustainable transportation engineering, the problem of reducing particulate matter (PM) concentrations in railways metro system was not much discussed. It is well known that PM levels in railways metro system are mainly produced by mechanical friction at the rail-wheel-brake interactions and by the PM re-suspension caused by the turbulence generated by the train passage, which causes dangerous problems for passenger health. Starting from these considerations, the aim of this research was twofold: i) to investigate the particulate matter concentrations in a ‘traditional’ railways metro system; ii) to investigate the particulate matter concentrations of a ‘high quality’ metro system equipped with design devices useful for reducing PM concentrations: platform screen doors, rubber-tyred and an advanced ventilation system. Two measurement surveys were performed: one in the ‘traditional’ metro system of Naples (Italy) and onother in the ‘high quality’ rubber-tyred metro system of Turin (Italy). Experimental results regarding the ‘traditional’ metro system of Naples, show that the average PM10 concentrations measured in the underground station platforms are very high and range between 172 and 262 µg/m3 whilst the average PM2,5 concentrations range between 45 and 60 µg/m3, with dangerous problems for passenger health. By contrast the measurements results regarding the ‘high quality’ metro system of Turin show that: i) the average PM10 (PM2.5) concentrations measured in the underground station platform is 22.7 µg/m3 (16.0 µg/m3) with a standard deviation of 9.6 µg/m3 (7.6 µg/m3); ii) the indoor concentrations (both for PM10 and for PM2.5) are statistically lower from those measured in outdoors (with a ratio equal to 0.9-0.8), meaning that the indoor air quality is greater than those in urban ambient; iii) that PM concentrations in underground stations are correlated to the trains passage; iv) the inside trains concentrations (both for PM10 and for PM2.5) are statistically lower from those measured at station platform (with a ratio equal to 0.7-0.8), meaning that inside trains the use of air conditioning system could promote a greater circulation that clean the air. The comparison among the two case studies allow to conclude that the metro system designed with PM reduction devices allow to reduce PM concentration up to 11 times against a ‘traditional’ one. From these results, it is possible to conclude that PM concentrations measured in a ‘high quality’ metro system are significantly lower than the ones measured in a ‘traditional’ railway metro systems. This result allows possessing the bases for the design of useful devices for retrofitting metro systems all around the world.

Keywords: air quality, pollutant emission, quality in public transport, underground railway, external cost reduction, transportation planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
1377 Pollution Associated with Combustion in Stove to Firewood (Eucalyptus) and Pellet (Radiate Pine): Effect of UVA Irradiation

Authors: Y. Vásquez, F. Reyes, P. Oyola, M. Rubio, J. Muñoz, E. Lissi


In several cities in Chile, there is significant urban pollution, particularly in Santiago and in cities in the south where biomass is used as fuel in heating and cooking in a large proportion of homes. This has generated interest in knowing what factors can be modulated to control the level of pollution. In this project was conditioned and set up a photochemical chamber (14m3) equipped with gas monitors e.g. CO, NOX, O3, others and PM monitors e.g. dustrack, DMPS, Harvard impactors, etc. This volume could be exposed to UVA lamps, producing a spectrum similar to that generated by the sun. In this chamber, PM and gas emissions associated with biomass burning were studied in the presence and absence of radiation. From the comparative analysis of wood stove (eucalyptus globulus) and pellet (radiata pine), it can be concluded that, in the first approximation, 9-nitroanthracene, 4-nitropyrene, levoglucosan, water soluble potassium and CO present characteristics of the tracers. However, some of them show properties that interfere with this possibility. For example, levoglucosan is decomposed by radiation. The 9-nitroanthracene, 4-nitropyrene are emitted and formed under radiation. The 9-nitroanthracene has a vapor pressure that involves a partition involving the gas phase and particulate matter. From this analysis, it can be concluded that K+ is compound that meets the properties known to be tracer. The PM2.5 emission measured in the automatic pellet stove that was used in this thesis project was two orders of magnitude smaller than that registered by the manual wood stove. This has led to encouraging the use of pellet stoves in indoor heating, particularly in south-central Chile. However, it should be considered, while the use of pellet is not without problems, due to pellet stove generate high concentrations of Nitro-HAP's (secondary organic contaminants). In particular, 4-nitropyrene, compound of high toxicity, also primary and secondary particulate matter, associated with pellet burning produce a decrease in the size distribution of the PM, which leads to a depth penetration of the particles and their toxic components in the respiratory system.

Keywords: biomass burning, photochemical chamber, particulate matter, tracers

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
1376 Human Health Risks Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution in Romania

Authors: Katalin Bodor, Zsolt Bodor, Robert Szep


The particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 μm are less studied due to the limited availability of PM₂.₅, and less information is available on the health effects attributable to PM₁₀ in Central-Eastern Europe. The objective of the current study was to assess the human health risk and characterize the spatial and temporal variation of PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ in eight Romanian regions between the 2009-2018 and. The PM concentrations showed high variability over time and spatial distribution. The highest concentration was detected in the Bucharest region in the winter period, and the lowest was detected in West. The relative risk caused by the PM₁₀ for all-cause mortality varied between 1.017 (B) and 1.025 (W), with an average 1.020. The results demonstrate a positive relative risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer disease due to exposure to PM₂.₅ on the national average 1.26 ( ± 0.023) and 1.42 ( ± 0.037), respectively.

Keywords: PM₂.₅, PM₁₀, relative risk, health effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 23