Search results for: alkali silica reaction
2783 Effectiveness of Natural Zeolite in Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction Expansions
Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran
Abstract:This paper investigates the effectiveness of two natural zeolites in reducing expansion of concrete due to alkali-silica reaction. These natural zeolites have different reactive silica content. Three aggregates; two natural sand and one crushed stone aggregate were used while preparing mortar bars in accordance with accelerated mortar bar test method, ASTM C1260. Performance of natural zeolites are compared by examining the expansions due to alkali silica reaction. Natural zeolites added to the mixtures at %10 and %20 replacement levels by weight of cement. Natural zeolite with high reactive silica content had better performance on reducing expansions due to ASR. In this research, using high reactive zeolite at %20 replacement level was effective in mitigating expansions.
Keywords: alkali silica reaction, natural zeolite, durability, expansionProcedia PDF Downloads 286
2782 Alkali Silica Reaction Mitigation and Prevention Measures for Arkansas Local Aggregates
Authors: Amin Kamal Akhnoukh, Lois Zaki Kamel, Magued Mourad Barsoum
Abstract:The objective of this research is to mitigate and prevent the alkali silica reactivity (ASR) in highway construction projects. ASR is a deleterious reaction initiated when the silica content of the aggregate reacts with alkali hydroxides in cement in the presence of relatively high moisture content. The ASR results in the formation of an expansive white colored gel-like material which forms the destructive tensile stresses inside hardened concrete. In this research, different types of local aggregates available in the State of Arkansas were mixed and mortar bars were poured according to the ASTM specifications. Mortar bars expansion was measured versus time and aggregates with potential ASR problems were detected. Different types of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) were used in remixing mortar bars with highly reactive aggregates. Length changes for remixed bars proved that different types of SCMs can be successfully used in reducing the expansive effect of ASR. SCMs percentage by weight is highly dependent on the SCM type. The result of this study will help avoiding future losses due to ASR cracking in construction project and reduce the maintenance, repair, and replacement budgets required for highways network.
Keywords: alkali silica reaction, aggregates, misture, cracks, Mortar Bar Test, supplementary cementitious materialsProcedia PDF Downloads 277
2781 Field Evaluation of Concrete Using Hawaiian Aggregates for Alkali Silica Reaction
Authors: Ian N. Robertson
Abstract:Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) occurs in concrete when the alkali hydroxides (Na, K and OH) from the cement react with unstable silica, SiO2, in some types of aggregate. The gel that forms during this reaction will expand when it absorbs water, potentially leading to cracking and overall expansion of the concrete. ASR has resulted in accelerated deterioration of concrete highways, dams and other structures that are exposed to moisture during their service life. Concrete aggregates available in Hawaii have not demonstrated a history of ASR, however, accelerated laboratory tests using ASTM 1260 indicated a potential for ASR with some aggregates. Certain clients are now requiring import of aggregates from the US mainland at great expense. In order to assess the accuracy of the laboratory test results, a long-term field study of the potential for ASR in concretes made with Hawaiian aggregates was initiated in 2011 with funding from the US Federal Highway Administration and Hawaii Department of Transportation. Thirty concrete specimens were constructed of various concrete mixtures using aggregates from all Hawaiian aggregate sources, and some US mainland aggregates known to exhibit ASR expansion. The specimens are located in an open field site in Manoa valley on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu, exposed to relatively high humidity and frequent rainfall. A weather station at the site records the ambient conditions on a continual basis. After two years of monitoring, only one of the Hawaiian aggregates showed any sign of expansion. Ten additional specimens were fabricated with this aggregate to confirm the earlier observations. Admixtures known to mitigate ASR, such as fly ash and lithium, were included in some specimens to evaluate their effect on the concrete expansion. This paper describes the field evaluation program and presents the results for all forty specimens after four years of monitoring.
Keywords: aggregate, alkali silica reaction, concrete durability, field exposureProcedia PDF Downloads 189
2780 A Case Study of Alkali-Silica Reaction Induced Consistent Damage and Strength Degradation Evaluation in a Textile Mill Building Due to Slow-Reactive Aggregates
Authors: Ahsan R. Khokhar, Fizza Hassan
Abstract:Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) has been recognized as a potential cause of concrete degradation in the world since the 1940s. In Pakistan, mega hydropower structures like dams, weirs constructed from aggregates extracted from a local riverbed exhibited different levels of alkali-silica reactivity over an extended service period. The concrete expansion potential due to such aggregates has been categorized as slow-reactive. Apart from hydropower structures, ASR existence has been identified in the concrete structural elements of a Textile Mill building which used aggregates extracted from the nearby riverbed. The original structure of the Textile Mill was erected in the 80s with the addition of a textile ‘sizing and wrapping’ hall constructed in the 90s. In the years to follow, intensive spalling was observed in the structural members of the subject hall; enough to threat to the overall stability of the building. Limitations such as incomplete building data posed hurdles during the detailed structural investigation. The paper lists observations made while assessing the extent of damage and its effect on the building hall structure. Core testing and Petrographic tests were carried out as per the ASTM standards for strength degradation analysis followed by the identifying its root cause. Results confirmed significant structural strength reduction because of ASR which necessitated the formulation of an immediate re-strengthening solution. The paper also discusses the possible tracks of rehabilitative measures which are being adapted to stabilize the structure and seize further concrete expansion.
Keywords: Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR), concrete strength degradation, damage assessment, damage evaluationProcedia PDF Downloads 62
2779 FE Modelling of Structural Effects of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Reinforced Concrete Beams
Authors: Mehdi Habibagahi, Shami Nejadi, Ata Aminfar
Abstract:A significant degradation factor that impacts the durability of concrete structures is the alkali-silica reaction. Engineers are frequently charged with the challenges of conducting a thorough safety assessment of concrete structures that have been impacted by ASR. The alkali-silica reaction has a major influence on the structural capacities of structures. In most cases, the reduction in compressive strength, tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity is expressed as a function of free expansion and crack widths. Predicting the effect of ASR on flexural strength is also relevant. In this paper, a nonlinear three-dimensional (3D) finite-element model was proposed to describe the flexural strength degradation induced byASR.Initial strains, initial stresses, initial cracks, and deterioration of material characteristics were all considered ASR factors in this model. The effects of ASR on structural performance were evaluated by focusing on initial flexural stiffness, force–deformation curve, and load-carrying capacity. Degradation of concrete mechanical properties was correlated with ASR growth using material test data conducted at Tech Lab, UTS, and implemented into the FEM for various expansions. The finite element study revealed a better understanding of the ASR-affected RC beam's failure mechanism and capacity reduction as a function of ASR expansion. Furthermore, in this study, decreasing of the residual mechanical properties due to ASRisreviewed, using as input data for the FEM model. Finally, analysis techniques and a comparison of the analysis and the experiment results are discussed. Verification is also provided through analyses of reinforced concrete beams with behavior governed by either flexural or shear mechanisms.
Keywords: alkali-silica reaction, analysis, assessment, finite element, nonlinear analysis, reinforced concreteProcedia PDF Downloads 108
2778 NaOH/Pumice and LiOH/Pumice as Heterogeneous Solid Base Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil: An Optimization Study
Authors: Joy Marie Mora, Mark Daniel De Luna, Tsair-Wang Chung
Abstract:Transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol was carried out to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) using calcined alkali metal (Na and Li) supported by pumice silica as the solid base catalyst. Pumice silica catalyst was activated by loading alkali metal ions to its surface via an ion-exchange method. Response surface methodology (RSM) in combination with Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the operating parameters in biodiesel production, namely: reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, and catalyst concentration. Using the optimized sets of parameters, FAME yields using sodium and lithium silicate catalysts were 98.80% and 98.77%, respectively. A pseudo-first order kinetic equation was applied to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the reaction. The prepared catalysts were characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) sorptometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the reusability of the catalysts was successfully tested in two subsequent cycles.
Keywords: alkali metal, biodiesel, Box-Behnken design, heterogeneous catalyst, kinetics, optimization, pumice, transesterificationProcedia PDF Downloads 233
2777 Alcoxysilanes Production from Silica and Dimethylcarbonate Promoted by Alkali Bases: A DFT Investigation of the Reaction Mechanism
Authors: Valeria Butera, Norihisa Fukaya, Jun-Chu Choi, Kazuhiko Sato, Yoong-Kee Choe
Abstract:Several silicon dioxide sources can react with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in presence of alkali bases catalysts to ultimately produce tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Experimental findings suggested that the reaction proceeds through several steps in which the first molecule of DMC is converted to dimethylsilyloxide (DMOS) and CO₂. Following the same mechanistic steps, a second molecule of DMC reacts with the DMOS to afford the final product TMOS. Using a cluster model approach, a quantum-mechanical investigation of the first part of the reaction leading to DMOS formation is reported with a twofold purpose: (1) verify the viability of the reaction mechanism proposed on the basis of experimental evidences .(2) compare the behaviors of three different alkali hydroxides MOH, where M=Li, K and Cs, to determine whether diverse ionic radius and charge density can be considered responsible for the observed differences in reactivity. Our findings confirm the observed experimental trend and furnish important information about the effective role of the alkali hydroxides giving an explanation of the different catalytic activity of the three metal cations.
Keywords: Alcoxysilanes production, cluster model approach, DFT, DMC conversionProcedia PDF Downloads 210
2776 Obtaining the Hydraulic Concrete Resistant to the Aggressive Environment by Using Admixtures
Authors: N. Tabatadze
Abstract:The research aim is to study the physical and mechanical characteristics of hydraulic concrete in the surface active environment. The specific goal is to obtain high strength and low deformable concrete based on nano additives, resistant to the aggressive environment. As result of research, the alkali-silica reaction was improved (relative elongation 0,122 % of admixture instead of 0,126 % of basic concrete after 14 days). The aggressive environment impact on the strength of heavy concrete, fabricated on the basis of the hydraulic admixture with the penetrating waterproof additives also was improved (strength on compression R28=47,5 mPa of admixture instead of R28=35,8 mPa). Moreover, water absorption (W=0,59 % of admixture instead of W=1,41 %), water tightness (R14=37,9 mPa instead R14=28,7 mPa) and water-resistance (B=18 instead B=12). The basic parameters of concrete with admixture was improved in comparison with basic concrete.
Keywords: hydraulic concrete, alkali-silica reaction, water absorption, water-resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 281
2775 Generation of Mesoporous Silica Shell onto SSZ-13 and Its Effects on Methanol to Olefins
Authors: Ying Weiyong
Abstract:The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites compromising SSZ-13 cores and mesoporous silica shells were synthesized successfully with the soft template of cetytrimethylammonium. The shell thickness could be tuned from 25 nm to 100 nm by varying the TEOS/SSZ-13 ratio. The BET and SEM results show the core-shell composites possessing the tunable surface area (544.7-811.0 m2/g) with plenty of mesopores (2.7 nm). The acidity intensity of the strong acid sites on SSZ-13 was remarkably impaired with the decoration of the mesoporous silica shell, which leads to the suppression of the hydrogen transfer reaction in MTO reaction. The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites exhibit better methanol to olefins reaction performance with a prolonged lifetime and the improvement of light olefins selectivity.
Keywords: core-shell, mesoporous silica, methanol to olefins, SSZ-13Procedia PDF Downloads 81
2774 Preparation and Characterization of a Nickel-Based Catalyst Supported by Silica Promoted by Cerium for the Methane Steam Reforming Reaction
Authors: Ali Zazi, Ouiza Cherifi
Abstract:Natural gas currently represents a raw material of choice for the manufacture of a wide range of chemical products via synthesis gas, among the routes of transformation of methane into synthesis gas The reaction of the oxidation of methane by gas vapor 'water. This work focuses on the study of the effect of cerieum on the nickel-based catalyst supported by silica for the methane vapor reforming reaction, with a variation of certain parameters of the reaction. The reaction temperature, the H₂O / CH₄ ratio and the flow rate of the reaction mixture (CH₄-H₂O). Two catalysts were prepared by impregnation of Degussa silica with a solution of nickel nitrates and a solution of cerium nitrates [Ni (NO₃) 2 6H₂O and Ce (NO₃) 3 6H₂O] so as to obtain the 1.5% nickel concentrations. For both catalysts and plus 1% cerium for the second catalyst. These Catalysts have been characterized by physical and chemical analysis techniques: BET technique, Atomic Absorption, IR Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These characterizations indicated that the nitrates had impregnated the silica. And that the NiO and Ce₂O3 phases are present and Ni°(after reaction). The BET surface of the silica decreases without being affected. The catalytic tests carried out on the two catalysts for the steam reforming reactions show that the addition of cerium to the nickel improves the catalytic performances of the nickel. And that these performances also depend on the parameters of the reaction, namely the temperature, the rate of the reaction mixture, and the ratio (H₂O / CH₄).
Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, steam reforming, Methane, Nickel, Cerium, synthesis gas, hydrogenProcedia PDF Downloads 99
2773 Influence of Silica Fume on the Hydration of Cement Pastes Studied by Simultaneous TG-DSC Analysis
Authors: Anton Trník, Lenka Scheinherrová, Robert Černý
Abstract:Silica fume is a by-product of the ferro-silicon and silicon metal industries. It is mainly in the form of amorphous silica. Silica fume belongs to pozzolanic active materials which can be used in concrete to improve its final properties. In this paper, the influence of silica fume on hydration of cement pastes is studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) at various curing times (2, 7, 28, and 90 days) in the temperature range from 25 to 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere. Samples are prepared from Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R which is partially replaced with the silica fume of 4, 8, and 12 wt.%. The water/binder ratio is chosen as 0.5. It is identified and described the liberation of physically bound water, calcium–silicate–hydrates dehydration, portlandite and calcite decomposition in studied samples. Also, it is found out that an exothermic peak at 950 °C is observed without a significant mass change for samples with 12 wt.% of silica fume after two days of hydration. This peak is probably caused by the pozzolanic reaction between silica fume and Portland cement. Its size corresponds to the degree of crystallization between Ca and Si. The portlandite content is lower for the samples with a higher amount of silica fume.
Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, hydration, silica fume, thermogravimetryProcedia PDF Downloads 147
2772 Influence of Silica Fume on Ultrahigh Performance Concrete
Authors: Vitoldas Vaitkevičius, Evaldas Šerelis
Abstract:Silica fume, also known as microsilica (MS) or condensed silica fume is a by-product of the production of silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume is one of the most effective pozzolanic additives which could be used for ultrahigh performance and other types of concrete. Despite the fact, however is not entirely clear, which amount of silica fume is most optimal for UHPC. Main objective of this experiment was to find optimal amount of silica fume for UHPC with and without thermal treatment, when different amount of quartz powder is substituted by silica fume. In this work were investigated four different composition of UHPC with different amount of silica fume. Silica fume were added 0, 10, 15 and 20% of cement (by weight) to UHPC mixture. Optimal amount of silica fume was determined by slump, viscosity, qualitative and quantitative XRD analysis and compression strength tests methods.
Keywords: compressive strength, silica fume, ultrahigh performance concrete, XRDProcedia PDF Downloads 240
2771 Comparison of Silica-Filled Rubber Compound Prepared from Unmodified and Modified Silica
Authors: Thirawudh Pongprayoon, Watcharin Rassamee
Abstract:Silica-filled natural rubber compounds were prepared from unmodified and surface-modified silica. The modified silica was coated by ultrathin film of polyisoprene by admicellar polymerization. FTIR and SEM were applied to characterize the modified silica. The cure, mechanic, and dynamics properties were investigated with the comparison of the compounds. Cure characterization of modified silica rubber compound was shorter than that of unmodified silica compound. Strength and abrasion resistance of modified silica compound were better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound. Wet grip and rolling resistance analyzed by DMA from tanδ at 0°C and 60°C using 5 Hz were also better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound.
Keywords: silica, admicellar polymerization, rubber compounds, mechanical properties, dynamic propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 293
2770 Preparation of Amorphous silica from Algerian Diatomite and Its Properties
Authors: S. Medeghri, S. Hamzaoui, M. Zerdali, S. Masatomo
Abstract:In this work there is a facile method to produce pure amorphous silica from Algerian diatomite with an economic and ecological method. The sodium silicate is commonly used as precursor in silica gel diatomite preparation. In this study, the preparation of sodium silicate is preceded by acid washing of raw diatomite; the acid is then slowly added to precipitate silica at different pH values to obtain silica gel. The silica gel is characterized by EDX, ICP-MS and XRD. The EDX revels that the purity of silica from diatom is 98% after purification compared to raw diatom.
Keywords: diatomite, acid cleaning, dissolution, amorphous silica, purityProcedia PDF Downloads 511
2769 High Performance Fibre Reinforced Alkali Activated Slag Concrete
Authors: A. Sivakumar, K. Srinivasan
Abstract:The main objective of the study is focused in producing slag based geopolymer concrete obtained with the addition of alkali activator. Test results indicated that the reaction of silicates in slag is based on the reaction potential of sodium hydroxide and the formation of alumino-silicates. The study also comprises on the evaluation of the efficiency of polymer reaction in terms of the strength gain properties for different geopolymer mixtures. Geopolymer mixture proportions were designed for different binder to total aggregate ratio (0.3 & 0.45) and fine to coarse aggregate ratio (0.4 & 0.8). Geopolymer concrete specimens casted with normal curing conditions reported a maximum 28 days compressive strength of 54.75 MPa. The addition of glued steel fibres at 1.0% Vf in geopolymer concrete showed reasonable improvements on the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural properties of different geopolymer mixtures. Further, comparative assessment was made for different geopolymer mixtures and the reinforcing effects of steel fibres were investigated in different concrete matrix.
Keywords: accelerators, alkali activators, geopolymer, hot air oven curing, polypropylene fibres, slag, steam curing, steel fibresProcedia PDF Downloads 188
2768 Nano and Micro Silica Cooperating Effect on Ferrocement Mortar
Authors: Aziz Ibrahim Abdulla, Omar Mohanad Mahdi
Abstract:The objective of this paper is to explore the effect of incorporating Nano-Silica with Silica-fume in ferrocement mortar to enhancing mechanical properties of it. One type of Nano silica with average diameter size 23nm and silica fume have been used with two percentage (1%, 2% Nano silica and 5%, 10% silica fume per weight of cement) and w/c with / without superplasticizer was been calculated by flow test method. Also three sand: cement ratios have been used (1.5, 2.0 and 2.5) with max. Aggregate size 0.6mm in this study for reference and other mixtures. Results reveal adding Nano silica with silica fume to ferrocement mortar enhances its physical and mechanical properties such as compressive strength and flexural strength. The SEM pictures and density with absorption ratio demonstrate that Nano silica with silica fume contributes to enhancement of mortar through yielding denser, more compact and uniform mixtures.
Keywords: nano silica, ferrocement mortar, compresion strength, flexural strengthProcedia PDF Downloads 318
2767 Comparative Study of Ni Catalysts Supported by Silica and Modified by Metal Additions Co and Ce for The Steam Reforming of Methane
Authors: Ali Zazi, Ouiza Cherifi
Abstract:The Catalysts materials Ni-SiO₂, Ni-Co-SiO₂ and Ni-Ce-SiO₂ were synthetized by classical method impregnation and supported by silica. This involves combing the silica with an adequate rate of the solution of nickel nitrates, or nickel nitrate and cobalt nitrate, or nickel nitrate and cerium nitrate, mixed, dried and calcined at 700 ° c. These catalysts have been characterized by different physicochemical analysis techniques. The atomic absorption spectrometry indicates that the real contents of nickel, cerium and cobalt are close to the theoretical contents previously assumed, which let's say that the nitrate solutions have impregnated well the silica support. The BET results show that the surface area of the specific surfaces decreases slightly after impregnation with nickel nitrates or Co and Ce metals and a further slight decrease after the reaction. This is likely due to coke deposition. X-ray diffraction shows the presence of the different SiO₂ and NiO phases for all catalysts—theCoO phase for that promoted by Co and the Ce₂O₂ phase for that promoted by Ce. The methane steam reforming reaction was carried out on a quartz reactor in a fixed bed. Reactants and products of the reaction were analyzed by a gas chromatograph. This study shows that the metal addition of Cerium or Cobalt improves the majority of the catalytic performance of Ni for the steam reforming reaction of methane. And we conclude the classification of our Catalysts in order of decreasing activity and catalytic performances as follows: Ni-Ce / SiO₂ >Ni-Co / SiO₂> Ni / SiO₂ .
Keywords: cerium, cobalt, heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogen, methane, steam reforming, synthesis gasProcedia PDF Downloads 119
2766 Evaluation of Properties of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete Blended with Polypropylene Shredding and Admixture
Authors: Jagannath Prasad Tegar, Zeeshan Ahmad
Abstract:The Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is a major constituent of concrete, which is being used extensively since last half century. The production of cement is impacting not only environment alone, but depleting natural materials. During the past 3 decades, the scholars have carried out studies and researches to explore the supplementary cementatious materials such as Ground granulated Blast furnace slag (GGBFS), silica fumes (SF), metakaolin or fly ash (FA). This has contributed towards improved cementatious materials which are being used in construction, but not the way it is supposed to be. The alkali activated slag concrete is another innovation which has constituents of cementatious materials like Ground Granuled Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), Fly Ash (FA), Silica Fumes (SF) or Metakaolin. Alkaline activators like Sodium Silicate (Na₂SiO₃) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) is utilized. In view of evaluating properties of alkali activated slag concrete blended with polypropylene shredding and accelerator, research study is being carried out. This research study is proposed to evaluate the effect of polypropylene shredding and accelerating admixture on mechanical properties of alkali-activated slag concrete. The mechanical properties include the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and workability. The outcomes of this research are matched with the hypothesis and it is found that 27% of cement can be replaced with the ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and for split tensile strength 20% replacement is achieved. Overall it is found that 20% of cement can be replaced with ground granulated blast furnace slag. The tests conducted in the laboratory for evaluating properties such as compressive strength test, split tensile strength test, and slump cone test. On the aspect of cost, it is substantially benefitted.
Keywords: ordinary Portland cement, activated slag concrete, ground granule blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fumesProcedia PDF Downloads 119
2765 Effect of Silica Fume at Cellular Sprayed Concrete
Authors: Kyong-Ku Yun, Seung-Yeon Han, Kyeo-Re Lee
Abstract:Silica fume which is a super-fine byproduct of ferrosilicon or silicon metal has a filling effect on micro-air voids or a transition zone in a hardened cement paste by appropriate mixing, placement, and curing. It, also, has a Pozzolan reaction which enhances the interior density of the hydrated cement paste through a formation of calcium silicate hydroxide. When substituting cement with silica fume, it improves water tightness and durability by filling effect and Pozzolan reaction. However, it needs high range water reducer or super-plasticizer to distribute silica fume into a concrete because of its finesses and high specific surface area. In order to distribute into concrete evenly, cement manufacturers make a pre-blended cement of silica fume and provide to a market. However, a special mixing procedures and another transportation charge another cost and this result in a high price of pre-blended cement of silica fume. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the dispersion of silica fume by air slurry and its effect on the mechanical properties of at ready-mixed concrete. The results are as follows: A dispersion effect of silica fume was measured from an analysis of standard deviation for compressive strength test results. It showed that the standard deviation decreased as the air bubble content increased, which means that the dispersion became better as the air bubble content increased. The test result of rapid chloride permeability test showed that permeability resistance increased as the percentages of silica fume increased, but the permeability resistance decreased as the quantity of mixing air bubble increased. The image analysis showed that a spacing factor decreased and a specific surface area increased as the quantity of mixing air bubble increased.
Keywords: cellular sprayed concrete, silica fume, deviation, permeabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 84
2764 Anticorrosive Polyurethane Clear Coat with Self-Cleaning Character
Authors: Nihit Madireddi, P. A. Mahanwar
Abstract:We have aimed to produce a self-cleaning transparent polymer coating with polyurethane (PU) matrix as the latter is highly solvent, chemical and weather resistant having good mechanical properties. Nano-silica modified by 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perflurooctyltriethoxysilane was incorporated into the PU matrix for attaining self-cleaning ability through hydrophobicity. The modification was confirmed by particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermo-gravimetric (TGA) studies were carried to ascertain the grafting of silane onto the silica. Several coating formulations were prepared by varying the silica loading content and compared to a commercial equivalent. The effect of dispersion and the morphology of the coated films were assessed by SEM analysis. All coating standardized tests like solvent resistance, adhesion, flexibility, acid, alkali, gloss etc. have been performed as per ASTM standards. Water contact angle studies were conducted to analyze the hydrophobic character of the coating. In addition, the coatings were also subjected to salt spray and accelerated weather testing to analyze the durability of the coating.
Keywords: FAS, nano-silica, PU clear coat, self-cleaningProcedia PDF Downloads 242
2763 Synthesis of Ni/Mesopore Silica-Alumina Catalyst for Hydrocracking of Pyrolyzed α-Cellulose
Authors: Wega Trisunaryanti, Hesty Kusumastuti, Iip Izul Falah, Muhammad Fajar Marsuki, Rahmad Nuryanto
Abstract:Synthesis of Ni supported on mesopore silica-alumina (MSA) for hydrocracking of pyrolyzed α-cellulose had been carried out. The silica and alumina were extracted from Sidoarjo mud. Gelatin from catfish bone was used as a template for the mesopore design. The MSA was synthesized by using hydrothermal method at 100 °C for 24 h and calcined at 550 °C for 4 h then characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD) and Nitrogen Gas Sorption Analyzer (GAS). The Ni metal was loaded to the MSA by wet impregnation method. The catalytic activity in the hydrocracking reaction of pyrolyzed α-cellulose was carried out at 450 °C for 2 h. The MSA synthesized in this work is an amorphous material with specific surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter of 212.29 m²/g, 1.29 cm³/g, and 20.05 nm, respectively. The Ni/MSA catalyst produced 73.02 wt.% of liquid product in hydrocracking of pyrolyzed α-cellulose.
Keywords: catalyst, gelatin, hydrocracking, mesopore silica-alumina, α-celluloseProcedia PDF Downloads 98
2762 Preparation of Fluoroalkyl End-Capped Oligomers/Silica Nanocomposites Possessing a Nonflammable Characteristic Even After Calcination at 800 oC
Authors: Hideo Sawada
Abstract:Fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers [RF-(M)n-RF; RF = fluoroalkyl groups; M = radical polymerizable monomers] can form nanometre size-controlled self-assembled oligomeric aggregates through the aggregations of end-capped fluoroalkyl groups. Fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomeric aggregates can also interact with guest molecules to afford fluorinated aggregate/guest molecule nanocomposites; although the corresponding non-fluorinated oligomers cannot form such molecular aggregates to interact with guest molecules. For example, silica nanoparticles should act as guest molecules in fluorinated oligomeric aggregate cores to give new fluorinated oligomer-coated silica nanoparticles (fluorinated oligomer/silica nanocomposites). In these fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers/silica nanocomposites, some fluorinated oligomers/silica nanocomposites were found to exhibit no weight loss behavior corresponding to the contents of oligomers in the silica matrices even after calcination at 800 oC. Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomer-coated silica nanoparticles can be prepared by the sol-gel reaction of the corresponding fluorinated oligomer under alkaline conditions. The modified glass surface treated with this fluorinated oligomeric nanoparticle exhibited a completely super-hydrophobic characteristic. These fluorinated nanoparticles were also applied to the surface modification possessing a super-oleophobic characteristic. Not only fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers but also low molecular weight fluorinated surfactants such as perfluoro-1,3-propanedisulfonic acid (PFPS) were applied to the preparation of fluorinated surfactants/silica nanocomposites to give no weight loss in proportion to the content of the surfactants in the nanocomposites even after calcination at 800 oC.
Keywords: fluorinated oligomer, silica nanocomposite, nonflammable characteristic, superamphiphobic chracteristicProcedia PDF Downloads 417
2761 An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Several Industrial Wastes and Natural Materials as Precursors for the Production of Alkali Activated Materials
Authors: O. Alelweet, S. Pavia
Abstract:In order to face current compelling environmental problems affecting the planet, the construction industry needs to adapt. It is widely acknowledged that there is a need for durable, high-performance, low-greenhouse gas emission binders that can be used as an alternative to Portland cement (PC) to lower the environmental impact of construction. Alkali activated materials (AAMs) are considered a more sustainable alternative to PC materials. The binders of AAMs result from the reaction of an alkali metal source and a silicate powder or precursor which can be a calcium silicate or an aluminosilicate-rich material. This paper evaluates the particle size, specific surface area, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness of silicate materials (most industrial waste locally produced in Ireland and Saudi Arabia) to develop alkali-activated binders that can replace PC resources in specific applications. These include recycled ceramic brick, bauxite, illitic clay, fly ash and metallurgical slag. According to the results, the wastes are reactive and comply with building standards requirements. The study also evidenced that the reactivity of the Saudi bauxite (with significant kaolinite) can be enhanced on thermal activation; and high calcium in the slag will promote reaction; which should be possible with low alkalinity activators. The wastes evidenced variable water demands that will be taken into account for mixing with the activators. Finally, further research is proposed to further determine the reactive fraction of the clay-based precursors.
Keywords: alkali activated materials, alkali-activated binders, sustainable building materials, recycled ceramic brick, bauxite, red mud, clay, fly ash, metallurgical slags, particle size, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness, water demand, particle densityProcedia PDF Downloads 67
2760 Reuse of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash for the Synthesis of Zeolite: Effects of Different Operation Conditions
Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Yi-Jie Lin
Abstract:This study tries to reuse the fly ash of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) for the synthesis of zeolites. The fly ashes were treated with NaOH alkali fusion at different temperatures for 40 mins and then synthesized the zeolites with hydrothermal method at 105oC for different operation times. The effects of different operation conditions and the optimum synthesis parameters were explored. The specific surface area, surface morphology, species identification, adsorption capacity, and the reuse potentials of the synthesized zeolites were analyzed and evaluated. Experimental results showed that the optimum operation conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from the mixed fly ash were Si/Al=20, alkali/ash=1.5, alkali fusion reaction with NaOH at 800oC for 40 mins, hydrolysis with L/S=200 at 105oC for 24 hr, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105oC for 48 hr. The largest specific surface area of synthesized zeolite could be increased to 943.05m2/g. The influence of different operation parameters on the synthesis of zeolite from mixed fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al > hydrolysis L/S> hydrothermal time > alkali fusion temperature > alkali/ash ratio. The XRD patterns of synthesized zeolites were identified to be similar with the ZSM-23 zeolite. The adsorption capacities of synthesized zeolite for pollutants were increased as rising the specific surface area of synthesized zeolite. In summary, MSWI fly ash can be treated and reused to synthesize the zeolite with high specific surface area by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal method. The zeolite can be reuse for the adsorption of various pollutants. They have great potential for development.
Keywords: alkali fusion, hydrothermal, fly ash, zeoliteProcedia PDF Downloads 105
2759 Accessing Properties of Alkali Activated Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Based Self Compacting Geopolymer Concrete Incorporating Nano Silica
Authors: Guneet Saini, Uthej Vattipalli
Abstract:In a world with increased demand for sustainable construction, waste product of one industry could be a boon to the other in reducing the carbon footprint. Usage of industrial waste such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag have become the epicenter of curbing the use of cement, one of the major contributors of greenhouse gases. In this paper, empirical studies have been done to develop alkali activated self-compacting geopolymer concrete (GPC) using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), incorporated with 2% nano-silica by weight, through evaluation of its fresh and hardening properties. Experimental investigation on 6 mix designs of varying molarity of 10M, 12M and 16M of the alkaline solution and a binder content of 450 kg/m³ and 500 kg/m³ has been done and juxtaposed with GPC mix design composed of 16M alkaline solution concentration and 500 kg/m³ binder content without nano-silica. The sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide ratio (SS/SH), alkaline activator liquid to binder ratio (AAL/B) and water to binder ratio (W/B), which significantly affect the performance and mechanical properties of GPC, were fixed at 2.5, 0.45 and 0.4 respectively. To catalyze the early stage geopolymerisation, oven curing is done maintaining the temperature at 60˚C. This paper also elucidates the test results for fresh self-compacting concrete (SCC) done as per EFNARC guidelines. The mechanical properties tests conducted were: compressive strength test after 7 days, 28 days, 56 days and 90 days; flexure test; split tensile strength test after 28 days, 56 days and 90 days; X-ray diffraction test to analyze the mechanical performance and sorptivity test for testing of permeability. The study revealed that the sample of 16M concentration of alkaline solution with 500 Kg/m³ binder content containing 2% nano silica produced the highest compressive, flexural and split tensile strength of 81.33 MPa, 7.875 MPa, and 6.398 MPa respectively, at the end of 90 days.
Keywords: alkaline activator liquid, geopolymer concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag, nano silica, self compactingProcedia PDF Downloads 84
2758 Silica Sulfuric Acid as an Efficient Catalyst One-Pot Three-Component Aza-Friedel-Crafts Reactions of 2-(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-Indole, Aldehydes, and N-Substituted Anilines
Authors: Nagwa Mourad Abdelazeem, Marwa El-hussieny
Abstract:Multicomponent reactions (MCRs), one-pot reactions form products from more than two different starting compounds. (MCRs) are ideal reaction systems leading to high structural diversity and molecular complexity through a single transformation. (MCRs) have a lot of advantage such as higher yield, less waste generation, use of readily available starting materials and high atom. (MCRs) provide a rapid process for efficient synthesis of key structures in discovery of drug on the other hand silica sulfuric acid (SSA) has been used as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for many organic transformations. (SSA) is low cost, ease of preparation, catalyst recycling, and ease of handling, so in this article we used 2-(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-indole, N-substituted anilines and aldehyde in the presence of silica sulfuric acid (SSA) as a catalyst in water as solvent at room temperature to prepare 3,3'-(phenylmethylene)bis(2-(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-indole) and N-methyl-4-(phenyl(2-(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)aniline derivatives Via one-pot reaction. Compound 2-(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-indole belongs to the ubiquitous class of indoles which enjoy broad synthetic, biological and industrial applications ]. Cancer is considered the first or second most common reason of death all through the world. So the synthesized compounds will be tested as anticancer. We expected the synthesized compounds will give good results comparison to the reference drug.
Keywords: aldehydes, aza-friedel-crafts reaction, indole, multicomponent reactionProcedia PDF Downloads 31
2757 Mechanical and Long Term Ageing Properties of PMMA Silica Nanoparticles
Authors: M. Khlifa, A. Youssef. M. Almakki
Abstract:The addition of silica nanoparticles to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) can influence its mechanical and aging properties. Dispersed PMMA in colloidal and aggregated silica revealed considerable increase in modulus above the glass transition temperature when aggregated silica nanoparticles were used, whereas colloidally dispersed silica nanoparticles showed only a marginal improvement. In addition, Dispersed PMMA in both aggregated and colloidally silica nanoparticles accelerated physical ageing.
Keywords: nanoparticles, physical aging, PMMA, chemical and molecular engineeringProcedia PDF Downloads 445
2756 Comparative Study for Biodiesel Production Using a Batch and a Semi-Continuous Flow Reactor
Authors: S. S. L. Andrade, E. A. Souza, L. C. L. Santos, C. Moraes, A. K. C. L. Lobato
Abstract:Biodiesel may be produced through transesterification reaction (or alcoholysis), that is the transformation of a long chain fatty acid in an alkyl ester. This reaction can occur in the presence of acid catalysts, alkali, or enzyme. Currently, for industrial processes, biodiesel is produced by alkaline route. The alkali most commonly used in these processes is hydroxides and methoxides of sodium and potassium. In this work, biodiesel production was conducted in two different systems. The first consisted of a batch reactor operating with a traditional washing system and the second consisted of a semi-continuous flow reactor operating with a membrane separation system. Potassium hydroxides was used as catalyst at a concentration of 1% by weight, the molar ratio oil/alcohol was 1/9 and temperature of 55 °C. Tests were performed using soybeans and palm oil and the ester conversion results were compared for both systems. It can be seen that the results for both oils are similar when using the batch reator or the semi-continuous flow reactor. The use of the semi-continuous flow reactor allows the removal of the formed products. Thus, in the case of a reversible reaction, with the removal of reaction products, the concentration of the reagents becomes higher and the equilibrium reaction is shifted towards the formation of more products. The higher conversion to ester with soybean and palm oil using the batch reactor was approximately 98%. In contrast, it was observed a conversion of 99% when using the same operating condition on a semi-continuous flow reactor.
Keywords: biodiesel, batch reactor, semi-continuous flow reactor, transesterificationProcedia PDF Downloads 307
2755 Study of the Suitability for the Use of Gravel in the Regions around Araz River in Karabakh as a Concrete Aggregate
Authors: S. B. Shahmarova, F. N. Iskandarli, J. T. Zeynalov, F. N. Mammadov, M. M. Mirzayev, F. Y. Bayramov
Abstract:The physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of aggregates play an important role in the production of ready-mixed concrete. Furthermore, the alkali-silicate reaction of aggregates is one of the essential factors in construction projects for the durability and longer service life of buildings and construction structures to be built. It is necessary to use the aggregates from the liberated regions of Karabakh and East Zangazur in the preparation of concretes to be produced for reconstruction and renovation projects in those regions. In this regard, the study of the physical and mechanical properties of aggregates in the regions around the Araz River (Fuzuli, Jabrayil, and Zangilan) became a significant issue. So, gravel samples were taken from seven different sources located in the regions around Araz River, where the quarries are planned to be built. The chemical oxide composition of the samples was determined, water absorption and specific gravity tests, chloride, alkali-silicate reaction tests, aggregate crushing strength test, Los Angeles, and frost resistance (into the solution of MgSO₄ and Na₂SO₄) tests were performed, and the results were evaluated in accordance with the relevant standards. As a result, it was determined that the aggregates in the regions around the Araz River (Fuzuli, Jabrayil, and Zangilan) conform to the relative standards and can be used effectively in the production of various concretes to be used for the projects in Karabakh.
Keywords: aggregates of the regions around Araz River (Fuzuli, Jabrayil, and Zangilan), physical and mechanical properties, alkali-silicate reaction, Karabakh, AzerbaijanProcedia PDF Downloads 31
2754 Properties of Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Amorphous and Crystalline Silica from Rice Husk
Authors: Norul Hisham Hamid, Amir Affan, Ummi Hani Abdullah, Paridah Md. Tahir, Khairul Akmal Azhar, Rahmat Nawai, W. B. H. Wan Sulwani Izzati
Abstract:The dimensional stability and static bending properties of epoxy composite reinforced with amorphous and crystalline silica were investigated. The amorphous and crystalline silica was obtained by the precipitation method from carbonisation process of the rice husk at a temperature of 600 °C and 1000 °C for 7 hours respectively. The epoxy resin was mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations of amorphous and crystalline silica. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes and cured at 28 °C for 72 hours and oven dried at 80 °C for 72 hours. The scanning electron microscope image showed the silica sized of 10-30nm was obtained. The water absorption and thickness swelling of epoxy/amorphous silica composite was not significantly different with silica concentration ranged from 0.08% to 0.09% and 0.17% to 0.20% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (85 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (3284 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. For epoxy/crystalline silica composite; the water absorption and thickness swelling were also not significantly different with silica concentration, ranged from 0.08% to 0.11% and 0.16% to 0.18% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (47.9 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (2760 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. Overall, the water absorption and thickness swelling were almost identical for epoxy composite made from either amorphous or crystalline silica. The epoxy composite made from amorphous silica was stronger than crystalline silica.
Keywords: epoxy, composite, dimensional stability, static bending, silicaProcedia PDF Downloads 145