Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2447

Search results for: carbon dioxide sequestration

2447 Investigation of the Catalytic Role of Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation in Sediments

Authors: Ehsan Heidaryan

Abstract:

Gas hydrate sediments are ice like permafrost in deep see and oceans. Methane production in sequestration process and reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a main source of greenhouse gas, has been accentuated recently. One focus is capture, separation, and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. As a hydrate former, carbon dioxide forms hydrates at moderate temperatures and pressures. This phenomenon could be utilized to capture and separate carbon dioxide from flue gases, and also has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide in the deep seabeds. This research investigated the effect of synthetic surfactants on carbon dioxide hydrate formation, catalysis and consequently, methane production from hydrate permafrosts in sediments. It investigated the sequestration potential of carbon dioxide hydrates in ocean sediments. Also, the catalytic effect of biosurfactants in these processes was investigated.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, hydrate, sequestration, surfactant

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2446 CO2 Sequestration for Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: A New Approach

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg

Abstract:

The global warming due to the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is the most prominent issue of environment that the world is facing today. To solve this problem at global level, sequestration of CO2 in deep and unmineable coal seams has come out as one of the attractive alternatives to reduce concentration in atmosphere. This sequestration technology is not only going to help in storage of CO2 beneath the sub-surface but is also playing a major role in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) by displacing the adsorbed methane. This paper provides the answers for the need of CO2 injection in coal seams and how recovery is enhanced. We have discussed the recent development in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery and the economic scenario of the same. The effect of injection on the coal reservoir has also been discussed. Coal is a good absorber of CO2. That is why the sequestration of CO2 is emerged out to be a great approach, not only for storage purpose but also for enhancing coal bed methane recovery.

Keywords: global warming, carbon dioxide (CO2), CO2 sequestration, enhance coal bed methane (ECBM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
2445 Production of Natural Gas Hydrate by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Yun-Ho Ahn, Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Huen Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

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2444 Nondestructive Natural Gas Hydrate Production by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Ahn Yun-Ho, Hyery Kang, Koh Dong-Yeun, Huen Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
2443 Role of Sequestration of CO2 Due to the Carbonation in Total CO2 Emission Balance in Concrete Life

Authors: P. P. Woyciechowski

Abstract:

Calculation of the carbon footprint of cement concrete is a complex process including consideration of the phase of primary life (components and concrete production processes, transportation, construction works, maintenance of concrete structures) and secondary life, including demolition and recycling. Taking into consideration the effect of concrete carbonation can lead to a reduction in the calculated carbon footprint of concrete. In this paper, an example of CO2 balance for small bridge elements made of Portland cement reinforced concrete was done. The results include the effect of carbonation of concrete in a structure and of concrete rubble after demolition. It was shown that important impact of carbonation on the balance is possible only when rubble carbonation is possible. It was related to the fact that only the sequestration potential in the secondary phase of concrete life has significant value.

Keywords: carbon footprint, balance of carbon dioxide in nature, concrete carbonation, the sequestration potential of concrete

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2442 Characterization of Carbon Dioxide-Rich Flue Gas Sources for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels

Authors: Adesola Orimoloye, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever - present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.

Keywords: Flue gas, carbon dioxide, membrane, catalyst, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
2441 Estimation of Carbon Sequestration and Air Quality of Terrestrial Ecosystems Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Kanwal Javid, Shazia Pervaiz, Maria Mumtaz, Muhammad Ameer Nawaz Akram

Abstract:

Forests and grasslands ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Land management activities influence both ecosystems and enable them to absorb and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). Similarly, in Pakistan, these terrestrial ecosystems are well known to mitigate carbon emissions and have a great source to supply a variety of services such as clean air and water, biodiversity, wood products, wildlife habitat, food, recreation and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration is the main agenda of developed and developing nations to reduce the impacts of global warming. But the amount of carbon storage within these ecosystems can be affected by many factors related to air quality such as land management, land-use change, deforestation, over grazing and natural calamities. Moreover, the long-term capacity of forests and grasslands to absorb and sequester CO2 depends on their health, productivity, resilience and ability to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, the main rationale of this study is to monitor the difference in carbon amount of forests and grasslands of Northern Pakistan using MODIS data sets and map results using Geographic Information System. Results of the study conclude that forests ecosystems are more effective in reducing the CO2 level and play a key role in improving the quality of air.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, grasslands, global warming, climate change.

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2440 Carbon Capture and Storage: Prospects in India

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg

Abstract:

The demand of energy is increasing at every part of the world. Thus, use of fossil fuel is efficient which results in large liberation of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Tons of this CO2 raises the risk of dangerous climate changes. To minimize the risk carbon capture and storage (CCS) has to be used so that the emitted carbon dioxide do not reach the atmosphere. CCS is being considered as one of the options that could have a major role to play in India.With the growing awareness towards the global warming, carbon capture and sequestration has a great importance. New technologies and theories are in use to capture CO2. This paper contains the methodology and technologies that is in use to capture carbon dioxide in India. The present scenario of CCS is also being discussed. CCS is playing a major role in enhancing recovery of oil (ERO). Both the purpose 1) minimizing percentage of carbon dioxide in atmosphere and 2) enhancing recovery of oil are fulfilled from the CCS. The CO2 is usually captured from coal based power plant and from some industrial sources and then stored in the geological formations like oil and gas reservoir and deep aquifers or in oceans. India has large reservoirs of coal which are being used for storing CO2, as coal is a good absorbent of CO2. New technologies and studies are going on for injection purposes. Government has initiated new plans for CCS as CCS is technically feasible and economically attractive. A discussion is done on new schemes that should bring up CCS plans and approaches. Stakeholders are welcomed for suitability of CCS. There is still a need to potentially capture the CO2 and avail its storage in developing country like India.

Keywords: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), carbon dioxide (CO2), enhance oil recovery, geological formations, stakeholders

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2439 Bringing the World to Net Zero Carbon Dioxide by Sequestering Biomass Carbon

Authors: Jeffrey A. Amelse

Abstract:

Many corporations aspire to become Net Zero Carbon Carbon Dioxide by 2035-2050. This paper examines what it will take to achieve those goals. Achieving Net Zero CO₂ requires an understanding of where energy is produced and consumed, the magnitude of CO₂ generation, and proper understanding of the Carbon Cycle. The latter leads to the distinction between CO₂ and biomass carbon sequestration. Short reviews are provided for prior technologies proposed for reducing CO₂ emissions from fossil fuels or substitution by renewable energy, to focus on their limitations and to show that none offer a complete solution. Of these, CO₂ sequestration is poised to have the largest impact. It will just cost money, scale-up is a huge challenge, and it will not be a complete solution. CO₂ sequestration is still in the demonstration and semi-commercial scale. Transportation accounts for only about 30% of total U.S. energy demand, and renewables account for only a small fraction of that sector. Yet, bioethanol production consumes 40% of U.S. corn crop, and biodiesel consumes 30% of U.S. soybeans. It is unrealistic to believe that biofuels can completely displace fossil fuels in the transportation market. Bioethanol is traced through its Carbon Cycle and shown to be both energy inefficient and inefficient use of biomass carbon. Both biofuels and CO₂ sequestration reduce future CO₂ emissions from continued use of fossil fuels. They will not remove CO₂ already in the atmosphere. Planting more trees has been proposed as a way to reduce atmospheric CO₂. Trees are a temporary solution. When they complete their Carbon Cycle, they die and release their carbon as CO₂ to the atmosphere. Thus, planting more trees is just 'kicking the can down the road.' The only way to permanently remove CO₂ already in the atmosphere is to break the Carbon Cycle by growing biomass from atmospheric CO₂ and sequestering biomass carbon. Sequestering tree leaves is proposed as a solution. Unlike wood, leaves have a short Carbon Cycle time constant. They renew and decompose every year. Allometric equations from the USDA indicate that theoretically, sequestrating only a fraction of the world’s tree leaves can get the world to Net Zero CO₂ without disturbing the underlying forests. How can tree leaves be permanently sequestered? It may be as simple as rethinking how landfills are designed to discourage instead of encouraging decomposition. In traditional landfills, municipal waste undergoes rapid initial aerobic decomposition to CO₂, followed by slow anaerobic decomposition to methane and CO₂. The latter can take hundreds to thousands of years. The first step in anaerobic decomposition is hydrolysis of cellulose to release sugars, which those who have worked on cellulosic ethanol know is challenging for a number of reasons. The key to permanent leaf sequestration may be keeping the landfills dry and exploiting known inhibitors for anaerobic bacteria.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, net zero, sequestration, biomass, leaves

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2438 Flue Gas Characterisation for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever-present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.

Keywords: flue gas, carbon dioxide, membrane, catalyst, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
2437 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

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2436 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2435 Statistically Significant Differences of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Emission in Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana

Abstract:

Experimental results confirmed the temporal variation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration during the working shift of the photocopying process in a small photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The statistically significant differences of target gases were examined with two-way analysis of variance without replication followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. The existence of statistically significant differences was obtained for carbon monoxide emission which is pointed out with F-values (12.37 and 31.88) greater than Fcrit (6.94) in contrary to carbon dioxide emission (F-values of 1.23 and 3.12 were less than Fcrit).  Scheffe's post hoc test indicated that sampling point A (near the photocopier machine) and second time interval contribute the most on carbon monoxide emission.

Keywords: analysis of variance, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, photocopying indoor, Scheffe's test

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2434 Carbon Sequestration in Spatio-Temporal Vegetation Dynamics

Authors: Nothando Gwazani, K. R. Marembo

Abstract:

An increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO₂) from fossil fuel and land use change necessitates identification of strategies for mitigating threats associated with global warming. Oceans are insufficient to offset the accelerating rate of carbon emission. However, the challenges of oceans as a source of reducing carbon footprint can be effectively overcome by the storage of carbon in terrestrial carbon sinks. The gases with special optical properties that are responsible for climate warming include carbon dioxide (CO₂), water vapors, methane (CH₄), nitrous oxide (N₂O), nitrogen oxides (NOₓ), stratospheric ozone (O₃), carbon monoxide (CO) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s). Amongst these, CO₂ plays a crucial role as it contributes to 50% of the total greenhouse effect and has been linked to climate change. Because plants act as carbon sinks, interest in terrestrial carbon sequestration has increased in an effort to explore opportunities for climate change mitigation. Removal of carbon from the atmosphere is a topical issue that addresses one important aspect of an overall strategy for carbon management namely to help mitigate the increasing emissions of CO₂. Thus, terrestrial ecosystems have gained importance for their potential to sequester carbon and reduce carbon sink in oceans, which have a substantial impact on the ocean species. Field data and electromagnetic spectrum bands were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.2, QGIS 2.8 and ERDAS IMAGINE 2015 to examine the vegetation distribution. Satellite remote sensing data coupled with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was employed to assess future potential changes in vegetation distributions in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The observed 5-year interval analysis examines the amount of carbon absorbed using vegetation distribution. In 2015, the numerical results showed low vegetation distribution, therefore increased the acidity of the oceans and gravely affected fish species and corals. The outcomes suggest that the study area could be effectively utilized for carbon sequestration so as to mitigate ocean acidification. The vegetation changes measured through this investigation suggest an environmental shift and reduced vegetation carbon sink, and that threatens biodiversity and ecosystem. In order to sustain the amount of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystems, the identified ecological factors should be enhanced through the application of good land and forest management practices. This will increase the carbon stock of terrestrial ecosystems thereby reducing direct loss to the atmosphere.

Keywords: remote sensing, vegetation dynamics, carbon sequestration, terrestrial carbon sink

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2433 Carbon Dioxide Capture, Utilization, and Storage: Sequestration

Authors: Ankur Sachan

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide being the most anthropogenic greenhouse gas,it needs to be isolated from entering into atmosphere. Carbon capture and storage is process that captures CO2 emitted from various sources, separates it from other gases and stores it in a safe place preferably in underground geological formations for large period of time. It is then purified and monitored so that can be made to reuse. Monoethanolamine, zeolitic imidazolate framework, microalgae, membranes etc are utilized to capture CO2. Post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion along with chemical looping combustion are technologies for scrubbing CO2. The properties of CO2 being easily miscible and readily dissolving in oil with impurities makes it capable for numerous applications such as in producing oil by enhanced oil recovery (EOR), Bio CCS Algal Synthesis etc. CO2-EOR operation is capable to produce million barrels of oil and extend the field's lifetime as in case of Weyburn Oil Field in Canada. The physical storage of CO2 is technically the most feasible direction provided that the associated safety and sustainability issues can be met and new materials for CCUS process at low cost are urgently found so that so that fossil based systems with carbon capture are cost competitive.

Keywords: carbon capture, CCUS, sustainability, oil

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2432 Estimation of Carbon Uptake of Seoul City Street Trees in Seoul and Plans for Increase Carbon Uptake by Improving Species

Authors: Min Woo Park, Jin Do Chung, Kyu Yeol Kim, Byoung Uk Im, Jang Woo Kim, Hae Yeul Ryu

Abstract:

Nine representative species of trees among all the street trees were selected to estimate the absorption amount of carbon dioxide emitted from street trees in Seoul calculating the biomass, amount of carbon saved, and annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide in each of the species. Planting distance of street trees in Seoul was 1,851,180 m, the number of planting lines was 1,287, the number of planted trees was 284,498 and 46 species of trees were planted as of 2013. According to the result of plugging the quantity of species of street trees in Seoul on the absorption amount of each of the species, 120,097 ton of biomass, 60,049.8 ton of amount of carbon saved, and 11,294 t CO2/year of annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide were calculated. Street ratio mentioned on the road statistics in Seoul in 2022 is 23.13%. If the street trees are assumed to be increased in the same rate, the number of street trees in Seoul was calculated to be 294,823. The planting distance was estimated to be 1,918,360 m, and the annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide was measured to be 11,704 t CO2/year. Plans for improving the annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide from street trees were established based on the expected amount of absorption. First of all, it is to improve the annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide by increasing the number of planted street trees after adjusting the planting distance of street trees. If adjusting the current planting distance to 6 m, it was turned out that 12,692.7 t CO2/year was absorbed on an annual basis. Secondly, it is to change the species of trees to tulip trees that represent high absorption rate. If increasing the proportion of tulip trees to 30% up to 2022, the annual absorption rate of carbon dioxide was calculated to be 17804.4 t CO2/year.

Keywords: absorption of carbon dioxide, source of absorbing carbon dioxide, trees in city, improving species

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2431 Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide in Spinning Disk Reactor and Its Applications in Cycloaddition of Carbon Dioxide to Epoxides

Authors: Tzu-Wen Liu, Yi-Feng Lin, Yu-Shao Chen

Abstract:

CO_2 is believed to be partly responsible for changes to the global climates. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the past. Recently, how to convert the captured CO_2 into fine chemicals gets lots of attention owing to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and providing greener feedstock for the chemicals industry. A variety of products can be manufactured from carbon dioxide and the most attractive products are cyclic carbonates. Therefore, the kind of catalyst plays an important role in cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides. Magnesium oxide can be an efficiency heterogeneous catalyst for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides because magnesium oxide has both acid and base active sites and can provide the adsorption of carbon dioxide, promoting ring-opening reaction. Spinning disk reactor (SDR) is one of the device of high-gravity technique and has successfully used for synthesis of nanoparticles by precipitation methods because of the high mass transfer rate. Synthesis of nanoparticles in SDR has advantages of low energy consumption and easy to scale up. The aim of this research is to synthesize magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles in SDR as precursors for magnesium oxide. Experimental results showed that the calcination temperature of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium oxide, and the pressure and temperature of cycloaddition reaction had significantly effect on the conversion and selectivity of the reaction.

Keywords: magnesium oxide, catalyst, cycloaddition, spinning disk reactor, carbon dioxide

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2430 Carbon Stock Estimation of Urban Forests in Selected Public Parks in Addis Ababa

Authors: Meseret Habtamu, Mekuria Argaw

Abstract:

Urban forests can help to improve the microclimate and air quality. Urban forests in Addis Ababa are important sinks for GHGs as the number of vehicles and the traffic constrain is steadily increasing. The objective of this study was to characterize the vegetation types in selected public parks and to estimate the carbon stock potential of urban forests by assessing carbon in the above, below ground biomass, in the litter and soil. Species which vegetation samples were taken using a systematic transect sampling within value DBH ≥ 5cm were recorded to measure the above, the below ground biomass and the amount of C stored. Allometric models (Y= 34.4703 - 8.0671(DBH) + 0.6589(DBH2) were used to calculate the above ground and Below ground biomass (BGB) = AGB × 0.2 and sampling of soil and litter was based on quadrates. There were 5038 trees recorded from the selected study sites with DBH ≥ 5cm. Most of the Parks had large number of indigenous species, but the numbers of exotic trees are much larger than the indigenous trees. The mean above ground and below ground biomass is 305.7 ± 168.3 and 61.1± 33.7 respectively and the mean carbon in the above ground and below ground biomass is 143.3±74.2 and 28.1 ± 14.4 respectively. The mean CO2 in the above ground and below ground biomass is 525.9 ± 272.2 and 103.1 ± 52.9 respectively. The mean carbon in dead litter and soil carbon were 10.5 ± 2.4 and 69.2t ha-1 respectively. Urban trees reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through sequestration which is important for climate change mitigation, they are also important for recreational, medicinal value and aesthetic and biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: biodiversity, carbon sequestration, climate change, urban forests

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2429 Integrated Simulation and Optimization for Carbon Capture and Storage System

Authors: Taekyoon Park, Seokgoo Lee, Sungho Kim, Ung Lee, Jong Min Lee, Chonghun Han

Abstract:

CO2 capture and storage/sequestration (CCS) is a key technology for addressing the global warming issue. This paper proposes an integrated model for the whole chain of CCS, from a power plant to a reservoir. The integrated model is further utilized to determine optimal operating conditions and study responses to various changes in input variables.

Keywords: CCS, caron dioxide, carbon capture and storage, simulation, optimization

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2428 Carbon Storage in Natural Mangrove Biomass: Its Destruction and Potential Impact on Climate Change in the UAE

Authors: Hedaya Ali Al Ameri, Alya A. Arabi

Abstract:

Measuring the level of carbon storage in mangroves’ biomass has a potential impact in the climate change of UAE. Carbon dioxide is one of greenhouse gases. It is considered to be a main reason for global warming. Deforestation is a key source of the increase in carbon dioxide whereas forests such as mangroves assist in removing carbon dioxide from atmosphere by storing them in its biomass and soil. By using Kauffman and Donato methodology, above- and below-ground biomass and carbon stored in UAE’s natural mangroves were quantified. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) released to the atmosphere was then estimated in case of mangroves deforestation in the UAE. The results show that the mean total biomass of mangroves in the UAE ranged from 15.75 Mg/ha to 3098.69 Mg/ha. The estimated CO2eq released upon deforestation in the UAE was found to have a minimal effect on the temperature increase and thus global warming.

Keywords: carbon stored in biomass, mangrove deforestation, temperature change, United Arab Emirate

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2427 Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues.

Keywords: soil organic carbon, soil inorganic carbon, carbon sequestration, open burning, sugarcane

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2426 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity

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2425 Exploring Tree Growth Variables Influencing Carbon Sequestration in the Face of Climate Change

Authors: Funmilayo Sarah Eguakun, Peter Oluremi Adesoye

Abstract:

One of the major problems being faced by human society is that the global temperature is believed to be rising due to human activity that releases carbon IV oxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Carbon IV oxide is the most important greenhouse gas influencing global warming and possible climate change. With climate change becoming alarming, reducing CO2 in our atmosphere has become a primary goal of international efforts. Forest landsare major sink and could absorb large quantities of carbon if the trees are judiciously managed. The study aims at estimating the carbon sequestration capacity of Pinus caribaea (pine)and Tectona grandis (Teak) under the prevailing environmental conditions and exploring tree growth variables that influencesthe carbon sequestration capacity in Omo Forest Reserve, Ogun State, Nigeria. Improving forest management by manipulating growth characteristics that influences carbon sequestration could be an adaptive strategy of forestry to climate change. Random sampling was used to select Temporary Sample Plots (TSPs) in the study area from where complete enumeration of growth variables was carried out within the plots. The data collected were subjected to descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that average carbon stored by Pine and Teak are 994.4±188.3 Kg and 1350.7±180.6 Kg respectively. The difference in carbon stored in the species is significant enough to consider choice of species relevant in climate change adaptation strategy. Tree growth variables influence the capacity of the tree to sequester carbon. Height, diameter, volume, wood density and age are positively correlated to carbon sequestration. These tree growth variables could be manipulated by the forest manager as an adaptive strategy for climate change while plantations of high wood density speciescould be relevant for management strategy to increase carbon storage.

Keywords: adaptation, carbon sequestration, climate change, growth variables, wood density

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2424 Carbon Sequestration under Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in the Vicinity of Black Sea, Trabzon, Turkey

Authors: Mohammed Abaoli Abafogi, Sinem Satiroglu, M. Misir

Abstract:

The current study has addressed the effect of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry on carbon sequestration. Eight sample plots were collected from Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry using random sampling method. The diameter of all trees in each plot with ≥ 2cm at 1.3m DBH was measured by using a calliper. Average diameter, aboveground biomass, and carbon stock were calculated for each plot. Comparative data for natural forestland was used for C was taken from KTU, and the soil C was converted from the biomass conversion equation. Biomass carbon was significantly higher in the Natural forest (68.02Mgha⁻¹) than in the Hazelnut agroforestry (16.89Mgha⁻¹). SOC in Hazelnut agroforestry, Natural forest, and arable agricultural land were 7.70, 385.85, and 0.00 Mgha⁻¹ respectively. Biomass C, on average accounts for only 0.00% of the total C in arable agriculture, and 11.02% for the Hazelnut agroforestry while 88.05% for Natural forest. The result shows that the conversion of arable crop field to Hazelnut agroforestry can sequester a large amount of C in the soil as well as in the biomass than Arable agricultural lands.

Keywords: arable agriculture, biomass carbon, carbon sequestration, hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry, soil organic carbon

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2423 Analysis and Measurement on Indoor Environment of University Dormitories

Authors: Xuechen Gui, Senmiao Li, Qi Kan

Abstract:

Dormitory is a place for college students to study and live their daily life. The indoor environment quality of the dormitory is closely related to the physical health, mood status and work efficiency of the dormitory students. In this paper, the temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration of the dormitory in Zijingang campus of Zhejiang University have been tested for three days. The experimental results show that the concentration of carbon dioxide is related to the size of the window opens and the number of dormitory staff, and presents a high concentration of carbon dioxide at nighttime while a low concentration at daytime. In terms of temperature and humidity, there is no significant difference between different orientation and time and presents a small humidity at daytime while a high humidity at nighttime.

Keywords: dormitory, indoor environment, temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration

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2422 Sulfur-Doped Hierarchically Porous Boron Nitride Nanosheets as an Efficient Carbon Dioxide Adsorbent

Authors: Sreetama Ghosh, Sundara Ramaprabhu

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide gas has been a major cause for the worldwide increase in green house effect, which leads to climate change and global warming. So CO₂ capture & sequestration has become an effective way to reduce the concentration of CO₂ in the environment. One such way to capture CO₂ in porous materials is by adsorption process. A potential material in this aspect is porous hexagonal boron nitride or 'white graphene' which is a well-known two-dimensional layered material with very high thermal stability. It had been investigated that the sample with hierarchical pore structure and high specific surface area shows excellent performance in capturing carbon dioxide gas and thereby mitigating the problem of environmental pollution to the certain extent. Besides, the presence of sulfur as well as nitrogen in the sample synergistically helps in the increase in adsorption capacity. In this work, a cost effective single step synthesis of highly porous boron nitride nanosheets doped with sulfur had been demonstrated. Besides, the CO₂ adsorption-desorption studies were carried on using a pressure reduction technique. The studies show that the nanosheets exhibit excellent cyclic stability in storage performance. Thermodynamic studies suggest that the adsorption takes place mainly through physisorption. The studies show that the nanosheets exhibit excellent cyclic stability in storage performance. Further, the surface modification of the highly porous nano sheets carried out by incorporating ionic liquids had further enhanced the capturing capability of CO₂ gas in the nanocomposite, revealing that this particular material has the potential to be an excellent adsorbent of carbon dioxide gas.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, porous network, sulfur doping

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2421 Carbon Di Oxide Sequestration by Freshwater Microalgae Isolated from River Noyyal, India and Its Biomass for Biofuel Production

Authors: K. R. Mohanapriya, D. Geetharamani

Abstract:

In last few decades, global atmospheric concentrations of green house gases have been frequently increased because of carbon di oxide (CO2) emission from combustion of fossil fuels. This green house gas emission leads to global warming. In order to reduce green house gas emission, cultivation of microalgae has received attention due to their feasibility of CO2 sequestration. Microalgae can grow and multiply in short period because of their photosynthetic simple unicellular structures and can grow using water unsuitable for human consumption with nutrients that are available at low cost. In the present study, freshwater microalgae were isolated from Noyyal river in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The isolated strains were screened for CO2 sequestration potential. The efficient isolate namely Klebsormidium sp was subjected to further study. Quantitative determination of CO2 sequestration potential of the isolate under study has been done. The biomass of the isolate thus obtained was subjected to triglyceride and fatty acid analysis to study the potential application of the isolate for biodiesel production.

Keywords: CO2 sequestration, freshwater microalgae, Klebsormidium sp, biodiesel

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2420 Optimization of Soybean Oil by Modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: N. R. Putra, A. H. Abdul Aziz, A. S. Zaini, Z. Idham, F. Idrus, M. Z. Bin Zullyadini, M. A. Che Yunus

Abstract:

The content of omega-3 in soybean oil is important in the development of infants and is an alternative for the omega-3 in fish oils. The investigation of extraction of soybean oil is needed to obtain the bioactive compound in the extract. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is modern and green technology to extract herbs and plants to obtain high quality extract due to high diffusivity and solubility of the solvent. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimum condition of soybean oil extraction by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. The soybean oil was extracted by using modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) under the temperatures of 40, 60, 80 °C, pressures of 150, 250, 350 Bar, and constant flow-rate of 10 g/min as the parameters of extraction processes. An experimental design was performed in order to optimize three important parameters of SC-CO2 extraction which are pressure (X1), temperature (X2) to achieve optimum yields of soybean oil. Box Behnken Design was applied for experimental design. From the optimization process, the optimum condition of extraction of soybean oil was obtained at pressure 338 Bar and temperature 80 °C with oil yield of 2.713 g. Effect of pressure is significant on the extraction of soybean oil by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. Increasing of pressure will increase the oil yield of soybean oil.

Keywords: soybean oil, SC-CO₂ extraction, yield, optimization

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2419 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilization by Using Seawater-Based Industrial Wastewater and Alkanolamine Absorbents

Authors: Dongwoo Kang, Yunsung Yoo, Injun Kim, Jongin Lee, Jinwon Park

Abstract:

Since industrial revolution, energy usage by human-beings has been drastically increased resulting in the enormous emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. High concentration of carbon dioxide is well recognized as the main reason for the climate change by breaking the heat equilibrium of the earth. In order to decrease the amount of carbon dioxide emission, lots of technologies have been developed. One of the methods is to capture carbon dioxide after combustion process using liquid type absorbents. However, for some nations, captured carbon dioxide cannot be treated and stored properly due to their geological structures. Also, captured carbon dioxide can be leaked out when crust activities are active. Hence, the method to convert carbon dioxide as stable and useful products were developed. It is usually called CCU, that is, Carbon Capture and Utilization. There are several ways to convert carbon dioxide into useful substances. For example, carbon dioxide can be converted and used as fuels such as diesel, plastics, and polymers. However, these types of technologies require lots of energy to make stable carbon dioxide into a reactive one. Hence, converting it into metal carbonates salts have been studied widely. When carbon dioxide is captured by alkanolamine-based liquid absorbents, it exists as ionic forms such as carbonate, carbamate, and bicarbonate. When adequate metal ions are added, metal carbonate salt can be produced by ionic reaction with fast reaction kinetics. However, finding metal sources can be one of the problems for this method to be commercialized. If natural resources such as calcium oxide were used to supply calcium ions, it is not thought to have the economic feasibility to use natural resources to treat carbon dioxide. In this research, high concentrated industrial wastewater produced from refined salt production facility have been used as metal supplying source, especially for calcium cations. To ensure purity of final products, calcium ions were selectively separated in the form of gypsum dihydrate. After that, carbon dioxide is captured using alkanolamine-based absorbents making carbon dioxide into reactive ionic form. And then, high purity calcium carbonate salt was produced. The existence of calcium carbonate was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. Also, carbon dioxide loading curves for absorption, conversion, and desorption were provided. Also, in order to investigate the possibility of the absorbent reuse, reabsorption experiments were performed either. Produced calcium carbonate as final products is seemed to have potential to be used in various industrial fields including cement and paper making industries and pharmaceutical engineering fields.

Keywords: alkanolamine, calcium carbonate, climate change, seawater, industrial wastewater

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2418 Correlation between Indoor and Outdoor Air

Authors: Jamal A. Radaideh, Ziad N. Shatnawi

Abstract:

Both indoor and outdoor air quality is investigated throughout residential areas of Al Hofuf city/ Eastern province of Saudi Arabia through a multi‐week multiple sites measurement and sampling survey. Concentration levels of five criteria air pollutants, including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were measured and analyzed during the study period from January to May 2014. For this survey paper, three different sites, roadside RS, urban UR, and rural RU were selected. Within each site type, six locations were assigned to carryout air quality measurements and to study varying indoor/outdoor air quality for each pollutant. Results indicate that a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor air exists. The I/O ratios for the considered criteria pollutants show that the strongest relationship between indoor and outdoor air is found by analyzing of carbon dioxide, CO2 (0.88), while the lowest is found by both NO2 and SO2 (0.7).

Keywords: criteria air pollutants, indoor/outdoor air pollution, indoor/outdoor ratio, Saudi Arabia

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