Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4387

Search results for: natural zeolite

4387 Possibilities of Utilization Zeolite in Concrete

Authors: M. Sedlmajer, J. Zach, J. Hroudova, P. Rovnaníkova

Abstract:

There are several possibilities of reducing the required amount of cement in concrete production. Natural zeolite is one of the raw materials which can partly substitute Portland cement. The effort to reduce the amount of Portland cement used in concrete production is brings both economical as well as ecological benefits. The paper presents the properties of concrete containing natural zeolite as an active admixture in the concrete which partly substitutes Portland cement. The properties discussed here bring information about the basic mechanical properties and frost resistance of concrete containing zeolite. The properties of concretes with the admixture of zeolite are compared with a reference concrete with no content of zeolite. The properties of the individual concretes are observed for 360 days.

Keywords: concrete, zeolite, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, durability

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4386 Effectiveness of Natural Zeolite in Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction Expansions

Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effectiveness of two natural zeolites in reducing expansion of concrete due to alkali-silica reaction. These natural zeolites have different reactive silica content. Three aggregates; two natural sand and one crushed stone aggregate were used while preparing mortar bars in accordance with accelerated mortar bar test method, ASTM C1260. Performance of natural zeolites are compared by examining the expansions due to alkali silica reaction. Natural zeolites added to the mixtures at %10 and %20 replacement levels by weight of cement. Natural zeolite with high reactive silica content had better performance on reducing expansions due to ASR. In this research, using high reactive zeolite at %20 replacement level was effective in mitigating expansions.

Keywords: alkali silica reaction, natural zeolite, durability, expansion

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
4385 Development of Natural Zeolites Adsorbent: Preliminary Study on Water-Isopropyl Alcohol Adsorption in a Close-Loop Continuous Adsorber

Authors: Sang Kompiang Wirawan, Pandu Prabowo Jati, I Wayan Warmada

Abstract:

Klaten Indonesian natural zeolite can be used as powder or pellet adsorbent. Pellet adsorbent has been made from activated natural zeolite powder by a conventional pressing method. Starch and formaldehyde were added as binder to strengthen the construction of zeolite pellet. To increase the absorptivity and its capacity, natural zeolite was activated first chemically and thermally. This research examined adsorption process of water from Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA)-water system using zeolite adsorbent pellet from natural zeolite powder which has been activated with H2SO4 0.1 M and 0.3 M. Adsorbent was pelleted by pressing apparatus at certain pressure to make specification in 1.96 cm diameter, 0.68 cm thickness which the natural zeolite powder (-80 mesh). The system of isopropyl-alcohol water contained 80% isopropyl-alcohol. Adsorption process was held in close-loop continuous apparatus which the zeolite pellet was put inside a column and the solution of IPA-water was circulated at certain flow. Concentration changing was examined thoroughly at a certain time. This adsorption process included mass transfer from bulk liquid into film layer and from film layer into the solid particle. Analysis of rate constant was using first order isotherm model that simulated with MATLAB. Besides using first order isotherm, intra-particle diffusion model was proposed by using pore diffusion model. The study shows that adsorbent activated by H2SO4 0.1 M has good absorptivity with mass transfer constant at 0.1286 min-1.

Keywords: intra-particle diffusion, fractional attainment, first order isotherm, zeolite

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4384 Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Using Cu-Nano-Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Jitae Kim

Abstract:

In this study synthesized Cu-nano-zeolite was evaluated for its potential use in CO2 capture. The specific surface area of Cu-nano zeolite was measured as 869.32 m2/g with a pore size of 3.86 nm. The adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was decreased with increasing temperature. The identified adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was 7.16 mmol/g at a temperature of 20 oC and at pressure of 1 atm. The adoption selectivity of CO2 over N2 strongly depend on the temperature and the highest selectivity by Cu-nano zeolite was 50.71 at 20 oC. From analysis of regeneration characteristics of CO2 loaded adsorbent, the percentage removal of CO2 was maintained at more than 78.2 % even after 10 cycles of adsorption-desorption. Based on these result, the Cu-nano zeolite can be used as an effective and economical adsorbent for CO2 capture.

Keywords: CO2 capture, selectivity, Cu-nano zeolite, regeneration.

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4383 CO2 Adsorption on the Activated Klaten-Indonesian Natural Zeolite in a Packed Bed Adsorber

Authors: Sang Kompiang Wirawan, Chandra Purnomo

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption on the activated Klaten-Indonesian natural zeolite (AKINZ) in a packed bed adsorber has been studied. Experiment works consisted of acid activation and adsorption experiments. The natural zeolite sample was activated using 0.3 M HCl at the temperature of 353 K. In the adsorption experiments the feed gas concentrations were 40 and 80 % CO2 in helium within various temperatures of 303; 323 and 373 K. The experiments were conducted by using transient step change adsorption and 20 % Ar/He tracer experiment was conducted to measure dispersion and time lag effect of the packed bed system. A mathematical model of CO2 adsorption had been set up by assuming plug flow;isothermal;isobaric and no gas film mass transport resistance. Single site Langmuir physisorption and Maxwell Stefan mass transport in micropore were applied. All the data were then optimized to get the best value of modified fitted parameter. The model was in a good agreement with the experiment data. Diffusivity tended to increase by increasing temperatures.

Keywords: adsorption, Langmuir, Maxwell-Stefan, natural zeolite, surface diffusion

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4382 Isotherm Study of Modified Zeolite in Sorption of Naphthalene from Water Sample

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Amir Hesam Hassani, Akram Torki, Elham Moniri

Abstract:

A new sorbent was synthesized through chemical modification of clinoptilolite zeolite using 2-naphtol, and characterized with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods and applied for the removal and elimination of trace naphthalene from water samples. The optimum pH value for sorption of the naphthalene by modified zeolite was in acidic pH. The sorption capacity of modified zeolite was 142 mg. g−1. Isotherm models, Langmuir, Frendlich and Temkin were employed to analyze the adsorption capacity of modified zeolite, which revealed that naphthalene adsorption by this zeolite follows Langmuir model.

Keywords: zeolite, clinoptilolite, modification, naphthalene

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4381 Nitrate Removal from Drinking Water Using Modified Natural Nanozeolite

Authors: T. Meftah, M. M. Zerafat, S. Sabbaghi

Abstract:

Nitrate compounds are considered as groundwater contaminants, the concentration of which has been growing in these resources during recent years. As a result, it seems necessary to use effective methods to remove nitrate from water and wastewater. Adsorption process is generally considered more economical in water treatment. Natural clinoptilolite zeolite is one of the best absorbents because of its high capacity and low cost.In this research, we are going to modify zeolite nanoparticles as a chemical modification. Zeolite nanoparticles have been modified with a kind of organosilane, like 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The advantage of this modification method, in comparison with physical modification, is the good stability in various environmental conditions. In this research, absorbent properties have been analyzed by PSA, FTIR and CHN elemental analysis. Also, nitrate adsorption by modified nanoparticles was examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. There would be 〖NH〗_2 groups on the zeolite surface as a result of organosilane modification. In order to adsorption of nitrate, we need to convert 〖NH〗_2 groups to〖NH〗_4^+, that it is possible in acidic condition. As a result, the best nitrate removal is possible in the lowest concentration and pH. We obtained 80.12% nitrate removal in pH=3 and 50 mg⁄l nitrate concentration and 4 g⁄l absorbent optimum concentration.

Keywords: nitrate removal, zeolite, surface modification, organosilane

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4380 Recovery of Cd (II) and Pb (II) under the Effect of Temperature with the Synthetic Zeolite NaA

Authors: Karima Menad, Ahmed Feddag

Abstract:

In this study, large crystals of the zeolite NaA were synthesized by hydrothermal way. By following this zeolite was used to recover two heavy metals that are allowing the most dangerous toxic, lead and cadmium. The synthesized zeolite was analyzed by XRD and SEM aims to verify its purity and its good morphology; after it was undergoing ion exchange operations by aqueous solution with lead and cadmium in two salts Pb(CH3COOH)2 and CdCl2 at different concentrations. The exchange was carried out under the effect of two temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C). The contents of Pb++, Cd++ and Na+ were analyzed by atomic absorption and the results are given in the form of exchange rates. At the end the samples are analyzed by XRD exchanged to confirm their conservation of their zeolite framework. It is found that the exchange rate increases with the increase of initial concentration and the best results are found for the temperature of 60 °C.

Keywords: exchange rate, ion exchange, LTA zeolite, zeolite NaA

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
4379 Removal of P-Nitrophenol in Wastewater by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, JiTae Kim

Abstract:

This study analyzed the removal of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using Fe-nano zeolite synthesized. The basic physical-chemical properties of Fe-nano zeolite was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We focus on finding out the optimum conditions in adsorption and desorption processes for removal of p-nitrophenol by using Fe-nano zeolite in wastewater. The optimum pH for p-nitrophenol removal in wastewater was 5.0. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich with 165.58 mg/g adsorption capacity of p-nitrophenol. These findings support potential of Fe-nano zeolite as an effective adsorbent for p-nitrophenol removal from wastewater.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, wastewater, regeneration

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4378 Recovery of Heavy Metals by Ion Exchange on the Zeolite Materials

Authors: K. Menad, A. Faddeg

Abstract:

Zeolites are a family of mineral compounds. With special properties that have led to several important industrial applications. Ion exchange has enabled the first industrial application in the field of water treatment. The exchange by aqueous pathway is the method most used in the case of such microporous materials and this technique will be used in this work. The objective of this work is to find performance materials for the recovery of heavy metals such as cadmium. The study is to compare the properties of different ion exchange zeolite Na-X, Na-A, their physical mixture and the composite A (LTA) / X (FAU). After the synthesis of various zeolites X and A, it was designed a model Core-Shell to form a composite zeolite A on zeolite X. Finally, ion exchange studies were performed on these zeolite materials. The cation is exclusively tested for cadmium, a toxic element and is harmful to health and the environment.

Keywords: zeolite A, zeolite X, ion exchange, water treatment

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4377 Microstructure, Compressive Strength and Transport Properties of High Strength Self-Compacting Concretes Containing Natural Pumice and Zeolite

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Siham Kamali-Bernard, Ali Akbar Maghsoudi

Abstract:

Due to the difficult placement and vibration between reinforcements of reinforced concrete and the defects that it may cause, the use of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is becoming more widespread. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is the most widely used binder in the construction industry. However, the manufacture of this cement results in a significant amount of CO2 being released, which is detrimental to the environment. Thus, an alternative to reduce the cost of SCC is the use of more economical and environmental mineral additives in partial or total substitution of Portland cement. Our study is in this context and aims to develop SCCs both economic and ecological. Two natural pozzolans such as pumice and zeolite are chosen in this research. This research tries to answer questions including the microstructure of the two types of natural pozzolan and their influence on the mechanical properties as well as on the transport property of SCC. Based on the findings of this study, the studied zeolite is a clinoptilolite that presents higher pozzolan activity compared to pumice. However, the use of zeolite decreases the compressive strength of SCC composites. On the contrary, the compressive strength in SCC containing of pumice increases at both early and long term ages with a remarkable increase at long term. A correlation is obtained between the compressive strength with permeable pore and capillary absorption. Also, the results concerning compressive strength and transport property are well justified by evaporable and non-evaporable water content measurement. This paper shows that the substitution of Portland cement by 15% of pumice or 10% of zeolite in HSSCC is suitable in all aspects. 

Keywords: concrete, durability, pumice, SCC, transport, zeolite

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4376 Manufacturing of Nano Zeolite by Planetary Ball Mill and Investigation of the Effects on Concrete

Authors: Kourosh Kosari

Abstract:

This study is engineering the properties of concrete containing natural nano zeolite as supplementary cementitious material in the blended Portland-cement based binder in amounts of 5,7 and 10% by mass. Crashing of clinoptilolite zeolite is performed by means of planetary ball mill. Two types of concrete along with water to cementitious material ratio (W/(C + P)) in 0.45 and 0.4 at the ages of 7, 28 and 90 days and were compared with each other. The effect of these additives on mechanical properties (compressive and tensile strength) and durability has been investigated by Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT) at the ages 28 and 90 days. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that nanoparticles of natural clinoptilolite could improve quality of concrete. As a result of the tests, decrease in penetration of chloride ion and increase electrical resistivity significantly that are appropriate option for controlling of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures but increase of mechanical characteristics is not considerable.

Keywords: ball mill, durability, mechanical properties, nano zeolite

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4375 Determination and Preconcentration of Chromium Ion in Environmental Samples by Clinoptilolite Zeolite

Authors: Elham Moniri, Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Mitra Hoseini

Abstract:

In this research, clinoptilolite zeolite was prepared. The zeolite was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on Cr(III) sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of Cr(III) was 6 respectively. The sorption capacity of zeolite for Cr(III) were 7.9 mg g−1. A recovery of 89% was obtained for the metal ions with 0.5 M nitric acid as the eluting agent. The effects of interfering ions on Cr(III) sorption was also investigated. The profile of Cr(III) uptake on this sorbent reflects a good accessibility of the chelating sites in the clinoptilolite zeolite. The developed method was utilized for the determination of Cr(III) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: clinoptilolite zeolite, chromium, environmental sample, determination

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4374 Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolite/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite Material and Investigation of Its Catalytic Reaction

Authors: Mojgan Zendehdel, Safura Molla Mohammad Zamani

Abstract:

In this paper, Fe3O4/NaY zeolite nanocomposite with different molar ratio were successfully synthesized and characterized using FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM and VSM techniques. The SEM graphs showed that much of Fe3O4 was successfully coated by the NaY zeolite layer. Also, the results show that the magnetism of the products is stable with added zeolite. The catalytic effect of nanocomposite investigated for esterification reaction under solvent-free conditions. Hence, the effect of the catalyst amount, reaction time, reaction temperature and reusability of catalyst were considered and nanocomposite that created from zeolite and 16.6 percent of Fe3O4 showed the highest yield. The catalyst can be easily separated from reaction with the magnet and it can also be used for several times.

Keywords: zeolite, magnetic, nanocompsite, esterification

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4373 Effect on Surface Temperature Reduction of Asphalt Pavements with Cement–Based Materials Containing Ceramic Waste Powder

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sano, F. Nakanishi, M. Sugiyama, O. Takahashi, S. Tsukuma

Abstract:

The heat island phenomenon becomes one of the environmental problems. As countermeasures in the field of road engineering, cool pavements such as water retaining pavements and solar radiation reflective pavements have been developed to reduce the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the hot summer climate in Japan. The authors have studied on the water retaining pavements with cement–based grouting materials. The cement–based grouting materials consist of cement, ceramic waste powder, and natural zeolite. The ceramic waste powder is collected through the recycling process of electric porcelain insulators. In this study, mixing ratio between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite and a type of cement for the cement–based grouting materials is investigated to measure the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the outdoor. All of the developed cement–based grouting materials were confirmed to effectively reduce the surface temperature of the asphalt pavements. Especially, the cement–based grouting material using the ultra–rapid hardening cement with the mixing ratio of 0.7:0.3 between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite reduced mostly the surface temperature by 20 °C and more.

Keywords: ceramic waste powder, natural zeolite, road surface temperature, water retaining pavements

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4372 Preparation of Protective Coating Film on Metal Alloy

Authors: Rana Th. A. Al-rubaye

Abstract:

A novel chromium-free protective coating films based on a zeolite coating was growing onto a FeCrAlloy metal using in –situ hydrothermal method. The zeolite film was obtained using in-situ crystallization process that is capable of coating large surfaces with complex shape and in confined spaces has been developed. The zeolite coating offers an advantage of a high mechanical stability and thermal stability. The physico-chemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces was followed using SEM and XRD. In addition, the robustness of the prepared coating was confirmed by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550°C).

Keywords: fecralloy, zsm-5 zeolite, zeolite coatings, hydrothermal method

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4371 Study on the Heavy Oil Degradation Performance and Kinetics of Immobilized Bacteria on Modified Zeolite

Authors: Xiao L Dai, Wen X Wei, Shuo Wang, Jia B Li, Yan Wei

Abstract:

Heavy oil pollution generated from both natural and anthropogenic sources could cause significant damages to the ecological environment, due to the toxicity of some of its constituents. Nowadays, microbial remediation is becoming a promising technology to treat oil pollution owing to its low cost and prevention of secondary pollution; microorganisms are key players in the process. Compared to the free microorganisms, immobilized microorganisms possess several advantages, including high metabolic activity rates, strong resistance to toxic chemicals and natural competition with the indigenous microorganisms, and effective resistance to washing away (in open water system). Many immobilized microorganisms have been successfully used for bioremediation of heavy oil pollution. Considering the broad choices, low cost, simple process, large specific surface area and less impact on microbial activity, modified zeolite were selected as a bio-carrier for bacteria immobilization. Three strains of heavy oil-degrading bacteria Bacillus sp. DL-13, Brevibacillus sp. DL-1 and Acinetobacter sp. DL-34 were immobilized on the modified zeolite under mild conditions, and the bacterial load (bacteria /modified zeolite) was 1.12 mg/g, 1.11 mg/g, and 1.13 mg/g, respectively. SEM results showed that the bacteria mainly adsorbed on the surface or punctured in the void of modified zeolite. The heavy oil degradation efficiency of immobilized bacteria was 62.96%, higher than that of the free bacteria (59.83%). The heavy oil degradation process of immobilized bacteria accords with the first-order reaction equation, and the reaction rate constant is 0.1483 d⁻¹, which was significantly higher than the free bacteria (0.1123 d⁻¹), suggesting that the immobilized bacteria can rapidly start up the heavy oil degradation and has a high activity of heavy oil degradation. The results suggested that immobilized bacteria are promising technology for bioremediation of oil pollution.

Keywords: heavy oil pollution, microbial remediation, modified zeolite, immobilized bacteria

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4370 Improvement in Ni (II) Adsorption Capacity by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Jitae Kim, Chi-Hyeon Lee

Abstract:

Fe-nano zeolite adsorbent was used for removal of Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the surface area Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) using for analysis of functional groups, morphology and surface area. Bath adsorption experiments were analyzed on the effect of pH, time, adsorbent doses and initial Ni (II) concentration. The optimum pH for Ni (II) removal using Fe-nano zeolite was found at 5.0 and 90 min of reaction time. The maximum adsorption capacity of Ni (II) was 231.68 mg/g based on the Langmuir isotherm. The kinetics data for the adsorption process was fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. The desorption of Ni (II) from Ni-loaded Fe-nano zeolite was analyzed and even after 10 cycles 72 % desorption was achieved. These finding supported that Fe-nano zeolite with high adsorption capacity, high reuse ability would be utilized for Ni (II) removal from water.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, Ni (II) removal, regeneration

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4369 Resistance to Chloride Penetration of High Strength Self-Compacting Concretes: Pumice and Zeolite Effect

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Siham Kamali-Bernard, Ali Akbar Maghsoudi

Abstract:

This paper aims to contribute to the characterization and the understanding of fresh state, compressive strength and chloride penetration tendency of high strength self-compacting concretes (HSSCCs) where Portland cement type II is partially substituted by 10% and 15% of natural pumice and zeolite. First, five concrete mixtures with a control mixture without any pozzolan are prepared and tested in both fresh and hardened states. Then, resistance to chloride penetration for all formulation is investigated in non-steady state and steady state by measurement of chloride penetration and diffusion coefficient. In non-steady state, the correlation between initial current and chloride penetration with diffusion coefficient is studied. Moreover, the relationship between diffusion coefficient in non-steady state and electrical resistivity is determined. The concentration of free chloride ions is also measured in steady state. Finally, chloride penetration for all formulation is studied in immersion and tidal condition. The result shows that, the resistance to chloride penetration for HSSCC in immersion and tidal condition increases by incorporating pumice and zeolite. However, concrete with zeolite displays a better resistance. This paper shows that the HSSCC with 15% pumice and 10% zeolite is suitable in fresh, hardened, and durability characteristics.

Keywords: Chloride penetration, immersion, pumice, HSSCC, tidal, zeolite

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4368 Natural Mexican Zeolite Modified with Iron to Remove Arsenic Ions from Water Sources

Authors: Maritza Estela Garay-Rodriguez, Mirella Gutierrez-Arzaluz, Miguel Torres-Rodriguez, Violeta Mugica-Alvarez

Abstract:

Arsenic is an element present in the earth's crust and is dispersed in the environment through natural processes and some anthropogenic activities. Naturally released into the environment through the weathering and erosion of sulphides mineral, some activities such as mining, the use of pesticides or wood preservatives potentially increase the concentration of arsenic in air, water, and soil. The natural arsenic release of a geological material is a threat to the world's drinking water sources. In aqueous phase is found in inorganic form, as arsenate and arsenite mainly, the contamination of groundwater by salts of this element originates what is known as endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorizes the inorganic As within group I, as a substance with proven carcinogenic action for humans. It has been found the presence of As in groundwater in several countries such as Argentina, Mexico, Bangladesh, Canada and the United States. Regarding the concentration of arsenic in drinking water according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establish maximum concentrations of 10 μg L⁻¹. In Mexico, in some states as Hidalgo, Morelos and Michoacán concentrations of arsenic have been found in bodies of water around 1000 μg L⁻¹, a concentration that is well above what is allowed by Mexican regulations with the NOM-127- SSA1-1994 that establishes a limit of 25 μg L⁻¹. Given this problem in Mexico, this research proposes the use of a natural Mexican zeolite (clinoptilolite type) native to the district of Etla in the central valley region of Oaxaca, as an adsorbent for the removal of arsenic. The zeolite was subjected to a conditioning with iron oxide by the precipitation-impregnation method with 0.5 M iron nitrate solution, in order to increase the natural adsorption capacity of this material. The removal of arsenic was carried out in a column with a fixed bed of conditioned zeolite, since it combines the advantages of a conventional filter with those of a natural adsorbent medium, providing a continuous treatment, of low cost and relatively easy to operate, for its implementation in marginalized areas. The zeolite was characterized by XRD, SEM/EDS, and FTIR before and after the arsenic adsorption tests, the results showed that the modification methods used are adequate to prepare adsorbent materials since it does not modify its structure, the results showed that with a particle size of 1.18 mm, an initial concentration of As (V) ions of 1 ppm, a pH of 7 and at room temperature, a removal of 98.7% was obtained with an adsorption capacity of 260 μg As g⁻¹ zeolite. The results obtained indicated that the conditioned zeolite is favorable for the elimination of arsenate in water containing up to 1000 μg As L⁻¹ and could be suitable for removing arsenate from pits of water.

Keywords: adsorption, arsenic, iron conditioning, natural zeolite

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4367 Biodiesel Production from Animal Fat Using Trans-Esterification Process with Zeolite as a Solid Catalyst to Improve the Efficiency of Production

Authors: Dinda A. Utami, Muhammad N. Alfarizi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of zeolite catalyst for the trans- esterification reaction in biodiesel production from animal fat. The ability of the zeolite as a catalyst is determined by the structure and composition of the zeolite. An important factor that determines the properties of zeolites in catalysis includes adsorption capability to the compound of the reactants. Zeolites with a pore size of specific properties selectively adsorbing molecules. A molecule can be adsorbed by either the zeolite cavities if the size and shape of the molecule in accordance with the size and shape of the cavity in the zeolite. At this time, it is common to use homogeneous catalysts for biodiesel. We know these catalysts have some disadvantages in its use. Such as the difficulty of separation of the product with the catalyst, the generation of waste that is harmful to the environment due to residual catalysts can’t be reused, and the difficulty of handling and storage. But nowadays, solid catalyst developed technically to improve the efficiency of biodiesel production. In this case of study, we used trans-esterification process wherein the triglyceride is reacted with an alcohol with zeolite as a solid catalyst and it will produce biodiesel and glycerol as a byproduct. Development of solid catalyst seems to be the perfect solution to address the problems associated with homogeneous catalysts.

Keywords: biodiesel, animal fat, trans esterification, zeolite catalyst

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4366 Dissolution of Zeolite as a Sorbent in Flue Gas Desulphurization Process Using a pH Stat Apparatus

Authors: Hilary Rutto, John Kabuba

Abstract:

Sulphur dioxide is a harmful gaseous product that needs to be minimized in the atmosphere. This research work investigates the use of zeolite as a possible additive that can improve the sulphur dioxide capture in wet flue gas desulphurisation dissolution process. This work determines the effect of temperature, solid to liquid ratio, acid concentration and stirring speed on the leaching of zeolite using a pH stat apparatus. The atomic absorption spectrometer was used to measure the calcium ions from the solution. It was found that the dissolution rate of zeolite decreased with increase in solid to liquid ratio and increases with increase in temperature, stirring speed and acid concentration. The activation energy for the dissolution rate of zeolite in hydrochloric acid was found to be 9.29kJ/mol. and therefore the product layer diffusion was the rate limiting step.

Keywords: calcium ion, pH stat apparatus, wet flue gas desulphurization, zeolite

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4365 Thermal Decomposition Behaviors of Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) Using Zeolite/Calcium Oxide Mixtures

Authors: Kazunori Takai, Weng Kaiwei, Sadao Araki, Hideki Yamamoto

Abstract:

HFC and PFC gases have been commonly and widely used as refrigerant of air conditioner and as etching agent of semiconductor manufacturing process, because of their higher heat of vaporization and chemical stability. On the other hand, HFCs and PFCs gases have the high global warming effect on the earth. Therefore, we have to be decomposed these gases emitted from chemical apparatus like as refrigerator. Until now, disposal of these gases were carried out by using combustion method like as Rotary kiln treatment mainly. However, this treatment needs extremely high temperature over 1000 °C. In the recent year, in order to reduce the energy consumption, a hydrolytic decomposition method using catalyst and plasma decomposition treatment have been attracted much attention as a new disposal treatment. However, the decomposition of fluorine-containing gases under the wet condition is not able to avoid the generation of hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid is corrosive gas and it deteriorates catalysts in the decomposition process. Moreover, an additional process for the neutralization of hydrofluoric acid is also indispensable. In this study, the decomposition of C2F6 using zeolite and zeolite/CaO mixture as reactant was evaluated in the dry condition at 923 K. The effect of the chemical structure of zeolite on the decomposition reaction was confirmed by using H-Y, H-Beta, H-MOR and H-ZSM-5. The formation of CaF2 in zeolite/CaO mixtures after the decomposition reaction was confirmed by XRD measurements. The decomposition of C2F6 using zeolite as reactant showed the closely similar behaviors regardless the type of zeolite (MOR, Y, ZSM-5, Beta type). There was no difference of XRD patterns of each zeolite before and after reaction. On the other hand, the difference in the C2F6 decomposition for each zeolite/CaO mixtures was observed. These results suggested that the rate-determining process for the C2F6 decomposition on zeolite alone is the removal of fluorine from reactive site. In other words, the C2F6 decomposition for the zeolite/CaO improved compared with that for the zeolite alone by the removal of the fluorite from reactive site. HMOR/CaO showed 100% of the decomposition for 3.5 h and significantly improved from zeolite alone. On the other hand, Y type zeolite showed no improvement, that is, the almost same value of Y type zeolite alone. The descending order of C2F6 decomposition was MOR, ZSM-5, beta and Y type zeolite. This order is similar to the acid strength characterized by NH3-TPD. Hence, it is considered that the C-F bond cleavage is closely related to the acid strength.

Keywords: hexafluoroethane, zeolite, calcium oxide, decomposition

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4364 Reuse of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash for the Synthesis of Zeolite: Effects of Different Operation Conditions

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Yi-Jie Lin

Abstract:

This study tries to reuse the fly ash of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) for the synthesis of zeolites. The fly ashes were treated with NaOH alkali fusion at different temperatures for 40 mins and then synthesized the zeolites with hydrothermal method at 105oC for different operation times. The effects of different operation conditions and the optimum synthesis parameters were explored. The specific surface area, surface morphology, species identification, adsorption capacity, and the reuse potentials of the synthesized zeolites were analyzed and evaluated. Experimental results showed that the optimum operation conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from the mixed fly ash were Si/Al=20, alkali/ash=1.5, alkali fusion reaction with NaOH at 800oC for 40 mins, hydrolysis with L/S=200 at 105oC for 24 hr, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105oC for 48 hr. The largest specific surface area of synthesized zeolite could be increased to 943.05m2/g. The influence of different operation parameters on the synthesis of zeolite from mixed fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al > hydrolysis L/S> hydrothermal time > alkali fusion temperature > alkali/ash ratio. The XRD patterns of synthesized zeolites were identified to be similar with the ZSM-23 zeolite. The adsorption capacities of synthesized zeolite for pollutants were increased as rising the specific surface area of synthesized zeolite. In summary, MSWI fly ash can be treated and reused to synthesize the zeolite with high specific surface area by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal method. The zeolite can be reuse for the adsorption of various pollutants. They have great potential for development.

Keywords: alkali fusion, hydrothermal, fly ash, zeolite

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4363 Generation of Catalytic Films of Zeolite Y and ZSM-5 on FeCrAlloy Metal

Authors: Rana Th. A. Al-Rubaye, Arthur A. Garforth

Abstract:

This work details the generation of thin films of structured zeolite catalysts (ZSM–5 and Y) onto the surface of a metal substrate (FeCrAlloy) using in-situ hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the zeolite Y is post-synthetically modified by acidified ammonium ion exchange to generate US-Y. Finally the catalytic activity of the structured ZSM-5 catalyst films (Si/Al = 11, thickness 146 µm) and structured US–Y catalyst film (Si/Al = 8, thickness 23µm) were compared with the pelleted powder form of ZSM–5 and USY catalysts of similar Si/Al ratios. The structured catalyst films have been characterised using a range of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces was followed using SEM and XRD. In addition, the robustness of the prepared coating was confirmed by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550°C). The cracking of n–heptane over the pellets and structured catalysts for both ZSM–5 and Y zeolite showed very similar product selectivities for similar amounts of catalyst with an apparent activation energy of around 60 kJ mol-1. This paper demonstrates that structured catalysts can be manufactured with excellent zeolite adherence and when suitably activated/modified give comparable cracking results to the pelleted powder forms. These structured catalysts will improve temperature distribution in highly exothermic and endothermic catalysed processes.

Keywords: FeCrAlloy, structured catalyst, zeolite Y, zeolite ZSM-5

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4362 The Effect of Zeolite on Sandy-Silt Soil Mechanical Properties

Authors: Shahryar Aftabi, Saeed Fathi, Mohammad H. Aminfar

Abstract:

It is well known that cemented sand is one of the best approaches for soil stabilization. In some cases, a blend of sand, cement and other pozzolan materials such as zeolite, nano-particles and fiber can be widely (commercially) available and be effectively used in soil stabilization, especially in road construction. In this research, we investigate the effects of CaO which is based on the geotechnical characteristics of zeolite composition with sandy silt soil. Zeolites have low amount of CaO in their structures, that is, varying from 3% to 10%, and by removing the cement paste, we want to investigate the effect of zeolite pozzolan without any activator on soil samples strength. In this research, experiments are concentrated on various weight percentages of zeolite in the soil to examine the effect of the zeolite on drainage shear strength and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) both with and without curing. The study also investigates their liquid limit and plastic limit behavior and makes a comparative result by using Feng's and Wroth-Wood's methods in fall cone (cone penetrometer) device; in the final the SEM images have been presented. The results show that by increasing the percentage of zeolite in without-curing samples, the fine zeolite particles increase some soil's strength, but in the curing-state we can see a relatively higher strength toward without-curing state, since the zeolites have no plastic behavior, the pozzolanic property of zeolites plays a much higher role than cementing properties. Indeed, it is better to combine zeolite particle with activator material such as cement or lime to gain better results.

Keywords: California bearing ratio, CBR, direct shear, fall-cone, sandy silt, SEM, zeolite

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4361 Interaction of Steel Slag and Zeolite on Ammonium Nitrogen Removal and Its Illumination on a New Carrier Filling Configuration for Constructed Wetlands

Authors: Hongtao Zhu, Dezhi Sun

Abstract:

Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential nutrients for biomass growth. But excessive nitrogen and phosphorus can contribute to accelerated eutrophication of lakes and rivers. Constructed wetland is an efficient and eco-friendly wastewater treatment technology with low operating cost and low-energy consumption. Because of high affinity with ammonium ion, zeolite, as a common substrate, is applied in constructed wetlands worldwide. Another substrate seen commonly for constructed wetlands is steel slag, which has high contents of Ca, Al, or Fe, and possesses a strong affinity with phosphate. Due to the excellent ammonium removal ability of zeolite and phosphate removal ability of steel slag, they were considered to be combined in the substrate bed of a constructed wetland in order to enhance the simultaneous removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. In our early tests, zeolite and steel slag were combined with each other in order to simultaneously achieve a high removal efficiency of ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus. However, compared with the results when only zeolite was used, the removal efficiency of ammonia was sharply decreased when zeolite and steel slag were used together. The main objective of this study was to establish an overview of the interaction of steel slag and zeolite on ammonium nitrogen removal. The CaO dissolution from slag, as well as the effects of influencing parameters (i.e. pH and Ca2+ concentration) on the ammonium adsorption onto zeolite, was systematically studied. Modeling results of Ca2+ and OH- release from slag indicated that pseudo-second order reaction had a better fitness than pseudo-first order reaction. Changing pH value from 7 to 12 would result in a drastic reduction of the ammonium adsorption capacity on zeolite, from the peak at pH7. High Ca2+ concentration in solution could also inhibit the adsorption of ammonium onto zeolite. The mechanism for steel slag inhibiting the ammonium adsorption capacity of zeolite includes: on one hand, OH- released from steel slag can react with ammonium ions to produce molecular form ammonia (NH3∙H2O), which would cause the dissociation of NH4+ from zeolite. On the other hand, Ca2+ could replace the NH4+ ions to adhere onto the surface of zeolite. An innovative substrate filling configuration that zeolite and steel slag are placed sequentially was proposed to eliminate the disadvantageous effects of steel slag. Experimental results showed that the novel filling configuration was superior to the other two contrast filling configurations in terms of ammonium removal.

Keywords: ammonium nitrogen, constructed wetlands, steel slag, zeolite

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4360 Adsorptive Desulfurization of Tire Pyrolytic Oil Using Cu(I)–Y Zeolite via π-Complexation

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The accelerating requirement to reach 0% sulfur content in liquid fuels demands researchers to seek efficient alternative technologies to challenge the predicament. In this current study, the adsorption capabilities of modified Cu(I)-Y zeolite were tested for removal of organosulfur compounds (OSC) present in TPO. The π-complexation-based adsorbent was obtained by ion exchanging Y-zeolite with Cu+ cation using liquid phase ion exchange (LPIE). Preparation of the adsorbent involved firstly ion-exchange between Na-Y zeolite with a Cu(NO3)2 aqueous solution of 0.5M for 48 hours followed by reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+. Batch studies for TPO in comparison with model diesel comprising of sulfur compounds such as thiophene (TH), benzothiophene (BTH), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophe (4,6-DMDBT) showed that modified Cu(I)-Y zeolite is an effective adsorbent for removal of OSC in liquid fuels. The effect of multiple operating conditions such as adsorbent dosage, reaction time and temperature were studied to optimize the process. For model diesel fuel, the selectivity for adsorption of sulfur compounds followed the order 4,6-DMDBT> DBT> BTH> TH. Interpretation of the results was justified using the molecular orbital theory and calculations. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to predict adsorption of the reaction mixture. The Cu(I)-Y zeolite is fully regeneratable and this is achieved by a simple procedure of blowing the adsorbent with air at 350 °C, followed by reactivation at 450 °C in a rich helium surrounding.

Keywords: adsorption, desulfurization, TPO, zeolite

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4359 Ultrathin NaA Zeolite Membrane in Solvent Recovery: Preparation and Application

Authors: Eng Toon Saw, Kun Liang Ang, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Solvent recovery process is receiving utmost attention in recent year due to the scarcity of natural resource and consciousness of circular economy in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Solvent dehydration process is one of the important process to recover and to purify the solvent for reuse. Due to the complexity of solvent waste or wastewater effluent produced in pharmaceutical industry resulting the wastewater treatment process become complicated, thus an alternative solution is to recover the valuable solvent in solvent waste. To treat solvent waste and to upgrade solvent purity, membrane pervaporation process is shown to be a promising technology due to the energy intensive and low footprint advantages. Ceramic membrane is adopted as solvent dehydration membrane owing to the chemical and thermal stability properties as compared to polymeric membrane. NaA zeolite membrane is generally used as solvent dehydration process because of its narrow and distinct pore size and high hydrophilicity. NaA zeolite membrane has been mainly applied in alcohol dehydration in fermentation process. At this stage, the membrane performance exhibits high separation factor with low flux using tubular ceramic membrane. Thus, defect free and ultrathin NaA membrane should be developed to increase water flux. Herein, we report a simple preparation protocol to prepare ultrathin NaA zeolite membrane supported on tubular ceramic membrane by controlling the seed size synthesis, seeding methods and conditions, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection and secondary growth conditions. The microstructure and morphology of NaA zeolite membrane will be examined and reported. Moreover, the membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported in isopropanol dehydration, ketone dehydration and ester dehydration particularly for the application in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, NaA zeolite, pharmaceutical industry, solvent recovery

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4358 Efficacy of a Zeolite as a Detoxifier in Broiler Feed Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

Authors: R. Stevens, W.L. Bryden

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of zeolite in preventing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broilers. A total of 540 one-day-old Ross chicks were randomly divided into nine treatments, with four replicate pens per treatment and 15 chicks per pen. The treatments included 3 Levels of AFB1 (0,1and 2 mg/kg diet) and 3 levels of zeolite (0, 1.5 and 3 %) in a 3 ×3 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments commenced on d 7 post-hatch. A starter diet was provided from d 1 to 14, a grower diet from d 15 to 28 and a finisher diet from d 29 to d 49. Diets were based on corn and soybeans and formulated to meet the bird's requirements. The evaluated parameters were as follows: Bodyweight, daily gain, feed intake (FI), feed conversion (FC), relative weights of organs (carcass, liver, heart and abdominal fat) and clinical biochemistry parameters: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Bodyweight, daily gain and FC were significantly (P<0.05) impaired by aflatoxin. Relative weights of the liver and heart were also affected. The addition of zeolite (1.5 and 3 %) to the contaminated diets ameliorated the effects of aflatoxin, especially at the higher level of inclusion. These data demonstrate that this specific sorbent (zeolite) can protect against the toxicity of AFB1in young broiler chicks.

Keywords: aflatoxin, broiler, toxicity, zeolite

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