Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1424

Search results for: cement composites

1424 The Use of Secondary Crystallization in Cement-Based Composites

Authors: Nikol Žižková, Šárka Keprdová, Rostislav Drochytka


The paper focuses on the study of the properties of cement-based composites produced using secondary crystallization (crystalline additive). In this study, cement mortar made with secondary crystallization was exposed to an aggressive environment and the influence of secondary crystallization on the degradation of the cementitious composite was investigated. The results indicate that the crystalline additive contributed to increasing the resistance of the cement-based composite to the attack of the selected environments (sodium sulphate solution and ammonium chloride solution).

Keywords: secondary crystallization, cement-based composites, durability, degradation of the cementitious composite

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1423 The Use of Plant-Based Natural Fibers in Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: N. AlShaya, R. Alhomidan, S. Alromizan, W. Labib


Plant-based natural fibers are used more increasingly in construction materials. It is done to reduce the pressure on the built environment, which has been increased dramatically due to the increases world population and their needs. Plant-based natural fibers are abundant in many countries. Despite the low-cost of such environmental friendly renewable material, it has the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of construction materials. This paper presents an extensive discussion on the use of plant-based natural fibers as reinforcement for cement-based composites, with a particular emphasis upon fiber types; fiber characteristics, and fiber-cement composites performance. It also covers a thorough overview on the main factors, affecting the properties of plant-based natural fiber cement composite in it fresh and hardened state. The feasibility of using plant-based natural fibers in producing various construction materials; such as, mud bricks and blocks is investigated. In addition, other applications of using such fibers as internal curing agents as well as durability enhancer are also discussed. Finally, recommendation for possible future work in this area is presented.

Keywords: natural fibres, cement composites, construction materia, sustainability, stregth, durability

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1422 The Influence of Silica on the Properties of Cementitious Composites

Authors: Eva Stefanovska, Estefania Cuenca, Aleksandra Momirov, Monika Fidanchevska, Liberato Ferrara, Emilija Fidanchevski


Silica is used in construction materials as a part of natural raw materials or as an additive in powder form (micro and nano dimensions). SiO₂ particles in cement act as centers of nucleation, as a filler or as pozzolan material. In this regard, silica improves the microstructure of cementitious composites, increases the mechanical properties, and finally also results into improved durability of the final products. Improved properties of cementitious composites may lead to better structural efficiency, which, together with increased durability, results into increased sustainability signature of structures made with this kind of materials. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of silica on the properties of cement. Fly ash (as received and mechanically activated) and synthetized silica (sol-gel method using TEOS as precursor) was used in the investigation as source of silica. Four types of cement mixtures were investigated (reference cement paste, cement paste with addition of 15wt.% as-received fly ash, cement paste with 15 wt.% mechanically activated fly ash and cement paste with 14wt.% mechanically activated fly ash and 1 wt.% silica). The influence of silica on setting time and mechanical properties (2, 7 and 28 days) was followed. As a matter of fact it will be shown that cement paste with composition 85 wt. % cement, 14 wt.% mechanically activated fly ash and 1 wt. % SiO₂ obtained by the sol-gel method was the best performing one, with increased compressive and flexure strength by 9 and 10 % respectively, as compared to the reference mixture. Acknowledgements: 'COST Action CA15202,'

Keywords: cement, fly ash, mechanical properties, silica, sol-gel

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1421 Study on Parallel Shear Stress of Cement-Wood Composites Using Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. in natura and Treated with CCA

Authors: Rodrigo D. S. Oliveira, Sarah David-Muzel, Maristela Gava, Victor A. De Araujo, Glaucia A. Prates, Juliana Cortez-Barbosa


Improper disposal of treated wood waste is a problem of the timber sector, since this residue is toxic, due to the harmful characteristics of the preservative substances. An environmentally friendly alternative is the use of this waste for the production of cement-wood composites. The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using wood treated with CCA (Chromated Cooper Arsenate) in cement-wood. Specimens of Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. were produced with wood raw in natura and treated with CCA. A test was performed to determine the parallel shear stress of samples after 14 days of drying, according to the Brazilian Standard NBR-7215/97. Based on the analyzed results it is concluded that the use of wood treated with CCA is not feasible in cement-wood production, because the composite samples of treated wood showed lower mechanical strength in shear stress than those with wood in natura.

Keywords: waste recovery, wood composites, cement-wood, wood preservation, chromated copper arsenate

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1420 Role of Dispersion of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Compressive Strength of Cement Paste

Authors: Jyoti Bharj, Sarabjit Singh, Subhash Chander, Rabinder Singh


The outstanding mechanical properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have generated great interest for their potential as reinforcements in high performance cementitious composites. The main challenge in research is the proper dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the cement matrix. The present work discusses the role of dispersion of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the compressive strength characteristics of hydrated Portland IS 1489 cement paste. Cement-MWCNT composites with different mixing techniques were prepared by adding 0.2% (by weight) of MWCNTs to Portland IS 1489 cement. Rectangle specimens of size approximately 40mm × 40mm ×160mm were prepared and curing of samples was done for 7, 14, 28, and 35 days. An appreciable increase in compressive strength with both techniques; mixture of MWCNTs with cement in powder form and mixture of MWCNTs with cement in hydrated form 7 to 28 days of curing time for all the samples was observed.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, Portland cement, composite, compressive strength

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1419 The Effect of Super-Plasticizer and Ultra-sonic Process on the Carbon Nano Tubes Dispersion in Combination with Nano Silica in Cement Composites to Enhance Its Mechanical Properties

Authors: M.S. El-Feky, Passant Youssef, Mohamed I. Serag


nowadays, nanotechnology is the main trend of research in different areas due to the new potential of using nanometer materials sized less than 100nm. Nanomaterials are needed in cement composites to act as bridging for Nano and micro-cracks to increase tensile strength, reduce the permeability of gases and water in concrete to solve corrosion problem, react with excess Calcium Hydroxide, produce additional C-S-H, act as filler materials to densify the cement matrix and increase its mechanical properties. The present study focuses on the effectiveness of super-plasticizers and ultrasonic processing on the dispersion of Carbon Nanotube at first in water and then in cement composites in combination with Nano silica to enhance the mechanical properties of cement composites. A qualitative analysis using a compressive strength test is conducted with a view to investigate the influence of different dispersion techniques on the mechanical properties of cement composites containing Carbon Nanotube (CNT) and Nano Silica (NS) particles with different percentages. In addition, micro-structural analysis was carried out to understand the surface morphology and microstructure of cement composites with different dosages of NS addition. The investigational study results showed that the combination of NS with a low amount of CNT had a positive effect on the hydration reaction; on the other hand, the combination of CNT and a high amount of NS had a negative effect on the hydration reaction. The compressive strength can be improved by optimum combination 0.02% CNT and 1% NS with gain in strength by 72% and 35% after 7 and 28 days compared to control samples; these results were with an agreement with the morphology structure of composites using microstructure analysis.

Keywords: nano silica, dispersion, sonication, carbon nano tubes

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1418 The Effect of Carbon Nanofibers on the Electrical Resistance of Cementitious Composites

Authors: Reza Pourjafar, Morteza Sohrabi-Gilani, Mostafa Jamshidi Avanaki, Malek Mohammad Ranjbar


Cementitious composites like concrete, are the most widely used materials in civil infrastructures. Numerous investigations on fiber’s effect on the properties of cement-based composites have been conducted in the last few decades. The use of fibers such as carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in these materials is an ongoing field and needs further researches and studies. Excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have motivated the development of advanced nanocomposites with outstanding and multifunctional properties. In this study, the electrical resistance of CNF reinforced cement mortar was examined. Three different dosages of CNF were used, and the resistances were compared to plain cement mortar. One of the biggest challenges in this study is dispersing CNF particles in the mortar mixture. Therefore, polycarboxylate superplasticizer and ultrasonication of the mixture have been selected for the purpose of dispersing CNFs in the cement matrix. The obtained results indicated that the electrical resistance of the CNF reinforced mortar samples decreases with increasing CNF content, which would be the first step towards examining strain and damage monitoring ability of cementitious composites containing CNF for structural health monitoring purposes.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber, cement and concrete, CNF reinforced mortar, smart mater, strain monitoring, structural health monitoring

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1417 Investigation of Zeolite and Silica Fume Addition on Durability of Cement Composites

Authors: Martina Kovalcikova, Adriana Estokova


Today, concrete belongs to the most frequently used materials in the civil engineering industry for many years. Consuming energy in cement industry is very high and CO₂ emissions generated during the production of Portland cement has serious environmental threatens. Therefore, utilization of pozzolanic material as a supplementary cementitious material has a direct relationship with the sustainable development. The paper presents the results of the comparative study of the resistance of the Slovak origin zeolite based cement composites with addition of silica fume exposed to the sulfate environment. The various aggressive media were used for the experiment: sulfuric acid with pH 4, distilled water and magnesium sulfate solution with a concentration of 3 g/L of SO₄²−. The laboratory experiment proceeded during 180 days under model conditions. The changes in the elemental concentrations of calcium and silicon in liquid leachates were observed.

Keywords: concrete, leaching, silica fume, sulfuric acid, zeolite

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1416 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Ultrasonication on Dispersion and Mechanical Performance of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Cement Mortar Composites

Authors: S. Alrekabi, A. Cundy, A. Lampropoulos, I. Savina


Due to their remarkable mechanical properties, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are considered by many researchers to be a highly promising filler and reinforcement agent for enhanced performance cementitious materials. Currently, however, achieving an effective dispersion of MWCNTs remains a major challenge in developing high performance nano-cementitious composites, since carbon nanotubes tend to form large agglomerates and bundles as a consequence of Van der Waals forces. In this study, effective dispersion of low concentrations of MWCNTs at 0.01%, 0.025%, and 0.05% by weight of cement in the composite was achieved by applying different sonication conditions in combination with the use of polycarboxylate ether as a surfactant. UV-Visible spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the dispersion of MWCNTs in water, while the dispersion states of MWCNTs within the cement composites and their surface interactions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A high sonication intensity applied over a short time period significantly enhanced the dispersion of MWCNTs at initial mixing stages, and 0.025% of MWCNTs wt. of cement, caused 86% and 27% improvement in tensile strength and compressive strength respectively, compared with a plain cement mortar.

Keywords: dispersion, mechanical performance, multi wall carbon nanotubes, sonication conditions

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1415 Preparation and Physical Assessment of Portland Cement Base Composites Containing Nano Particles

Authors: Amir Mahmoudi


In this research the effects of adding silica and alumina nanoparticles on flow ability and compressive strength of cementitious composites based on Portland cement were investigated. In the first stage, the rheological behavior of different samples containing nanosilica, nanoalumina and polypropylene, polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene fibers were evaluated. With increasing of nanoparticles in fresh samples, the slump flow diameter reduced. Fibers reduced the flow ability of the samples and viscosity increased. With increasing of the micro silica particles to cement ratio from 2/1 to 2/2, the slump flow diameter increased. By adding silica and alumina nanoparticles up to 3% and 2% respectively, the compressive strength increased and after decreased. Samples containing silica nanoparticles and fibers had the highest compressive strength.

Keywords: Portland cement, composite, nanoparticles, compressive strength

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1414 Effect of the Accelerated Carbonation in Fibercement Composites Reinforced with Eucalyptus Pulp and Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Authors: Viviane da Costa Correia, Sergio Francisco Santos, Holmer Savastano Junior


The main purpose of this work was verify the influence of the accelerated carbonation in the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites, reinforced with micro and nanofibers and composites with microfibers. The composites were produced by the slurry vacuum dewatering method, followed by pressing. It was produced using two formulations: 8% of eucalyptus pulp + 1% of the nanofibrillated cellulose and 9% of eucalyptus pulp, both were subjected to accelerated carbonation. The results showed that the accelerated carbonation contributed to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites and of the composites reinforced with microfibers (eucalyptus pulp).

Keywords: carbonation, cement composites, nanofibrillated cellulose, eucalyptus pulp

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1413 Changes in the Properties of Composites Caused by Chemical Treatment of Hemp Hurds

Authors: N. Stevulova, I. Schwarzova


The possibility of using industrial hemp as a source of natural fibers for purpose of construction, mainly for the preparation of lightweight composites based on hemp hurds is described. In this article, an overview of measurement results of important technical parameters (compressive strength, density, thermal conductivity) of composites based on organic filler - chemically modified hemp hurds in three solutions (EDTA, NaOH and Ca(OH)2) and inorganic binder MgO-cement after 7, 28, 60, 90 and 180 days of hardening is given. The results of long-term water storage of 28 days hardened composites at room temperature were investigated. Changes in the properties of composites caused by chemical treatment of hemp material are discussed.

Keywords: hemp hurds, chemical modification, lightweight composites, testing material properties

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1412 Bond-Slip Response of Reinforcing Bars Embedded in High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: Lee Siong Wee, Tan Kang Hai, Yang En-Hua


This paper presents the results of an experimental study undertaken to evaluate the local bond stress-slip response of short embedment of reinforcing bars in normal concrete (NC) and high performance fiber reinforced cement composites (HPFRCC) blocks. Long embedment was investigated as well to gain insights on the distribution of strain, slip, bar stress and bond stress along the bar especially in post-yield range. A total of 12 specimens were tested, by means of pull-out of the reinforcing bars from concrete blocks. It was found that the enhancement of local bond strength can be reached up to 50% and ductility of the bond behavior was improved significantly if HPFRCC is used. Also, under a constant strain at loaded end, HPFRCC has delayed yielding of bars at other location from the loaded end. Hence, the reduction of bond stress was slower for HPFRCC in comparison with NC. Due to the same reason, the total slips at loaded end for HPFRCC was smaller than NC as expected. Test results indicated that HPFRCC has better bond slip behavior which makes it a suitable material to be employed in anchorage zone such as beam-column joints.

Keywords: bond stress, high performance fiber reinforced cement composites, slip, strain

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1411 Air-Purifying Properties of Cement Mortars Intermixed with TiO₂-SiO₂ Composites

Authors: A.M. Kaja, Q. Yu, H.J.H Brouwers


An increased functionality of concrete towards higher eco-efficiency is nowadays of great importance due to the decreasing air quality in urban areas. Surface modifications of concrete walls and roads, as a coating or an intermixing of the surface layer with TiO₂, provide an opportunity to improve the air quality by reducing NOx via photocatalytic phenomena. Nevertheless, there are still concerns regarding the cost-efficiency as well as the toxicity of intermediate products which can be produced during the photocatalysis, limiting a widespread adoption of these materials. This study addresses the problem of the selectivity of cement mortars towards nitrate in terms of microstructural characteristics and hydration products. The ability of cement mortars matrix intermixed with commercial TiO₂ and TiO₂-SiO₂ composite to abate NO₂ is investigated. The influence of hydration products formed under the carbonation facilitating conditions is discussed and solutions how to optimize the mix design are proposed. The incorporation of the TiO₂-SiO₂ composite into cement mortar is found to increase the nitrate selectivity index.

Keywords: cement matrix, NO₂ abatement, photocatalysis, TiO₂-SiO₂ composite

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1410 Mechanical Behaviour of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: M. Aruna


Emphasis on the advancement of new materials and technology has been there for the past few decades. The global development towards using cheap and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. An experimental investigation of mechanical behaviour of sisal fiber-reinforced concrete is reported for making a suitable building material in terms of reinforcement. Fibre reinforced composite is one such material, which has reformed the concept of high strength. Sisal fibres are abundantly available in the hot areas. The sisal fiber has emerged as a reinforcing material for concretes, used in civil structures. In this work, properties such as hardness and tensile strength of sisal fibre reinforced cement composites with 6, 12, 18, and 24% by weight of sisal fibres were assessed. Sisal fiber reinforced cement composite slabs with long sisal fibers were manufactured using a cast hand layup technique. Mechanical response was measured under tension. The high energy absorption capacity of the developed composite system was reflected in high toughness values under tension respectively.

Keywords: sisal fibre, fiber-reinforced concrete, mechanical behaviour, composite materials

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1409 Effect of Nano-CaCO₃ Addition on the Nano-Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Muzeyyen Balcikanli, Selma Ozaslan, Osman Sahin, Burak Uzal, Erdogan Ozbay


In this study, the effect of nano-CaCO3 replacement with cement on the nano-mechanical properties of cement paste was investigated. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics Two types of nano CaCO3 were replaced with Portland cement at 0, 0.5 and 1%. Water to (cement+nano-CaCO3) ratio was kept constant at 0.5 for all mixtures. 36 indentations were applied on each cement paste, and the values of nano-hardness and elastic modulus of cement pastes were determined from the indentation depth-load graphs. Then, by getting the average of them, nano-hardness and elastic modulus were identified for each mixture. Test results illustrate that replacement of hydrophilic n-CaCO3 with cement lead to a significant increase in nano-mechanical properties, however, replacement of hydrophobic n-CaCO3 with cement worsened the nano-mechanical properties considerably.

Keywords: nanoindenter, CaCO3, nano-hardness, nano-mechanical properties

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1408 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek


The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate

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1407 Recycled Cellulosic Fibers and Lignocellulosic Aggregates for Sustainable Building Materials

Authors: N. Stevulova, I. Schwarzova, V. Hospodarova, J. Junak, J. Briancin


Sustainability is becoming a priority for developers and the use of environmentally friendly materials is increasing. Nowadays, the application of raw materials from renewable sources to building materials has gained a significant interest in this research area. Lignocellulosic aggregates and cellulosic fibers are coming from many different sources such as wood, plants and waste. They are promising alternative materials to replace synthetic, glass and asbestos fibers as reinforcement in inorganic matrix of composites. Natural fibers are renewable resources so their cost is relatively low in comparison to synthetic fibers. With the consideration of environmental consciousness, natural fibers are biodegradable so their using can reduce CO2 emissions in the building materials production. The use of cellulosic fibers in cementitious matrices have gained importance because they make the composites lighter at high fiber content, they have comparable cost - performance ratios to similar building materials and they could be processed from waste paper, thus expanding the opportunities for waste utilization in cementitious materials. The main objective of this work is to find out the possibility of using different wastes: hemp hurds as waste of hemp stem processing and recycled fibers obtained from waste paper for making cement composite products such as mortars based on cellulose fibers. This material was made of cement mortar containing organic filler based on hemp hurds and recycled waste paper. In addition, the effects of fibers and their contents on some selected physical and mechanical properties of the fiber-cement plaster composites have been investigated. In this research organic material have used to mortars as 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 % replacement of cement weight. Reference sample is made for comparison of physical and mechanical properties of cement composites based on recycled cellulosic fibers and lignocellulosic aggregates. The prepared specimens were tested after 28 days of curing in order to investigate density, compressive strength and water absorbability. Scanning Electron Microscopy examination was also carried out.

Keywords: Hemp hurds, organic filler, recycled paper, sustainable building materials

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1406 The Effect of Soil Fractal Dimension on the Performance of Cement Stabilized Soil

Authors: Nkiru I. Ibeakuzie, Paul D. J. Watson, John F. Pescatore


In roadway construction, the cost of soil-cement stabilization per unit area is significantly influenced by the binder content, hence the need to optimise cement usage. This research work will characterize the influence of soil fractal geometry on properties of cement-stabilized soil, and strive to determine a correlation between mechanical proprieties of cement-stabilized soil and the mass fractal dimension Dₘ indicated by particle size distribution (PSD) of aggregate mixtures. Since strength development in cemented soil relies not only on cement content but also on soil PSD, this study will investigate the possibility of reducing cement content by changing the PSD of soil, without compromising on strength, reduced permeability, and compressibility. A series of soil aggregate mixes will be prepared in the laboratory. The mass fractal dimension Dₘ of each mix will be determined from sieve analysis data prior to stabilization with cement. Stabilized soil samples will be tested for strength, permeability, and compressibility.

Keywords: fractal dimension, particle size distribution, cement stabilization, cement content

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1405 The Effect of Surface Modified Nano-Hydroxyapatite Incorporation into Polymethylmethacrylate Cement on Biocompatibility and Mechanical Properties

Authors: Yu-Shan Wu, Po-Liang Lai, I-Ming Chu


Poly(methylmethacrylate)(PMMA) is the most frequently used bone void filler for vertebral augmentation in osteoporotic fracture. PMMA bone cement not only exhibits strong mechanical properties but also can fabricate according to the shape of bone defect. However, the adhesion between the PMMA-based cement and the adjacent bone is usually weak and as PMMA bone cement is inherently bioinert. The combination of bioceramics and polymers as composites may increase cell adhesion and improve biocompatibility. The nano-hydroxyapatite(HAP) not only plays a significant role in maintaining the properties of the natural bone but also offers a favorable environment for osteoconduction, protein adhesion, and osteoblast proliferation. However, defects and cracks can form at the polymer/ceramics interface, resulting in uneven distribution of stress and subsequent inferior mechanical strength. Surface-modified HAP nano-crystals were prepared by chemically grafting poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) on surface-modified nano-HAP surface to increase the affinity of polymer/ceramic phases .Thus, incorporation of surface-modified nano-hydroxyapatite (EC-HAP) may not only improve the interfacial adhesion between cement and bone and between nanoparticles and cement, but also increase biocompatibility. In this research, PMMA mixing with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 wt% EC-HAP were examined. MC3T3-E1 cells were used for the biological evaluation of the response to the cements in vitro. Morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of HAP/PMMA and EC-HAP/PMMA cement were investigated by compression test. Surface wettability of the cements was measured by contact angles.

Keywords: bone cement, biocompatibility, nano-hydroxyapatite, polycaprolactone, PMMA, surface grafting

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1404 Evaluating Cement Brands in Southwestern Nigeria for Local Construction Industries

Authors: Olonade, K. A., Jaji, M. B., Rasak, S. A., Ojo, B. A., Adefuye, O. E.


Different brands of cement are used in Nigeria by local contractors for various works without prior knowledge of their performance. Qualities of common cement brands in Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Elephant, Dangote, Gateway, Purechem, Burham and Five Star cements were selected for the study. Fineness, setting times, chemical composition, compressive and flexural strengths of each of the cement brands were determined. The results showed that all the cement brands contained major oxides in amount within the acceptable values except that the sulphite content of Gateway fell outside the range. Strength comparison indicated that Burham had highest flexural and compressive strength, followed by Elephant and then Dangote while Gateway had the lowest strength at 28 days. It was observed that Dangote cement set earlier than other cement brands. The study has shown that there were differences in performance of the selected cement brands and concluded that the choice of cement brand should be based on the expected performance.

Keywords: cement brand, compressive strength, flexural strength, local construction industries

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1403 The Effect of the Incorporation of Glass Powder into Cement Sorel

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi


The work concerns thermo-mechanical properties of cement Sorel mixed with different proportions of glass powder. Five specimens were developed. Four different glass powder mixtures were developed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with one control sample without glass powder. The research presented in this study focused on evaluating the effects of replacing portion of glass powder with various percentages of cement Sorel. The influence of the glass powder on the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density and compressive strength of the cement Sorel at 28 days of curing were determined. The thermal property of cement was measured by using Photothermal deflection technique PTD. The results revealed that the glass powder additive affected greatly on the thermal properties of the cement.

Keywords: cement sorel, photothermal deflection technique, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity

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1402 Utilizing Fly Ash Cenosphere and Aerogel for Lightweight Thermal Insulating Cement-Based Composites

Authors: Asad Hanif, Pavithra Parthasarathy, Zongjin Li


Thermal insulating composites help to reduce the total power consumption in a building by creating a barrier between external and internal environment. Such composites can be used in the roofing tiles or wall panels for exterior surfaces. This study purposes to develop lightweight cement-based composites for thermal insulating applications. Waste materials like silica fume (an industrial by-product) and fly ash cenosphere (FAC) (hollow micro-spherical shells obtained as a waste residue from coal fired power plants) were used as partial replacement of cement and lightweight filler, respectively. Moreover, aerogel, a nano-porous material made of silica, was also used in different dosages for improved thermal insulating behavior, while poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers were added for enhanced toughness. The raw materials including binders and fillers were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis techniques in which various physical and chemical properties of the raw materials were evaluated like specific surface area, chemical composition (oxide form), and pore size distribution (if any). Ultra-lightweight cementitious composites were developed by varying the amounts of FAC and aerogel with 28-day unit weight ranging from 1551.28 kg/m3 to 1027.85 kg/m3. Excellent mechanical and thermal insulating properties of the resulting composites were obtained ranging from 53.62 MPa to 8.66 MPa compressive strength, 9.77 MPa to 3.98 MPa flexural strength, and 0.3025 W/m-K to 0.2009 W/m-K as thermal conductivity coefficient (QTM-500). The composites were also tested for peak temperature difference between outer and inner surfaces when subjected to heating (in a specially designed experimental set-up) by a 275W infrared lamp. The temperature difference up to 16.78 oC was achieved, which indicated outstanding properties of the developed composites to act as a thermal barrier for building envelopes. Microstructural studies were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) for characterizing the inner structure of the composite specimen. Also, the hydration products were quantified using the surface area mapping and line scale technique in EDS. The microstructural analyses indicated excellent bonding of FAC and aerogel in the cementitious system. Also, selective reactivity of FAC was ascertained from the SEM imagery where the partially consumed FAC shells were observed. All in all, the lightweight fillers, FAC, and aerogel helped to produce the lightweight composites due to their physical characteristics, while exceptional mechanical properties, owing to FAC partial reactivity, were achieved.

Keywords: aerogel, cement-based, composite, fly ash cenosphere, lightweight, sustainable development, thermal conductivity

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1401 Oil Palm Shell Ash: Cement Mortar Mixture and Modification of Mechanical Properties

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


The waste agriculture materials cause environment pollution, recycle of these materials help sustainable development. This study focused on the impact of used oil palm shell ash on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar. Two different cement mortar mixes have been designed to investigate the impact of oil palm shell ash on strengths of cement mortar. Quantity of 4% oil palm shell ash has been replaced in cement mortar. The main objective of this paper is, to modify mechanical properties of cement mortar by replacement of oil palm ash in it at early age of seven days. The results have been revealed optimum quantity of oil palm ash for replacement in cement mortar. The deflection, load to failure, time to failure of compressive strength and flexural strength of all specimens have significantly been improved. The stress-strain behavior has been indicated ability of modified cement mortar in control stress path and strain. The micro property of cement paste has not been investigated.

Keywords: minerals, additive, flexural strength, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity

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1400 The Increasing of Unconfined Compression Strength of Clay Soils Stabilized with Cement

Authors: Ali̇ Si̇nan Soğanci


The cement stabilization is one of the ground improvement method applied worldwide to increase the strength of clayey soils. The using of cement has got lots of advantages compared to other stabilization methods. Cement stabilization can be done quickly, the cost is low and creates a more durable structure with the soil. Cement can be used in the treatment of a wide variety of soils. The best results of the cement stabilization were seen on silts as well as coarse-grained soils. In this study, blocks of clay were taken from the Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel route which is 125km long will be built in Konya that take the water with 70m3/sec from Mavi tunnel to Hotamış storage. Firstly, the index properties of clay samples were determined according to the Unified Soil Classification System. The experimental program was carried out on compacted soil specimens with 0%, 7 %, 15% and 30 % cement additives and the results of unconfined compression strength were discussed. The results of unconfined compression tests indicated an increase in strength with increasing cement content.

Keywords: cement stabilization, unconfined compression test, clayey soils, unified soil classification system.

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1399 Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

Authors: Fazeera Ujin, Kamran Shavarebi Ali, Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith


This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement. Chemical properties of both eggshells ash and cement are compared. From the results obtained, both eggshells ash and cement have the same chemical composition and primary composition which is the calcium compounds. Results from the setting time show that by adding the eggshells ash to the cement, the setting time of the cement decreases. In short, the higher amount of eggshells ash, the faster the rate of setting and apply to all percentage of eggshells ash that were used in this investigation. Both initial and final setting times fulfill the setting time requirements by Malaysian Standard. Hence, it is suggested that eggshells ash can be used as an admixture in concrete mix.

Keywords: construction materials, eggshells ash, solid waste, setting time

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1398 The Mechanical Behavior of a Chemically Stabilized Soil

Authors: I Lamri, L Arabet, M. Hidjeb


The direct shear test was used to determine the shear strength parameters C and Ø of a series of samples with different cement content. Samples stabilized with a certain percentage of cement showed a substantial gain in compressive strength and a significant increase in shear strength parameters. C and Ø. The laboratory equipment used in UCS tests consisted of a conventional 102mm diameter sample triaxial loading machine. Beyond 4% cement content a very important increase in shear strength was observed. It can be deduced from a comparative study of shear strength of soil samples with 4%, 7%, and 10% cement with sample containing 2 %, that the sample with a 4% cement content showed 90% increase in shear strength while those with 7% and 10% showed an increase of around 13 and 21 fold.

Keywords: cement, compression strength, shear stress, cohesion, angle of internal friction

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1397 Properties of Cement Pastes with Different Particle Size Fractions of Metakaolin

Authors: M. Boháč, R. Novotný, F. Frajkorová, R. S. Yadav, T. Opravil, M. Palou


Properties of Portland cement mixtures with various fractions of metakaolin were studied. 10 % of Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R was replaced by different fractions of high reactivity metakaolin with defined chemical and mineralogical properties. Various fractions of metakaolin were prepared by jet mill classifying system. There is a clear trend between fineness of metakaolin and hydration heat development. Due to metakaolin presence in mixtures the compressive strength development of mortars is rather slower for coarser fractions but 28-day flexural strengths are improved for all fractions of metakaoline used in mixtures compared to reference sample of pure Portland cement. Yield point, plastic viscosity and adhesion of fresh pastes are considerably influenced by fineness of metakaolin used in cement pastes.

Keywords: calorimetry, cement, metakaolin fineness, rheology, strength

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1396 Characterization of Cement Concrete Pavement

Authors: T. B. Anil Kumar, Mallikarjun Hiremath, V. Ramachandra


The present experimental investigation deals with the quality performance analysis of cement concrete with 0, 15 and 25% fly ash and 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% of polypropylene fibers by weight of cement. The various test parameters like workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and abrasion resistance are detailed in the analysis. The compressive strength of M40 grade concrete attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash and at 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Higher flexural strength of concrete was observed by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.2% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Similarly, split tensile strength value also increases and attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. The percentage of wear gets reduced to 30 to 33% by the addition of fibers at 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% in cement concrete replaced by 15 and 25% fly ash. Hence, it is found that the pavement thickness gets reduced up to 20% when compared with plain concrete slab by the 15% fly ash treated with 0.2% PP fibers and also reduced up to 27% of surface course cost.

Keywords: cement, fly ash, polypropylene fiber, pavement design, cost analysis

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1395 Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Metakaolin on the Compressive Strengths of Ternary Cement Mortars

Authors: Olubajo Olumide Olu


This paper studies the effect of Metakaolin (MK) and Rice husk ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of ternary cement mortar at replacement level up to 30%. The compressive strength test of the blended cement mortars were conducted using Tonic Technic compression and machine. Nineteen ternary cement mortars were prepared comprising of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Rice husk ash (RHA) and Metakaolin (MK) at different proportion. Ternary mortar prisms in which Portland cement was replaced by up to 30% were tested at various age; 2, 7, 28 and 60 days. Result showed that the compressive strength of the cement mortars increased as the curing days were lengthened for both OPC and the blended cement samples. The ternary cement’s compressive strengths showed significant improvement compared with the control especially beyond 28 days. This can be attributed to the slow pozzolanic reaction resulting from the formation of additional CSH from the interaction of the residual CH content and the silica available in the Metakaolin and Rice husk ash, thus providing significant strength gain at later age. Results indicated that the addition of metakaolin with rice husk ash kept constant was found to lead to an increment in the compressive strength. This can either be attributed to the high silica/alumina contribution to the matrix or the C/S ratio in the cement matrix. Whereas, increment in the rice husk ash content while metakaolin was held constant led to an increment in the compressive strength, which could be attributed to the reactivity of the rice husk ash followed by decrement owing to the presence of unburnt carbon in the RHA matrix. The best compressive strength results were obtained at 10% cement replacement (5% RHA, 5% MK); 15% cement replacement (10% MK and 5% RHA); 20% cement replacement (15% MK and 5% RHA); 25% cement replacement (20% MK and 5% RHA); 30% cement replacement (10%/20% MK and 20%/10% RHA). With the optimal combination of either 15% and 20% MK with 5% RHA giving the best compressive strength of 40.5MPa.

Keywords: metakaolin, rice husk ash, compressive strength, ternary mortar, curing days

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