Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: naphtha

13 Thermodynamic Analysis of GT Cycle with Naphtha or Natural Gas as the Fuel: A Thermodynamic Comparison

Authors: S. Arpit, P. K. Das, S. K. Dash


In this paper, a comparative study is done between two fuels, naphtha and natural gas (NG), for a gas turbine (GT) plant of 32.5 MW with the same thermodynamic configuration. From the energy analysis, it is confirmed that the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of the gas turbine in the case of natural gas is higher as compared to naphtha, and hence the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is better. The result from the exergy analysis also confirms that due to high turbine inlet temperature in the case of natural gas, exergy destruction in combustion chamber is less. But comparing two fuels for overall analysis, naphtha has higher energy and exergetic efficiency as compared to natural gas.

Keywords: exergy analysis, gas turbine, naphtha, natural gas

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12 Effect of Naphtha on the Composition of a Heavy Crude, in Addition to a Cycle Steam Stimulation Process

Authors: A. Guerrero, A. Leon, S. Munoz, M. Sandoval


The addition of solvent to cyclic steam stimulation is done in order to reduce the solvent-vapor ratio at late stages of the process, the moment in which this relationship increases significantly. The study of the use of naphtha in addition to the cyclic steam stimulation has been mainly oriented to the effect it achieves on the incremental recovery compared to the application of steam only. However, the effect of naphtha on the reactivity of crude oil components under conditions of cyclic steam stimulation or if its effect is the only dilution has not yet been considered, to author’s best knowledge. The present study aims to evaluate and understand the effect of naphtha and the conditions of cyclic steam stimulation, on the remaining composition of the improved oil, as well as the main mechanisms present in the heavy crude - naphtha interaction. Tests were carried out with the system solvent (naphtha)-oil (12.5° API, 4216 cP @ 40° C)- steam, in a batch micro-reactor, under conditions of cyclic steam stimulation (250-300 °C, 400 psi). The characterization of the samples obtained was carried out by MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) techniques. The results indicate that there is a rearrangement of the microstructure of asphaltenes, resulting in a decrease in these and an increase in lighter components such as resins.

Keywords: composition change, cyclic steam stimulation, interaction mechanism, naphtha

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11 Effect of Naphtha in Addition to a Cycle Steam Stimulation Process Reducing the Heavy Oil Viscosity Using a Two-Level Factorial Design

Authors: Nora A. Guerrero, Adan Leon, María I. Sandoval, Romel Perez, Samuel Munoz


The addition of solvents in cyclic steam stimulation is a technique that has shown an impact on the improved recovery of heavy oils. In this technique, it is possible to reduce the steam/oil ratio in the last stages of the process, at which time this ratio increases significantly. The mobility of improved crude oil increases due to the structural changes of its components, which at the same time reflected in the decrease in density and viscosity. In the present work, the effect of the variables such as temperature, time, and weight percentage of naphtha was evaluated, using a factorial design of experiments 23. From the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pareto diagram, it was possible to identify the effect on viscosity reduction. The experimental representation of the crude-vapor-naphtha interaction was carried out in a batch reactor on a Colombian heavy oil of 12.8° API and 3500 cP. The conditions of temperature, reaction time, and percentage of naphtha were 270-300 °C, 48-66 hours, and 3-9% by weight, respectively. The results showed a decrease in density with values in the range of 0.9542 to 0.9414 g/cm³, while the viscosity decrease was in the order of 55 to 70%. On the other hand, simulated distillation results, according to ASTM 7169, revealed significant conversions of the 315°C+ fraction. From the spectroscopic techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, infrared FTIR and UV-VIS visible ultraviolet, it was determined that the increase in the performance of the light fractions in the improved crude is due to the breakdown of alkyl chains. The methodology for cyclic steam injection with naphtha and laboratory-scale characterization can be considered as a practical tool in improved recovery processes.

Keywords: viscosity reduction, cyclic steam stimulation, factorial design, naphtha

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10 Quaternary Ammonium Salts Based Algerian Petroleum Products: Synthesis and Characterization

Authors: Houria Hamitouche, Abdellah Khelifa


Quaternary ammonium salts (QACs) are the most common cationic surfactants of natural or synthetic origin usually. They possess one or more hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains and hydrophilic cationic group. In fact, the hydrophobic groups are derived from three main sources: petrochemicals, vegetable oils, and animal fats. These QACs have attracted the attention of chemists for a long time, due to their general simple synthesis and their broad application in several fields. They are important as ingredients of cosmetic products and are also used as corrosion inhibitors, in emulsion polymerization and textile processing. Within biological applications, QACs show a good antimicrobial activity and can be used as medicines, gene delivery agents or in DNA extraction methods. The 2004 worldwide annual consumption of QACs was reported as 500,000 tons. The petroleum product is considered a true reservoir of a variety of chemical species, which can be used in the synthesis of quaternary ammonium salts. The purpose of the present contribution is to synthesize the quaternary ammonium salts by Menschutkin reaction, via chloromethylation/quaternization sequences, from Algerian petroleum products namely: reformate, light naphtha and kerosene and characterize.

Keywords: quaternary ammonium salts, reformate, light naphtha, kerosene

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9 Naphtha Catalytic Reform: Modeling and Simulation of Unity

Authors: Leal Leonardo, Pires Carlos Augusto de Moraes, Casiraghi Magela


In this work were realized the modeling and simulation of the catalytic reformer process, of ample form, considering all the equipment that influence the operation performance. Considered it a semi-regenerative reformer, with four reactors in series intercalated with four furnaces, two heat exchanges, one product separator and one recycle compressor. A simplified reactional system was considered, involving only ten chemical compounds related through five reactions. The considered process was the applied to aromatics production (benzene, toluene, and xylene). The models developed to diverse equipment were interconnecting in a simulator that consists of a computer program elaborate in FORTRAN 77. The simulation of the global model representative of reformer unity achieved results that are compatibles with the literature ones. It was then possible to study the effects of operational variables in the products concentration and in the performance of the unity equipment.

Keywords: catalytic reforming, modeling, simulation, petrochemical engineering

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8 Determination of Physical Properties of Crude Oil Distillates by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration

Authors: Ayten Ekin Meşe, Selahattin Şentürk, Melike Duvanoğlu


Petroleum refineries are a highly complex process industry with continuous production and high operating costs. Physical separation of crude oil starts with the crude oil distillation unit, continues with various conversion and purification units, and passes through many stages until obtaining the final product. To meet the desired product specification, process parameters are strictly followed. To be able to ensure the quality of distillates, routine analyses are performed in quality control laboratories based on appropriate international standards such as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard methods and European Standard (EN) methods. The cut point of distillates in the crude distillation unit is very crucial for the efficiency of the upcoming processes. In order to maximize the process efficiency, the determination of the quality of distillates should be as fast as possible, reliable, and cost-effective. In this sense, an alternative study was carried out on the crude oil distillation unit that serves the entire refinery process. In this work, studies were conducted with three different crude oil distillates which are Light Straight Run Naphtha (LSRN), Heavy Straight Run Naphtha (HSRN), and Kerosene. These products are named after separation by the number of carbons it contains. LSRN consists of five to six carbon-containing hydrocarbons, HSRN consist of six to ten, and kerosene consists of sixteen to twenty-two carbon-containing hydrocarbons. Physical properties of three different crude distillation unit products (LSRN, HSRN, and Kerosene) were determined using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with multivariate calibration. The absorbance spectra of the petroleum samples were obtained in the range from 10000 cm⁻¹ to 4000 cm⁻¹, employing a quartz transmittance flow through cell with a 2 mm light path and a resolution of 2 cm⁻¹. A total of 400 samples were collected for each petroleum sample for almost four years. Several different crude oil grades were processed during sample collection times. Extended Multiplicative Signal Correction (EMSC) and Savitzky-Golay (SG) preprocessing techniques were applied to FT-NIR spectra of samples to eliminate baseline shifts and suppress unwanted variation. Two different multivariate calibration approaches (Partial Least Squares Regression, PLS and Genetic Inverse Least Squares, GILS) and an ensemble model were applied to preprocessed FT-NIR spectra. Predictive performance of each multivariate calibration technique and preprocessing techniques were compared, and the best models were chosen according to the reproducibility of ASTM reference methods. This work demonstrates the developed models can be used for routine analysis instead of conventional analytical methods with over 90% accuracy.

Keywords: crude distillation unit, multivariate calibration, near infrared spectroscopy, data preprocessing, refinery

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7 Toluene Methylation with Methanol Using Synthesized HZSM-5 Catalysts Modified by Silylation and Dealumination

Authors: Weerachit Pulsawas, Thirasak Rirksomboon


Due to its abundance from catalytic reforming and thermal cracking of naphtha, toluene could become more value-added compound if it is converted into xylenes, particularly p-xylene, via toluene methylation. Attractively, toluene methylation with methanol is an alternative route to produce xylenes in the absence of other hydrocarbon by-products for which appropriate catalyst would be utilized. In this study, HZSM-5 catalysts with Si/Al molar ratio of 100 were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment and modified by either chemical liquid deposition using tetraethyl-orthosilicate or dealumination with steam. The modified catalysts were characterized by several techniques and tested for their catalytic activity in a continuous down-flow fixed bed reactor. Various operating conditions including WHSV’s of 5 to 20 h-1, reaction temperatures of 400 to 500 °C, and toluene-to-methanol molar ratios (T/M) of 1 to 4 were investigated for attaining possible highest p-xylene selectivity. As a result, the catalytic activity of parent HZSM-5 with temperature of 400 °C, T/M of 4 and WHSV of 24 h-1 showed 65.36% in p-xylene selectivity and 11.90% in toluene conversion as demonstrated for 4 h on stream.

Keywords: toluene methylaion, HZSM-5, silylation, dealumination

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6 Software Tool Design for Heavy Oil Upgrading by Hydrogen Donor Addition in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Process

Authors: Munoz A. Tatiana, Solano R. Brandon, Montes C. Juan, Cierco G. Javier


The hydrodynamic cavitation is a process in which the energy that the fluids have in the phase changes is used. From this energy, local temperatures greater than 5000 °C are obtained where thermal cracking of the fluid molecules takes place. The process applied to heavy oil affects variables such as viscosity, density, and composition, which constitutes an important improvement in the quality of crude oil. In this study, the need to design a software through mathematical integration models of mixing, cavitation, kinetics, and reactor, allows modeling changes in density, viscosity, and composition of a heavy oil crude, when the fluid passes through a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. In order to evaluate the viability of this technique in the industry, a heavy oil of 18° API gravity, was simulated using naphtha as a hydrogen donor at concentrations of 1, 2 and 5% vol, where the simulation results showed an API gravity increase to 0.77, 1.21 and 1.93° respectively and a reduction viscosity by 9.9, 12.9 and 15.8%. The obtained results allow to have a favorable panorama on this technological development, an appropriate visualization on the generation of innovative knowledge of this technique and the technical-economic opportunity that benefits the development of the hydrocarbon sector related to heavy crude oil that includes the largest world oil production.

Keywords: hydrodynamic cavitation, thermal cracking, hydrogen donor, heavy oil upgrading, simulator

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5 The Study and the Use of the Bifunctional Catalyst Pt/Re for Obtaining High Octane Number of the Gasoline

Authors: Menouar Hanafi


The original function of the process of platforming is to develop heavy naphtha (HSRN), coming from the atmospheric unit of distillation with a weak octane number (NO=44), to obtain a mixture of fuels â number octane raised by catalytically supporting specific groups of chemical reactions. The installation is divided into two sections: Section hydrobon. Section platforming. The rafinat coming from the bottom of column 12C2 to feed the section platforming, is divided into two parts whose flows are controlled and mixed with gas rich in hydrogen. Bottom of the column, we obtain stabilized reformat which is aspired by there pump to ensure the heating of the column whereas a part is sent towards storage after being cooled by the air cooler and the condenser. In catalytic catalyst of reforming, there is voluntarily associated a hydrogenating function-dehydrogenating, brought by platinum deposited, with an acid function brought by the alumina support (Al 2 0 3). The mechanism of action of this bifunctional catalyst depends on the severity of the operation, of the quality of the load and the type of catalyst. The catalyst used in the catalytic process of reforming is a very elaborate bifunctional catalyst whose performances are constantly improved thanks to the experimental research supported on an increasingly large comprehension of the phenomena. The American company Universel 0i1 petroleum (UOP) marketed several series of bimetallic catalysts such as R16, R20, R30, and R62 consisted Platinum/Rhenium on an acid support consisted the alumina added with a halogenous compound (chlorine).

Keywords: platforming, amelioration, octane number, catalyst

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4 Production of Pour Point Depressant for Paraffinic Crude Oils

Authors: Mosaad Attia Elkasaby


The crude oil contains paraffines, aromatics, and asphaltenes in addition to some organic impurities, with increasing demands to reduce the cost of crude oil production, the uses of a pour point depressant is mandatory to maintain good flow rate. The wax materials cause many problems during production, storage, and transport, especially at low temperature, as these waxes tend, at low temperatures, to precipitate on the wall lines, thus leads to the high viscosity of crude oil and impede the flow rate, which represents an additional burden for crude oil pumping system from the place of production to the refinery. There are many ways to solve this problem, including, but not limited to, heat the crude and the use of organic solvents. But one of the most important disadvantages of these methods is the high economic cost. The aim of this innovation is to manufacture some polymeric materials (polymers based on aniline) that are processed locally that can be used as a pour point depressant of crude oil. For the first time, polymer based on aniline is modified and used with a number of organic solvents and tested with solvent (Styrene). It was found that the polymer based on aniline, when modified, had full solubility in styrene, unlike other organic solvent that was used in the past, such as chloroform and toluene. We also used a new solvent (PONA) that is obtained from the process of hydrotreating and separation of straight run naphtha to dissolve polymer based on aniline as a pour point depressant of crude oil. This innovative include studies conducted on highly paraffinic crude oil (C.O.1 and C.O.2). On using concentration (2500 ppm) of polymer based on aniline, the pour point of crude oil has decreased from +33 to - 9°C in case of crude oil (C.O.1) and from + 42 to – 6°C in case crude oil (C.O.2) at the same concentration.

Keywords: PPD, aniline, paraffinic crude oils, polymers

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3 Promoting Social Advocacy through Digital Storytelling: The Case of Ocean Acidification

Authors: Chun Chen Yea, Wen Huei Chou


Many chemical changes in the atmosphere and the ocean are invisible to the naked eye, but they have profound impacts. These changes not only confirm the phenomenon of global carbon pollution, but also forewarn that more changes are coming. The carbon dioxide gases emitted from the burning of fossil fuels dissolve into the ocean and chemically react with seawater to form carbonic acid, which increases the acidity of the originally alkaline seawater. This gradual acidification is occurring at an unprecedented rate and will affect the effective formation of carapace of some marine organisms such as corals and crustaceans, which are almost entirely composed of calcium carbonate. The carapace of these organisms will become more dissoluble. Acidified seawater not only threatens the survival of marine life, but also negatively impacts the global ecosystem via the food chain. Faced with the threat of ocean acidification, all humans are duty-bound. The industrial sector outputs the highest level of carbon dioxide emissions in Taiwan, and the petrochemical industry is the major contributor. Ever since the construction of Formosa Plastics Group's No. 6 Naphtha Cracker Plant in Yunlin County, there have been many environmental concerns such as air pollution and carbon dioxide emission. The marine life along the coast of Yunlin is directly affected by ocean acidification arising from the carbon emissions. Societal change demands our willingness to act, which is what social advocacy promotes. This study uses digital storytelling for social advocacy and ocean acidification as the subject of a visual narrative in visualization to demonstrate the subsequent promotion of social advocacy. Storytelling can transform dull knowledge into an engaging narrative of the crisis faced by marine life. Digital dissemination is an effective social-work practice. The visualization promoting awareness on ocean acidification disseminated via social media platforms, such as Facebook and Instagram. Social media enables users to compose their own messages and share information across different platforms, which helps disseminate the core message of social advocacy.

Keywords: digital storytelling, visualization, ocean acidification, social advocacy

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2 Advanced Technology for Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Recovery Using Residue Gas Split

Authors: Riddhiman Sherlekar, Umang Paladia, Rachit Desai, Yash Patel


The competitive scenario of the oil and gas market is a challenge for today’s plant designers to achieve designs that meet client expectations with shrinking budgets, safety requirements, and operating flexibility. Natural Gas Liquids have three main industrial uses. They can be used as fuels, or as petrochemical feedstock or as refinery blends that can be further processed and sold as straight run cuts, such as naphtha, kerosene and gas oil. NGL extraction is not a chemical reaction. It involves the separation of heavier hydrocarbons from the main gas stream through pressure as temperature reduction, which depending upon the degree of NGL extraction may involve cryogenic process. Previous technologies i.e. short cycle dry desiccant absorption, Joule-Thompson or Low temperature refrigeration, lean oil absorption have been giving results of only 40 to 45% ethane recoveries, which were unsatisfying depending upon the current scenario of down turn market. Here new technology has been suggested for boosting up the recoveries of ethane+ up to 95% and up to 99% for propane+ components. Cryogenic plants provide reboiling to demethanizers by using part of inlet feed gas, or inlet feed split. If the two stream temperatures are not similar, there is lost work in the mixing operation unless the designer has access to some proprietary design. The concept introduced in this process consists of reboiling the demethanizer with the residue gas, or residue gas split. The innovation of this process is that it does not use the typical inlet gas feed split type of flow arrangement to reboil the demethanizer or deethanizer column, but instead uses an open heat pump scheme to that effect. The residue gas compressor provides the heat pump effect. The heat pump stream is then further cooled and entered in the top section of the column as a cold reflux. Because of the nature of this design, this process offers the opportunity to operate at full ethane rejection or recovery. The scheme is also very adaptable to revamp existing facilities. This advancement can be proven not only in enhancing the results but also provides operational flexibility, optimize heat exchange, introduces equipment cost reduction, opens a future for the innovative designs while keeping execution costs low.

Keywords: deethanizer, demethanizer, residue gas, NGL

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1 Environmental Catalysts for Refining Technology Application: Reduction of CO Emission and Gasoline Sulphur in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit

Authors: Loganathan Kumaresan, Velusamy Chidambaram, Arumugam Velayutham Karthikeyani, Alex Cheru Pulikottil, Madhusudan Sau, Gurpreet Singh Kapur, Sankara Sri Venkata Ramakumar


Environmentally driven regulations throughout the world stipulate dramatic improvements in the quality of transportation fuels and refining operations. The exhaust gases like CO, NOx, and SOx from stationary sources (e.g., refinery) and motor vehicles contribute to a large extent for air pollution. The refining industry is under constant environmental pressure to achieve more rigorous standards on sulphur content in the fuel used in the transportation sector and other off-gas emissions. Fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) is a major secondary process in refinery for gasoline and diesel production. CO-combustion promoter additive and gasoline sulphur reduction (GSR) additive are catalytic systems used in FCCU to assist the combustion of CO to CO₂ in the regenerator and regulate sulphur in gasoline faction respectively along with main FCC catalyst. Effectiveness of these catalysts is governed by the active metal used, its dispersion, the type of base material employed, and retention characteristics of additive in FCCU such as attrition resistance and density. The challenge is to have a high-density microsphere catalyst support for its retention and high activity of the active metals as these catalyst additives are used in low concentration compare to the main FCC catalyst. The present paper discusses in the first part development of high dense microsphere of nanocrystalline alumina by hydro-thermal method for CO combustion promoter application. Performance evaluation of additive was conducted under simulated regenerator conditions and shows CO combustion efficiency above 90%. The second part discusses the efficacy of a co-precipitation method for the generation of the active crystalline spinels of Zn, Mg, and Cu with aluminium oxides as an additive. The characterization and micro activity test using heavy combined hydrocarbon feedstock at FCC unit conditions for evaluating gasoline sulphur reduction activity are studied. These additives were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, NH₃-TPD & N₂ sorption analysis, TPR analysis to establish structure-activity relationship. The reaction of sulphur removal mechanisms involving hydrogen transfer reaction, aromatization and alkylation functionalities are established to rank GSR additives for their activity, selectivity, and gasoline sulphur removal efficiency. The sulphur shifting in other liquid products such as heavy naphtha, light cycle oil, and clarified oil were also studied. PIONA analysis of liquid product reveals 20-40% reduction of sulphur in gasoline without compromising research octane number (RON) of gasoline and olefins content.

Keywords: hydrothermal, nanocrystalline, spinel, sulphur reduction

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