Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9505

Search results for: architectural design

9505 Emulation Model in Architectural Education

Authors: Ö. Şenyiğit, A. Çolak

Abstract:

It is of great importance for an architectural student to know the parameters through which he/she can conduct his/her design and makes his/her design effective in architectural education. Therefore; an empirical application study was carried out through the designing activity using the emulation model to support the design and design approaches of architectural students. During the investigation period, studies were done on the basic design elements and principles of the fall semester, and the emulation model, one of the designing methods that constitute the subject of the study, was fictionalized as three phased “recognition-interpretation-application”. As a result of the study, it was observed that when students were given a key method during the design process, their awareness increased and their aspects improved as well.

Keywords: basic design, design education, design methods, emulation

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9504 A Study on the Impacts of Computer Aided Design on the Architectural Design Process

Authors: Halleh Nejadriahi, Kamyar Arab

Abstract:

Computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been extensively used by the architects for the several decades. It has evolved from being a simple drafting tool to being an intelligent architectural software and a powerful means of communication for architects. CAD plays an essential role in the profession of architecture and is a basic tool for any architectural firm. It is not possible for an architectural firm to compete without taking the advantage of computer software, due to the high demand and competition in the architectural industry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of CAD on the architectural design process from conceptual level to final product, particularly in architectural practice. It examines the range of benefits of integrating CAD into the industry and discusses the possible defects limiting the architects. Method of this study is qualitatively based on data collected from the professionals’ perspective. The identified benefits and limitations of CAD on the architectural design process will raise the awareness of professionals on the potentials of CAD and proper utilization of that in the industry, which would result in a higher productivity along with a better quality in the architectural offices.

Keywords: architecture, architectural practice, computer aided design (CAD), design process

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9503 Research on Architectural Steel Structure Design Based on BIM

Authors: Tianyu Gao

Abstract:

Digital architectures use computer-aided design, programming, simulation, and imaging to create virtual forms and physical structures. Today's customers want to know more about their buildings. They want an automatic thermostat to learn their behavior and contact them, such as the doors and windows they want to open with a mobile app. Therefore, the architectural display form is more closely related to the customer's experience. Based on the purpose of building informationization, this paper studies the steel structure design based on BIM. Taking the Zigan office building in Hangzhou as an example, it is divided into four parts, namely, the digital design modulus of the steel structure, the node analysis of the steel structure, the digital production and construction of the steel structure. Through the application of BIM software, the architectural design can be synergized, and the building components can be informationized. Not only can the architectural design be feedback in the early stage, but also the stability of the construction can be guaranteed. In this way, the monitoring of the entire life cycle of the building and the meeting of customer needs can be realized.

Keywords: digital architectures, BIM, steel structure, architectural design

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9502 Applying the Integrative Design Process in Architectural Firms: An Analytical Study on Egyptian Firms

Authors: Carole A. El Raheb, Hassan K. Abdel-Salam, Ingi Elcherif

Abstract:

An architect carrying the design process alone is the main reason for the deterioration of the quality of the architectural product as the complexity of the projects makes it a multi-disciplinary work; then, the Integrative Design Process (IDP) must be applied in the architectural firm especially from the early design phases to improve the product’s quality and to eliminate the ignorance of the principles of design causing the occurrence of low-grade buildings. The research explores the Integrative Design (ID) principles that fit in the architectural practice. Constraints facing this application are presented with strategies and solutions to overcome them. A survey questionnaire was conducted to collect data from a number of recognized Egyptian Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) firms that explores their opinions on using the IDP. This survey emphasizes the importance of the IDP in firms and presents the reasons preventing the firms from applying the IDP. The aim here is to investigate the potentials of integrating this approach into architectural firms emphasizing the importance of this application which ensures the realization of the project’s goal and eliminates the reduction in the project’s quality.

Keywords: application, architectural firms, integrative design principles, integrative design process, the project quality

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9501 Case of an Engineering Design Class in Architectural Engineering

Authors: Myunghoun Jang

Abstract:

Most engineering colleges in South Korea have engineering design classes in order to develop and enhance a student's creativity and problem-solving ability. Many cases about engineering design class are shown in journals and magazines, but a case lasting many years is few. The engineering design class in the Department of Architectural Engineering, Jeju National University was open in 2009 and continues to this year. 3-5 teams in every year set up their problems found their solutions and produced good results. Three of the results obtained patents. The class also provides students with opportunities to improve communication skill because they have many discussions in solving their problems.

Keywords: engineering design, architectural engineering, team-based learning, construction safety

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9500 Architectural Design Studio (ADS) as an Operational Synthesis in Architectural Education

Authors: Francisco A. Ribeiro Da Costa

Abstract:

Who is responsible for teaching architecture; consider various ways to participate in learning, manipulating various pedagogical tools to streamline the creative process. The Architectural Design Studio (ADS) should become a holistic, systemic process responding to the complexity of our world. This essay corresponds to a deep reflection developed by the author on the teaching of architecture. The outcomes achieved are the corollary of experimentation; discussion and application of pedagogical methods that allowed consolidate the creativity applied by students. The purpose is to show the conjectures that have been considered effective in creating an intellectual environment that nurtures the subject of Architectural Design Studio (ADS), as an operational synthesis in the final stage of the degree. These assumptions, which are part of the proposed model, displaying theories and teaching methodologies that try to respect the learning process based on student learning styles Kolb, ensuring their latent specificities and formulating the structure of the ASD discipline. In addition, the assessing methods are proposed, which consider the architectural Design Studio as an operational synthesis in the teaching of architecture.

Keywords: teaching-learning, architectural design studio, architecture, education

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9499 An Essay on Origamic and Isomorphic Approach as Interface of Form in Architectural Basic Design Education

Authors: Gamze Atay, Altay Colak

Abstract:

It is a fact that today's technology shapes the change and development of architectural forms by creating different perspectives. The research is an experimental study that explores the integration of architectural forms in this process of change/development into design education through traditional design tools. An examination of the practices in the studio environment shows that the students who just started architectural education have difficulty accessing the form. The main objective of this study has been to enable students to use and interpret different disciplines in the design process to improve their perception of form. In this sense, the origami, which is defined as "the art of paper folding", and isomorphous (equally formed) approaches have been used with design studio students at the beginning stage as methods in the process of 3-dimensional thinking and creating the form. These two methods were examined with students in three stages: analysis, creation, and outcome. As a result of the study, it was seen that the use of different disciplines as a method during form creation gave the designs of the student originality, freedom, and dynamism.

Keywords: architectural form, design education, isomorphic approach, origamic approach

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9498 Thinking about Drawing: The Evolution of Architectural Education in China After 1949

Authors: Wang Yanze

Abstract:

Architectural design results from the interaction between space and drawing. Stemming from the Beaux-Arts architectural education, drawing kept its dominant position in teaching and learning process for centuries. However, this education system is being challenged in the present time due to the development of the times. Based on the architectural education of China after 1949, a brief introduction to the history of the evolution of the design concept and drawing is given in this paper. Illustrating with the reference to the students’ works in Nanjing Institute of Technology, the predecessor of Southeast University, in China, the paper analyses the relationship between concept and representation, as well as the participation of Space, the modernism discourse. This process contains the transmission of the character of architects, the renovation of drawing skills and the profound social background. With different purposes, the emphasis on representation tends to be combined with the operation on space, and the role of drawing in architectural design process also changes. Therefore, based on the continuity of the traditional architectural education system, the discussion on the “Drawing of Space” in contemporary education system is proposed.

Keywords: architectural education, beaux-arts, drawing, modernism

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9497 A Study of Shigeru Ban's Environmentally-Sensitive Design Approach

Authors: Duygu Merve Bulut, Fehime Yesim Gurani

Abstract:

The Japanese architect Shigeru Ban has succeeded in bringing a different understanding to the modern architectural design approach with both the material selection and the techniques he used while combining the material with the design. Ban, who reflects his respect to people and nature with his designs, has encouraged that design should be done with economic materials, easily accessible and understandable for everyone. Because of this, Ban has attracted attention and appreciated in the architectural world with his environmentally-sensitive design ideology and humanitarian projects. In order to understand Ban’s environmentally-sensitive design approach, with this article, Ban’s projects which have used natural materials; the projects of Ban’s Japenese Pavilion in Germany, Papertainer Museum in South Korea, Centre Pompidou-Metz in France and Cardboard Cathedral in New Zealand were examined and analyzed. In the following parts, 'paper tube' technology that creates awareness in architectural area, which developed and applied by Ban; has been examined in terms of building material and structure of sustainable space design. As a result of this review, Ban’s approach is evaluated in terms of its contribution to the understanding of sustainable design.

Keywords: ecological design, environmentally-sensitive design, paper tube, Shigeru Ban, sustainability

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9496 Evolution of Design through Documentation of Architecture Design Processes

Authors: Maniyarasan Rajendran

Abstract:

Every design has a process, and every architect deals in the ways best known to them. The design translation from the concept to completion change in accordance with their design philosophies, their tools, availability of resources, and at times the clients and the context of the design as well. The approach to understanding the design process requires formalisation of the design intents. The design process is characterised by change, with the time and the technology. The design flow is just indicative and never exhaustive. The knowledge and experience of stakeholders remain limited to the part they played in the project, and their ability to remember, and is through the Photographs. These artefacts, when circulated can hardly tell what the project is. They can never tell the narrative behind. In due course, the design processes are lost. The Design junctions are lost in the journey. Photographs acted as major source materials, along with its importance in architectural revivalism in the 19th century. From the history, we understand that it has been photographs, that act as the dominant source of evidence. The idea of recording is also followed with the idea of getting inspired from the records and documents. The design concept, the architectural firms’ philosophies, the materials used, the special needs, the numerous ‘Trial-and-error’ methods, design methodology, experience of failures and success levels, and the knowledge acquired, etc., and the various other aspects and methods go through in every project, and they deserve/ought to be recorded. The knowledge can be preserved and passed through generations, by documenting the design processes involved. This paper explores the idea of a process documentation as a tool of self-reflection, creation of architectural firm’ repository, and these implications proceed with the design evolution of the team.

Keywords: architecture, design, documentation, records

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9495 Software Architectural Design Ontology

Authors: Muhammad Irfan Marwat, Sadaqat Jan, Syed Zafar Ali Shah

Abstract:

Software architecture plays a key role in software development but absence of formal description of software architecture causes different impede in software development. To cope with these difficulties, ontology has been used as artifact. This paper proposes ontology for software architectural design based on IEEE model for architecture description and Kruchten 4+1 model for viewpoints classification. For categorization of style and views, ISO/IEC 42010 has been used. Corpus method has been used to evaluate ontology. The main aim of the proposed ontology is to classify and locate software architectural design information.

Keywords: semantic-based software architecture, software architecture, ontology, software engineering

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9494 REDUCER: An Architectural Design Pattern for Reducing Large and Noisy Data Sets

Authors: Apkar Salatian

Abstract:

To relieve the burden of reasoning on a point to point basis, in many domains there is a need to reduce large and noisy data sets into trends for qualitative reasoning. In this paper we propose and describe a new architectural design pattern called REDUCER for reducing large and noisy data sets that can be tailored for particular situations. REDUCER consists of 2 consecutive processes: Filter which takes the original data and removes outliers, inconsistencies or noise; and Compression which takes the filtered data and derives trends in the data. In this seminal article, we also show how REDUCER has successfully been applied to 3 different case studies.

Keywords: design pattern, filtering, compression, architectural design

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9493 A Pedagogical Study of Computational Design in a Simulated Building Information Modeling-Cloud Environment

Authors: Jaehwan Jung, Sung-Ah Kim

Abstract:

Building Information Modeling (BIM) provides project stakeholders with various information about property and geometry of entire component as a 3D object-based parametric building model. BIM represents a set of Information and solutions that are expected to improve collaborative work process and quality of the building design. To improve collaboration among project participants, the BIM model should provide the necessary information to remote participants in real time and manage the information in the process. The purpose of this paper is to propose a process model that can apply effective architectural design collaborative work process in architectural design education in BIM-Cloud environment.

Keywords: BIM, cloud computing, collaborative design, digital design education

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9492 Digital Architectural Practice as a Challenge for Digital Architectural Technology Elements in the Era of Digital Design

Authors: Ling Liyun

Abstract:

In the field of contemporary architecture, complex forms of architectural works continue to emerge in the world, along with some new terminology emerged: digital architecture, parametric design, algorithm generation, building information modeling, CNC construction and so on. Architects gradually mastered the new skills of mathematical logic in the form of exploration, virtual simulation, and the entire design and coordination in the construction process. Digital construction technology has a greater degree in controlling construction, and ensure its accuracy, creating a series of new construction techniques. As a result, the use of digital technology is an improvement and expansion of the practice of digital architecture design revolution. We worked by reading and analyzing information about the digital architecture development process, a large number of cases, as well as architectural design and construction as a whole process. Thus current developments were introduced and discussed in our paper, such as architectural discourse, design theory, digital design models and techniques, material selecting, as well as artificial intelligence space design. Our paper also pays attention to the representative three cases of digital design and construction experiment at great length in detail to expound high-informatization, high-reliability intelligence, and high-technique in constructing a humane space to cope with the rapid development of urbanization. We concluded that the opportunities and challenges of the shift existed in architectural paradigms, such as the cooperation methods, theories, models, technologies and techniques which were currently employed in digital design research and digital praxis. We also find out that the innovative use of space can gradually change the way people learn, talk, and control information. The past two decades, digital technology radically breaks the technology constraints of industrial technical products, digests the publicity on a particular architectural style (era doctrine). People should not adapt to the machine, but in turn, it’s better to make the machine work for users.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, collaboration, digital architecture, digital design theory, material selection, space construction

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9491 Environment and Water in the Conceptions of a Sustainable Architecture

Authors: Carlos H. Ferreira, Joana R. Pereira

Abstract:

In recent decades, calls for sustainable architecture based on environmental policies have been frequent. Despite a vast number of documents, technical procedures, and publications involving these themes, conceptions, and even architectural practice are often distanced from critical and methodological reflection on the relationship between environment and architecture. Among the various issues that we could consider in this relationship, we highlight in this article the relevance of water in the environment and in the architectural design. From documentary references and works carried out, we seek contributions to a better systematization and framing of water in architectural thinking. We distinguish, on the one hand, more conceptual issues that involve the environmental relationship of water, involving its cycle, relevance in the landscape, and infrastructural commitments. On the other hand, we highlight a more operative component, focusing on the place of water in the design process, from its perception in space-shape dimensions to more specific technical requirements that involve the interdisciplinary boundaries of architecture. In both approaches to water in architectural design, we seek to contribute to greater sensitivity and efficiency in the art of designing a more sustainable future.

Keywords: sustainability, environment, water, resilience design

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9490 Design Practices, Policies and Guidelines towards Implementing Architectural Passive Cooling Strategies in Public Library Buildings in Temperate Climates

Authors: Lesley Metibogun, Regan Potangaroa

Abstract:

Some existing sustainable public libraries in New Zealand now depend on air conditioning system for cooling. This seems completely contradictory to sustainable building initiatives. A sustainable building should be ‘self- sufficient’ and must aim at optimising the use of natural ventilation, wind and daylight and avoiding too much summer heat penetration into the building, to save energy consumption and enhance occupants’ comfort. This paper demonstrates that with appropriate architectural passive design input public libraries do not require air conditioning. Following a brief outline of how our dependence on air conditioning has spread over the full range of building types and climatic zones, this paper focuses on public libraries in temperate climates where passive cooling should be feasible for long periods of mild outside temperature. It was found that current design policies, regulations and guidelines and current building design practices militate passive cooling strategies. Perceived association with prestige, inflexibility of design process, rigid planning regulations and sustainability rating systems were identified as key factors forcing the need for air conditioning. Recommendations are made on how to further encourage development in this direction from the perspective of architectural design. This paper highlights how architectural passive cooling design strategies should be implemented in government initiated policies and regulations to develop a more sustainable public libraries.

Keywords: public library, sustainable design, temperate climate, passive cooling, air conditioning

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9489 Biomimetic to Architectural Design for Increased Sustainability

Authors: Hamid Yazdani, Fatemeh Abbasi

Abstract:

Biomimicry, where flora, fauna or entire ecosystems are emulated as a basis for design, is a growing area of research in the fields of architecture and engineering. This is due to both the fact that it is an inspirational source of possible new innovation and because of the potential it offers as a way to create a more sustainable and even regenerative built environment. The widespread and practical application of biomimicry as a design method remains however largely unrealised. A growing body of international research identifies various obstacles to the employment of biomimicry as an architectural design method. One barrier of particular note is the lack of a clear definition of the various approaches to biomimicry that designers can initially employ. Through a comparative literature review, and an examination of existing biomimetic technologies, this paper elaborates on distinct approaches to biomimetic design that have evolved. A framework for understanding the various forms of biomimicry has been developed, and is used to discuss the distinct advantages and disadvantages inherent in each as a design methodology. It is shown that these varied approaches may lead to different outcomes in terms of overall sustainability or regenerative potential. It is posited that a biomimetic approach to architectural design that incorporates an understanding of ecosystems could become a vehicle for creating a built environment that goes beyond simply sustaining current conditions to a restorative practice where the built environment becomes a vital component in the integration with and regeneration of natural ecosystems.

Keywords: biomimicry, bio-inspired design, ecology, ecomimicry, industrial ecology

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9488 Innovation of e-Learning for Architectural Design Courses at the University of Jordan

Authors: Samer Abu Ghazaleh, Jawdat Gousous

Abstract:

E-learning in general started in Jordan around ten years ago in universities and at different departments and colleges. This paper will investigate the possibility to apply e-learning in architecture department at University of Jordan. As known architecture departments in general depend greatly in its syllabus upon design courses and studios, which consists nearly one third of its total credit hours. A survey has been conducted for architectural students at the University of Jordan and several conclusions have been reached irrespective of age, gender and nationality of the students, where the main problem was the way of the communication between the tutor and the student.

Keywords: cellular telephone, design courses, e-learning, internet

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9487 Designing an Enterprise Architecture for Mining Company by Using Togaf Framework

Authors: Rika Yuliana, Budi Rahardjo

Abstract:

The Role of ICT in the organization will continue to experience growth in line with business growth. However, in reality, there is a gap between ICT initiatives with the development (needs) of company business that is caused by yet inadequate of ICT strategic alignment. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim to create an enterprise architectural model rule, particularly in mining companies, using the TOGAF framework. The results from the design development phase of the mining enterprise architecture meta model represents the domain of business, applications, data, and technology. The results of the design as a whole were analyzed from four perspectives, namely the perspective of contextual, conceptual, logical and physical. In the end, the quality assessment of the mining enterprise architecture is conducted to assess the suitability of the design standards and architectural principles.

Keywords: design and development the information technology architecture, enterprise architecture, enterprise architecture design result, TOGAF architecture development method (ADM)

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9486 A Design Approach in Architectural Education: Parasitic Architecture

Authors: Ozlem Senyigit, Nur Yilmaz

Abstract:

Throughout the architectural education, it is aimed to provide students with the ability to find original solutions to current problems. In this sense, workshops that provide creative thinking within the action, experiencing the environment, and finding instant solutions to problems have an important place in the education process. Parasitic architecture, which is a contemporary design approach in the architectural agenda, includes small scale designs integrated into the carrier system of existing structures in spaces of the existing urban fabric which resembles the host-parasite relationship in the biology field. The scope of this study consists of a 12-weeks long experimental workshop of the 'parasitic architecture', which was designed within the scope of Basic Design 2 course of the Department of Architecture of Çukurova University in the 2017-2018 academic year. In this study, parasitic architecture was discussed as a space design method. Students analyzed the campus of the Çukurova University and drew sketches to identify gaps in it. During the workshop, the function-form-context relationship was discussed. The output products were evaluated within the context of urban spaces/gaps, functional requirements, and students gained awareness not just about the urban occupancy but also gaps.

Keywords: design approach, parasitic architecture, experimental workshop, architectural education

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9485 The Rule of Architectural Firms in Enhancing Building Energy Efficiency in Emerging Countries: Processes and Tools Evaluation of Architectural Firms in Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud F. Mohamadin, Ahmed Abdel Malek, Wessam Said

Abstract:

Achieving energy efficient architecture in general, and in emerging countries in particular, is a challenging process that requires the contribution of various governmental, institutional, and individual entities. The rule of architectural design is essential in this process as it is considered as one of the earliest steps on the road to sustainability. Architectural firms have a moral and professional responsibility to respond to these challenges and deliver buildings that consume less energy. This study aims to evaluate the design processes and tools in practice of Egyptian architectural firms based on a limited survey to investigate if their processes and methods can lead to projects that meet the Egyptian Code of Energy Efficiency Improvement. A case study of twenty architectural firms in Cairo was selected and categorized according to their scale; large-scale, medium-scale, and small-scale. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to the firms, and personal meetings with the firms’ representatives took place. The questionnaire answered three main points; the design processes adopted, the usage of performance-based simulation tools, and the usage of BIM tools for energy efficiency purposes. The results of the study revealed that only little percentage of the large-scale firms have clear strategies for building energy efficiency in their building design, however the application is limited to certain project types, or according to the client request. On the other hand, the percentage of medium-scale firms is much less, and it is almost absent in the small-scale ones. This demonstrates the urgent need of enhancing the awareness of the Egyptian architectural design community of the great importance of implementing these methods starting from the early stages of the building design. Finally, the study proposed recommendations for such firms to be able to create a healthy built environment and improve the quality of life in emerging countries.

Keywords: architectural firms, emerging countries, energy efficiency, performance-based simulation tools

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9484 Reflections of Narrative Architecture in Transformational Representations on the Architectural Design Studio

Authors: M. Mortas, H. Asar, P. Dursun Cebi

Abstract:

The visionary works of architectural representation in the 21st century's present situation, are practiced through the methodologies which try to expose the intellectual and theoretical essences of futurologist positions that are revealed with this era's interactions. Expansions of conceptual and contextual inputs related to one architectural design representation, depend on its deepness of critical attitudes, its interactions with the concepts such as experience, meaning, affection, psychology, perception and aura, as well as its communication with spatial, cultural and environmental factors. The purpose of this research study is to be able to offer methodological application areas for the design dimensions of experiential practices into architectural design studios, by focusing on the architectural representative narrations of 'transformation,' 'metamorphosis,' 'morphogenesis,' 'in-betweenness', 'superposition' and 'intertwine’ in which they affect and are affected by the today’s spatiotemporal hybridizations of architecture. The narrative representations and the visual theory paradigms of the designers are chosen under the main title of 'transformation' for the investigation of these visionary and critical representations' dismantlings and decodings. Case studies of this research area are chosen from Neil Spiller, Bryan Cantley, Perry Kulper and Dan Slavinsky’s transformative, morphogenetic representations. The theoretical dismantlings and decodings which are obtained from these artists’ contemporary architectural representations are tried to utilize and practice in the structural design studios as alternative methodologies when to approach architectural design processes, for enriching, differentiating, diversifying and 'transforming' the applications of so far used design process precedents. The research aims to indicate architectural students about how they can reproduce, rethink and reimagine their own representative lexicons and so languages of their architectural imaginations, regarding the newly perceived tectonics of prosthetic, biotechnology, synchronicity, nanotechnology or machinery into various experiential design workshops. The methodology of this work can be thought as revealing the technical and theoretical tools, lexicons and meanings of contemporary-visionary architectural representations of our decade, with the essential contents and components of hermeneutics, etymology, existentialism, post-humanism, phenomenology and avant-gardism disciplines to re-give meanings the architectural visual theorists’ transformative representations of our decade. The value of this study may be to emerge the superposed and overlapped atmospheres of futurologist architectural representations for the students who need to rethink on the transcultural, deterritorialized and post-humanist critical theories to create and use the representative visual lexicons of themselves for their architectural soft machines and beings by criticizing the now, to be imaginative for the future of architecture.

Keywords: architectural design studio, visionary lexicon, narrative architecture, transformative representation

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9483 Interior Outdoors of Tomorrow: A Study on the Rising Influence of the 'Interior' Vocabulary in the Design of Outdoor Spaces and the Fading Role of the Architectural Discourse

Authors: Massimo Imparato

Abstract:

The study aims to identify the background of the contemporary trends in the design of commercial outdoors, and the reasons for the radical change in the traditional relationship between architecture and interior design, where the latter is taking over the construction of the visual narrative framing the users’ experience, which was ruled in the past by the architectural discourse. The design of commercial interiors, in fact, influences the way in which their outdoor spaces are organized and used more than ever before, and reflects the multi-faceted changes in the consumers’ behaviors and their interaction with the built environment. The study starts with the analysis of the evolution of sheltered outdoor spaces to achieve a broader understanding of the shift of meaning of subjects such as private and public domains, and to consider the varied ways of interaction/integration between the building and its exterior space. The study identifies the major social, physical and cultural aspects influencing the design of contemporary commercial outdoor spaces, suggests a new framework for their understanding and draws the methodological guidelines for the development of a structured approach to the design of commercial outdoors. The purpose of the paper is to stress the influence of the design of interiors into the public realm, to indicate new directions in this field of research, and to provide new methodological tools for interior design professionals.

Keywords: interior design, landscape design, visual narrative, outdoor design

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9482 Analyzing the Ancient Islamic Architectural Theories: Role of Geometric Proportionality as a Principle of Islamic Design

Authors: Vamsi G.

Abstract:

Majority of the modern-day structures have less aesthetical value with minimum requirements set by foreign tribes. Numerous elements of traditional architecture can be incorporated into modern designs using appropriate principles to improve and enhance the functionality, aesthetics, and usability of any space. This paper reviews the diminishing ancient values of the traditional Islamic architecture. By introducing them into the modern-day structures like commercial, residential and recreational spaces in at least the Islamic states, the functionality of those spaces can be improved. For this, aspects like space planning, aesthetics, scale, hierarchy, value, and patterns are to be experimented with modern day structures. Case studies of few ancient Islamic architectural marvels are done to elaborate the whole. A brief analysis of materials and execution strategies are also a part of this paper. The analysis is formulated and is ready to design or redesign spaces using traditional Islamic principles and Elements of design to improve the quality of the architecture of modern day structures by studying the ancient Islamic architectural theories. For this, sources from the history and evolution of this architecture have been studied. Also, elements and principles of design from case studies of various mosques, forts, tombs, and palaces have been tabulated. All this data accumulated, will help revive the elements decorated by ancient principles in functional and aesthetical ways. By this, one of the most astonishing architectural styles can be conserved, reinstalled into modern day buildings and remembered.

Keywords: ancient architecture, architectural history, Islamic architecture, principles and elements

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9481 Healing Architecture and Evidence Based Design: An Interior Design Example in Medicana KızıLtoprak Hospital

Authors: Yunus Emre Kara, Atilla Kuzu, Levent Cirpici

Abstract:

Recently, in the interior design of hospitals, the effect of the physical environment on the healing process has been frequently emphasized, and the importance of psychological and behavioral factors has increased day by day. When designing new hospital interiors, it became important to create spaces that not only meet medical requirements but also support the healing process of patients with interior design. In this study, the patient rooms, corridor, atrium area, waiting area, and entrance counter in a hospital were handled with patient-centered design, evidence-based design, and remedial architectural approaches, and it was seen that the healing and reassuring elements in hospitals were extremely important.

Keywords: evidence based design, healing architecture, hospital, organic design, parametric design

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9480 Correlation Analysis of Energy Use, Architectural Design and Residential Lifestyle in Japan Smart Community

Authors: Tran Le Na, Didit Novianto, Yoshiaki Ushifusa, Weijun Gao

Abstract:

This paper introduces the characteristics of Japanese residential lifestyle and Japanese Architectural housing design, meanwhile, summarizes the results from an analysis of energy use of 12 households in electric-only multi dwellings in Higashida Smart Community, Kitakyushu, Japan. Using hourly load and daily load data collected from smart meter, we explore correlations of energy use in households according to the incentive of different levels of architectural characteristics and lifestyle, following three factors: Space (Living room, Kitchen, Bedroom, Bathroom), Time (daytime and night time, weekdays and weekend) and User (Elderly, Parents, Kids). The energy consumption reports demonstrated that the essential demand of household’s response to variable factors. From that exploratory analysis, we can define the role of housing equipment layout and spatial layout in residential housing design. Likewise, determining preferred spaces and time use can help to optimize energy consumption in households. This paper contributes to the application of Smart Home Energy Management System in Smart Community in Japan and provides a good experience to other countries.

Keywords: smart community, energy efficiency, architectural housing design, residential lifestyle

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9479 Architectural Design as Knowledge Production: A Comparative Science and Technology Study of Design Teaching and Research at Different Architecture Schools

Authors: Kim Norgaard Helmersen, Jan Silberberger

Abstract:

Questions of style and reproducibility in relation to architectural design are not only continuously debated; the very concepts can seem quite provocative to architects, who like to think of architectural design as depending on intuition, ideas, and individual personalities. This standpoint - dominant in architectural discourse - is challenged in the present paper presenting early findings from a comparative STS-inspired research study of architectural design teaching and research at different architecture schools in varying national contexts. In philosophy of science framework, the paper reflects empirical observations of design teaching at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen and presents a tentative theoretical framework for the on-going research project. The framework suggests that architecture – as a field of knowledge production – is mainly dominated by three epistemological positions, which will be presented and discussed. Besides serving as a loosely structured framework for future data analysis, the proposed framework brings forth the argument that architecture can be roughly divided into different schools of thought, like the traditional science disciplines. Without reducing the complexity of the discipline, describing its main intellectual positions should prove fruitful for the future development of architecture as a theoretical discipline, moving an architectural critique beyond discussions of taste preferences. Unlike traditional science disciplines, there is a lack of a community-wide, shared pool of codified references in architecture, with architects instead referencing art projects, buildings, and famous architects, when positioning their standpoints. While these inscriptions work as an architectural reference system, to be compared to codified theories in academic writing of traditional research, they are not used systematically in the same way. As a result, architectural critique is often reduced to discussions of taste and subjectivity rather than epistemological positioning. Architects are often criticized as judges of taste and accused that their rationality is rooted in cultural-relative aesthetical concepts of taste closely linked to questions of style, but arguably their supposedly subjective reasoning, in fact, forms part of larger systems of thought. Putting architectural ‘styles’ under a loop, and tracing their philosophical roots, can potentially open up a black box in architectural theory. Besides ascertaining and recognizing the existence of specific ‘styles’ and thereby schools of thought in current architectural discourse, the study could potentially also point at some mutations of the conventional – something actually ‘new’ – of potentially high value for architectural design education.

Keywords: architectural theory, design research, science and technology studies (STS), sociology of architecture

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9478 Sustainable and Aesthetic Features of Traditional Architectures in Central Part of Iran

Authors: Azadeh Rezafar

Abstract:

Iran is one of the oldest countries with traditional culture in the world. All over the history Iranians had traditional architectural designs, which were at the same time sustainable, ecological, functional and environmental consistent. These human scale architectures were built for maximum use, comfort, climate adaptation with available resources and techniques. Climate variability of the country caused developing of variety design methods. More of these methods such as windcatchers in Yazd City or Panam (Insulation) were scientific solutions at the same time. Renewable energy resources were used in these methods that featured in them. While climate and ecological issues were dominant parts of these traditional designs, aesthetic and beauty issues were not ignored. Conformity with the community’s culture caused more compact designs that the visual aesthetics of them can be seen inside of them. Different organizations of space were used for these visual aesthetic issues inside the houses as well as historical urban designs. For example dry and hot climates in central parts of the country designed with centralized organization. Most central parts of these designs functioned as a courtyard for temperate the air in the summer. This paper will give summary descriptive information about traditional Iranian architectural style by figures all around the country with different climate conditions, while focus of the paper is traditional architectural design of the central part of the country, with dry and hot climate condition. This information may be useful for contemporary architectural designs, which are designed without noticing to the vernacular condition and caused cities look like each other.

Keywords: architectural design, traditional design, Iran, sustainability

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9477 The Practise of Hand Drawing as a Premier Form of Representation in Architectural Design Teaching: The Case of FAUP

Authors: Rafael Santos, Clara Pimenta Do Vale, Barbara Bogoni, Poul Henning Kirkegaard

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In the last decades, the relevance of hand drawing has decreased in the scope of architectural education. However, some schools continue to recognize its decisive role, not only in the architectural design teaching, but in the whole of architectural training. With this paper it is intended to present the results of a research developed on the following problem: the practise of hand drawing as a premier form of representation in architectural design teaching. The research had as its object the educational model of the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Porto (FAUP) and was led by three main objectives: to identify the circumstance that promoted hand drawing as a form of representation in FAUP's model; to characterize the types of hand drawing and their role in that model; to determine the particularities of hand drawing as a premier form of representation in architectural design teaching. Methodologically, the research was conducted according to a qualitative embedded single-case study design. The object – i.e., the educational model – was approached in FAUP case considering its Context and three embedded unities of analysis: the educational Purposes, Principles and Practices. In order to guide the procedures of data collection and analysis, a Matrix for the Characterization (MCC) was developed. As a methodological tool, the MCC allowed to relate the three embedded unities of analysis with the three main sources of evidence where the object manifests itself: the professors, expressing how the model is Assumed; the architectural design classes, expressing how the model is Achieved; and the students, expressing how the model is Acquired. The main research methods used were the naturalistic and participatory observation, in-person-interview and documentary and bibliographic review. The results reveal that the educational model of FAUP – following the model of the former Porto School – was largely due to the methodological foundations created with the hand drawing teaching-learning processes. In the absence of a culture of explicit theoretical elaboration or systematic research, hand drawing was the support for the continuity of the school, an expression of a unified thought about what should be the reflection and practice of architecture. As a form of representation, hand drawing plays a transversal role in the entire educational model, since its purposes are not limited to the conception of architectural design – it is also a means for perception, analysis and synthesis. Regarding the architectural design teaching, there seems to be an understanding of three complementary dimensions of didactics: the instrumental, methodological and propositional dimension. At FAUP, hand drawing is recognized as the common denominator among these dimensions, according to the idea of "globality of drawing". It is expected that the knowledge base developed in this research may have three main contributions: to contribute to the maintenance and valorisation of FAUP’s model; through the precise description of the methodological procedures, to contribute by transferability to similar studies; through the critical and objective framework of the problem underlying the hand drawing in architectural design teaching, to contribute to the broader discussion concerning the contemporary challenges on architectural education.

Keywords: architectural design teaching, architectural education, forms of representation, hand drawing

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9476 A Postcolonial View Analysis on the Structural Rationalism Influence in Indonesian Modern Architecture

Authors: Ryadi Adityavarman

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The study is an analysis by using the postcolonial theoretical lens on the search for a distinctive architectural identity by architect Maclaine Pont in Indonesia in the early twentieth century. Influenced by progressive architectural thinking and enlightened humanism at the time, Pont applied the fundamental principles of Structural Rationalism by using a creative combination of traditional Indonesian architectural typology and innovative structural application. The interpretive design strategy also celebrated creative use of local building materials with sensible tropical climate design response. Moreover, his holistic architectural scheme, including inclusion of local custom of building construction, represents the notion of Gesamkunstwerk. By using such hybrid strategy, Maclaine Pont intended to preserve the essential cultural identity and vernacular architecture of the indigenous. The study will chronologically investigate the evolution of Structural Rationalism architecture philosophy of Viollet-le-Duc to Hendrik Berlage’s influential design thinking in the Dutch modern architecture, and subsequently to the Maclaine Pont’s innovative design in Indonesia. Consequently, the morphology analysis on his exemplary design works of ITB campus (1923) and Pohsarang Church (1936) is to understand the evolutionary influence of Structural Rationalism theory. The postmodern analysis method is to highlight the validity of Pont’s idea in the contemporary Indonesian architecture within the culture of globalism era.

Keywords: Indonesian modern architecture, postcolonial, structural rationalism, critical regionalism

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