Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1022

Search results for: text structuring

1022 Role of Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval; Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

Abstract:

This paper aims to analyze the role of natural language processing (NLP). The paper will discuss the role in the context of automated data retrieval, automated question answer, and text structuring. NLP techniques are gaining wider acceptance in real life applications and industrial concerns. There are various complexities involved in processing the text of natural language that could satisfy the need of decision makers. This paper begins with the description of the qualities of NLP practices. The paper then focuses on the challenges in natural language processing. The paper also discusses major techniques of NLP. The last section describes opportunities and challenges for future research.

Keywords: data retrieval, information retrieval, natural language processing, text structuring

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1021 Arabic Text Classification: Review Study

Authors: M. Hijazi, A. Zeki, A. Ismail

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An enormous amount of valuable human knowledge is preserved in documents. The rapid growth in the number of machine-readable documents for public or private access requires the use of automatic text classification. Text classification can be defined as assigning or structuring documents into a defined set of classes known in advance. Arabic text classification methods have emerged as a natural result of the existence of a massive amount of varied textual information written in the Arabic language on the web. This paper presents a review on the published researches of Arabic Text Classification using classical data representation, Bag of words (BoW), and using conceptual data representation based on semantic resources such as Arabic WordNet and Wikipedia.

Keywords: Arabic text classification, Arabic WordNet, bag of words, conceptual representation, semantic relations

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1020 Text Analysis to Support Structuring and Modelling a Public Policy Problem-Outline of an Algorithm to Extract Inferences from Textual Data

Authors: Claudia Ehrentraut, Osama Ibrahim, Hercules Dalianis

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Policy making situations are real-world problems that exhibit complexity in that they are composed of many interrelated problems and issues. To be effective, policies must holistically address the complexity of the situation rather than propose solutions to single problems. Formulating and understanding the situation and its complex dynamics, therefore, is a key to finding holistic solutions. Analysis of text based information on the policy problem, using Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Text analysis techniques, can support modelling of public policy problem situations in a more objective way based on domain experts knowledge and scientific evidence. The objective behind this study is to support modelling of public policy problem situations, using text analysis of verbal descriptions of the problem. We propose a formal methodology for analysis of qualitative data from multiple information sources on a policy problem to construct a causal diagram of the problem. The analysis process aims at identifying key variables, linking them by cause-effect relationships and mapping that structure into a graphical representation that is adequate for designing action alternatives, i.e., policy options. This study describes the outline of an algorithm used to automate the initial step of a larger methodological approach, which is so far done manually. In this initial step, inferences about key variables and their interrelationships are extracted from textual data to support a better problem structuring. A small prototype for this step is also presented.

Keywords: public policy, problem structuring, qualitative analysis, natural language processing, algorithm, inference extraction

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1019 Entropy in a Field of Emergence in an Aspect of Linguo-Culture

Authors: Nurvadi Albekov

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Communicative situation is a basis, which designates potential models of ‘constructed forms’, a motivated basis of a text, for a text can be assumed as a product of the communicative situation. It is within the field of emergence the models of text, that can be potentially prognosticated in a certain communicative situation, are designated. Every text can be assumed as conceptual system structured on the base of certain communicative situation. However in the process of ‘structuring’ of a certain model of ‘conceptual system’ consciousness of a recipient is able act only within the border of the field of emergence for going out of this border indicates misunderstanding of the communicative situation. On the base of communicative situation we can witness the increment of meaning where the synergizing of the informative model of communication, formed by using of the invariant units of a language system, is a result of verbalization of the communicative situation. The potential of the models of a text, prognosticated within the field of emergence, also depends on the communicative situation. The conception ‘the field of emergence’ is interpreted as a unit of the language system, having poly-directed universal structure, implying the presence of the core, the center and the periphery, including different levels of means of a functioning system of language, both in terms of linguistic resources, and in terms of extra linguistic factors interaction of which results increment of a text. The conception ‘field of emergence’ is considered as the most promising in the analysis of texts: oral, written, printed and electronic. As a unit of the language system field of emergence has several properties that predict its use during the study of a text in different levels. This work is an attempt analysis of entropy in a text in the aspect of lingua-cultural code, prognosticated within the model of the field of emergence. The article describes the problem of entropy in the field of emergence, caused by influence of the extra-linguistic factors. The increasing of entropy is caused not only by the fact of intrusion of the language resources but by influence of the alien culture in a whole, and by appearance of non-typical for this very culture symbols in the field of emergence. The borrowing of alien lingua-cultural symbols into the lingua-culture of the author is a reason of increasing the entropy when constructing a text both in meaning and in structuring level. It is nothing but artificial formatting of lexical units that violate stylistic unity of a phrase. It is marked that one of the important characteristics descending the entropy in the field of emergence is a typical similarity of lexical and semantic resources of the different lingua-cultures in aspects of extra linguistic factors.

Keywords: communicative situation, field of emergence, lingua-culture, entropy

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1018 Extraction of Text Subtitles in Multimedia Systems

Authors: Amarjit Singh

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In this paper, a method for extraction of text subtitles in large video is proposed. The video data needs to be annotated for many multimedia applications. Text is incorporated in digital video for the motive of providing useful information about that video. So need arises to detect text present in video to understanding and video indexing. This is achieved in two steps. First step is text localization and the second step is text verification. The method of text detection can be extended to text recognition which finds applications in automatic video indexing; video annotation and content based video retrieval. The method has been tested on various types of videos.

Keywords: video, subtitles, extraction, annotation, frames

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1017 Urdu Text Extraction Method from Images

Authors: Samabia Tehsin, Sumaira Kausar

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Due to the vast increase in the multimedia data in recent years, efficient and robust retrieval techniques are needed to retrieve and index images/ videos. Text embedded in the images can serve as the strong retrieval tool for images. This is the reason that text extraction is an area of research with increasing attention. English text extraction is the focus of many researchers but very less work has been done on other languages like Urdu. This paper is focusing on Urdu text extraction from video frames. This paper presents a text detection feature set, which has the ability to deal up with most of the problems connected with the text extraction process. To test the validity of the method, it is tested on Urdu news dataset, which gives promising results.

Keywords: caption text, content-based image retrieval, document analysis, text extraction

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1016 OCR/ICR Text Recognition Using ABBYY FineReader as an Example Text

Authors: A. R. Bagirzade, A. Sh. Najafova, S. M. Yessirkepova, E. S. Albert

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This article describes a text recognition method based on Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The features of the OCR method were examined using the ABBYY FineReader program. It describes automatic text recognition in images. OCR is necessary because optical input devices can only transmit raster graphics as a result. Text recognition describes the task of recognizing letters shown as such, to identify and assign them an assigned numerical value in accordance with the usual text encoding (ASCII, Unicode). The peculiarity of this study conducted by the authors using the example of the ABBYY FineReader, was confirmed and shown in practice, the improvement of digital text recognition platforms developed by Electronic Publication.

Keywords: ABBYY FineReader system, algorithm symbol recognition, OCR/ICR techniques, recognition technologies

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1015 Reducing Accidents Using Text Stops

Authors: Benish Chaudhry

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Most of the accidents these days are occurring because of the ‘text-and-drive’ concept. If we look at the structure of cities in UAE, there are great distances, because of which it is impossible to drive without using or merely checking the cellphone. Moreover, if we look at the road structure, it is almost impossible to stop at a point and text. With the introduction of TEXT STOPs, drivers will be able to stop different stops for a maximum of 1 and a half-minute in order to reply or write a message. They can be introduced at a distance of 10 minutes of driving on the average speed of the road, so the drivers can look forward to a stop and can reply to a text when needed. A user survey indicates that drivers are willing to NOT text-and-drive if they have such a facility available.

Keywords: transport, accidents, urban planning, road planning

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1014 Structure Analysis of Text-Image Connection in Jalayrid Period Illustrated Manuscripts

Authors: Mahsa Khani Oushani

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Text and image are two important elements in the field of Iranian art, the text component and the image component have always been manifested together. The image narrates the text and the text is the factor in the formation of the image and they are closely related to each other. The connection between text and image is an interactive and two-way connection in the tradition of Iranian manuscript arrangement. The interaction between the narrative description and the image scene is the result of a direct and close connection between the text and the image, which in addition to the decorative aspect, also has a descriptive aspect. In this article the connection between the text element and the image element and its adaptation to the theory of Roland Barthes, the structuralism theorist, in this regard will be discussed. This study tends to investigate the question of how the connection between text and image in illustrated manuscripts of the Jalayrid period is defined according to Barthes’ theory. And what kind of proportion has the artist created in the composition between text and image. Based on the results of reviewing the data of this study, it can be inferred that in the Jalayrid period, the image has a reference connection and although it is of major importance on the page, it also maintains a close connection with the text and is placed in a special proportion. It is not necessarily balanced and symmetrical and sometimes uses imbalance for composition. This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method, which has been done by library collection method.

Keywords: structure, text, image, Jalayrid, painter

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1013 Optimal Classifying and Extracting Fuzzy Relationship from Query Using Text Mining Techniques

Authors: Faisal Alshuwaier, Ali Areshey

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Text mining techniques are generally applied for classifying the text, finding fuzzy relations and structures in data sets. This research provides plenty text mining capabilities. One common application is text classification and event extraction, which encompass deducing specific knowledge concerning incidents referred to in texts. The main contribution of this paper is the clarification of a concept graph generation mechanism, which is based on a text classification and optimal fuzzy relationship extraction. Furthermore, the work presented in this paper explains the application of fuzzy relationship extraction and branch and bound method to simplify the texts.

Keywords: extraction, max-prod, fuzzy relations, text mining, memberships, classification, memberships, classification

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1012 Anatomical Survey for Text Pattern Detection

Authors: S. Tehsin, S. Kausar

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The ultimate aim of machine intelligence is to explore and materialize the human capabilities, one of which is the ability to detect various text objects within one or more images displayed on any canvas including prints, videos or electronic displays. Multimedia data has increased rapidly in past years. Textual information present in multimedia contains important information about the image/video content. However, it needs to technologically testify the commonly used human intelligence of detecting and differentiating the text within an image, for computers. Hence in this paper feature set based on anatomical study of human text detection system is proposed. Subsequent examination bears testimony to the fact that the features extracted proved instrumental to text detection.

Keywords: biologically inspired vision, content based retrieval, document analysis, text extraction

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1011 Arabic Text Representation and Classification Methods: Current State of the Art

Authors: Rami Ayadi, Mohsen Maraoui, Mounir Zrigui

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In this paper, we have presented a brief current state of the art for Arabic text representation and classification methods. We decomposed Arabic Task Classification into four categories. First we describe some algorithms applied to classification on Arabic text. Secondly, we cite all major works when comparing classification algorithms applied on Arabic text, after this, we mention some authors who proposing new classification methods and finally we investigate the impact of preprocessing on Arabic TC.

Keywords: text classification, Arabic, impact of preprocessing, classification algorithms

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1010 A New Graph Theoretic Problem with Ample Practical Applications

Authors: Mehmet Hakan Karaata

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In this paper, we first coin a new graph theocratic problem with numerous applications. Second, we provide two algorithms for the problem. The first solution is using a brute-force techniques, whereas the second solution is based on an initial identification of the cycles in the given graph. We then provide a correctness proof of the algorithm. The applications of the problem include graph analysis, graph drawing and network structuring.

Keywords: algorithm, cycle, graph algorithm, graph theory, network structuring

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1009 A Quantitative Evaluation of Text Feature Selection Methods

Authors: B. S. Harish, M. B. Revanasiddappa

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Due to rapid growth of text documents in digital form, automated text classification has become an important research in the last two decades. The major challenge of text document representations are high dimension, sparsity, volume and semantics. Since the terms are only features that can be found in documents, selection of good terms (features) plays an very important role. In text classification, feature selection is a strategy that can be used to improve classification effectiveness, computational efficiency and accuracy. In this paper, we present a quantitative analysis of most widely used feature selection (FS) methods, viz. Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (tfidf ), Mutual Information (MI), Information Gain (IG), CHISquare (x2), Term Frequency-Relevance Frequency (tfrf ), Term Strength (TS), Ambiguity Measure (AM) and Symbolic Feature Selection (SFS) to classify text documents. We evaluated all the feature selection methods on standard datasets like 20 Newsgroups, 4 University dataset and Reuters-21578.

Keywords: classifiers, feature selection, text classification

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1008 The Acquisition of Case in Biological Domain Based on Text Mining

Authors: Shen Jian, Hu Jie, Qi Jin, Liu Wei Jie, Chen Ji Yi, Peng Ying Hong

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In order to settle the problem of acquiring case in biological related to design problems, a biometrics instance acquisition method based on text mining is presented. Through the construction of corpus text vector space and knowledge mining, the feature selection, similarity measure and case retrieval method of text in the field of biology are studied. First, we establish a vector space model of the corpus in the biological field and complete the preprocessing steps. Then, the corpus is retrieved by using the vector space model combined with the functional keywords to obtain the biological domain examples related to the design problems. Finally, we verify the validity of this method by taking the example of text.

Keywords: text mining, vector space model, feature selection, biologically inspired design

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1007 Text Similarity in Vector Space Models: A Comparative Study

Authors: Omid Shahmirzadi, Adam Lugowski, Kenneth Younge

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Automatic measurement of semantic text similarity is an important task in natural language processing. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different vector space models to perform this task. We address the real-world problem of modeling patent-to-patent similarity and compare TFIDF (and related extensions), topic models (e.g., latent semantic indexing), and neural models (e.g., paragraph vectors). Contrary to expectations, the added computational cost of text embedding methods is justified only when: 1) the target text is condensed; and 2) the similarity comparison is trivial. Otherwise, TFIDF performs surprisingly well in other cases: in particular for longer and more technical texts or for making finer-grained distinctions between nearest neighbors. Unexpectedly, extensions to the TFIDF method, such as adding noun phrases or calculating term weights incrementally, were not helpful in our context.

Keywords: big data, patent, text embedding, text similarity, vector space model

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1006 Structural Analysis of Kamaluddin Behzad's Works Based on Roland Barthes' Theory of Communication, 'Text and Image'

Authors: Mahsa Khani Oushani, Mohammad Kazem Hasanvand

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Text and image have always been two important components in Iranian layout. The interactive connection between text and image has shaped the art of book design with multiple patterns. In this research, first the structure and visual elements in the research data were analyzed and then the position of the text element and the image element in relation to each other based on Roland Barthes theory on the three theories of text and image, were studied and analyzed and the results were compared, and interpreted. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pattern of text and image in the works of Kamaluddin Behzad based on three Roland Barthes communication theories, 1. Descriptive communication, 2. Reference communication, 3. Matched communication. The questions of this research are what is the relationship between text and image in Behzad's works? And how is it defined according to Roland Barthes theory? The method of this research has been done with a structuralist approach with a descriptive-analytical method in a library collection method. The information has been collected in the form of documents (library) and is a tool for collecting online databases. Findings show that the dominant element in Behzad's drawings is with the image and has created a reference relationship in the layout of the drawings, but in some cases it achieves a different relationship that despite the preference of the image on the page, the text is dispersed proportionally on the page and plays a more active role, played within the image. The text and the image support each other equally on the page; Roland Barthes equates this connection.

Keywords: text, image, Kamaluddin Behzad, Roland Barthes, communication theory

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1005 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides

Authors: Jaspreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Ravinder Singh Sawhney

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Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.

Keywords: deep neural network, farmer suicides, morphological processing, punjabi text, sentiment analysis

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1004 Written Argumentative Texts in Elementary School: The Development of Text Structure and Its Relation to Reading Comprehension

Authors: Sara Zadunaisky Ehrlich, Batia Seroussi, Anat Stavans

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Text structure is a parameter of text quality. This study investigated the structure of written argumentative texts produced by elementary school age children. We set two objectives: to identify and trace the structural components of the argumentative texts and to investigate whether reading comprehension skills were correlated with text structure. 293 school children from 2nd to 5th grades were asked to write two argumentative texts about informal or everyday life controversial topics and completed two reading tasks that targeted different levels of text comprehension. The findings indicated, on the one hand, significant developmental differences between mature and more novice writers in terms of text length and mean proportion of clauses produced for a better elaboration of the different text components. On the other hand, with certain fluctuations, no meaningful differences were found in terms of presence of text structure: at all grade levels, elementary school children produced the basic and minimal structure that included the writer's argument and reasons or arguments' supports. Counter-arguments were scarce even in the upper grades. While the children captured that essentially an argument must be justified, the more the number of supports produced, the fewer the clauses the children produced. Last, weak to mild relations were found between reading comprehension and argumentative text structure. Nevertheless, children who scored higher on sophisticated questions that require inferential or world knowledge displayed more elaborated structures in terms of text length and size of supports to the writer's argument. These findings indicate how school-age children perceive the basic template of an argument with future implications regarding how to elaborate written arguments.

Keywords: argumentative text, text structure, elementary school children, written argumentations

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1003 The Morphology of Sri Lankan Text Messages

Authors: Chamindi Dilkushi Senaratne

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Communicating via a text or an SMS (Short Message Service) has become an integral part of our daily lives. With the increase in the use of mobile phones, text messaging has become a genre by itself worth researching and studying. It is undoubtedly a major phenomenon revealing language change. This paper attempts to describe the morphological processes of text language of urban bilinguals in Sri Lanka. It will be a typological study based on 500 English text messages collected from urban bilinguals residing in Colombo. The messages are selected by categorizing the deviant forms of language use apparent in text messages. These stylistic deviations are a deliberate skilled performance by the users of the language possessing an in-depth knowledge of linguistic systems to create new words and thereby convey their linguistic identity and individual and group solidarity via the message. The findings of the study solidifies arguments that the manipulation of language in text messages is both creative and appropriate. In addition, code mixing theories will be used to identify how existing morphological processes are adapted by bilingual users in Sri Lanka when texting. The study will reveal processes such as omission, initialism, insertion and alternation in addition to other identified linguistic features in text language. The corpus reveals the most common morphological processes used by Sri Lankan urban bilinguals when sending texts.

Keywords: bilingual, deviations, morphology, texts

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1002 “Octopub”: Geographical Sentiment Analysis Using Named Entity Recognition from Social Networks for Geo-Targeted Billboard Advertising

Authors: Oussama Hafferssas, Hiba Benyahia, Amina Madani, Nassima Zeriri

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Although data nowadays has multiple forms; from text to images, and from audio to videos, yet text is still the most used one at a public level. At an academical and research level, and unlike other forms, text can be considered as the easiest form to process. Therefore, a brunch of Data Mining researches has been always under its shadow, called "Text Mining". Its concept is just like data mining’s, finding valuable patterns in data, from large collections and tremendous volumes of data, in this case: Text. Named entity recognition (NER) is one of Text Mining’s disciplines, it aims to extract and classify references such as proper names, locations, expressions of time and dates, organizations and more in a given text. Our approach "Octopub" does not aim to find new ways to improve named entity recognition process, rather than that it’s about finding a new, and yet smart way, to use NER in a way that we can extract sentiments of millions of people using Social Networks as a limitless information source, and Marketing for product promotion as the main domain of application.

Keywords: textmining, named entity recognition(NER), sentiment analysis, social media networks (SN, SMN), business intelligence(BI), marketing

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1001 Video Text Information Detection and Localization in Lecture Videos Using Moments

Authors: Belkacem Soundes, Guezouli Larbi

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This paper presents a robust and accurate method for text detection and localization over lecture videos. Frame regions are classified into text or background based on visual feature analysis. However, lecture video shows significant degradation mainly related to acquisition conditions, camera motion and environmental changes resulting in low quality videos. Hence, affecting feature extraction and description efficiency. Moreover, traditional text detection methods cannot be directly applied to lecture videos. Therefore, robust feature extraction methods dedicated to this specific video genre are required for robust and accurate text detection and extraction. Method consists of a three-step process: Slide region detection and segmentation; Feature extraction and non-text filtering. For robust and effective features extraction moment functions are used. Two distinct types of moments are used: orthogonal and non-orthogonal. For orthogonal Zernike Moments, both Pseudo Zernike moments are used, whereas for non-orthogonal ones Hu moments are used. Expressivity and description efficiency are given and discussed. Proposed approach shows that in general, orthogonal moments show high accuracy in comparison to the non-orthogonal one. Pseudo Zernike moments are more effective than Zernike with better computation time.

Keywords: text detection, text localization, lecture videos, pseudo zernike moments

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1000 Intonation Salience as an Underframe to Text Intonation Models

Authors: Tatiana Stanchuliak

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It is common knowledge that intonation is not laid over a ready text. On the contrary, intonation forms and accompanies the text on the level of its birth in the speaker’s mind. As a result, intonation plays one of the fundamental roles in the process of transferring a thought into external speech. Intonation structure can highlight the semantic significance of textual elements and become a ranging mark in understanding the information structure of the text. Intonation functions by means of prosodic characteristics, one of which is intonation salience, whose function in texts results in making some textual elements more prominent than others. This function of intonation, therefore, performs as organizing. It helps to form the frame of key elements of the text. The study under consideration made an attempt to look into the inner nature of salience and create a sort of a text intonation model. This general goal brought to some more specific intermediate results. First, there were established degrees of salience on the level of the smallest semantic element - intonation group, as well as prosodic means of creating salience, were examined. Second, the most frequent combinations of prosodic means made it possible to distinguish patterns of salience, which then became constituent elements of a text intonation model. Third, the analysis of the predicate structure allowed to divide the whole text into smaller parts, or units, which performed a specific function in the developing of the general communicative intention. It appeared that such units can be found in any text and they have common characteristics of their intonation arrangement. These findings are certainly very important both for the theory of intonation and their practical application.

Keywords: accentuation , inner speech, intention, intonation, intonation functions, models, patterns, predicate, salience, semantics, sentence stress, text

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999 Distorted Document Images Dataset for Text Detection and Recognition

Authors: Ilia Zharikov, Philipp Nikitin, Ilia Vasiliev, Vladimir Dokholyan

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With the increasing popularity of document analysis and recognition systems, text detection (TD) and optical character recognition (OCR) in document images become challenging tasks. However, according to our best knowledge, no publicly available datasets for these particular problems exist. In this paper, we introduce a Distorted Document Images dataset (DDI-100) and provide a detailed analysis of the DDI-100 in its current state. To create the dataset we collected 7000 unique document pages, and extend it by applying different types of distortions and geometric transformations. In total, DDI-100 contains more than 100,000 document images together with binary text masks, text and character locations in terms of bounding boxes. We also present an analysis of several state-of-the-art TD and OCR approaches on the presented dataset. Lastly, we demonstrate the usefulness of DDI-100 to improve accuracy and stability of the considered TD and OCR models.

Keywords: document analysis, open dataset, optical character recognition, text detection

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998 Towards Logical Inference for the Arabic Question-Answering

Authors: Wided Bakari, Patrice Bellot, Omar Trigui, Mahmoud Neji

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This article constitutes an opening to think of the modeling and analysis of Arabic texts in the context of a question-answer system. It is a question of exceeding the traditional approaches focused on morphosyntactic approaches. Furthermore, we present a new approach that analyze a text in order to extract correct answers then transform it to logical predicates. In addition, we would like to represent different levels of information within a text to answer a question and choose an answer among several proposed. To do so, we transform both the question and the text into logical forms. Then, we try to recognize all entailment between them. The results of recognizing the entailment are a set of text sentences that can implicate the user’s question. Our work is now concentrated on an implementation step in order to develop a system of question-answering in Arabic using techniques to recognize textual implications. In this context, the extraction of text features (keywords, named entities, and relationships that link them) is actually considered the first step in our process of text modeling. The second one is the use of techniques of textual implication that relies on the notion of inference and logic representation to extract candidate answers. The last step is the extraction and selection of the desired answer.

Keywords: NLP, Arabic language, question-answering, recognition text entailment, logic forms

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997 The Composer’s Hand: An Analysis of Arvo Pärt’s String Orchestral Work, Psalom

Authors: Mark K. Johnson

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Arvo Pärt has composed over 80 text-based compositions based on nine different languages. But prior to 2015, it was not publicly known what texts the composer used in composing a number of his non-vocal works, nor the language of those texts. Because of this lack of information, few if any musical scholars have illustrated in any detail how textual structure applies to any of Pärt’s instrumental compositions. However, in early 2015, the Arvo Pärt Centre in Estonia published In Principio, a compendium of the texts Pärt has used to derive many of the parameters of his text-based compositions. This paper provides the first detailed analysis of the relationship between structural aspects of the Church Slavonic Eastern Orthodox text of Psalm 112 and the musical parameters that Pärt used when composing the string orchestral work Psalom. It demonstrates that Pärt’s text-based compositions are carefully crafted works, and that evidence of the presence of the ‘invisible’ hand of the composer can be found within every aspect of the underpinning structures, at the more elaborate middle ground level, and even within surface aspects of these works. Based on the analysis of Psalom, it is evident that the text Pärt selected for Psalom informed many of his decisions regarding the musical structures, parameters and processes that he deployed in composing this non-vocal text-based work. Many of these composerly decisions in relation to these various aspects cannot be fathomed without access to, and an understanding of, the text associated with the work.

Keywords: Arvo Pärt, minimalism, psalom, text-based process music

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996 Good Practices for Model Structure Development and Managing Structural Uncertainty in Decision Making

Authors: Hossein Afzali

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Increasingly, decision analytic models are used to inform decisions about whether or not to publicly fund new health technologies. It is well noted that the accuracy of model predictions is strongly influenced by the appropriateness of model structuring. However, there is relatively inadequate methodological guidance surrounding this issue in guidelines developed by national funding bodies such as the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC) and The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK. This presentation aims to discuss issues around model structuring within decision making with a focus on (1) the need for a transparent and evidence-based model structuring process to inform the most appropriate set of structural aspects as the base case analysis; (2) the need to characterise structural uncertainty (If there exist alternative plausible structural assumptions (or judgements), there is a need to appropriately characterise the related structural uncertainty). The presentation will provide an opportunity to share ideas and experiences on how the guidelines developed by national funding bodies address the above issues and identify areas for further improvements. First, a review and analysis of the literature and guidelines developed by PBAC and NICE will be provided. Then, it will be discussed how the issues around model structuring (including structural uncertainty) are not handled and justified in a systematic way within the decision-making process, its potential impact on the quality of public funding decisions, and how it should be presented in submissions to national funding bodies. This presentation represents a contribution to the good modelling practice within the decision-making process. Although the presentation focuses on the PBAC and NICE guidelines, the discussion can be applied more widely to many other national funding bodies that use economic evaluation to inform funding decisions but do not transparently address model structuring issues e.g. the Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) in Australia or the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Keywords: decision-making process, economic evaluation, good modelling practice, structural uncertainty

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995 Building a Hierarchical, Granular Knowledge Cube

Authors: Alexander Denzler, Marcel Wehrle, Andreas Meier

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A knowledge base stores facts and rules about the world that applications can use for the purpose of reasoning. By applying the concept of granular computing to a knowledge base, several advantages emerge. These can be harnessed by applications to improve their capabilities and performance. In this paper, the concept behind such a construct, called a granular knowledge cube, is defined, and its intended use as an instrument that manages to cope with different data types and detect knowledge domains is elaborated. Furthermore, the underlying architecture, consisting of the three layers of the storing, representing, and structuring of knowledge, is described. Finally, benefits as well as challenges of deploying it are listed alongside application types that could profit from having such an enhanced knowledge base.

Keywords: granular computing, granular knowledge, hierarchical structuring, knowledge bases

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994 N400 Investigation of Semantic Priming Effect to Symbolic Pictures in Text

Authors: Thomas Ousterhout

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate if incorporating meaningful pictures of gestures and facial expressions in short sentences of text could supplement the text with enough semantic information to produce and N400 effect when probe words incongruent to the picture were subsequently presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a 14-channel commercial grade EEG headset while subjects performed congruent/incongruent reaction time discrimination tasks. Since pictures of meaningful gestures have been shown to be semantically processed in the brain in a similar manner as words are, it is believed that pictures will add supplementary information to text just as the inclusion of their equivalent synonymous word would. The hypothesis is that when subjects read the text/picture mixed sentences, they will process the images and words just like in face-to-face communication and therefore probe words incongruent to the image will produce an N400.

Keywords: EEG, ERP, N400, semantics, congruency, facilitation, Emotiv

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993 Interactive, Topic-Oriented Search Support by a Centroid-Based Text Categorisation

Authors: Mario Kubek, Herwig Unger

Abstract:

Centroid terms are single words that semantically and topically characterise text documents and so may serve as their very compact representation in automatic text processing. In the present paper, centroids are used to measure the relevance of text documents with respect to a given search query. Thus, a new graphbased paradigm for searching texts in large corpora is proposed and evaluated against keyword-based methods. The first, promising experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the centroid-based search procedure. It is shown that especially the routing of search queries in interactive and decentralised search systems can be greatly improved by applying this approach. A detailed discussion on further fields of its application completes this contribution.

Keywords: search algorithm, centroid, query, keyword, co-occurrence, categorisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 163