Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7223

Search results for: international environmental law

7223 Sustainable Development: The Human Rights Approach to Environmental Protection in South Africa

Authors: CM van der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank

Abstract:

International and domestic environmental law has evolved quite rapidly in the last few decades. At the international level the Stockholm and Rio Declarations paved the way for a broad based consensus of the international community on environmental issues and principles. At the Domestic level also many states have incorporated environmental protection in their constitutions and even more states are doing the same at least in their domestic legislations. In this process of evolution environmental law has unleashed a number of novel principles such as; the participatory principle, the polluter pays principle, the precautionary principle, the inter-generational and intra-generational principles, the prevention principle, the sustainable development principle and so on.

Keywords: environment, human rights, international law, protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
7222 Youth and International Environmental Voluntary Initiatives: A Case Study of IGreen Project by AIESEC in Bandung

Authors: Yoel Agustheo Rinding

Abstract:

Globalization has made physical borders between countries become more obscure. Due to the free flow of information between countries, issue for instance, environment has become global concern. The concern has grown as the result of endless campaign made by most of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs). By means of this situation, international voluntary initiatives on environmental issues have appeared to be popular among world’s society today especially for youth. AIESEC as international non-governmental organization (INGO) through IGreen Project has initiated environmental international voluntary initiatives concerning in environmental awareness of Bandung’s citizen. Bandung itself is still struggling on solving flood as one of its major problems regardless the fact that Bandung is one of the most developed cities in Indonesia. This paper would like to discuss on how globalization affects AIESEC as an INGO in order to spread its influence and also on how it could build international voluntary initiatives networks. Afterwards, author would like to elaborate how both AIESEC and youth perceive the importance of international voluntary initiatives by using cosmopolitanism approach. In order to get a deep understanding of how this activity works, this paper also would like to explain regarding the management, expected outcomes, and the real impacts of IGreen project towards Bandung. In the end of this paper, author would like to propose solutions on how to utilize international voluntary initiatives as a solution for environmental issues nowadays.

Keywords: AIESEC, cosmopolitanism, environmental issues, globalization, IGreen project, international environmental voluntary initiatives, INGO, youth

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7221 Demystifying the Legitimacy of the International Court of Justice

Authors: Roger-Claude Liwanga

Abstract:

Over the last seven decades, there has been a proliferation of international tribunals. Yet, they have not received unanimous approval, raising a question about their legitimacy. A legitimate international tribunal is one whose authority to adjudicate international disputes is perceived as justified. Using the case study of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), this article highlights the three criteria that should be considered in assessing the legitimacy of an international tribunal, which include legal, sociological, and moral elements. It also contends that the ICJ cannot claim 'full' legitimacy if any of these components of legitimacy is missing in its decisions. The article further suggests that the legitimacy of the ICJ has a dynamic nature, as litigating parties may constantly change their perception of the court’s authority at any time before, during, or after the judicial process. The article equally describes other factors that can contribute to maintaining the international court’s legitimacy, including fairness and unbiasedness, sound interpretation of international legal norms, and transparency.

Keywords: international tribunals, legitimacy, human rights, international law

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7220 The Application of International Law in Terms of Earthlife Africa Johannesburg and Another v Minister of Energy and Others 65662/16 (2017) Case

Authors: M. van der Bank

Abstract:

This study involves a legal analysis of the case Earthlife Africa Johannesburg v Minister of Environmental Affairs and Others. The case considered the impact of the Thabametsi Power Project if it operated to the expected year 2060 on the global climate and ever-changing climate, in South Africa. This judgment highlights the significance, place and principles of climate change and where climate change impacts the South African environmental law which has its founding principles in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. This paper seeks to examine the advances for climate change regulation and application in terms of international law, in South Africa, through a qualitative study involving comparative national and international case law. A literature review study was conducted to compare and contrast the various aspects of law in order to support the argument undertaken. The paper presents a detailed discussion of the current legislation and the position as it currently stands with reference to international law and interpretation. The relevant protections as outlined in the National Environmental Management Act will be discussed. It then proceeds to outline the potential liability of the Minister in the interpretation and application of international law.

Keywords: climate change; environment, environmental review, international law; and principles

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7219 The Notion of International Criminal Law: Between Criminal Aspects of International Law and International Aspects of Criminal Law

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska

Abstract:

Although international criminal law has grown significantly in the last decades, it still remains fragmented and lacks doctrinal cohesiveness. Its concept is described in the doctrine as highly disputable. There is no concrete definition of the term. In the domestic doctrine, the problem of criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise within the national criminal law, is underdeveloped both theoretically and practically. To the best of author’s knowledge, there are no studies describing international aspects of criminal law in a comprehensive manner, taking a more expansive view of the subject. This paper presents results of a part of the doctoral research, undertaking a theoretical framework of the international criminal law. It aims at sorting out the existing terminology on international aspects of criminal law. It demonstrates differences between the notions of international criminal law, criminal law international and law international criminal. It confronts the notion of criminal law with related disciplines and shows their interplay. It specifies the scope of international criminal law. It diagnoses the current legal framework of international aspects of criminal law, referring to both criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise in the context of national criminal law. Finally, de lege lata postulates were formulated and direction of changes in international criminal law was proposed. The adopted research hypothesis assumed that the notion of international criminal law was inconsistent, not understood uniformly, and there was no conformity as to its place within the system of law, objective and subjective scopes, while the domestic doctrine did not correspond with international standards and differed from the worldwide doctrine. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method, a comparative method, as well as desk research.

Keywords: criminal law, international crimes, international criminal law, international law

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7218 Idea of International Criminal Justice in the Function of Prosecution International Crimes

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

Abstract:

The wars and armed conflicts have often resulted in violations of international humanitarian law, and often commit the most serious international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, aggression and genocide. However, only in the XX century the rule was articulated idea of establishing a body of international criminal justice in order to prosecute these crimes and their perpetrators. The first steps in this field have been made by establishing the International military tribunals for war crimes at Nuremberg and Tokyo, and the formation of ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. In the end, The International Criminal Court was established in Rome in 1998 with the aim of justice and in order to give satisfaction the victims of crimes and their families. The aim of the paper was to provide a historical and comparative analysis of the institutions of international criminal justice based on which these institutions de lege lata fulfilled the goals of individual criminal responsibility and justice. Furthermore, the authors suggest de lege ferenda that the Permanent International Criminal Tribunal, in addition to the prospective case, also takes over the current ICTY and ICTR cases.

Keywords: international crimes, international criminal justice, prosecution of crimes, ad hoc tribunal, the international criminal court

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7217 The Role of State Practices and Custom in Outer Space Law

Authors: Biswanath Gupta, Raju Kd

Abstract:

Space law is the new entry in the basket of international law in the latter half of the 20th Century. In the last hundred and fifty years, courts and scholars developed a consensus that, the custom is an important source of international law. Article 38(1) (b) of the statute of the International Court of Justice recognized international custom as a source of international law. State practices and usages have a greater role to play in formulating customary international law. This paper examines those state practices which can be qualified to become international customary law. Since, 1979 (after Moon Treaty) no hard law have been developed in the area of space exploration. It tries to link between state practices and custom in space exploration and development of customary international law in space activities. The paper uses doctrinal method of legal research for examining the current questions of international law. The paper explores different international legal documents such as General Assembly Resolutions, Treaty principles, working papers of UN, cases relating to customary international law and writing of jurists relating to space law and customary international law. It is argued that, principles such as common heritage of mankind, non-military zone, sovereign equality, nuclear weapon free zone and protection of outer space environment, etc. developed state practices among the international community which can be qualified to become international customary law.

Keywords: customary international law, state practice, space law, treaty

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7216 An Extended Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning: Impact of New International Business Processes

Authors: D. De Matías Batalla

Abstract:

This paper develops and extended eclectic paradigm to fit the firm internationalization process with the real international business world. The approach is based on Dunning´s, introducing new concepts like mode of entry, international joint venture o international mergers and acquisitions. At the same time is presented a model to describe the Spanish international mergers and acquisitions in order to determinate the most important factor that influence in this type of foreign direct investment.

Keywords: dunning, eclectic paradigm, foreign direct investment, IJV, international business, international management, multinational firms, firm internationalization process, M&A

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
7215 Maritime Transportation and Environmental Pollution: Emerging Trends and Challenges

Authors: Emil Mathew

Abstract:

Liberalisation policies adopted by a large number of countries, implementation of technological innovations with development in communication networks and continuous reduction in transport costs contributed towards the growth of international transportation of goods over the last 50 to 60 years. The present paper examines the environmental externalities of maritime transportation, that is, externalities associated with the movement of cargoes, as distinct from those emanate from production and consumption of goods. Though shipping is less polluting compared to other modes of transportation, considering the huge volume of goods transported and future growth prospects, it is important to examine environmental externalities of maritime transportation. It focuses on varied types of environmental externalities of maritime transportation and suggests that appropriate policies may be adopted by international agencies to address this issue without adversely affecting the course of international trade and also its possibility to get diverted to alternate modes of transportation.

Keywords: externalities of globalisation, maritime environment, maritime externality, transportation externality

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7214 Responsibility of International Financial Institutions for Harmful Environmental Consequences Arising from Their Development Interventions

Authors: Reham Barakat

Abstract:

Over the last few decades, the influence of International Financial Institutions (IFIs), especially the World Bank (WB), has significantly increased. Since the early 1980s, IFIs have assumed greater role, especially in developing countries; their total lending has dramatically increased, affecting billions of people in their Borrower States. Though the purpose of the development assistance provided by IFIs is to alleviate poverty and promote economic and social development in their member countries, IFIs have been subject to massive criticism by civil society institutions, international NGOs and local communities for the harmful environmental, social and economic impacts resulting from their development interventions in borrower countries, such as deforestation, displacement of indigenous peoples, and unemployment. While the role of IFIs has expanded over time, affecting billions of people, their accountability mechanisms remained behind and were criticized for lacking sufficient independency and enforceability. The serious adverse environmental impacts of the World Bank’s funded projects, along with their weak accountability mechanisms, raises the question of 'To what extent IFIs should be held internationally responsible for the harmful environmental consequences arising from their development interventions?'. This paper argues that IFIs are legally responsible for the harmful environmental consequences arising from their development interventions. The study (i) identifies the applicable laws and relevant primary rules from which the international environmental obligations of IFIs towards their borrower countries are derived (ii) assesses the World Bank’s compliance to the principles of the International Environmental Law including the precautionary principle, the polluter pays principle, and the principle of Good-Neighborliness, (iii) assesses the World Bank’s current internal accountability mechanisms for harmful environmental impacts resulting from the World Bank’s funded projects, and finally (iv) identifies the appropriate dispute settlement mechanisms to which states and non-state actors could raise their claims against IFIs for harmful environmental consequences arising from their interventions.

Keywords: international environmental law, international financial institutions, international responsibility, world bank, environmental and social safeguards

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7213 Power, Pluralism, and History: Norms in International Societies

Authors: Nicole Cervenka

Abstract:

On the question of norms in international politics, scholars are divided over whether norms are a tool for power politics or a genuine reflection of an emergent international society. The line is drawn between rationalism and idealism, but this dialectical relationship needs to be broken down if we hope to come to a comprehensive understanding of how norms play out in international society. The concept of an elusive international society is a simplification of a more pluralistic, cosmopolitan, and diverse collection of international societies. The English School effectively overcomes realist-idealist dichotomies and provides a pluralistic, comprehensive explanation and description of international societies through its application to two distinct areas: human rights as well as security and war. We argue that international norms have always been present in human rights, war, and international security, forming international societies that can be complimentary or oppositional, beneficial or problematic. Power politics are present, but they can only be regarded as partially explanatory of the role of norms in international politics, which must also include history, international law, the media, NGOs, and others to fully represent the normative influences in international societies. A side-by-side comparison of international norms of war/security and human rights show how much international societies converge. World War II was a turning point in terms of international law, these forces of international society have deeper historical roots. Norms of human rights and war/security are often norms of restraint, guiding appropriate treatment of individuals. This can at times give primacy to the individual over the sovereign state. However, state power politics and hegemony are still intact. It cannot be said that there is an emergent international society—international societies are part of broader historical backdrops. Furthermore, states and, more generally, power politics, are important components in international societies, but international norms are far from mere tools of power politics. They define a more diverse, complicated, and ever-present conception of international societies.

Keywords: English school, international societies, norms, pluralism

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7212 International Investment Arbitration and Environment: Trends and Approaches within the Framework of the ICSID

Authors: Anuj Kumar Vaksha

Abstract:

The research paper examines the trends and approaches of the international investment arbitral tribunals to the issues of environment and the exercise of states' regulatory power for the preservation of environment vis-à-vis the rights of the affected foreign investors. The paper analyses arbitral awards, decisions and orders in the leading cases of international investment arbitrations involving issues of environment and finds that there has been strong trend among the arbitral tribunals to balance the imperatives of the environmental regulation and the interest of the foreign investors. The arbitral tribunals have reflected deference to States' competence for regulation of environment to the extent they were genuine, relevant and in proportion to the legitimate objective sought to be achieved. The arbitral tribunals have at times been innovative and non-conservative in promoting the cause of environment through the mechanism of investor-state arbitration.

Keywords: International Investment Arbitration, environmental regulations, bilateral investment treaties, ICSID, NAFTA, amicus curiae, pollution havens hypothesis, environmental race to the bottom hypothesis

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7211 Human Security as a Tool of Protecting International Human Rights Law

Authors: Arenca Trashani

Abstract:

20 years after its first entrance in a General Assembly of the United Nation’s Resolution, human security has became a very important tool in a global debate affecting directly the whole main rules and regulations in international law and more closely in international human rights law. This paper will cover a very important issue of today at how the human security has its impact to the development of international human rights law, not as far as a challenge as it is seen up now but a tool of moving toward development and globalization. In order to analyze the impact of human security to the global agenda, we need to look to the main pillars of the international legal order which are affected by the human security in itself and its application in the policy making for this international legal order global and regional ones. This paper will focus, also, on human security, as a new and very important tool of measuring development, stability and the level of democratic consolidation and the respect for human rights especially in developing countries such as Albania. The states are no longer capable to monopolize the use of human security just within their boundaries and separated from the other principles of a functioning democracy. In this context, human security would be best guaranteed under the respect of the rule of law and democratization. During the last two decades the concept security has broadly developed, from a state-centric to a more human-centric approach: from state security to respect for human rights, to economic security, to environmental security as well. Last but not least we would see that human rights could be affected by human security not just at their promotion but also at their enforcement and mainly at the international institutions, which are entitled to promote and to protect human rights.

Keywords: human security, international human rights law, development, Albania, international law

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7210 The Doctrine of Military Necessity under Customary International Law: A Breach of International Humanitarian Law

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

Abstract:

This paper examines an essential and complex part of International humanitarian law standards of military necessity. Military necessity is an unpredictable phenomenon. The unpredictability of this regulation likewise originates from the fact that is one of the most fundamental, yet most misjudged and distorted standards of international law of armed conflict. This rule has been censured as essentially wrong in light of its non-compliance with the principles of international humanitarian law in recent past. The author noted in this study that military necessity runs counter to humanitarian exigencies. These have generated debate among researchers for them to propose that for international law to be considered more important, it is indispensable that the procedures and substance of custom be illuminated and made accessible to every one of the individuals who may utilize it or be influenced by it. However, a significant number of analysts have attributed particular weaknesses to this doctrine. This study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Significantly, the recommendation made in this paper, if completely adopted, shall go a long way in guaranteeing a better application of the principles of international humanitarian law.

Keywords: military necessity, international law, international humanitarian law, customary law

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7209 Development of Risk-Based Ambient Air Quality Standards in the Russian Federation on the Basis of Risk Assessment Procedures Harmonized with International Approaches

Authors: Nina V. Zaitseva, Pavel Z. Shur, Nina G. Atiskova

Abstract:

Nowadays harmonization of sanitary and hygienic standards of environmental quality with international standards is crucial part of integration of Russia into the international community. Harmonization of Russian and international ambient air quality standards may be realized by risk-based standards development. In this paper approaches to risk-based standards development and examples of these approaches implementation are presented.

Keywords: harmonization, health risk assessment, evolutionary modelling, benchmark level, nickel, manganese

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7208 An Examination of the Challenges of Domestication of International Laws and Human Rights Laws in Nigeria

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

Abstract:

This study evolved from the need to look at and evaluate the difficulties in the domestication of International Laws and Human Rights Laws in Nigeria. Essentially, the paper-based its examination on documentary evidence and depended much on secondary sources, for example, textbooks, journals, articles, periodicals and research reports emanating from suggestions of international law experts, jurists and human rights lawyers on the development challenges in domesticating international laws and human rights laws in Nigeria. These data were analyzed by the application of content analysis and careful observation of the current municipal laws which has posed great challenges in the domestication of International laws. This paper might follow the historical backdrop of the practices in the use of International law in Nigeria and should likewise consider the challenges inherent in these practices. The paper suggests that a sustainable domestication of International Laws and its application in Nigerian courts will ensure a better enforcement of human rights within the domestic jurisdiction.

Keywords: international law, human rights, domestication, challenges

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7207 Changing Landscape of International Law of Governance: ‘One Belt One Road Initiative’ as a Case Study

Authors: Tikumporn Rodkhunmuang

Abstract:

The importance of ‘international law of governance’ is the means and end to deal with international affairs. This research paper seeks to first study the historical development of international law of governance from the classical period of the international legal framework of global governance until the contemporary period of its framework. Second, the international law of governance is extremely turning into the crucial point in its long history because of the changing of China's foreign policies towards ‘One Belt One Road Initiative’. Third, the proposing model of the existing international law of governance within Chinese characteristics will be the new rules and modalities of modern diplomacy and governed international affairs. Methodologically speaking, this research paper is conducting under mixed methods research, which are also included numerical analysis and theoretical considerations. As a result, this research paper is the critical point of the international legal framework of global governance that changing the diplomatic paradigm as well as turning China into a great-power in international politics. So, this research paper is useful for international legal scholars and diplomats for slightly changing their understanding of the rapidly changing their norms from western norms to the eastern norms of international law. Therefore, the outcome of the research is the modern model of China to make a diplomatic relationship with other countries in the global society.

Keywords: global governance, international law, landscape, one belt one road

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7206 Limitations of Recent National Enactments on International Crimes: The Case of Kenya, Uganda and Sudan

Authors: Emma Charlene Lubaale

Abstract:

The International Criminal Court (ICC) operates based on the principle of complementarity. On the basis of this principle, states enjoy the primary right to prosecute international crimes, with the ICC intervening only when a state with jurisdiction over an international crime is unable or unwilling to prosecute. To ably exercise their primary right to prosecute international crimes domestically, a number of states are taking steps to criminalise international crimes in their national laws. Significant to note, many of the laws enacted are not being applied in the prosecution of the international crimes allegedly committed. Kenya, Uganda and Sudan are some notable states where commission of international crimes is documented. All these states have recently enacted laws on international crimes. Kenya enacted the International Crimes Act in 2008, Uganda enacted the International Criminal Court Act in 2010 and in 2007, Sudan made provision for international crimes under its Armed Forces Act. However, in all these three states, the enacted national laws on international crimes have thus far not featured in any of the proceedings before these states’ courts. Instead, these states have either relied on ordinary crimes to prosecute international crimes or not prosecuted international crimes altogether. This paper underscores the limitations of the enacted laws, explaining why, even with efforts taken by these states to enact national laws on international crimes, these laws cannot be relied on to advance accountability for the international crimes. Notably, the laws in Kenya and Uganda do not have retroactive application. In Sudan, despite the 2007 reforms, the structure of military justice in Sudan has the effect of placing certain categories of individuals beyond the reach of international criminal justice. For Kenya and Uganda, it is concluded that the only benefit that flows from these enactments is reliance on them to prosecute future international crimes. For Sudan, the 2007 reforms will only have the desired impact if reforms are equally made to the structure of military justice.

Keywords: complementarity, national laws, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, international crimes, limitations

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7205 The Education-Development Nexus: The Vision of International Organizations

Authors: Thibaut Lauwerier

Abstract:

This presentation will cover the vision of international organizations on the link between development and education. This issue is very relevant to address the general topic of the conference. 'Educating for development' is indeed at the heart of their discourse. For most of international organizations involved in education, it is important to invest in this field since it is at the service of development. The idea of this presentation is to better understand the vision of development according to these international organizations and how education can contribute to this type of development. To address this issue, we conducted a comparative study of three major international organizations (OECD, UNESCO and World Bank) influencing education policy at the international level. The data come from the strategic reports of these organizations over the period 1990-2015. The results show that the visions of development refer mainly to the neoliberal agenda, despite evolutions, even contradictions. And so, education must increase productivity, improve economic growth, etc. UNESCO, which has a less narrow conception of the development and therefore the aims of education, does not have the same means as the two other organizations to advocate for an alternative vision.

Keywords: development, education, international organizations, poilcy

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7204 From Restraint to Obligation: The Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict

Authors: Aaron Walayat

Abstract:

Protection of the environment in international law has been one of the most developed in the context of international humanitarian law. This paper examines the history of the protection of the environment in times of armed conflict, beginning with the traditional notion of restraint observed in antiquity towards the obligation to protect the environment, examining the treaties and agreements, both binding and non-binding which have contributed to environmental protection in war. The paper begins with a discussion of the ancient concept of restraint. This section examines the social norms in favor of protection of the environment as observed in the Bible, Greco-Roman mythology, and even more contemporary literature. The study of the traditional rejection of total war establishes the social foundation on which the current legal regime has stemmed. The paper then studies the principle of restraint as codified in international humanitarian law. It mainly examines Additional Protocol I of the Geneva Convention of 1949 and existing international law concerning civilian objects and the principles of international humanitarian law in the classification between civilian objects and military objectives. The paper then explores the environment’s classification as both a military objective and as a civilian object as well as explores arguments in favor of the classification of the whole environment as a civilian object. The paper will then discuss the current legal regime surrounding the protection of the environment, discussing some declarations and conventions including the 1868 Declaration of St. Petersburg, the 1907 Hague Convention No. IV, the Geneva Conventions, and the 1976 Environmental Modification Convention. The paper concludes with the outline noting the movement from codification of the principles of restraint into the various treaties, agreements, and declarations of the current regime of international humanitarian law. This paper provides an analysis of the history and significance of the relationship between international humanitarian law as a major contributor to the growing field of international environmental law.

Keywords: armed conflict, environment, legal regime, restraint

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7203 Sexual and Gender Based Crimes in International Criminal Law: Moving Forwards or Backwards

Authors: Khadija Ali

Abstract:

Prosecution of sexual violence in international criminal law requires not only an understanding of the mechanisms employed to prosecute sexual violence but also a critical analysis of the factors facilitating perpetuation of such crimes in armed conflicts. The extrapolations laid out in this essay delve into the jurisprudence of international criminal law pertaining to sexual and gender based violence followed by the core question of this essay: Has the entrenchment of sexual violence as international crimes in the Rome Statute been successful to address such violence in armed conflicts?

Keywords: conflict, gender, international criminal law, sexual violence

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7202 The Role of Language Strategy on International Survival of Firm: A Conceptual Framework from Resource Dependence Perspective

Authors: Sazzad Hossain Talukder

Abstract:

Survival in the competitive international market with unforeseen environmental contingencies has always been a concern of the firms that led to adopting different strategies to deal with different situations. Language strategy is considered to enhance the international performance of a firm by organizing language diversity and fostering communications within and outside the firm. Yet there is a lack of theoretical attention or model development on the role of language strategy on firm international survival. From resource dependence perspective, the adoption of language strategy and its relationship with firm survival are determined by the firm´s capability to prevent dependency concentration and/or increase relative power on the external environment. However, the impact of language strategy on firm survival is complex and multifaceted as the strategy influence firm performance indirectly through communication, coordination, learning and value creation. The evidence of various types of language strategies and different forms of firm survival also bring in complexities to understand the effects of a language strategy on the international survival of a firm. Based on language literatures and resource dependence logic, certain propositions are developed to conceptualize the relationship between language strategy and firm international survival in this conceptual paper. For the purpose of this paper, a conceptual model is proposed to examine how different kinds of language strategy foster reduction of resource dependency that lead to firm international survival in respond to local responsiveness and global integration. In this proposed model, it is theorized that language strategy has a positive relationship with the international survival of the firm, as the strategy is likely to reduce external resource dependency and increase the ability to continue independent operations both in short and long term.

Keywords: language strategy, language diversity, firm international survival, resource dependence logic

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7201 Biodiversity and Biotechnology: Some Considerations about the International Regulation of Agriculture and the International Legal System on Access to Genetic Resources

Authors: Leandro Moura da Silva

Abstract:

The international community has strived to create legal mechanisms to protect their biodiversity, but this can represent, sometimes, particularly in the case of regulatory regime on access to genetic resources, an excessive nationalism which transforms itself into a significant obstacle to scientific progress causing damages to the country and to local farmers. Although it has been poorly publicized in the media, the international legal system was marked, in 2014, by the entry into force of the Nagoya Protocol, which regulates the access and benefit sharing of genetic resources of the States Party to that legal instrument. However, it’s not reasonable to think of regulating access to genetic resources without reflecting on the links of this important subject with other related issues, such as family farming and agribusiness, food safety, food security, intellectual property rights (on seeds, genetic material, new plant varieties, etc.), environmental sustainability, biodiversity, and biosafety.

Keywords: international law, regulation on agriculture, agronomy techniques, sustainability, genetic resources and new crop varieties, CBD, Nagoya Protocol, ITPGRFA

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7200 International Law and Its Role in Protecting Human Rights

Authors: Yrfet Shkreli

Abstract:

To determine the content of human rights norms in national constitutions, international law - in the form of treaties, declarations and case law from international monitoring bodies, and comparative case law from other countries - is often discussed in the judgments of domestic courts. This paper explores the extent to which international law has influenced domestic human rights case law in Africa. The paper first explores how the human rights provisions of African constitutions came into being before turning to the role played by international law in the constitutional order of various African states and how treaties, declarations and findings of international monitoring bodies have been used in African countries to interpret and expand on constitutional human rights provisions.

Keywords: European Union, global governance, globalization, normative power

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7199 The Relevance of Sustainability Skills for International Students

Authors: Mary Panko, Rashika Sharma

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Sustainability often appears to be an unfamiliar concept to many international students that enrol in a New Zealand technological degree. Lecturers’ experiences with classroom interactions and evaluation of assessments indicate that studying the concept enlightens and enhances international students understanding of sustainability. However, in most cases, even after studying sustainability in their degree programme, students are not given an opportunity to practice and apply this concept into their professions in their home countries. Therefore, using a qualitative approach, the academics conducted research to determine the change in international students understanding of sustainability before and after their enrolment in an Applied Technology degree. The research also aimed to evaluate if international students viewed sustainability of relevance to their professions and whether the students felt that they will be provided with an opportunity to apply their knowledge about sustainability in the industry. The findings of the research are presented in this paper.

Keywords: education for sustainability, international students, vocational education

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7198 Sustainable Development, China’s Emerging Role via One Belt, One Road

Authors: Saeid Rabiei Majd, Motahareh Alvandi, Mehrad Rabiei

Abstract:

The rapid economic and technological development of any country depends on access to cheap sources of energy. Competition for access to petroleum resources is always accompanied by numerous environmental risks. These factors have caused more attention to environmental issues and sustainable development in petroleum contracts and activities. Nowadays, a sign of developed countries is adhering to the principles and rules of international environmental law and sustainable development of commercial contracts. China has entered into play through the massive project plan, One Belt, One Road. China is becoming a new emerging power in the world. China's bilateral investment treaties have an impact on environmental rights and sustainable development through regional and international foreign direct investment. The aim of this research is to examine China's key position to promote and improve environmental principles and international law and sustainable development in the energy sector in the world through the initiative, One Belt, One Road. Based on this hypothesis, it seems that in the near future, China's investment bilateral investment treaties will become popular investment model used in global trade, especially in the field of energy and sustainable development. They will replace the European and American models. The research method is including literature review, analytical and descriptive methods.

Keywords: principles of sustainable development, oil and gas law, Chinas BITs, One Belt One Road, environmental rights

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7197 The Status of the Actio Popularis under International Environmental Law in Cases of Damage to Global Commons

Authors: Aimite Jorge, Leenekela Usebiu

Abstract:

In recent years the International Community has seen a rise of what can be termed as ‘actio popularis”;that is to say lawsuits brought by third parties in the interest of the public or the world community as a whole, such as in cases of genocide and terrorism prosecutions under international law. It is equally clear that under current globalized world the effect of multinational activities on the environment is often felt beyond the borders of the territories where they operate. Equally true is the fact that the correspondence of citizens self-determination with national government is increasingly upset by the increasing willingness of states to share some ‘sovereign powers’ in order to address new economic, environmental and security interdependencies. The ‘unbundling’ of functional governance from fixed territories sees continuously citizens give up their formal approval of key decisions in exchange for a more remote, indirect say in supra-national or international decision-making bodies. The efforts to address a growing transnational flow of ecological harm are at the forefront of such indirect transformations, as evidenced by a proliferation of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) over the past three decades. However, unlike the defence of the global commons in cases of terrorism and genocide, there is still to be a clear application of action popularis in the case of environment, despite acknowledgement that the effect of the activities of several multinationals on the environment is as destructive to the global commons as genocide or terrorism are. Thus, this paper looking at specific cases of harmful degradation of the environment by certain multinationals transcending national boundaries, argues that it is high-time for a serious consideration of the application of the actio-popularis to environmental concerns. Although it is acknowledged that in international environmental law the challenge to reach a “critical mass” of recognition and support for an ‘actio-popularis’ for environment damage is particularly demanding, it is worth the try.

Keywords: actio popularis in environment law, global commons, transnational environmental damage, law and environment

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7196 Conflicts and Similarities among Energy Law, Environmental Law and Economic Aspects

Authors: Bahareh Arghand, Seyed Abbas Poorhashemi, Ramin Roshandel

Abstract:

Nowadays, Economic growth and the increasing use of fossil fuel have caused major damages to environment. Therefore, international law has tried to codify the rules and regulations and identify legal principles to decrease conflict of interests between energy law and environmental law. The open relationship between energy consumption and the law of nature has been ignored for years, because the focus of energy law has been on an affordable price of a reliable supply of energy; while the focus of environmental law was on protection of the nature. In fact, the legal and overall policies of energy are based on Sic Omnes and inter part for governments whereas environmental law is based on common interests and Erga Omnes. The relationship between energy law, environmental law and economic aspects is multilateral, complex and important. Moreover, they influence each other. There are similarities in the triangle of energy, environment and economic aspects and in some cases there are conflict of interest but their conflicts are in goals not in practice and their legal jurisdiction is in international law. The development of national and international rules and regulations relevant to energy-environment has been done by separate sectors, whereas sustainable development principle, especially in the economic sector, requires environmental considerations. It is an important turning point to integrate and decrease conflict of interest among energy law, environmental law and economic aspects. The present study examines existing legal principles on energy and the environment and identifies the similarities and conflicts based on the descriptive-analytic study. The purpose of investigating these legal principles is to integrate and decrease conflict of interest between energy law and environmental law.

Keywords: energy law, environmental law, erga omnes, sustainable development

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7195 Cyber Security in Russia: Offense, Defense and Strategy in Cyberspace

Authors: Da Eun Sung

Abstract:

In today’s world, cyber security has become an important international agenda. As the information age has arrived, the need for cyber defense against cyber attacks is mounting, and the significance of cyber cooperation in the international community is drawing attention. Through the course, international society has agreed that the institutionalization of international norms dealing with cyber space and cyber security is crucial ever. Nevertheless, the West, led by the United States of America, and 'the East', composed of Russia and China, have shown conflicting views on forming international norms and principles which would regulate and ward off the possible threats in cyber space. Thus, the international community hasn’t yet to reach an agreement on cyber security. In other words, the difference between both sides on the approach and understanding of principles, objects, and the definition has rendered such. Firstly, this dissertation will cover the Russia’s perception, strategy, and definition on cyber security through analyzing primary source. Then, it will delve into the two contrasting cyber security strategy between Russia and the US by comparing them. And in the conclusion, it will seek the possible solution for the cooperation in the field of cyber security. It is quite worthwhile to look into Russia’s views, which is the main counterpart to the US in this field, especially when the efforts to institutionalize cyber security by the US-led international community have met with their boundaries, and when the legitimacy of them have been challenged.

Keywords: cyber security, cyber security strategic, international relation in cyberspace, Russia

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7194 Foreign Direct Investment, International Trade and Environment in Bangladesh: An Empirical Study

Authors: Shilpi Tripathi

Abstract:

After independence, Bangladesh had to learn to survive on its own without any economic crutches (aid). Foreign direct investment (FDI) became a crucial economic tool for the country to become economically independent. The government started removing restrictions to encourage foreign investment, economic growth, international trade, and the environment. FDI is considered as a way to bridge the saving-investment gap, reduce poverty, balance trade, create jobs for its vast labour force, increase foreign exchange earnings and acquire new modern technology and management skills in the country. At the same time, spillovers of foreign investments in Bangladesh, such as low wages (compared to laborers of developed countries), poor working conditions and unbridled exploitation of the domestic resources, environmental externalities, etc., cannot be ignored. The most important adverse implications of FDI inflows noticed are the environmental problems, which are further impacting the health and society of the country. This paper empirically studies the relationship between FDI, economic growth, international trade (exports and Imports), and the environment since 1996. The first part of the paper focuses on the background and trends of FDI, GDP, trade, and environment (CO₂). The second part focuses on the literature review on the relationship between all the variables. The last part of the paper examines the results of empirical analysis like co-integration and Granger causality. The findings of the paper reveal that a uni-directional relationship exists between FDI, CO₂, and international trade (exports and imports). The direction of the causality reveals that FDI inflow is one of the major contributors to high-volume international trade. At the same time, FDI and international trade both are contributing to carbon emissions in Bangladesh. The paper concludes with the policy recommendations that will ensure environmentally friendly trade, investment, and growth in Bangladesh for the future.

Keywords: foreign direct investment, GDP, international trade, CO₂, Granger causality, environment

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